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Universidad Nacional Experimental Martima del Caribe

Vicerrectorado Acadmico
Ctedra de Idiomas
Ingls VI. Ingeniera Martima

UNIT II. Navigational equipment found onboard ships.


1. Can you identify the navigational equipment below?

b d

a c
2. In groups, discuss about why this equipment is useful for a safe navigation. Get a
definition for each of these navigational tools.

Reading and writing.

Read the article.

Types of Navigational Equipment and Resources Used Onboard Modern Ships

Gone are the days when a ship navigation officer had to take help of unconventional ways to
plan and navigate a voyage at sea. Today, a ship officer has myriad of marine navigation
equipment which makes his life a lot simpler, thanks to the advancement in technology.
Moreover, present day seafarers are trained so as to know the functioning and operation of all
modern day navigational equipment that have made the journey at sea smoother and safer.
With modern day facilities and automation, a ship today has several advanced navigational
equipment systems which give accurate data for the voyage.
Here, we have enlisted some types of navigational equipment, both old and new, which are
present on all merchant ships.
Gyro Compass: It is used for finding the right direction. Unlike magnetic compass, gyro
compass is not affected by external magnetic field. It is used to find correct North Position,
which is also the earths rotational axis. Its repeater system must be present in the steering
platform for emergency steering.
Radar: It is used to determine the distance of the ship from land, other ships, or any floating
object out at sea.
Magnetic Compass: The magnetic compass works in conjunction with the magnetic field of the
earth. It is used to get planned direction for the voyage.
Auto Pilot: It is a combination of hydraulic, mechanical, and electrical system and is used to
control the ships steering system from a remote location (Navigation bridge).
ARPA: Automatic Radar Plotting Aid displays the position of a ship and other vessels nearby.
The radar displays the position of the ships in the vicinity and selects the course for the vessel
by avoiding any kind of collision.
Echo Sounder: This instrument is used to measure the depth of the water below the ships
bottom using sound waves.
GPS Receiver: A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is a display system used to show
the ships location with the help of Global positioning satellite in the earths orbit.
Speed & Distance Log Device: The device is used to measure the speed and the distance
travelled by a ship from a set point. By calculating the same, ETA of the ship is adjusted or
given to the port authority and agent.
Electronic Chart Display Information System: The Electronic Chart Display and Information
System (ECDIS) is a development in the navigational chart system used in naval vessels and
ships. With the use of the electronic chart system, it has become easier for a ships navigating
crew to pinpoint locations, and attaining directions are easier than before.

Grammar. Connectors

1. Find the words on the left in the article and underline them. Then match them with the pairs
of words or phrases with similar meaning on the right.

1. Moreover ____ a. and, as well

2. Unlike ____ b. in contrast to, while

3. Also ____ c. furthermore, in addition

2. Connectors can have similar meanings, but are used in different grammatical contexts and
with different punctuation. Complete these paragraphs with connectors from the boxes.

______________, the ECDIS utilizes the feature of the Global Positioning System
(GPS) to successfully pinpoint the navigational points. Secondly, ______________ that
the GPS is a highly reliable system, the utility and the reliability of the ECDIS as an
electronic chart system can never be doubted. ________________, it has to be noted
that the ECDIS adheres to the stipulations set by the International Maritime
Organization. This factor _____________ adds to the trustworthiness of the electronic
chart system.

due to - thirdly - firstly - also

_______________, the word "SART" stands for SEARCH AND RESCUE RADAR
TRANSPONDER. The use of this particular equipment on board a merchant ship is
governed by the chapter V of SOLAS CONVENTION. __________________, SART is
used to transmit / indicate the position of a vessel in distress, to the nearest air or water
crafts having an "X BAND" radar fitted on board. _______________, SART works on a
frequency of 9 GHz.

therefore - besides - first of all

X band radars operate on a

wavelength of 2.5-4 cm and
a frequency of 8-12 GHz

Listening, speaking and writing.

1. Watch the following video. In groups, discuss and answer these questions.

What is the video about?

What devices did the man mention?

2. Watch the video again and check () the navigational equipment found on
board that ship.

1. Twenty cameras
2. Heeling system
3. Electronic Sea Charts
4. GPS
5. Fuel Oil
6. Echo sounder
7. Steering wheel
3. Listen to the description of these devices and complete the information given.

a. We have ______________________ throughout the ship to

b. Next its the computer system which gives us entrance to all the systems that are on
board: ballast, ______________________, __________________________,
_________________________ , ________________________, etc

c. The radar so we ________________________________ where were going

d. Over there, its the _________________________wing control which we use when

we are mooring.

4. Answer these questions.

a. Are there paper charts onboard that ship?

b. What information does the central control panel supply?

Student support services

Unit of speed: knot

Unit of distance: nautical mile

The draught and depth are expressed in feet (ft) or

meter (m)

The course is expressed in degrees, Latitude and

Answer these questions

1. Where is all navigational

equipment located?

2. How do officers communicate

with other ships?

3. What is a gyro compass?

4. What does GMDSS stand for

and what is it?
I. Complete the sentences with the suitable connector.

1. so that 2. to 3. nevertheless 4. therefore 5. however 6. on the 7. then

other hand

a. The ships crew has got new uniforms. ______, they have not worn them yet.
b. The voyage to the island was very nice. ______, the ship went slowly.
c. We decided to depart early ______ we arrive at the shore before noon.
d. The cadet spent all night studying ______ pass the stability exam with a high scoring.
e. The ships radar will be checked, ______ it will be tested to see its functioning.
f. Mario has sailed for a long time, ______ he will not have any problem taking this
long journey.
g. On the one hand the GPS was failing, ______ the RADAR was off so we could not

II. Rewrite the following paragraph adding connectors. Some connectors are extra.
in the end - in addition - first of all - therefore - moreover -
finally - despite - however

Going on that boats journey did not go off as planned. _____________ the boats
engine started to fail since our departure. We had to wait for a ships engine technician to check
it. ________________ the engine needed to be oiled. When we ________________ thought we
were ready to go, the weather suddenly changed. ________________ we waited for a while to
set sail. __________________ when we could depart, we noticed that we had forgotten the life
jackets. Well I have to say that the journey was not as bad ________________.

III.- Write a paragraph explaining how you prepare for an English exam. Use at
least 5 connectors.
You may start, First


So And However Then

As a result In addition Nevertheless Next

As a consequence Moreover Nonetheless After that

Therefore Besides Although First of all

Thus Futhermore But First

Consequently As well as In spite of Second/ Secondly

Hence Additionally Unlike Third/ Thirdly

Due to Also In contrast to To summarise

Because of As well While In conclusion

Eventually ---- Whereas Finally

In the end ---- On the other hand ----

Finally ---- Despite ----

Answer these questions. Use connectors.

1. Whats the difference between a gyro compass and a magnetic compass?

2. How does a compass differ from a GPS?

Practice. Make similar sentences using your own ideas.

Expressing differences Expressing similarities
Steam turbines are different from gas turbines Both steam turbines and gas turbines are light.

Steam turbines differ from gas turbine in that gas A steam turbine is as light as the gas turbine.
rather than steam is used to turn a shaft
The parts of a steam turbine are similar to the gas
While/Whereas diesel engines are cheap, nuclear turbine
plants are not.
Neither ferries nor carriers are nuclear-powered
Diesel engines are cheap. On the contrary, nuclear ships
plants are expensive.