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PARTS OF SPEECH

SUSTANTIVOS (nouns)
Nouns are names of things, places, ideas/concepts, or people.
Examples of nouns:
Pedro - name of a person

Casa (house) - name of a thing

Centro comercial (shopping mall) - name of a place

Democracia (democracy) - name of a concept (abstract noun)

Remember that in Spanish nouns need to carry the gender and number. To do
this correctly, you need to remember the rules and exceptions for feminine and
masculine nouns. The basic rule is that nouns that end in 'o' are masculine, and
nouns that end in 'a' are feminine. But there are other rules and exceptions you
need to know.
PRONOMBRES (pronouns)
Pronouns are words we use to replace nouns. Pronouns carry the same number
and gender as the noun they replace.
There are many different pronouns, for example:
Personal pronouns: yo, t, l, nosotros, vosotros, ellos.

Demonstrative pronouns: ste, aqul, sa.

Possessive pronouns: los mos, la ma.

Relative pronouns: que, quien, el que, la cual.

Indefinite pronouns: algo, alguien.

VERBOS (verbs)
Verbs express an action or state that the subject of the sentence performs. In
Spanish, there are regular and irregular verbs, and many different verb tenses
which you can learn in our Grammar section.
The three infinitive forms that exist are: verbs ending in -ar (hablar), verbs
ending in -er (comer) and verbs ending in -ir (vivir).
There are verbs that are transitive (those that need a direct object), and there
are verbs that are intransitive (which do not need an object). An example of a
transitive verb is preparar. Luca est preparando la cena (Luca is preparing
dinner). On the other hand, you have intransitive verbs likedelinquir. Pedro ha
delinquido (Pedro has transgressed).
ADJETIVOS (adjectives)
Adjectives describe and give extra information about nouns. There are
descriptive adjectives such as tonto, grande, and limiting adjectives such
as este, aquel, cinco, mi, la, los, etc. Adjectives must agree in
number and gender with the noun, so adjectives have different forms. For
example: bueno, buena, buenos, buenas, mejor, el mejor.
ADVERBIOS (adverbs)
Adverbs describe or give extra information about a verb, an adjective or
another adverb. There are many different type of adverbs:
Adverbios de tiempo (adverbs of time): primero, luego, despus.

Adverbios de lugar (adverbs of place): ac, all.

Adverbios de modo (adverbs of manner): lentamente, mal, bruscamente.

Adverbios de afirmacin y negacin (adverbs of affirmation and


negation): s, no, nunca.
It is important to know that adverbs can have comparative and superlative
forms, as well as diminutive forms.
PREPOSICIONES (preposition)
Prepositions are used to show the relationship between items in the sentence.
For instance, these are some of the prepositions you can learn in Spanish:
con (with) and sin (without)

antes (before) and despus (after)

arriba (above> and abajo, debajo de (below, underneath)

contra (against)

There are prepositions of time, place, direction, sequence, etc.


CONJUNCIONES (conjunctions)
Conjunctions are linkers we use to make sentences and paragraphs more
cohesive and natural. The most common ones are y (and) and pero (but). Other
common ones are: de manera que, as que, etc.
INTERJECCIONES (interjections)
Interjections are exclamations and sounds one make when speaking to express
a certain reaction or emotion:
Ay!

Uhhh...

Ah!