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CURSO B- LEARNING INGLS II

<INGLS>

PROGRAMA ANALTICO Ao 2014

INTRODUCCIN.

El estudio de ingls a este nivel es orientado a la compresin de textos


de Ingeniera, en las disciplinas especficas de cada carrera. Se amplan
los conocimientos y capacidades desarrollados en Ingls I.

Dado el avance tecnolgico actual, que en su mayor parte se expresa en


ingls, este idioma ha pasado a ser la forma de comunicacin universal,
tanto oral como escrita. En tal contexto se supone que la formacin de
un buen profesional debe incluir el dominio del mismo como medio para
asegurar el perfeccionamiento y actualizacin constante que le permita
acceder a informacin en Internet e bibliografa diversa en general.

La comprensin del ingls contribuir a los objetivos generales del Plan


de Estudios de la carrera por ser un factor instrumental clave para el
acceso a bibliografa actualizada en esos campos, permitiendo a la vez
el desarrollo de una estructura mental ms flexible y de mayor riqueza.

OBJETIVOS.

1) A nivel de conocimiento. Conocimiento y comprensin que le


posibilite:
La transferencia de los contenidos adquiridos en Ingls II,
para compresin e interpretacin de textos tcnicos y
cientficos a travs de un razonamiento lgico.
La adquisicin de las estrategias necesarias para
comprender un texto en idioma ingls.
2) Habilidades, hbitos, destrezas, y automatismos que le permitan:
Interpretar el sentido de un texto tcnico en ingls y resolver
problemas, analizando y evaluando las situaciones que se
presenten.
Reconocer ncleos informativos relevantes de un texto.
Expresar el contenido del mismo en idioma nativo, en una
sntesis que guarde fidelidad con el original.
Desarrollar buenos hbitos para la presentacin correcta de
trabajos.
3) Disposiciones Afectivo-Sociales que le posibiliten:
Asumir responsabilidades para concretar trabajos con
veracidad.
Tomar conciencia de su propia cultura para valorarla y
ampliar su horizonte personal.
Desarrollar una actitud positiva hacia la consulta de libros
tcnicos y material bibliogrfico en idioma ingls.
Despertar su inters por la investigacin cientfica en textos
en textos en ingls con referencia a su propia rea de
estudio.
Aceptar favorablemente la importancia del material
bibliogrfico en ingls.

CONTENIDOS.
UNIDAD I

1.1 Estructura externa del texto


1.2 Estructura interna del texto: lectura global

UNIDAD II

2.1. Sintaxis: estructuras gramaticales.


Formas ing
Infinitivo
2.2. Conectores, elementos de nfasis
2.3. Lxico:
Palabras cognadas, derivadas, otra categoras.
Expresiones idiomticas.

UNIDAD III

3.1. Cohesin: elipsis, coordinacin y aposicin.

3.2. Coherencia: idea principal y secundaria.

3.3. Relaciones cognitivas bsicas

UNIDAD IV

4.1 Lectura detallada: Informacin especfica.


4.2 Organizacin y sntesis de la informacin.
NOTA: Los contenidos han sido organizados en unidades temticas,
por ejes de contenidos priorizados. La presentacin ulica es integral
y no secuencial; ya que en todos los textos e hipertextos que se
aborden y trabajen, se incluirn los contenidos con sus
correspondientes actividades a modo de resolucin de problemas,
incgnitas y desafos de lectura.

INGLES II

PROGRAMA ANALITICO

UNIDAD 1

1.1 Estructura interna del texto:


1.1.1 Anlisis de:
a) organizacin del texto: ttulo, subttulos, formatos (columnas,
prrafos, etc.)
b) relacin de grficos, tablas, cuadros e ilustraciones con el
tema del texto.
c) marcas tipogrficas.
1.1.2 Activacin de conocimientos previos: cuestionarios, socio-
gramas, etc.
1.1.3 Formulacin de hiptesis sobre el contenido del texto.
1.1.4 Estructura interna del texto.
1.1.5 Lectura global
1.1.6 Reconocimiento de ncleos informativos.
1.1.7 Constatacin de hiptesis.

UNIDAD 2

2.1 Sintaxis: Interpretacin de estructuras gramaticales tales como

Conectores, elementos de nfasis, etc.


Cadena de modificadores del sustantivo.
Formas ing.
Frases elpticas.
Uso de infinitivo.
2.2 Lxico.
2.2.1 Incorporacin de vocabulario cientfico y tcnico.
2.2.2 Reconocimiento de palabras cognadas, derivadas y
compuestas.
2.2.3 Deduccin del significado de palabras desconocidas a partir
del contexto y de afijos.
2.2.4 Explicacin del significado de expresiones idiomticas.

UNIDAD 3

3.1 Cohesin
3.1.1 Reconocimiento de elipsis, coordinacin y aposicin.
3.1.2 Referencia contextual.
3.1.3 Sustitucin. Conjuncin.
3.2 Coherencia
3.2.1 Identificacin de relaciones de coherencia tales como:
- Idea principal, ideas secundarias.
- Relaciones cognitivas bsicas: causa-efecto, secuencia
temporal y espacial, condicin, etc.
3.1.2 Reconocimiento de estructuras retricas lgicas:
- definicin, ejemplificacin, clasificacin.
- comparacin, contraste.

UNIDAD 4

4.1 Bsqueda de informacin especfica.


4.2 Comprensin de la informacin especfica contenida en los
ncleos.
4.3 Organizacin de los ncleos informativos en tablas, diagramas,
grficos, cuadros.
4.4 Sntesis e integracin del material.

En cada tema a aprender, las actividades de enseanza-aprendizaje


progresarn desde tareas de profesor y grupos de alumnos con alta
participacin interactiva, a actividades grupales, para lograr finalmente
el trabajo individual y autnomo. En las tareas de ejercitacin prctica,
se desarrollarn trabajos prcticos que consistirn en textos de reas de
ciencia y tecnologa donde figuren los contenidos enseados y se harn
ejercicios de compresin de distintos tipos hasta conseguir que el
alumno entienda textos relacionados con la disciplina de ingeniera en
que se especializa.

Criterios de trabajo
La ctedra har uso de las instalaciones del Laboratorio de Ingls- sito
en Pabelln Central, aula 17- para las fechas de encuentros presenciales
semanales, como lo establece el cronograma de cada carrera.

Los alumnos debern integrar el aprendizaje de la lengua extranjera


ingls con el manejo de las NTICs -Nuevas Tecnologas de la Informacin
y la Comunicacin- para avanzar en la resolucin de los problemas que
le plantean los textos e hipertextos seleccionados. Para ello, contar con
la asistencia de programas, software, hardware y otras herramientas
proporcionadas por la ctedra, a fin de facilitarle su camino en pos de la
autonoma en el aprendizaje de la lengua y en la formacin como futuro
profesional.

Se contar tambin con las herramientas informticas que proporcionen


los alumnos, pen-drives y note-books, entre otros a fin de permitir la
circulacin de los documentos de ctedra, y el cargado de programas,
tales como Linguee que le ayudarn a la interpretacin, traduccin y
des-ambiguacin de ciertos trminos, oraciones o prrafos de textos de
complejidad ms avanzada. Se implementarn talleres presenciales y
clases on-line, de modos sincrnicos y asncronicos.

Criterios de evaluacin.

La aprobacin de la materia se lograr rindiendo dos evaluaciones


integrativas parciales. Las mismas consistirn en diversos ejercicios que
indiquen los niveles de comprensin de textos relacionados con la
carrera y se considerarn aprobadas con un sesenta por ciento (70%) de
su desarrollo satisfactorio. Ambas son recuperables, debiendo el alumno
haber alcanzado la aprobacin de al menos un parcial para acceder a la
recuperacin extraordinaria.

Estas evaluaciones solamente se aprobarn con el setenta por ciento


(70%) satisfactorio para promocionar la materia o con sesenta por ciento
(60%) para obtener boleta de regularidad, en cuyo caso se deber rendir
el examen final en las fechas reglamentarias.

En todas las evaluaciones se enfatizar la identificacin de la


informacin contenida y su presentacin en un resumen coherente u
otro tipo de ejercitacin consistente en la elaboracin de diagramas,
grficos, reconocimiento de ideas principales y secundarias, resolucin
de ejercicios varios como contestar preguntas, opcin mltiple,
verdadero falso, entre otros posibles ejercicios.

EVALUACIN

El alumno en condicin de Promocional debe regirse por los criterios


de evaluacin mencionados en prrafo anterior. El alumno con condicin
Regular deber aprobar el examen regular, en las fechas establecidas
en el Calendario Acadmico y el alumno con condicin de Libre deber
rendir un examen que consta de las siguientes partes: En primer lugar,
una Prueba preliminar eliminatoria consistente en la lectura y
comprensin de un texto tcnico-cientfico en ingls de corta extensin,
a travs del cual se evaluar el conocimiento y las capacidades al nivel
exigido por la asignatura. La segunda fase, a rendirse en la fecha
estipulada por Secretara Acadmica, consistir en un examen similar en
objetivos pero de longitud y complejidad mayor al primero.

Cronograma de Evaluaciones

Prueba Integradora Parcial N 1 Semana del 28 de septiembre al


2 de octubre de 2014

Recuperatorio de la Prueba Semana del 5 al 9 de octubre de


Integradora Parcial N 1 2014

Prueba Integradora Final Semana del 16 al 20 de


noviembre de 2014

Recuperatorio de la Prueba Semana del 23 al 27 de


Integradora Final noviembre de 2014

Consultas:

Telfono Facultad de Ingeniera: 4211700


Correo electrnico: claplagne@unsj.edu.ar

BIBLIOGRAFIA
1. A University Grammar of English Quirk - Greenbaund.
2. Core English for General Science, Martin Stares.
3. Elementary Scientific English Practice, G.C. Thornally.
4. English for Careers, Eugene J. Hall.
5. English for computer science, Noma D. Mullen P. Charles Brown.
6. English Grammar Thompson and Martinet.
7. English in Focus, Widdowson y otros.
8. English Language Program Division U.S. Information Agency.
9. First Course in Technical English, Bearwood y otros.
10. Oxford English for Electrincs,Eric H. Glendinning John McEwan.
11. Oxford English for Computing, Keith Boeckner P. Charles Brown.
12. Read in English, Michael Scott, Longman 1982.
13. Short Readings in Science, Dean Curry.
14. Special English Engineering. English Language Series.
15. The English use for Science, R.A. Close.

Referencias de Hemeroteca y Webgrafa

1. IEEE SPECTRUM.
2. SIEMENS REVIEW
3. Revistas tcnicas
4. Revistas cientficas diversas.

Diccionarios
1. Appletons New Cuyas Dictionary, Arturo Cuys, Prentice Hall.
2. Simons y Schusters. Diccionario Bilinge,
3. Collins, Cobuild, Larousse, Oriente. Dicccionarios Ingls-Espaol,
Espaol Ingls.
4. Diccionario Enciclopdico de Trminos Tcnicos, 3 tomos, Javier
L. Collazo, Ed.McGraw-Hill.
5. Engineers Dictionary, Louis A. Robb, Ed. Continental.
6. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms. IEEE,
second Edition, John Wiley and Sons.
7. Diccionario Minero, Alejadro Novitzky, UNSJ.
8. Diccionario Geolgico, J. Turner.
9. Glosario de computacin, McGraw-Hill.
10. Dictionary of Amplification, Modulation and Transmission,
Elsevier.
11. Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, M.Nutall.

ONLINE COMPULSORY GROUP WORK PRACTICE

Ejercicio de Revisin sobre Conocimientos Previos

Actividades previas a la lectura de la pagina 2. Adelntate y observa el ttulo


para poner en juego tu conocimiento previo!!

2. Actividades en Lectura

Utiliza todos los recursos, estrategias y tcnicas para comprender mientras


lees y relees el texto. Recuerda que ests integrando todos los conocimientos
con una mente activa que enfrenta el desafo con confianza y con la posibilidad
de revisar los contenidos de estas unidades, PERO RECUERDA QUE DEBES
ANOTAR LO QUE NO APRENDISTE BIEN.

3. Ejercitacin:

A CONTINUACIN TE PROPONEMOS UN EJERCICIO DONDE DEBES USAR VARIOS


ICONOS DE LA BARRA DE HERRAMIENTAS:
1. Recorta al menos 5 frases verbales y seala si estn en voz activa o
pasiva.

2. Encuentra formas ING, determina caso y traduce.

3. Copia y traduce 3 frases nominales con pos-modificador.

4. Pega en otra fuente un modal que reemplace a 2 de los que aparecen en


el texto.

5. Subraya 2 adverbios de modo.

6. Cambia el estilo a 4 adverbios de tiempo.

7. Agranda las fuentes de los pre- modificadores de 3 frases nominales.

8. Colorea los nombres ms importantes de los cientficos que


contribuyeron a la Mecnica Clsica.

9. Disminuye la fuente de 1 adjetivo en grado comparativo.

10. Resalta el texto que expresa la contribucin principal de cada cientfico


mencionado.

11. Elabora una tabla cuyas columnas sean: tiempo, cientfico, contribucin
a la disciplina.

12. FINALMENTE TRADUCE EL TEXTO, puedes elaborar un resumen


directamente.

4. Actividad pos-lectura

Cmo y en qu te ayud la gramtica a leer este texto?

Cules fueron los conceptos gramaticales que ms difciles te resultaron?

Qu vocablos te fueron difciles de comprender? Por qu?

Cunto tiempo demoraste en realizar el prctico? Cmo puedes disminuir


este proceso y lograr mayor efectividad?

HISTORY OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS

Aristotle believed in logic and observation but it would be more than a thousand years before Francis
Bacon would first develop the scientific method of experimentation, which he called a vexation of
nature. Aristotle saw a distinction between "natural motion" and "forced motion", and he believed that
in a hypothetical vacuum, there would be no reason for a body to move naturally toward one point
rather than any other, and so he concluded a body in a vacuum must either stay at rest or else move
indefinitely fast. In this way, Aristotle was the first to approach something similar to the law of inertia.
Galileo would later observe "the resistance of the air exhibits itself in two ways: first by offering
greater impedance to less dense than to very dense bodies, and secondly by offering greater
resistance to a body in rapid motion than to the same body in slow motion".

The experimental scientific method was introduced into mechanics in the 11th century by al-Biruni,
who along with al-Khazini in the 12th century, unified statics and dynamics into the science of
mechanics, and combined the fields of hydrostatics with dynamics to create the field of
hydrodynamics. They also significantly mathematized these disciplines.

Sir Isaac Newton was the first to propose and unify all three laws of motion (the law of inertia, his
second law, and the law of action and reaction), and to prove that these laws govern both everyday
objects and celestial objects. Newton also developed the calculus which is necessary to perform the
mathematical calculations involved in classical mechanics. However it was Gottfried Leibniz who,
independently of Newton, developed a calculus with the notation of the derivative and integral which
are used to this day. Newton's dot notation for time derivatives is retained in classical mechanics.

Leonard Euler extended Newton's laws of motion from particles to rigid bodies with two additional
laws.

After Newton there were several re-formulations which progressively allowed a solution to be found to
a far greater number of problems. The first notable re-formulation was in 1788 by Joseph Louis
Lagrange, an Italian-French mathematician. In Lagrangian mechanics the solution is formed through
using the path of least action and it is based on the Calculus of variations. Lagrangian mechanics
was in turn re-formulated in 1833 by William Rowan Hamilton.

The advantage of Hamiltonian mechanics was that its framework allowed for a more in depth look at
the underlying principles of classical mechanics. Most of the framework of Hamiltonian mechanics
can be seen in Quantum mechanics however, the exact meanings of the terms differ due to quantum
effects. Although classical mechanics is largely compatible with other "classical physics" theories
such as classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, some difficulties were discovered in the late
19th century that could only be resolved by more modern physics. When combined with classical
thermodynamics, classical mechanics leads to the Gibbs paradox in which entropy is not a well-
defined quantity. As experiments reached the atomic level, classical mechanics failed to explain, even
approximately, such basic things as the energy levels and sizes of atoms. The effort at resolving
these problems led to the development of quantum mechanics. Similarly, the different behavior of
classical electromagnetism and classical mechanics under velocity transformations led to the theory
of relativity. By the end of the 20th century, the place of classical mechanics in physics is no longer
that of an independent theory. Along with classical electromagnetism, it has become imbedded in
relativistic quantum mechanics or quantum field theory. It is the non-relativistic, non-quantum
mechanical limit for massive particles. Classical mechanics has also been a source of inspiration for
mathematicians. The realization was made that the phase space in classical mechanics admits a
natural description as a symplectic manifold (indeed a cotangent bundle in most cases of physical
interest), and symplectic topology, which can be thought of as the study of global issues of
Hamiltonian mechanics, has been a fertile area of mathematics research starting in the 1980s.

Enva un email a la direccin del profesor


responsable del curso con el ejercicio
integrador recortado, resuelto y adjuntado
al mismo a: claplagne@unsj.edu.ar

CURSO B- LEARNING INGLS II

OBJETIVO FINAL: integrar los contenidos para leer comprensivamente textos


relativos a Ingeniera Mecnica

Objetivos especficos de la Unidad:

Emplear adecuadamente estrategias, tcnicas y conocimientos


especficos para abordar los textos.
Clasificar ideas y prrafos.

Entender y predecir el contexto.

Reconocer algunos elementos gramaticales para abordar textos.

Demostrar comprensin lectora de los distintos textos elegidos en esta


unidad mediante diversas tcnicas.

Utilizar apropiadamente el diccionario en la realizacin de traducciones.

Contenidos: Anlisis de textos; Uso de distintas estrategias

Anlisis de macro estructura (estructura externa del texto) Ttulo, tablas,


figuras, marcas textuales y tipolgicas, grficos, etc.

Anlisis interno del texto: formulacin de hiptesis. Lectura global. Bsqueda


de informacin especfica. Sintaxis del texto: Conjunciones.

Anlisis de micro estructura: resolucin de dificultades lxico-sintcticas. Casos


de ambigedad, polisemia, falsos cognados, etc.

Anlisis contrastivo (ingls-castellano) de estructuras lxico-sintcticas


dismiles.

Desambigacin. Estrategias para la interpretacin coherente de textos.

DESARROLLO DE CONTENIDOS

RECUERDA QUE DEBES LEER PARA COMPRENDER Y ESQUEMATIZAR TOMANDO


NOTAS.

COHERENCIA Y COHESIN

Se denomina as a los procesos mediante los cuales un texto se constituye en


lo que s.

La cohesin es el conjunto de procedimientos dentro de la estructura interna


del texto que permite organizar ideas. Se relaciona con la coherencia y es
esencial para comprender cualquier texto. La cohesin La cohesin es la
propiedad que este tiene cuando su desarrollo no presenta repeticiones
innecesarias y no resulta confuso para el receptor/lector. La cohesin es una
caracterstica de todo texto bien formado, consistente en que las diferentes
frases estn conectadas entre s mediante diversos procedimientos que
permiten que cada frase sea interpretada en relacin con las dems. Al
redactar un texto resulta inevitable el repetir determinadas ideas o conceptos
que son esenciales para el tema que se est tratando. Con el objeto de
producir un texto lingsticamente atractivo, se suele utilizar determinados
procedimientos para conseguir que esas repeticiones no sean innecesarias.

La coherencia es una propiedad cuando un texto est bien formado y que


permite concebirlo como entidad unitaria, de manera que las diversas ideas
secundarias aportan informacin relevante para llegar a la idea principal, o
tema, de forma que el lector pueda encontrar el significado global del texto.
As, del mismo modo que los diversos captulos de un libro, se relacionan entre
s, tambin las diversas secciones o prrafos se interrelacionan; y las oraciones
y frases lo hacen para formar prrafos.

Ambos procesos se encuentran ntimamente relacionados, la diferencia radica


en que la coherencia se refiere a lo macro textual, o sea el texto como un todo;
y la cohesin a lo micro textual, o sea lo pequeo que va constituyendo el
texto.

Se suele hablar de tipos de coherencia, a saber: global y local. La global tiene


que ver con la unidad temtica del texto (o sea el tema central que da sentido
al texto como totalidad); y genera que las distintas partes mantengan
relaciones de significado, y que haya una adecuada progresin temtica. Por
otra parte, la coherencia local se refiere a la unidad temtica de sus segmentos
(al sentido cabal de cada enunciado).

TIPOS DE COHERENCIA

Causalidad: se establecen relaciones de causa /efectos; sus nexos son


AS, BECAUSE, porque, SO, DUE TO puesto que, AS pues, AS A RESULT OF, AS A
CONSEQUENCE a causa de, SUPPOSING THAT supuesto que, SO THAT como
que.

Certeza: refuerzan las ideas que el autor presenta en el texto; sus nexos
son EVIDENTLY evidentemente, FOR SURE, MOST CERTAINLY seguramente, AS A
FACT, AS A MATTER OF FACT de hecho, OF COURSE, ABSOLUTELY desde luego,
CLEARLY claro, BESIDES adems.

Consecuencia: relaciona la continuidad de las ideas plasmadas en las


frases, oraciones o prrafos. Algunos de sus nexos son SO pues, THAT WAY de
este modo, THEN luego, THEREFORE por lo tanto, SO THEREFORE ahora bien,
AS conque, FOLLOWING por consiguiente.

Condicin: son aquellos que establecen un requisito para que se cumpla


lo expresado en la oracin principal. Los elementos que se usan para esto:
PROVIDED THAT con tal que, SINCE ya que, AS as que, AS LONG AS siempre
que.

ALGUNOS PROCEDIMIENTOS DE COHESIN DE UN TEXTO

Para lograr la cohesin en un discurso, es necesario tener en consideracin una


serie de elementos, que son llamados mecanismos de cohesin, los que
permiten establecer conexiones entre las muchas ideas que se entregan en un
texto. Estos factores se unen unos con otros, cumpliendo la funcin de dar
unidad a la estructura textual.

Los Conectores

Son palabras que sirven de nexos al interior de las oraciones y permiten dar
claridad y organizacin a las ideas que se van planteando; estos conectores
son elementos, tales como:

Las Preposiciones: se utilizan de nexo para unir una idea principal con las
ideas que la apoyan y sirven de complemento (a, ante, con, para, por, segn,
sin; de, desde, hacia, etc.)

Los Pronombres Relativos: estos nexos sirven para reemplazar a un


sustantivo, adjetivo o adverbio que ya ha sido mencionado en el texto (quien,
que, cual, etc.)

Las Conjunciones: enlazan palabras en las frases u oraciones (y, ni, o, u,


e).

LAS CONJUNCIONES SE CLASIFICAN EN

COORDINANTES

Unen elementos de la misma clase y proposiciones coordinadas.

Copulativas: y-e- and, besides


Disyuntivas: o-u or, either or, neither nor
Distributivas: ya...o whether or
Adversativas: pero, empero, mas, sino but, however, nevertheless

SUBORDINANTES

Encabezan clausulas subordinadas. No son oraciones porque aunque hay un


sujeto y una accin estn insertas en una oracin mayor.

Causales: porque, pues... as, because


Finales: a, para por... to, for
Consecutivas o ilativas: pues, luego, conque... then, afterwards, so
Condicionales: si y los adverbios como, cuando... if, whether, when,
as
Concesivas: aunque... although, though, instead of
Completivas: que y si that, if

LA ELIPSIS

Consiste en no dar explcita la informacin en el texto, pues ya est dada a


conocer con anterioridad y, de esta forma, el lector puede inferir de modo muy
fcil. O sea se suprimir elementos, palabras, frases.

LA SUSTITUCIN

Es un elemento estilstico, donde se reemplaza una palabra o una expresin


por otra, pero la que sustituir debe tener una relacin semntica con aquello
que sustituye; esta tcnica favorece la claridad de ideas y su no reiteracin. O
sea se nombra de otro modo.

LA CORREFERENCIA

A lo largo de un texto, en sus diferentes prrafos conformados por oraciones,


hay palabras que se van reiterando; la idea de la correferencia es utilizar
sinnimos para esas palabras, ideas o lugares ya mencionados, de modo que el
texto mantenga una semntica lgica. La correferencia busca mencionar al
sujeto de la oracin o al tema de un texto, con expresiones diferentes a la
palabra original utilizada. O sea se usa sinnimos.

MARCADORES DISCURSIVOS

Son las palabras o expresiones que van ubicando las diferentes partes que
componen o en que se organiza un texto. Dentro de los marcadores discursivos
podemos mencionar:

Presentacin del tema: el fin de estas lneas, la idea de escribir este


texto es, etc.
Comienzo del tema: primeramente, para empezar, antes que todo, etc.
Desarrollo del tema: en primer lugar, en segundo lugar, para finalizar,
etc.
Continuacin del tema: a continuacin, seguidamente, siguiendo con lo
anterior, etc.
Resumen del tema: sintetizando, en resumen, en sntesis, recapitulando,
etc.
Conclusin del tema: para terminar, concluyendo, finalizando, para
cerrar, etc.
Transicin del tema: por otro lado, por otra parte, vindolo de otro modo,
etc.
Digresivos: a propsito, a todo esto, por cierto, etc.
Espacio temporal del tema: hasta ahora, hasta el momento, hasta aqu,
etc. (seala anterioridad); ahora mismo, en este instante, mientras, etc.
(sealan presente, simultaneidad); posteriormente, despus de, luego
que, ms adelante, prximamente, etc. (indican posterioridad)

LA PRONOMINALIZACIN

Es cuando se hace uso de pronombres personales, relativos y/o demostrativos,


para referirnos a palabras que estn siendo partcipes en el texto, con la
intencin de no repetir lo mismo. Si tienes dudas retrocede a unidad 2.

AMBIGEDAD, POLISEMIA, FALSOS COGNADOS

La polisemia consiste en que una palabra posee en s misma varios


significados. A menudo, esto no suele revestir ninguna dificultad al momento
de traducir; ya que se suele intuir el significado a travs del contexto. No
obstante, y hasta tanto domines esta habilidad recuerda siempre determinar el
contexto, para luego interpretar las palabras desconocidas o que debas
traducir.

En cuanto a las ambigedades, podemos decir que el problema consiste en que


no se consigue captar todo su significado. Por eso, en ocasiones al traducir una
frase del ingls es difcil percibir la ambigedad que tena la forma original. El
resultado obtenido no puede considerarse satisfactorio ya que se pierden
matices en el proceso de traduccin. Algo similar sucede con las palabras y
expresiones coloquiales. Ahora bien, recuerda que los textos que se abordan en
Ingls I son expositivos, fcticos, cientficos por ello, se puede decir que es un
problema que pocas veces enfrentars.

Con respecto a falsos cognados (falsos amigos: parecen decir algo y no es eso,
te acuerdas de LARGE? No es largo sino grande) podemos decir que lo ms
recomendable es ganar en prctica e incrementar el vocabulario. Como no son
tantos en nuestra disciplina puedes consultar clickeando en el hipervnculo:
falsos cognados

CLASIFICACIN DE IDEAS Y PRRAFOS

Cuando hablamos de conjunciones y marcadores discursivos hemos hablado de


una clasificacin por contenido semntico. ESTO ES LO IMPORTANTE QUE
DESCUBRAS!
Si nombramos 2, 3 o ms elementos tendremos un listado. Y si a una idea le
agregas otra tendrs adicin y en ambos casos estars usando la misma
palabra: AND.

Observa estos marcadores y establece a que hacen referencia:

At the end of these lines,

The idea of writing this text is,

First, To start with, In the first place, Firstly,

Second, Following that, Secondly, to finish,

Then, Besides, Another fact is,

Synthesizing, In summary, In synthesis, In brief, To sum up,


Finally, In conclusion,

On the other hand, Otherwise,

Up to now, so far, far, As previously noted, Now, At this


moment, While, Later, After that, Then, Shortly,

And, Besides, Moreover, And finally,

But, On the contrary, However, Nevertheless,

As a consequence, Due to, Due to the fact that, As a result,


Because, As

Si no has podido deducir la clasificacin por sentido recurre a su corroboracin


en la pgina siguiente. O bien sigue intentando al recordar las conjunciones.

At the end of these lines, adelanto de tema

The idea of writing this text is, el propsito del texto

First, To start with, In the first place, Firstly, enumeracin o inicio de un listado

Second, Following that, Secondly, to finish, continuacin


Then, Besides, Another fact is, agregado de informacin

Synthesizing, In summary, In synthesis, In brief, To sum up, Finally, In


conclusion, resmen o cierre

On the other hand, Otherwise, presentacin de otra perspectiva

Up to now,So far, Far, As previously noted, Now, At this moment, While, Later,
After that, Then, Shortly after that, cronologa de datos

And, Besides, Moreover, And finally, agregado o listado

But, On the contrary, However, Nevertheless, indicarn lo contrario a lo


expuesto

As a consequence, Due to, Due to the fact that, As a result, Because, As,
indicar efecto, resultado, consecuencia

Podras bajar las conferencias y detectar los marcadores discursivos empleados

por estos dos fsicos.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JzhlfbWBuQ8

La siguiente ejercitacin fue el parcial final de ciclos anteriores. salo como


simulacro de evaluacin y auto corrgelo comparando los resultados con el
vnculo que solicitars a tu tutor el da de la consulta. No debes demorar ms
de 2hs. en resolverlo.

Dynamotor: The DynaMotor is an integrated adjustable


speed motor and drive unit that produces high torque at low
speeds, while virtually eliminating Radio Frequency
Interference (RFI).
Basic Adjustable Motor Description

The DynaMotor looks like an ordinary AC or DC motor. It is the


same shape and size and is made from the same mechanical
parts; laminations, windings, shaft, end-bell, bearings and
housing. The difference is that the DynaMotor has used
optically controlled solid-state switches embedded in its rotor
windings to control speed and torque. Opening and closing
these switches controls the current, and thus the torque, right
where it is being produced. The result is enhanced better

Slotted Armature
performance in a package that is much more than a
motora self-contained variable-speed motor and
drive unit. The DynaMotor is constructed somewhat
like a universal motor with a pair of opposed salient
poles whose copper windings are connected directly to
the two legs of a single-phase or three-phase line.

The rotor is similar to universal motors, consisting of slotted


steel laminations stacked on a shaft.

Copper wire is wound in opposite slots and the two ends of


each coil are connected by a solid-state switch, such as a
transistor. In contrast, universal and DC motors have each coil
connected to copper bars in a commutator that receives
external power through carbon brushes. The DynaMotor is
brushless so it is more efficient. When the stator poles are
connected to an AC line, a resultant magnetic field varies with
the line current and the flux passes directly through the rotor
inducing a voltage in each rotor coil. When the solid-state
switch is closed, current will flow through the coil, producing
flux, torque and rotation.

Torque and Speed Adjustment: When the switch is open,


current cannot flow and no torque or rotation is produced by
the coil. Closing the switch for a longer period produces more
torque and increases the speed. Thus, the motor's torque and
speed can be adjusted as desired by controlling how long
(over what rotational angle) the switches are open.

Time/angle switches closed vs. speed


Each switch is actuated by a photo-detector as it rotates past
a stationary illuminated infrared light-emitting diode (LED). An
array of LEDs mounted on the motor end-bell can be turned
on for varying amounts of time to adjust the motors speed.

As shown above, the stationary and rotating switches and


associated electronic components can be installed outside the
main motor compartment to protect them from heat and dirt
and to permit easy replacement. This is accomplished by
bringing leads from the rotor coils out through the bearing via
slots in the motor shaft.

Since there are multiple coils on the rotor that can be


energized simultaneously and controlled individually,
continuous smooth torque can be produced.
EJERCITACIN

A. Prediccin: usando el conocimiento previo que usted posee sobre


dynamotors, conteste las siguientes preguntas:

a-Qu debera tratar un texto que habla de dynamotors?

b-Cules son las denominaciones y las diferencias de este tipo de motores con
los dems?

c-Sabe usted si hay diferencias entre este tipo de motores al cambiar su


tamao? Cules son las diferencias de su tipo?
d- Ahora puede leer el texto y contestar Las respuestas a las tres preguntas
anteriores se encuentran en el texto? Si es as, indique las lneas en que se
encuentran dichas respuestas.

B. Texto: despus de haber ledo el texto una vez (skimming), lalo


nuevamente (scanning) para establecer: Ideas Principales y Secundarias.

C. Frase Nominal- Analice estructuralmente y traduzca las siguientes frases


nominales.

1. the stationary and rotating switches and associated electronic


components

2. slotted steel laminations stacked on a shaft.

D. Encuentre ejemplos de adjetivos/adverbios; encuentre otros ejemplos en


grado comparativo. Escriba el equivalente en castellano para cada caso.

E. Referencia contextual: Con qu palabras estn ligadas las siguientes?

(l. 41) That can be energized:

(l. 17) whose copper windings:

(l. 11) these switches:

F. Frase Verbal. Encuentre ejemplos de frase verbales. Indique si se


encuentran en Voz Activa o Pasiva. Traduzca al Espaol:

* Presente simple

* Futuro simple

* Presente Perfecto

* Modals (verbos defectivos)

* Frases compuestas con verbos en modo infinitivo

G. Responda (con amplios detalles) las siguientes preguntas (en Castellano):

1 What is an dynamotor?

2 What differences can be found between an ordinary motor and a


dynamotor?

3 Which are the advantages and uses (applications) of Dynamotors?

4 How can switches and electronic components be protected?


5. How is speed increased or adjusted?

6 What parts are alike in ordinary, universal motors and dynamotors?

H. Traduzca desde la lnea 6 hasta la 11, indicando 2 cognados y sealando


afijos en 3 palabras a su eleccin.

I. Indique la presencia de 3 conectores especificando su funcin dentro del


texto.

J. Indique tipologa textual, marcando plas secuencias textuales por


clasificacin semntica.

K. Elabore un esquema de contenidos o un diagrama con la informacin


extrada de texto.

L. Elabore el resumen en espaol dando cuenta de lo ledo, retome sus ideas


del punto II, despus de haber analizado los detalles ms pequeos del texto.

Which is your face?


CURSO B- LEARNING INGLS II

PARTE A
OBJETIVO de APRENDIZAJE: integrar la organizacin, secuencias y
tipologas textuales para leer comprensivamente textos relativos a
Ingeniera Mecnica segn la tipologa propuesta por la Lingstica del
Texto.

NOTA: A PARTIR DE ESTA ENTREGA, TODA LA EJERCITACIN DEMANDA


TAREAS Y PROBLEMAS A RESOLVER EN EQUIPO CON AUTONOMA Y
RESPONSABILIDAD.

Desarrollo de contenidos: Organizacin y Secuencias


textuales
Se presentan y definen los tipos de organizacin textual para los
textos cientficos. En conjunto, se incluyen ejercicios de
identificacin de los tipos, y se vincula el texto a su formato,
caractersticas e intencin. Los contenidos se han organizado
siguiendo los lineamientos de la Lingstica del texto de
Werlich (1975) y la clasificacin de secuencias de Adam (1990).

ORGANIZACIN TEXTUAL

Las formas de organizacin estructural de la informacin al interior de los textos


pueden clasificarse segn las siguientes secuencias:

a) Secuencia Temporal: se organizan los eventos que se informan en una


sucesin o serie que se rige por un orden que puede ser cronolgico, cclico u otro
que permita entender la ubicacin de los eventos en el tiempo. En este tipo
textual, el rol que cumplen los mecanismos de cohesin textual, bsicamente los
conectores, es fundamental pues, ayudan a ubicar con claridad los
acontecimientos o acciones en la secuencia. Los conectores, por tanto, en
especial los temporales, sern primordiales para este tipo de estructura textual.

Inserte aqu las palabras y marcadores que precisa recordar:

b) Relacin Causal: la informacin se organiza sobre la base de relaciones


causales, es decir, algunos elementos funcionan como causa y otros como efecto
o consecuencia. Una secuencia similar es la de Problema-solucin: mediante
esta secuencia se presenta, por una parte, la informacin que corresponde a uno
o varios problemas, y por otra parte, la informacin alude a las posibles
soluciones.

Inserte aqu las palabras y marcadores que precisa recordar:

c) Comparacin/Contraste: En este caso los contenidos se organizan sobre la


base de semejanzas y diferencias entre los contenidos contrastados.

Inserte aqu las palabras y marcadores que precisa recordar:

d) Enumeracin descriptiva / Listado: La informacin aparece mediante la


enumeracin de los elementos o contenidos o instrucciones, mediante un orden
claramente establecido con el fin de describir o caracterizar el asunto del cual se
est hablando.

Inserte aqu las palabras y marcadores que precisa recordar:

e) Ejemplificacin: Se informa al lector mediante ejemplos que explican un


argumento o proceso o ilustran una idea.

Inserte aqu las palabras y marcadores que precisa recordar:

f) Definicin: La informacin que provee el texto explica lo que algo es, tiene o
caracteriza a algn proceso.

Inserte aqu las palabras y marcadores que precisa recordar:

g) Clasificacin: La informacin se encuentra organizada en clases o grupos que


surgen de la agrupacin de caractersticas comunes compartidas. Puede
organizarse de lo general a lo particular o de lo particular a lo general.

Inserte aqu las palabras y marcadores que precisa recordar:

h) Prediccin/ probabilidad: La informacin del texto est mediada por un tiempo


cercano que puede en apariencia testificar su advenimiento y ocurrencia. Las
oraciones se encuentran marcadas por tiempos futuros, verbos modales de
capacidad, posibilidad y probabilidad y por adverbios de modo.
Inserte aqu las palabras y marcadores que precisa recordar:

Elabore/ Complete el cuadro sinptico sintetizador


mediante el trabajo en equipo con los soportes
virtuales e impresos e inserte en esta seccin:
Secuencia/El Temp Caus Compa Lista Ejempli Pre Defini Clasific
ementos oral al rac do ficac dic cin acin
Caracterstic
as
Marcadores
Otros
Ejemplo

Puedes darte cuenta que las conjunciones permiten


que el texto fluya y que en su fluir se construyan las
secuencias textuales cuyo formato final le dar al
mismo su tipologa particular?
Si es as, revisa tu trabajo prctico nmero 1 e indica
sus secuencias y tipologa, fundamentando tu
respuesta.
Puedes darte cuenta de las diferencias que existen
entre esta tarea de revisin y las tareas planteadas en
la ejercitacin anterior?

Clasificacin Textual por Tipos para Documentos Acadmicos


Las tipologas textuales son una clasificacin de textos y discursos lingsticos de acuerdo con las
caractersticas comunes. Existen diferentes tipos de textos. Al considerar el tema, orden cronolgico,
resolucin de un problema, los modos de brindar informacin; los textos se puede agrupar en
cientfico, de divulgacin, jurdicos, informativos, entre otros. Esta es una tipologa comn en las que
se diferencian los textos fcticos de los de ficcin. Los que aluden a hechos reales son fcticos, los
que se construyen sobre recursos imaginarios, de ficcin. Los siguientes pueden pertenecer a una o
a ambas categoras. Por ejemplo:
1.1 Textos lingsticos
1.2 Textos informativos
1.3 Textos cientficos
1.4 Textos administrativos
1.5 Textos jurdicos
1.6 Textos periodsticos
1.7 Textos humansticos
1.8 Textos literarios
1.9 Textos publicitarios
1.10 Textos digitales
1.11 Textos de catalogacin
1.12. Textos compendiados en manuales, enciclopedias

Puedes decir a la categora a la que pertenecen los siguientes


textos? Debes elegir un hipervnculo por categora solamente, luego
de comprenderla.

Ahora vamos a encontrar las tipologas con sus caractersticas y algunos


ejemplos.
Textos lingsticos: Es un enunciado ya sea grfico o fnico, que nos permite visualizar palabras
que leemos o escribimos.

http://grammar.about.com/od/tz/g/Text-Linguistics.htm

Textos informativos: Tienen la funcin de informar, explicar, transmitir y comunicar una


informacin. Entre ellas tenemos, las revistas, peridicos, folletos, tarjetas, noticias, etc.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/factsheet/en13styl-e3-f-writing-an-informative-text

https://www.mansfieldct.org/Schools/MMS/staff/achane/home_files/Language%20Arts_files/Samples
%20of%20Student%20Writing_files/Informational%20Text.htm
Textos cientficos: Son los que se producen en el contexto de la comunidad cientfica, con la
intencin de presentar o demostrar los avances de la ciencia: la conferencia, la ponencia o la
comunicacin (tipo de texto). Gneros tpicos de este tipo son la tesis doctoral, la memoria de
licenciatura, el artculo cientfico o la geografa cientfica. Pueden emplear un lenguaje cientfico muy
especializado, si se dirigen a expertos de un determinado campo, o bien un lenguaje ms llano y
accesible, si se dirigen a individuos inexpertos con fines divulgativos.

http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/30695_sample.pdf

http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/scientific-papers-13815490

Textos administrativos: Son aquellos que se producen como medio de comunicacin entre el
individuo y determinada instruccin, o entre instituciones y los individuos. Gneros administrativos
tpicos son el certificado, el saludo, la instancia o el boletn oficial. Se trata de textos altamente
formalizados, con estructuras rgidas y que frecuentemente tienen una funcin informativa.
http://www.kronotech.com/ST/st.htm

Textos jurdicos: Los textos jurdicos son la sentencia, el recurso o la ley. Son los textos
producidos en el proceso de administracin de justicia.
http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/56-dtenv.pdf

http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/38-dtbt2.pdf

http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/23-lic.pdf

Textos periodsticos: Son aquellos cuya finalidad es informar sobre hechos y temas de inters
general. Estos textos se recogen en la prensa escrita y en la prensa oral. El texto periodstico
aparece en distintos gneros, como la noticia, la crnica, el reportaje, la entrevista y la nota de
opinin.

http://west.stanford.edu/news/mapping-texts-visualizing-historical-american-newspapers

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5194672.stm

Textos humansticos: Aunque se trata de un tipo de texto difcilmente definible, se clasifica


como "textos humansticos" a aquellos que tratan algn aspecto de las ciencias humanas:
psicologa, sociologa, antropologa, etc. desde el punto de vista propio del autor, sin el nivel de
formalizacin de los textos cientficos. El gnero literario ms representativo es el Ensayo.
http://www.ebscohost.com/academic/social-sciences-full-text

Textos literarios: Son todos aquellos en los que se manifiesta la funcin potica y/o literaria , ya
como elemento fundamental (como en la poesa) o secundario (como en determinados textos
histricos o didcticos). Son gneros literarios la poesa, la novela, el cuento o relato, el teatro y el
ensayo literario (incluidos los mitos).

http://eltiempohabitado.wordpress.com/poemas-en-ingles/

http://es.e-stories.org/read-stories.php?&sto=4035

http://es.e-stories.org/read-stories.php?&sto=8142

http://www.english-for-students.com/English-Poems.html

http://100.best-poems.net/

Textos publicitarios: Es un tipo de texto especial, cuya funcin es convencer al lector acerca de
las cualidades de un artculo de consumo, e incitarlo al consumo de dicho artculo. El texto
publicitario fundamental es el anuncio.

http://elsenglish.com/Special-promotions-for-English-courses-in-London,67.html

http://www.dhl.com.ar/en/logistics/industry_sector_solutions/consumer_logistics/specialty_packaging
_and_seasonal_promotions.html

http://www.kaplaninternational.com/promotion/

Textos digitales: Algunos ejemplos de estos tipos de textos podemos encontrarlos en los blog,
SMS, chats, y en las pginas web. Su aparicin va ligada a las nuevas tecnologas, dando lugar a un
nuevo gnero de textos, inexistente en el mundo analgico, que presenta sus propias
caractersticas.

http://www.englishteacherwebsites.com/

http://learnenglishkids.britishcouncil.org/en/parents/websites

http://www.pen.org/pen-blog?cat=60&gclid=CjwKEAjw1ZWgBRD-n6ew0oan1xwSJABAbf8pg5BDOF-
dx9EqEGv028_YVNtKcd38pvjE7XWALURKGBoC0Fvw_wcB
Encuentra en internet los diferentes ejemplos en ingls que correspondan a cada tipologa sealada.

NO es preciso ingresar en todos los hipervnculos; simplemente considera las caractersticas de los
textos.

Ahora: Reflexiona: para qu te puede servir este conocimiento sobre tipologas?

Anota ac tu respuesta:

Ejercitacin
Menciona la organizacin textual que prevalece en los siguientes textos.

Determina cul es la tipologa.

Fundamenta tu respuesta.

Brevemente comenta sobre qu trata el texto.

NOTA: Adjunta los textos en un archivo del grupo y enva la


respuesta a tu tutor. Elije textos cortos de los sitios sugeridos
en la siguiente pgina.

Infiere la tipologa o bien puedes continuar leyendo para


deducir sobre el ejemplo.

http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/7-presidential-war-stories

http://www.commercialmotor.com/big-lorry-blog/pump-the-volume-says-biglorryb

http://virdamufida.blogspot.com.ar/2011/06/example-of-narrative-text.html

http://englishjuniorhighschool.blogspot.com.ar/2013/03/example-of-narrative-text-little-girl.html

http://scientext.msh-alpes.fr/scientext-site-en/spip.php?article22
http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2014/09/invasive-cricket-species-takes-over-eastern-u-s-homes?
rss=1

http://www.lifescience.net/news/

http://www.unive.it/media/allegato/download/Lingue/Materiale_didattico_Hanafy/TTS_Italiano_Inglese
/Traduzione_tecn_scientifica_mod1/Lesson_Two_Assignment_Taylor.pdf

http://www.fibaamericas.com/files/informes/official-basketball-rules-2014-draft7-24apr2014.pdf

https://panasonic.ca/PCS/OperatingInstructions/CSC9-12DKK-OI-Eng.pdf

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/amanda-klein/texting-romantic-relationships_b_1821646.html

http://www.teenink.com/opinion/all/article/10102/School-Uniforms/

http://www.sparknotes.com/college/admissions/page21.html

http://www.actstudent.org/writing/sample/one.html

http://www.cambridgelawstudio.co.uk/register-online/legal-english-plus/

http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/food-network-kitchens/lobster-rolls-recipe2.html

http://www.cambridgelawstudio.co.uk/privacy-statement/

http://www.cambridgelawstudio.co.uk/course-dates-prices/

http://www.belajarbahasainggris.us/2012/03/7-contoh-singkat-procedure-text.html

OTRA CLASIFICACIN SEGN LOS ESQUEMAS TEXTUALES

Son esquemas abstractos, superestructuras o estructuras globales, que se pueden presentar


alternadas o entrelazadas a lo largo de un texto, y que conllevan una serie de caractersticas
lingsticas. Las secuencias textuales bsicas son cuatro: narracin, descripcin, argumentacin y
exposicin.

Clasificacin de secuencias textuales

2.1 Texto histrico


2.2 Texto narrativo
2.3 Texto descriptivo
2.4 Texto argumentativo
2.5 Texto expositivo
2.6 Texto Procedimental

Texto histrico: Es un documento escrito que permite obtener un conocimiento ms completo


diversificado y significativo de la historia.

Texto narrativo: El texto narrativo es el relato de acontecimientos desarrollados en un tiempo o


lugar determinado y llevados a cabo por personajes reales o imaginarios, siguiendo un orden
temporal o casual.

Texto descriptivo: Esta modalidad textual presenta las caractersticas de un objeto de forma
esttica, sin transcurso de tiempo. Los textos descriptivos nos cuentan cmo son los objetos, las
personas, los espacios, las situaciones, los animales, las emociones y los sentimientos.

Texto argumentativo: Se trata del tipo de textos en los que se presentan las razones a favor o en
contra de determinada "posicin" o "tesis", con el fin de convencer al interlocutor a travs de
diferentes argumentos.

Texto expositivo: Un texto expositivo es aquel en el cual se presentan, de forma neutral y objetiva,
determinados hechos o realidades. A diferencia de la argumentacin, mediante el texto expositivo no
se intenta convencer, sino mostrar. Existen dos tipos de textos expositivos:

Textos divulgativos: Es el tipo de texto expositivo que va dirigido a un pblico amplio que
usa informacin poco especfica y lxico formal, es decir no tcnico ni especializado. Lo
encontramos en apuntes, libros de texto, enciclopedias, exmenes, conferencias,
coleccionables, etc. Las caractersticas de los textos divulgativos son:

Informa clara y objetivamente sobre un tema de inters general siempre y cuando est
bien ejemplificado el tema.
Va dirigida a un pblico mayoritario.
Es de fcil comprensin.
Utiliza un vocabulario estndar.
Posee objetividad.

Textos especializados: usa un lxico especializado e informacin tcnica. Lo encontramos


en informes, leyes, artculos de investigacin cientfica, etc. Las caractersticas de los textos
especializados:

Informa sobre un tema muy concreto.


Va dirigida a un receptor experto en el contenido tratado.
Resulta de difcil comprensin para quien no conoce el tema.
Usa una terminologa especfica.
Presenta gran objetividad.

Texto procedimental: Es aquel en el que se presenta de forma neutral y objetiva informacin para
llevar adelante un proceso. Pretende demostrar los modos y elementos precisos para alcanzar un
fin.

Encuentre ejemplos en internet de textos en ingls que cumplan con las caractersticas de las
tipologas mencionadas. Indique la pgina/sitio de procedencia y redacte un breve resumen en
espaol.

Otra forma de resolver este ejercicio es volver sobre los textos anteriores que usaste en la
categorizacin anterior y usarlo segn esta nueva tipologa.

TIPOLOGAS SEGN LA LINGSTICA DEL TEXTO

Los textos que se manejan en el rea de nuestra especialidad de Ingeniera no


pertenecen al gnero de ficcin, se los denomina textos fcticos porque manejan
hechos. Se los clasifica en diferentes tipos de los cuales sobresalen en su formato
por caractersticas de propsito, actores, tipo de experiencia y lenguaje empleado,
los siguientes:
Textos fcticos Formatos

Informe Informes cientificos, peridodisticos,


otros

Procedimiento Instrucciones, directivas,


experimentos

Relato Biografias, historias, cronologas

Explicacin Diagramas, esquemas, otros

Exposicin Debates, editoriales, documentales

Discusin Pginas web, blogs, foros,


documentales

Veamos un ejemplo de cada uno de ellos:

Informe

Electric circuit

This is a general term referring to a system or part of a system of conducting parts and
their interconnections through which an electric current is intended to flow. A circuit is
made up of active and passive elements or parts and their interconnecting conducting
paths. The active elements are the sources of electric energy for the circuit; they may be
batteries, direct current generators, or alternating current generators. The passive
elements are resistors, inductors, and capacitors. The electric circuit is described by a
circuit diagram or map showing the active and passive elements and their connecting
conducting paths. Electric circuits are used to transmit power as in high-voltage power
lines and transformers or in low-voltage distribution circuits in factories and homes: to
convert energy from or to its electric form as in motors, generators, microphones,
loudspeakers, and lamps: to communicate information as in telephone, telegraph, radio,
and television.

El Informe como texto de hechos contiene una estructura, una declaracin, una
oracin con el tema que captura el inters. Puede incluir una breve descripcin del
tema o bien puede incluir la definicin del estado, o la clasificacin o
categorizacin de sub-tipos. Los prrafos comienzan con el tema o una oracin de
apertura. Luego se mencionan los hechos y no las opiniones. La conclusin
resume la informacin presentada, no incluye cualquier nueva informacin. El
lenguaje caracterstico suele ser tcnico, relacionado al tema, es lenguaje formal e
impersonal y usa tiempos presente, y voz pasiva.

Veamos este ejemplo:

A simple machine is a device that changes the direction or amount of a force. They
are the building blocks used to build more complex machines. For example,
wheels, levers, screws, and pulleys are all used in a bicycle.
Simple machines are the most basic mechanisms that use mechanical advantage
(also called leverage) to multiply force. How do they do that? It's actually because
of a concept called work. You know that if you walk 2 miles to school, it's harder
than if you had to walk 1 mile to school. How much effort does each step take? The
effort is however much it takes to move your body. Scientists and engineers call
how much effort you use over a distance 'work'.
A simple machine uses a force to do work on a load. If there was no friction, the
amount of work done on the load is equal to the work done by the applied force.
Simple machines are often used to increase the amount of the output force. But
there is a trade-off, the more force is increased, the less distance is covered. The
ratio of the output to the input force is called the mechanical advantage.
Comprendes sus elementos y caractersticas? Qu dice el texto?

Veamos un nuevo tipo:

Procedimiento

Forces due to electrical charges

Experiment Abstract:
Lightweight pith balls can help to show electrostatic attraction and
repulsion.

A pith ball is a very small, lightweight object that picks up electric charge
quite well. A charged pith ball works well to show the Coulomb
force between two charged objects.

Apparatus and materials:


two pith balls hung by string
a glass rod
an ebonite rod

a piece of fur and a piece of silk cloth

Procedure:
1. Charge the glass rod first with the silk cloth.
2. Then touch both pith balls with the rod.
3. Check the two balls reaction.
4. Next, charge the ebonite rod with the fur.
5. Bring the rod close to the balls.
6. Check the positively-charged balls reaction to the rod.

Touching the positively-charged rod to two pith balls gave the balls each a
small positive charge. Since like charges repel, the pith balls repelled one
another. Positive charge was transferred to the pith balls. The charged pith
balls repelled one another.

If an ebonite rod were rubbed with fur, the rod rubbed some electrons off the
fur. The rod thus became negatively charged and attracted the positively-
charged pith balls.

Cmo se descubren las fuerzas elctricas?

Cules fueron los materiales que se emplearon? Observe el color


usado en el texto.

Cules fueron los resultados?


Cree qu se puede cambiar el orden de los prrafos? Y del
procedimiento? Qu notas en los procesos marcados en azul?

Qu caractersticas aparecen en este texto?

Los textos como este que nos explican cmo se dise un


experimento, cmo se llev a cabo, cmo se ejecutaron los
pasos y qu resultados se obtuvieron, se denominan
Procedimientos Su propsito es mostrar cmo se logr la
adquisicin de un nuevo conocimiento mediante un
experimento, proceso u observacin.

El Procedimiento da instrucciones para lograr algo. Hay una


oracin de inicio, una lista de materiales, oraciones
secuenciadas en orden o nmero. Concluye con un parmetro de
xito del proceso. El lenguaje usa imperativo, verbos modales,
conectores y marcadores de secuencias y se dan detalles de los
hechos con vocabulario tcnico.

Analiza en el texto siguiente estas caractersticas. Este nuevo ejemplo adems, te


ensear a elaborar resmenes.

NOTA: ESTE TEXTO SER EMPLEADO NUEVAMENTE EN LA LTIMA


ENTREGA. RESUELVELO A CONCIENCIA

How to Write a Summary

Writing a good summary demonstrates that you clearly understand a


text...and that you can communicate that understanding to your
readers. A summary can be tricky to write at first because its tempting
to include too much or too little information. But by following our easy 8-
step method, you will be able to summarize texts quickly and
successfully for any class or subject.

1) Divideand conquer. First off, skim the text you are going to
summarize and divide it into sections. Focus on any headings and
subheadings. Also look at any bold-faced terms and make sure you
understand them before you read.
2) Read. Now that youve prepared, go ahead and read the selection.
Read straight through. At this point, you dont need to stop to look up
anything that gives you troublejust get a feel for the authors tone,
style, and main idea.

3) Reread. Rereading should be active reading. Underline topic


sentences and key facts. Label areas that you want to refer to as you
write your summary. Also label areas that should be avoided because the
detailsthough they may be interestingare too specific. Identify areas
that you do not understand and try to clarify those points.

4) One sentence at a time. You should now have a firm grasp on the
text you will be summarizing. In steps 13, you divided the piece into
sections and located the authors main ideas and points. Now write down
the main idea of each section in one well-developed sentence. Make sure
that what you include in your sentences are key points, not minor
details.

5) Write a thesis statement. This is the key to any well-written


summary. Review the sentences you wrote in step 4. From them, you
should be able to create a thesis statement that clearly communicates
what the entire text was trying to achieve. If you find that you are not
able to do this step, then you should go back and make sure your
sentences actually addressed key points.

6) Ready to write. At this point, your first draft is virtually done. You
can use the thesis statement as the introductory sentence of your
summary, and your other sentences can make up the body. Make sure
that they are in order. Add some transition words
(then, however, also, moreover) that help with the overall structure and
flow of the summary. And once you are actually putting pen to paper (or
fingers to keys!), remember these tips:

Write in the present tense.


Make sure to include the author and title of the work.

Be concise: a summary should not be equal in length to the


original text.

If you must use the words of the author, cite them.

Don't put your own opinions, ideas, or interpretations into the


summary. The purpose of writing a summary is to accurately represent
what the author wanted to say, not to provide a critique.

7) Check for accuracy. Reread your summary and make certain that
you have accurately represented the authors ideas and key points.
Make sure that you have correctly cited anything directly quoted from
the text. Also check to make sure that your text does not contain your
own commentary on the piece.

8) Revise. Once you are certain that your summary is accurate, you
should (as with any piece of writing) revise it for style, grammar, and
punctuation. If you have time, give your summary to someone else to
read. This person should be able to understand the main text based on
your summary alone. If he or she does not, you may have focused too
much on one area of the piece and not enough on the authors main
idea.

Comprendes sus elementos y caractersticas? Qu tipo de texto es y qu dice?

Resuma el texto que figura a continuacin, provea un ttulo y enumere sus pasos:

The head gasket is found between the engine block and the cylinder head or heads in a V-type engine.
The gasket functions as a seal that prevents the combustion process from leaking into the coolant
passages that surround each cylinder. In many cases it seals oil passages from coolant passages so the
fluids do not mix.

The price for an independent mechanic to replace a head gasket can be high due to the time-consuming
labor involved, so, it is essential to know why you need to replace the head gasket. Have a professional
ASE certified Master Auto Technician inspect your vehicle to conclusively determine whether or not your
car needs to have the head gasket replaced. The purpose of this article is to help you learn how to install
a head gasket to save money.

Obtain a service manual for your car's make and model. It will include step by step procedures with
images that explain how to replace your head gasket(s). It will also list any special tools that you may
need.

Drain all of the oil and coolant from your engine. Remove the parts that are on top of the head
gasket. Refer to your car's service manual for specifics, but in most cases this involves removing the
exhaust manifold, the intake manifold, valve cover and drive belts. On many engines, you will need to
remove the timing belt or timing chain. Be sure to study the timing belt/chain alignment procedures and
be sure you clearly see the alignment marks before you disassemble the timing components.
Catalog each part as it is removed. Either take pictures or write down each part to help you
remember where everything goes once you're done.

The gasket will be a thin piece of sealing material that can be seen once you remove the head.

Check the block to be sure no warping has occurred and send the head or heads to an
automotive machine shop to be pressure tested. If the pressure test reveals no cracks, have the
machine shop resurface the head(s). Don't ever re-install a cylinder head that has not been professionally
re-surfaced.
Check the service manual for the head bolt specifications to see if the bolts need to be replaced
whenever the head gasket is replaced.

Clean the surface of the head and block. Do not scratch or remove any metal from either, as this may
prevent the head gasket from sealing.

Clean the bolt holes that tighten the head to the block.

Fit the head gasket onto the block. Use gasket sealant when specified by the manufacturer, and only
use the directed amount in the particular places. Deviating from the manufacturer's recommendations
can cause damage to the internal parts of the engine.

Place the head onto the block with the head gasket in place.

Replace the other engine components you removed.

Set the timing belt or chain back to the proper alignment marks by carefully rotating the camshaft
and crankshaft. Check to see if the engine is an interference type of engine. If so, there is a very
specific method to rotate and set up the camshaft to crankshaft timing so you don't damage or bend the
valves! If equipped, install the distributor so it is properly timed with the number one cylinder. If
applicable, adjust the valve clearance to proper specification.

Fill the engine with new oil, replace the oil filter and fill the cooling system with new factory
specified coolant. When you start the engine, be sure to let the engine idle with the heater on full blast.
This is so the cooling system has a chance to bleed out any air bubbles. Some engines require a specific
cooling system bleeding procedure, be sure to check for that.
En los textos ledos anteriormente debemos descubrir
secuencias textuales de listado, clasificacin, causa/
consecuencia, secuenciacin o cronologa, definicin y
contraste, ejemplificacin. Puedes hacerlo? Si no encuentras
ejemplos, para insertar, explicar y traducir en la siguiente grfica
ahora, puedes continuar con los siguientes textos y resolver el
problema a travs de la informacin que ellos te brinden .
Recuerda que debes insertar la informacin
en castellano como hipervnculo que remita
a documento. Este ser copiado y enviado
como prctico a claplagne@unsj.edu.ar
Classes of levers

Levers are classified by the relative positions of the fulcrum and


the input and output forces. It is common to call the input
force the effort and the output force the load or the resistance.
This allows the identification of three classes of levers by the
relative locations of the fulcrum, the resistance and the effort:

Class 1: Fulcrum in the middle: the effort is applied on one


side of the fulcrum and the resistance on the other side, for
example, a crowbar or a pair of scissors.
Class 2: Resistance in the middle: the effort is applied on one
side of the resistance and the fulcrum is located on the other
side, for example, a wheelbarrow, a nutcracker, a bottle
opener or the brake pedal of a car. Mechanical advantage is
greater than 1.

Class 3: Effort in the middle: the resistance is on one side of


the effort and the fulcrum is located on the other side, for
example, a pair of tweezers or the human mandible.
Mechanical advantage is less than 1.

These cases are described by the mnemonic "fre 123" where the
fulcrum is in the middle for the 1st class lever, the resistance is in
the middle for the 2nd class lever, and the effort is in the middle
for the 3rd class lever. Another way to remember this is the
mnemomic for what is in the middle. First order, Fulcrum in the
middle; second order, Load (Resistance) in the middle; third order,
Effort in the middle. The mnemomic is Levers FLEx.

Law of the lever

The lever is a movable bar that pivots on a fulcrum attached to a


fixed point. The lever operates by applying forces at different
distances from the fulcrum, or a pivot.

Assuming the lever does not dissipate or store energy,


the power into the lever must equal the power out of the lever. As
the lever rotates around the fulcrum, points farther from this pivot
move faster than points closer to the pivot. Therefore a force
applied to a point farther from the pivot must be less than the
force located at a point closer in, because power is the product of
force and velocity. If a and b are distances from the fulcrum to
points A and B and let the force FA applied to A is the input and the
force FB applied at B is the output, the ratio of the velocities of
points A and B is given by a/b, so we have the ratio of the output
force to the input force, or mechanical advantage, is given by

This is the law of the lever, which was proven


by Archimedes using geometric reasoning. It shows that if the
distance a from the fulcrum to where the input force is applied
(point A) is greater than the distance b from fulcrum to where
the output force is applied (pointB), then the lever amplifies
the input force. On the other hand, if the distance a from the
fulcrum to the input force is less than the distance b from the
fulcrum to the output force, then the lever reduces the input
force.

The use of velocity in the static analysis of a lever is an


application of the principle of virtual work.
CURSO B- LEARNING INGLS II

PARTE B

OBJETIVO FINAL: integrar la organizacin, secuencias y tipologas


textuales para leer comprensivamente textos relativos a Ingeniera
Mecnica segn la tipologa propuesta por la Lingstica del Texto.

Desarrollo de Contenidos: Recordemos los tipos de textos fcticos.

Cules han sido analizados?

En esta entrega se analizarn los cuatro restantes.


Textos fcticos Formatos
Relato Biografias, historias, cronologas
Explicacin Diagramas, esquemas, otros
Exposicin Debates, editoriales, documentales
Discusin Pginas web, blogs, foros,
documentales

Veamos un ejemplo de cada uno de ellos, comprendiendo sus caractersticas:

Relato

Singer Motors Limited was a British motor vehicle manufacturer, founded by George
Singer in 1874 as a bicycle manufacturer in Coventry, England. From 1901 the company also manufactured cars.

Singer was the first motor manufacturer to make a small economy car that was a replica of a large car, showing a
small car was a practical proposition. With a four-cylinder ten horsepower engine the Singer 10 (see picture below)
was launched at the 1912 Motor Show. William Rootes, Singer apprentice and consummate car-salesman,
contracted to sell the entire first year's supply. It became a best-seller. Ultimately Singer's business was acquired by
Rootes Group in 1956, which continued the brand until 1970.

Este tipo de texto cuenta hechos del pasado en la cronologa apropiada.


Se establece la escena, se secuencian los hechos y suele incorporarse
algn comentario a ttulo personal. El lenguaje tiende a captar el inters
del lector. Se redacta en 3 persona, en pasado y aparecen los
conectores de tiempo permitiendo que el texto fluya a travs del tiempo
y de la historia.

Veamos en el siguiente ejemplo:


a. si comprendemos la biografa
b. si encontramos los elementos de su tipologa
c. si podemos resumir sus ideas principales

Quin fue Nikola Tesla?


Nicola Tesla (10 July 1856 7 January 1943) was a Serbian American inventor, electrical
engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the
modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical engineering before immigrating to the United
States in 1884 to work for Thomas Edison in
New York City. He soon struck out on his own
with financial backers, setting up laboratories
and companies to develop a range of electrical
devices. His patented AC induction
motor and transformer were licensed
by George Westinghouse, who also hired Tesla
for a short time as a consultant. His work in
the formative years of electric power
development was also involved in the
corporate struggle between making
alternating current or direct current the
power transmission standard, referred to
as the war of currents.
Tesla went on to pursue his ideas of wireless
lighting and electricity distribution in his high-
voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York and Colorado Springs and made early
(1893) pronouncements on the possibility of wireless communication with his devices. He tried to
put these ideas to practical use in his ill-fated attempt at intercontinental wireless transmission; his
unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project. In his lab, he also conducted a range of experiments with
mechanical oscillator/generators, electrical discharge tubes, and early X-ray imaging. He even built
a wireless controlled boat which may have been the first such device ever exhibited.
Tesla was renowned for his achievements and showmanship, eventually earning him a reputation in
popular culture as an archetypal "mad scientist. His patents earned him a considerable amount of
money, much of which was used to finance his own projects with varying degrees of success. He
lived most of his life in a series of New York hotels, through his retirement. He died on 7 January
1943. Tesla's work fell into relative obscurity after his death, but in 1960 the General Conference on
Weights and Measures named the SI unit of magnetic field strength the tesla in his honor. Tesla has
experienced a new interest in popular culture since the 1990s.

Explicacin

There's some detailed information including a video


demonstrating the effect of arc length on the learning
arc welding page. Beginners will commonly have too
long an arc length and too great a lead angle. Note
that an excessive rod lead angle will also increase the
arc length.
Arc Length Too Short
This weld was laid with the end of the rod covered by
the molten slag. The surface of the weld is uneven
where it has been dragged along by the rod, and the
weld will be low on power and contain slag inclusions.
Arc Length OK
A normal arc weld. The weld has a consistent profile
and minimal spatter.
Arc Length Too Long
Too great a distance between the rod and the work
will increase the voltage resulting in a flat and wide
weld with a great deal of spatter. It also makes the
arc unstable, and the slag will be difficult to remove
from the edges of the weld. Sectioning this weld
reveals undercutting to the left side.

Arc welding is a constant current process, but the arc


length has an effect on voltage. Reducing the arc
length will decrease the voltage, and this reduces the
heat in the weld. Increasing arc length will increase the
voltage. Arc length faults can share many similarities
with the current faults later on this page.

La explicacin es un texto que describe procesos mediante una


oracin de apertura que establece el tema y la posicin del
autor. La introduccin comienza con informacin conocida y
mediante una serie de prrafos secuenciados permite alcanzar
alguna conclusin.

El lenguaje evita el uso de 1 persona, se habla a participantes


generales, se usa tiempo presente, voz pasiva, terminologa
tcnica y conectores oracionales para entregar informacin
detallada.

Exposicin
DC
motors deliver high performance and efficiency
for electric motorcycles

Dc motors are increasing in popularity due to their performance advantages over


ac motors for applications ranging from high-speed automation to electric
motorbikes. Jon Severn reports on a selection of recent developments in dc
motors and drives.
Three-phase ac induction motors are the most common type of motor used in
industrial application, due largely to their simple design, low purchase cost,
reliability and broad choice of sizes and specifications. However, for applications
where speed needs to be varied or torque needs to be controlled with high
accuracy, brushed dc motors are popular. Where even higher performance and/or
reliability are required, brushless dc motors overcome the drawbacks often
associated with brushless dc motors.

As well as industrial applications, brushed and brushless dc motors are also


employed in smaller machines and equipment where speed control is critical -
such as computer hard disk drives - or in battery-powered, automotive and other
applications where a dc supply is readily available. It should also be remembered
that brushless dc motors are non-sparking and therefore do not generate ozone,
which makes them suitable for use in medical applications.

Compared with brushed dc motors, brushless types have the further advantage of
producing less electrical noise.

Today there are several factors behind an increasing demand for dc motors. For
example, cars are being offered with more powered devices, plus designers are
seeking to improve the performance of the equipment they design, which often
entails upgrading from an ac motor to a dc motor. In particular, coreless (ironless)
dc motors have low inertia so are useful where high accelerations are required.

Alternative energy sources

Another important point is that there is a growing interest in alternative energy


sources, which often results in a high-efficiency dc motor being used for the final
drive. For example, the prototype ENV motorbike (Fig.1) from Intelligent Energy
features a fuel cell that generates electrical energy from hydrogen and oxygen.
To make best use of the limited supply of electrical energy, the bike is equipped
with a high-efficiency Lynch axial-gap dc motor. This type of low-voltage, high-
torque, permanent-magnet dc motor has the added advantage of a high power
density. Lynch motors are today manufactured in the UK by the Lynch Motor
Company in three frame sizes and with numerous options.

Alternatively two motors can be coupled together to drive a single output shaft,
thereby increasing the power available.

To illustrate the motors' capability, the LEM 130 model 95s has a rated power of
3.02 kW, rated torque of 4.35 Nm and rated speed of 6624 rpm. Peak efficiency
is 87 per cent. For more demanding applications, the LEM 200 model D135 has
a rated power of 14.39 kW, rated torque of 36.4 Nm and rated speed of 3780
rpm. Peak efficiency for this model is 90 per cent.
La exposicin se caracteriza por el objetivo de disuadir
o persudir al lector en favor de algn tema. Tiene una
presentacin, una idea en cada prrafo, una sentencia
asegurando una verdad/idea en cada uno. Los
argumentos se dan en orden progresivo mediante la
secuencia de ideas y al finalizar se concluye con la
misma idea del comienzo sin informacin nueva. El
lenguaje se caracteriza por el uso de verbos modales,
adverbios de certeza o modo y frases conectoras de
refuerzo a la idea central que se expone.

Discusin

AC and DC Motor Drives: Is One the Clear


Choice?
By Mark Lewis on September 9, 2013 in blog, news, Uncategorized
When engineers are looking to buy a motor, the question most often
asked: Is AC or DC technology better? The answer isnt that one is
better than the other. Rather it is application and cost dependent. Here
we will discuss the options and specifically the advantages and
disadvantages of each. Furthermore, it is often a matter of personal
preference, and as such we encourage you to let us know your thoughts
on the subject.

What They Are


Both AC and DC drives, simply put, control the speed and direction an
electric motor. Both technologies have been around for over 100 years.
AC drives, also known as adjustable speed drives or variable frequency
drives (VFDs) control motor speed by changing the frequency of the
electrical supply to the motor. With DC drives, the motor turns at a
speed directly proportional to the voltage applied to the armature.

Advantages and Disadvantages of AC Drives


Advantages provided by AC drives include: Reduced power line
disturbances, lower power demand on start, controlled acceleration,
controlled starting current, adjustable operation speed, and adjustable
torque. While the installed base and market for AC motors and drives is
larger than DC, it is difficult to find an AC solution with a horsepower
rating under 1/2. The current trend for VFD development is to add more
(programmable) features and even programmable logic controller (PLC)
functionality, making them complicated to commission and operate.
These features, while attractive to the experienced user, may place
additional pressure on the technical ability of maintenance and
operations personnel.

Advantages and Disadvantages of DC Drives


Advantages of DC drives include: High starting torque, easy installation,
speed control over a wide range (both above and below the rated
speed), quick starting, stopping, reversing, and acceleration, linear
speed-torque curve and accurate step-less speed with constant torque.
DC motors are readily available and in fact dominate the fractional and
sub-fractional horsepower installed base and new purchase market.
There is growing demand for 12 and 24V motors to support applications
in solar and portable (truck mounted) equipment which DC technology
readily supports. However, DC technology does not lend itself to
hazardous or explosive applications. With DC technology the initial
investment (motor and drive cost) is less than AC in general for
applications under 1 horsepower; above one horsepower the higher
maintenance cost of DC technology (motor brush wear) must be
considered but may be offset by the additional personnel skill
requirements previously mentioned.

In the end, there is a market for both AC and DC, and there are clearly
advantages and disadvantages to both. What do you think? What is your
motor drive preference?

La discusin se caracteriza por el objetivo de interesar


al lector en algn tema. Explora junto con el lector
varias perspectivas. Tiene una presentacin, una idea
en cada prrafo, donde se observa que no hay puntos
de vista ni posiciones a favor o en contra. Los
argumentos se dan en orden progresivo mediante la
secuencia de ideas, evidencias, ejemplos o pruebas. y
al finalizar se concluye con la posicin asumida
pudiendo encontrarse nueva informacin. El lenguaje
se caracteriza por la distancia y objetividad con que
expone el tema. Se emplea preguntas, expresiones de
opinin, vocablos para expresar de certeza.

Puedes darte cuenta de cules son los elementos que se deben tener en cuenta
para la categorizacin de un texto, segn este enfoque?
Brevemente diremos que son su propsito social, sus caractersticas lxico
gramaticales y su estructura esquemtica, como lo pudiste observar en los ejemplos
anteriores.

Si la Gramtica Funcional enlaza los patrones del lenguaje con las cosas que se
pueden lograr mediante su uso, debemos observar para qu, cmo y con qu
elementos un texto logra ser lo que es; o sea a que tipo pertenece. Dicho de otro
modo, si el lenguaje representa la experiencia humana, la gramtica del lenguaje
mostrara tres categoras generales para dicha representacin. Las categoras aludidas
son participantes (grupos nominales), procesos (verbos) y circunstancias (adverbios o
adverbiales).

Esquema de categoras

Los diferentes tipos textuales -cada uno con sus diferentes elementos gramaticales y
de significado- hacen uso de estas categoras de modos distintos, puesto que todos
emplean la experiencia humana y sus acciones.

Encontr en los ejemplos los elementos que lo caracterizan? Veamos si podemos


realizarlo juntos.

Primero observaremos el propsito social

Informe-Gnero fctico

Propsito: presenta informacin sobre el circuito elctrico.

Procedimiento- Gnero fctico

Propsito: da instrucciones para realizar el experimento.


Relato- Gnero histrico

Propsito: cuenta la historia de los investigadores respetando cronologa de


los hechos.

Explicacin- Gnero fctico

Propsito: Describe el proceso correcto para la fundicin de arco.

Exposicin- Gnero fctico

Propsito: explica cmo surgen las ventajas de los motores DC

Discusin- Gnero fctico

Propsito: presenta argumentos en contra y a favor de los motores DC y AC,


mostrando al lector elementos de juicio que debe tener en cuenta.

Del mismo modo, realice el anlisis de la estructura esquemtica y el estudio


de los rasgos lxico -gramaticales. Finalice con los resmenes en espaol de
los textos y enve a su profesor.

My WISH BEFORE WE FINISH THIS YEAR!!!!!!

Ejercicio integrador:

A. Prediccin: usando el conocimiento previo que usted posee sobre mquina


simples, conteste las siguientes preguntas:

a-Qu debera tratar un texto que habla de ellas?


b-Cules son las denominaciones y las diferencias de este tipo de mquinas?

c-Sabe usted si hay diferencias entre este tipo y las compuestas? Cules son
las diferencias de su tipo?

d- Ahora puede leer el texto y contestar Las respuestas a las tres preguntas
anteriores se encuentran en el texto? Si es as, indique las lneas en que se
encuentran dichas respuestas.

B. Texto: despus de haber ledo el texto una vez (skimming), lalo


nuevamente (scanning) para establecer: Ideas Principales y Secundarias.

C. Frase Nominal- Analice estructuralmente y traduzca 5 frases nominales con


diferentes pre y pos modificadores.

D. Encuentre ejemplos de adjetivos/adverbios; encuentre otros ejemplos en


grado comparativo. Escriba el equivalente en castellano para cada caso.

E. Referencia contextual: Con qu palabras estn ligadas las siguientes?

Pronombres relativos:

Conectores:

Adjetivosa demostrativos:

F. Frase Verbal. Encuentre ejemplos de frase verbales. Indique si se


encuentran en Voz Activa o Pasiva. Traduzca al Espaol:

* Presente simple

* Futuro simple

* Presente Perfecto

* Modals (verbos defectivos)

* Frases compuestas con verbos en modo infinitivo

G. Responda (con amplios detalles) las siguientes preguntas (en Castellano):

1 What is a simple machine?

2 What differences can be found between an ordinary machine and a


compound one?

3 Which are the advantages and uses (applications) of each one?

4 How can compound machines improve performance?

5. How is force increased or adjusted?


6 What parts can you mention en each one?

H. Traduzca desde la lnea 6 hasta la 11, indicando 2 cognados y sealando


afijos en 3 palabras a su eleccin.

I. Indique la presencia de 3 conectores especificando su funcin dentro del


texto.

J. Indique tipologa textual, marcando las secuencias textuales por clasificacin


semntica.

K. Elabore un esquema de contenidos o un diagrama con la informacin


extrada de texto.

L. Elabore el resumen en espaol dando cuenta de lo ledo, retome sus ideas


del punto II, despus de haber analizado los detalles ms pequeos del texto.

M. Finalmente elabore preguntas de contenido al texto que deban ser


respondidas accediendo a la bibliografa recomendada.

Simple machine

Simple machines provide a vocabulary for understanding more complex


machines. A simple machine is a non-powered mechanical device that changes
the direction or magnitude of a force. In general, they can be defined as the
simplest mechanisms that use mechanical advantage (also called leverage) to
multiply force. Usually the term refers to the six classical simple machines
which were defined by Renaissance scientists:

Lever, Wheel and axle, Pulley, Inclined plane, Wedge AND Screw

A simple machine uses a single applied force to do work against a single load
force. Ignoring friction losses, the work done on the load is equal to the work
done by the applied force. The machine can increase the amount of the output
force, at the cost of a proportional decrease in the distance moved by the load.
The ratio of the output to the applied force is called the mechanical advantage.

Simple machines can be regarded as the elementary "building blocks" of which


all more complicated machines (sometimes called "compound machines) are
composed. For example, wheels, levers, and pulleys are all used in the
mechanism of a bicycle. The mechanical advantage of a compound machine is
just the product of the mechanical advantages of the simple machines of which
it is composed.

Although they continue to be of great importance in mechanics and applied


science, modern mechanics has moved beyond the view of the simple
machines as the ultimate building blocks of which all machines are composed,
which arose in the Renaissance as a neoclassical amplification of ancient Greek
texts on technology. The great variety and sophistication of modern machine
linkages, which arose during the Industrial Revolution, is inadequately
described by these six simple categories. As a result, various post-Renaissance
authors have compiled expanded lists of "simple machines", often using terms
like basic machines, compound machines, or machine elements to distinguish
them from the classical simple machines above. By the late 1800s, Franz
Reuleaux had identified hundreds of machine elements, calling them simple
machines. Models of these devices may be found at Cornell University's
KMODDL website.

History

The idea of a simple machine originated with the Greek philosopher


Archimedes around the 3rd century BC, who studied the Archimedean simple
machines: lever, pulley, and screw. He discovered the principle of mechanical
advantage in the lever. Later Greek philosophers defined the classic five simple
machines (excluding the inclined plane) and were able to roughly calculate
their mechanical advantage. Heron of Alexandria (ca. 1075 AD) in his work
Mechanics lists five mechanisms that can "set a load in motion"; lever,
windlass, pulley, wedge, and screw, and describes their fabrication and uses.
However the Greeks' understanding was limited to the statics of simple
machines; the balance of forces, and did not include dynamics; the tradeoff
between force and distance, or the concept of work.

During the Renaissance the dynamics of the Mechanical Powers, as the simple
machines were called, began to be studied from the standpoint of how far they
could lift a load, in addition to the force they could apply, leading eventually to
the new concept of mechanical work. In 1586 Flemish engineer Simon Stevin
derived the mechanical advantage of the inclined plane, and it was included
with the other simple machines. The complete dynamic theory of simple
machines was worked out by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in 1600 in Le
Meccaniche (On Mechanics), in which he showed the underlying mathematical
similarity of the machines. He was the first to understand that simple machines
do not create energy, only transform it.

The classic rules of sliding friction in machines were discovered by Leonardo da


Vinci (14521519), but remained unpublished in his notebooks. They were
rediscovered by Guillaume Amontons (1699) and were further developed by
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (1785).
Frictionless analysis

Although each machine works differently mechanically, the way they function is
similar mathematically. In each machine, a force F, is applied to the device at
one point, and it does work moving a load, F, at another point. Although some
machines only change the direction of the force, such as a stationary pulley,
most machines multiply (or divide) the magnitude of the force by a factor, the
mechanical advantage that can be calculated from the machine's geometry
and friction.

Simple machines do not contain a source of energy, so they cannot do more


work than they receive from the input force. A simple machine with no friction
or elasticity is called an ideal machine. Due to conservation of energy, in an
ideal simple machine, the power output (rate of energy output) at any time P,
is equal to the power input P.

The power output equals the velocity of the load v, multiplied by the load force
P. Similarly the power input from the applied force is equal to the velocity of the
input point v, multiplied by the applied force P. Therefore the mechanical
advantage of a frictionless machine is equal to the velocity ratio, the ratio of
input velocity to output velocity.

The velocity ratio of the machine is also equal to the ratio of the distance the
output point moves to the corresponding distance the input point moves. This
can be calculated from the geometry of the machine. For example, the velocity
ratio of the lever is equal to the ratio of its lever arms.

In the screw, which uses rotational motion, the input force should be replaced
by the torque, and the velocity by the angular velocity the shaft is turned.
Energy losses and efficiency

All real machines have friction, which causes some of the input power to be
dissipated as heat. If P is the power lost to friction, from conservation of
energy

The efficiency \eta \, of a machine is a number between 0 and 1 defined as the


ratio of power out to the power in, and is a measure of the energy losses. As
above, the power is equal to the product of force and velocity, so in non-ideal
machines, the mechanical advantage is always less than the velocity ratio by
the product with the efficiency . So a machine that includes friction will not be
able to move as large a load as a corresponding ideal machine using the same
input force.

Compound machines

A compound machine is a machine formed from a set of simple machines


connected in series with the output force of one providing the input force to the
next. For example a bench vise consists of a lever (the vise's handle) in series
with a screw, and a simple gear train consists of a number of gears (wheels and
axles) connected in series.

The mechanical advantage of a compound machine is the ratio of the output


force exerted by the last machine in the series divided by the input force
applied to the first machine.

Because the output force of each machine is the input of the next. Thus, the
mechanical advantage of the compound machine is equal to the product of the
mechanical advantages of the series of simple machines that form it. Similarly,
the efficiency of a compound machine is also the product of the efficiencies of
the series of simple machines that form it.
Self-locking machines

The screw's self-locking property is the reason for its wide use in threaded
fasteners like bolts and wood screws. In many simple machines, if the load
force F out on the machine is high enough in relation to the input force Fin, the
machine will move backwards, with the load force doing work on the input
force. So these machines can be used in either direction, with the driving force
applied to either input point. For example, if the load force on a lever is high
enough, the lever will move backwards, moving the input arm backwards
against the input force. These are called "reversible", "non-locking" or
"overhauling" machines, and the backward motion is called "overhauling".
However in some machines, if the frictional forces are high enough, no amount
of load force can move it backwards, even if the input force is zero. This is
called a "self-locking", "nonreversible", or "non-overhauling" machine. These
machines can only be set in motion by a force at the input, and when the input
force is removed will remain motionless, "locked" by friction at whatever
position they were left. Self-locking occurs mainly in the screw, inclined plane,
and wedge. The most common example is a screw. In most screws, applying
torque to the shaft can cause it to turn, moving the shaft linearly to do work
against a load, but no amount of axial load force against the shaft will cause it
to turn backwards.

In an inclined plane, a load can be pulled up the plane by a sideways input


force, but if the plane is not too steep and there is enough friction between
load and plane, when the input force is removed the load will remain
motionless and will not slide down the plane, regardless of its weight.

A wedge can be driven into a block of wood by force on the end, such as from
hitting it with a sledge hammer, forcing the sides apart, but no amount of
compression force from the wood walls will cause it to pop back out of the
block. A machine will be self-locking if and only if its efficiency is below 50%.
Whether a machine is self-locking depends on both the friction forces
(coefficient of static friction) between its parts, and the distance ratio din/dout
(ideal mechanical advantage). If both the friction and ideal mechanical
advantage are high enough, it will self-lock.

Kinematic chains

Simple machines are elementary examples of kinematic chains that are used to
model mechanical systems ranging from the steam engine to robot
manipulators. The bearings that form the fulcrum of a lever and that allow the
wheel and axle and pulleys to rotate are examples of a kinematic pair called a
hinged joint. Similarly, the flat surface of an inclined plane and wedge are
examples of the kinematic pair called a sliding joint. The screw is usually
identified as its own kinematic pair called a helical joint. Two levers, or cranks,
are combined into a planar four-bar linkage by attaching a link that connects
the output of one crank to the input of another. Additional links can be attached
to form a six-bar linkage or in series to form a robot.

Classification of machines

The identification of simple machines arises from a desire for a systematic


method to invent new machines. Therefore, an important concern is how
simple machines are combined to make more complex machines. One
approach is to attach simple machines in series to obtain compound machines.

However, a more successful strategy was identified by Franz Reuleaux, who


collected and studied over 800 elementary machines. He realized that a lever,
pulley, and wheel and axle are in essence the same device: a body rotating
about a hinge. Similarly, an inclined plane, wedge, and screw are a block

sliding on a flat surface.

This realization shows that it is the joints, or the connections that provide
movement, that are the primary elements of a machine. Starting with four
types of joints, the revolute joint, sliding joint, cam joint and gear joint, and
related connections such as cables and belts, it is possible to understand a
machine as an assembly of solid parts that connect these joints.

References

Chambers, Ephraim (1728), "Table of Mechanicks", Cyclopdia, A Useful


Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (London, England), Volume 2: 528, Plate 11.

Paul, Akshoy; Roy, Pijush; Mukherjee, Sanchayan (2005), Mechanical sciences:


engineering mechanics and strength of materials, Prentice Hall of India, p. 215,
ISBN 81-203-2611-3.

Asimov, Isaac (1988), Understanding Physics, New York, New York, USA: Barnes
& Noble, p. 88, ISBN 0-88029-251-2.

Anderson, William Ballantyne (1914). Physics for Technical Students: Mechanics


and Heat. New York, USA: McGraw Hill. pp. 112122. Retrieved 2008-05-11.

Compound machines, University of Virginia Physics Department, retrieved


2010-06-11.

Usher, Abbott Payson (1988). A History of Mechanical Inventions. USA: Courier


Dover Publications. p. 98. ISBN 0-486-25593-X.

"Compound Machines". University of Virginia Physics Department. Retrieved 11


June 2010.

Wallenstein, Andrew (June 2002). "Foundations of cognitive support: Toward


abstract patterns of usefulness". Proceedings of the 9th Annual Workshop on
the Design, Specification, and Verification of Interactive Systems. Springer. p.
136. Retrieved 2008-05-21.

Prater, Edward L. (1994), Basic machines, U.S. Navy Naval Education and
Training Professional Development and Technology Center, NAVEDTRA 14037.

U.S. Navy Bureau of Naval Personnel (1971), Basic machines and how they
work, Dover Publications.

Reuleaux, F. (1963) [1876], The kinematics of machinery (translated and


annotated by A.B.W. Kennedy), New York, New York, USA: reprinted by Dover.

Cornell University, Reuleaux Collection of Mechanisms and Machines at Cornell


University, Cornell University.

Chiu, Y. C. (2010), An introduction to the History of Project Management, Delft:


Eburon Academic Publishers, p. 42, ISBN 90-5972-437-2

Ostdiek, Vern; Bord, Donald (2005). Inquiry into Physics. Thompson


Brooks/Cole. p. 123. ISBN 0-534-49168-5. Retrieved 2008-05-22.

Strizhak, Viktor; Igor Penkov; Toivo Pappel (2004). "Evolution of design, use,
and strength calculations of screw threads and threaded joints". HMM2004
International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms. Kluwer
Academic publishers. p. 245. ISBN 1-4020-2203-4. Retrieved 2008-05-21.

Krebs, Robert E. (2004). Groundbreaking Experiments, Inventions, and


Discoveries of the Middle Ages. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 163. ISBN 0-
313-32433-6. Retrieved 2008-05-21.

Stephen, Donald; Lowell Cardwell (2001). Wheels, clocks, and rockets: a history
of technology. USA: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 8587. ISBN 0-393-32175-4.
Armstrong-Hlouvry, Brian (1991). Control of machines with friction. USA:
Springer. p. 10. ISBN 0-7923-9133-0.

Bhatnagar, V. P. (1996). A Complete Course in Certificate Physics. India:


Pitambar Publishing. pp. 2830. ISBN 8120908686.

Simmons, Ron; Cindy Barden (2008). Discover! Work & Machines. USA: Milliken
Publishing. p. 29. ISBN 1429109475.

Gujral, I.S. (2005). Engineering Mechanics. Firewall Media. pp. 378380. ISBN
8170086361.

Uicker, Jr., John J.; Pennock, Gordon R.; Shigley, Joseph E. (2003), Theory of
Machines and Mechanisms (third ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN
978-0-19-515598-3

Paul, Burton (1979), Kinematics and Dynamics of Planar Machinery, Prentice


Hall, ISBN 978-0-13-516062-6

Gujral, I.S. (2005). Engineering Mechanics. Firewall Media. p. 382. ISBN 81-
7008-636-1.

Rao, S.; R. Durgaiah (2005). Engineering Mechanics. Universities Press. p. 82.


ISBN 81-7371-543-2.

Goyal, M. C.; G. S. Raghuvanshi (2009). Engineering Mechanics. New Delhi: PHI


Learning Private Ltd. p. 202. ISBN 81-203-3789-1.

Hartenberg, R.S. & J. Denavit (1964) Kinematic synthesis of linkages, New York:
McGraw-Hill, online link from Cornell University.

Enviar a claplagne@unsj.edu.ar
CURSO B- LEARNING INGLS II

OBJETIVO FINAL: integrar los contenidos para leer comprensivamente textos


relativos a Ingeniera Mecnica

Objetivos especficos de la Unidad:

Emplear adecuadamente estrategias, tcnicas y conocimientos


especficos para abordar los textos.

Clasificar ideas y prrafos.

Entender y predecir el contexto y el propsito textual.

Reconocer algunos elementos gramaticales para abordar textos en su


comprensin y traduccin.

Demostrar comprensin lectora de los distintos textos elegidos en esta


unidad mediante diversas tcnicas.

Utilizar apropiadamente la transferencia de informacin en la realizacin


de tareas y resolucin de problemas de lectura.

Contenidos:
Anlisis de macro estructura en Clasificaciones por tipologa. Anlisis de Micro y
Macro estructura del texto: formulacin de hiptesis de trabajo y resolucin de
problemas cognitivos. Estrategias para la interpretacin y la transferencia de
informacin en esquemas, tablas, grficas, resmenes y sinopsis o esquemas
de contenido.

INVESTIGANDO Y ESQUEMATIZANDO INFORMACIN

Al elaborar un trabajo de investigacin bibliogrfica es necesario definir


e identificar la informacin obtenida, saber de qu se trata, cuales son
los componentes de dicha informacin, para poder as comprenderla
mejor y tener un panorama ms amplio que permita emplear para tus
propsitos especficos. Interpretar nos permite clasificar, sintetizar y
transferir los datos que nos proporciona la bibliografa. Podemos
alcanzar a comprehender su esencia. Al hacerlo podemos fundamentar
nuestras respuestas y darle validez a la bsqueda. El anlisis y
clasificacin de los textos nos otorgan el sustento para acceder a la
realizacin de una crtica, alcanzar un punto de vista determinado, o
para demostrar cmo la informacin nos ha afectado al permitirnos
ampliar nuestros conocimientos y nuestra visin interior o del mundo.
Inclusive, a veces nos permitirn predecir hechos o fenmenos y
podremos establecer conclusiones.

TABLAS
Como mtodos de tabulacin de la informacin, destacamos la
importancia de las tablas fundamentalmente, por ser necesarias en la
graficacin de informacin.
Existen diferentes tipos de tablas que permitirn visualizar grficamente
al texto. Sus componentes son variables y dependern de la tipologa del
texto que se grafica. Frecuencias y valores o caractersticas en relacin
al total de la informacin proporcionada por el texto suelen ser las
columnas que guan su diseo.

GRFICOS
Los grficos se usan para representar series de informacin siendo sus
ejes las frecuencias y las escalas. Los diferentes tipos son:
Grfico de barras simples: Se usa fundamentalmente en la
representacin de series cronolgicas o histricas.
Grfico circular, o pastel: Se usa fundamentalmente para
representar distribuciones de frecuencias relativas que plantea la
informacin
Histograma: Usado en medicina, tiene poca importancia en
nuestra especialidad, representa la distribucin de variables
provista por el texto.
Polgono de frecuencias: Se usa para representar distribuciones de
frecuencias de variables cuantitativas continuas. Su nombre deriva
del uso de segmentos rectos puesto que no emplea barras.
Grfico aritmtico simple: Representa series cronolgicas,
consecutivas con valores oscilantes.

Si deseas saber ms recurre al siguiente hipervnculo. En este sitio


encontrars diseos de grficos.

http://www.monografias.com/trabajos82/elaboracion-y-aplicacion-graficas-analisis-
estadisticos/elaboracion-y-aplicacion-graficas-analisis-estadisticos2.shtml#ixzz3C7dDCKb3

Resumen y esquema: herramientas bsicas para estudiar

Resumen y esquema son dos tcnicas de estudio que permiten sintetizar


la informacin del contenido objeto de aprendizaje. Veamos qu se
refieren cada uno.

El resumen consiste en recoger en forma abreviada, con lenguaje propio,


con redaccin simple y coherente las ideas principales del texto a fin de
mantener lo fundamental y la esencia del contenido. Los conceptos
vertido en el texto deben estar presentes de forma sinttica.

El esquema tambin recoge las ideas principales pero no hay redaccin


sino presentacin grfica mediante estructuras jerrquicas y lgicas que
permiten encontrar y establecer las relaciones intertextuales y las
conexiones entre las diferentes partes y contenidos semnticos del
texto. Los esquemas ms comunes emplean rectngulos y flechas que
demuestran las relaciones textuales. Tambin hay esquemas de rbol
(en el cual, la idea central es la raz y sus ramificaciones las de segundo
orden je0rrquico) y radiales (en el que el centro es el eje del contenido
y con nmeros o desprendimientos se adjuntan las ideas principales).

NOTA: LA COMPRENSIN GLOBAL Y DETALLADA PRECEDEN A LA


ELABORACIN DE ESTAS SNTESIS INFORMATIVAS.

TIPS EN LA ELABORACIN DE RESMENES Y GRFICOS

Lectura previa completa: antes de iniciar la elaboracin de


resumen o grfico, es preciso que se realice una lectura comprensiva
completa del texto. No se debe redactar el resumen i armar el
grfico/esquema a medida que se lee. Se limitaran las ideas y
conceptos fundamentales. Emplee la tcnica del subrayado durante
la primera lectura del texto para sealar las ideas principales y
secundarias. Relea y destaque con marcadores o colores.

Use su propio lenguaje. Resumir o graficar no es acortar frases del


texto. Se deben eliminar las ideas secundarias pero reteniendo los
contenidos, por ello es necesario que use sus propias palabras. Es
muy til realizar ejercicios de reflexin mediante un cuestionamiento
al texto, esto facilita la retencin de conceptos y la asociacin
semntico- cognitiva.
Obtenga pistas de conceptos claves: encuentre las ideas
principales del texto mediante las anotaciones previas que haya
realizado o bien mediante la similitud con otros textos que abordaron
tales conceptos. Los conceptos fundamentales sern la base para
elaborar el esquema.

Destaque los temas de prrafos de los subtemas: sealar de


forma esquematizada los principales temas y subtemas con
resaltadores, nmeros, flechas, otros marcadores que permitan
abordar resumen y esquema a la vez, se obtendrn as las relaciones
entre conceptos.

Generalice u globalice la informacin: para hacer un buen


resumen, emplee su habilidad para generalizar conceptos y globalizar
sentidos. Redacte la informacin en menos palabras, pero mantenga
los contenidos significativos.
Compruebe la estructura y orden: de una sola mirada debe
visualizar el orden del texto y su correlato con el esquema. Mientras
ms claro y simple, mejor. Es esencial jerarquizar la informacin y
mencionar o graficar los elementos principales y desglosar los
secundarios, siempre que sirvan de soporte a las ideas generales.

Elija palabras claves: que deben concentrar lo esencial del tema.


Elegirlas le permitir confirmar su presencia en esquemas y
resmenes si estuvieron bien elaborados.

NOTA: COMO PUDO COMPRENDER, RESMENES Y ESQUEMAS


TRANSFIEREN INFORMACIN. JAMS EMPLEAN COMO
ESTRATEGIA RECORTAR Y PEGAR. SON CREACIONES
INDIVIDUALES.
TRABAJOS DE INVESTIGACIN

Para el proceso deber seguir los siguientes pasos

Alfabetizacin Digital y Acadmica


(mediante la investigacin bibliogrfica)

Este ejercicio de integracin final es un proceso que


consiste en el acceso, evaluacin, organizacin y uso
eficiente de la informacin.

Estructura del proyecto


(mediante los siguientes pasos):

DEFINA su tema.

Determine palabras claves.

Torbellino de ideas. Relacione conocimientos


previos
Cuestione al texto. Redacte las preguntas que
desea responder.

LOCALICE informacin

determine las fuentes posibles.

liste los trminos de bsqueda.

identifique fuentes de respuestas


apropiadas.

SELECCIONE informacin

seleccione los recursos.

realice skimming y scanning.

seleccione el texto que contenga respuestas a


sus cuestionamientos con informacin
relevante, confiable y actualizada.

ORGANICE la informacin

organice notas y subttulos-

determine informacin ms importante.

controle sus respuestas.

antelas referencias y bibliografa.

PRESENTE su informacin

defina formato de presentacin.

chequee su bibliografa en orden alfabtico.

elabore resumen y esquema o tabla/grfico de


presentacin.

EVALUE su trabajo
controle texto tesis y respuestas en
conclusiones.

reflexione sobre habilidades desarrolladas.

reflexione sobre logros y debilidades.

EN ESTAS PAGINAS ENCONTRARA UN CATALOGO DE LA EMPRESA MADE-IN-CHINA.COM-

DEBE INGRESAR AL SITIO, CONSEGUIR INFORMACIN DEL PRODUCTO Y EXPLICAR A SUS


COMPAEROS EN EL GRUPO DE FACEBOOK LO COMPRENDIDO SOBRE EL FUNCIONAMIENTO Y
PARTES DE ALGUNOS PRODUCTOS QUE USTED SELECCIONE. RECURRA AL MANUAL INSTRUCTIVO.

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Min. Order: 1 Piece
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF, DDP, DAP, EXW

YY series motor is designed and manufactured according to the national standard. It

has the characteristics of good operation. Low noise...The motor is widely used in

pump and machinery with light-load


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Wenzhou N. & A. Foreign Trade Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]

Aluminum Three Phase Motor (MS


series)
[Aug 14, 2014]
Min. Order: 50 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF

MS series motor which adopting the latest design and high quality material. ...The

seriesmotor are fit for the common sites and concise machines that has no special

requirements including,... etc. ...

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Sinopace Industry Corporation


[Province:Jiangsu, China]

Three-Phase Asychronous Motor


[Aug 08, 2014]
Unit Price: US $100.0/ Piece
Min. Order: 1 Piece
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF

From original manufacturers. Grade A quality only. Various models available.

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Fuan Antelope Motor Co., Ltd.

[Province:Fujian, China]

Three Phase Aluminium


Housing Motor (MS)
[Aug 14, 2014]
Min. Order: 1 Piece
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF
MS series three phase asynchronous motor with aluminum housing, which adopting

the newest design and high quality material,... the efficiency of the motors meets

EFF2. And EFF1if request,... light weight etc/ ...

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Tianyi (Fujian) Electrical Industry & Trade Co., Ltd.

[Province:Fujian, China]

Three Phase Electric Motors


[Aug 14, 2014]
Unit Price: $19.9 - $1055.9/ Set
Min. Order: 1 Set
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF

MS Aluminum Housing Motor ...MS Series Aluminum

Housing Three Phase InductionMotor adopts the latest design and ...Ms motor can be

equipped with PTC. ...+ MotorPoles ...MS_means induction motor

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Anhui Wannan Electric Machine Co., Ltd.

[Province:Anhui, China]

AC Motor (Y2 Series)


[Aug 08, 2014]
Min. Order: 1 Piece
Trade Terms: FOB

AC Motor (Y2 series) Power: 0.12-315kw Insulation class: F-class Duty: S1 Applications:

General purpos including cutting machines, pump, fans, conveyors, machines tools of

farm duty and food process.

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Ningbo Sanheng Refrigeration Control Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]
Best Quality Shaded Pole Motor for
Refrigerator with CE (YJF)
[Sep 02, 2014]
Unit Price: $3.15 - $3.2/ Piece
Min. Order: 500 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF

Good quality with the better price Fast delivery

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Hangzhou Dele Electrical Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]

Ms7124-370W-B3 Three-Phase Asy


nchronous Motor
[Sep 01, 2014]
Unit Price: US $38.0/ Piece
Min. Order: 1 Piece
Trade Terms: FOB, CIF
MS(IE2)series 2P, 4P, 6P motors(power arrange: 0.75KW-18.5KW)meet with Efficiency

Grade 3 According to Standard.... MS(IE1) series 2P, 4P, 6P motors (power arrange:

0.75KW-18.5KW)meet with Efficiency

Leave a message.

Zhejiang Anli Electric Motor Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]

Ie2 Y
Series Three Phase Electric Motor
[Aug 23, 2014]
Min. Order: 50 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB

Y series three-phase induction motor Y series motor is totally enclosed and fan-

cooling, three-phase squirrel cage induction motor, that is newly designed in

conformity with the relevant ...


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Zhejiang Sanmen Feida Electric Appliances Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]

Self-Brake
Asynchronous Three Phase Disk M
otor
[Aug 27, 2014]

We are professional motor, break motors manufacturer and factory in China. ...This

type of motor, brake motor is widely applicable for Powered Suspended Platform,

Press,... Pumps and Fan etc. ...

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Hangzhou Electricdriving Technology Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]
Iron Casing Three-
Phase Asynchronous Motor (Y2)
[Sep 01, 2014]
Unit Price: US $1.0/ Piece
Min. Order: 50 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF

Y2 series Iron casing three-phase asynchronous motor is totally enclosed self-cooling

squirrel cage motor, designed and manufatured according to relevant ... easy use and

maintenance etc. ...

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Shanghai Litong Electrical Equipment Co., Ltd. Wengling Guangming Branch

[Province:Zhejiang, China]

Y Series Three-
Phase Electric Motor
[Aug 07, 2014]
Min. Order: 10 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB
Y series electric motors is totally enclosede and fan -cooling, squirrel cago, three-

phaseasynchronous motor, newly designed in conformity with the relevant

requirements of IEC stanards, Y series ...

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Jinan Sensi Industries Co., Ltd.

[Province:Shandong, China]

Three-Phase Asynchronous Motors


(Y2)
[Aug 12, 2014]

Our motors adopt 100% copper winding, with 100% output, our brand is the famous in

China. ...Y2 series motros is a fully enclosed three-phase asynchronous motor with

self-fan cooling system and ...shape. ...


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Chengdu Topshinning Industry & Trading Co., Ltd.

[Province:Sichuan, China]

Y
Series Three Phase Asynchronous
Motor
[Sep 02, 2014]
Unit Price: US $30.0/ Piece
Min. Order: 100 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, CIF

Motor frame: ...Y series motor is commonly applied in machinery and equipment

without special requirements, such as agricultural machinery, food machinery, fan,

agitator and air compressor, etc.

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Wenling Shellmax Equipment Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]
Electric Motor (Y
Series Three Phase Induction Moto
r)
[Aug 18, 2014]
Trade Terms: By Sea Or By Air

Y series three phase induction motor ...It is a kind of low-voltage 3-phase cage

induction motor. ...Y series motor is commonly ...The motor make according to IEC

standard, can make B3 B5, B35 mount

Leave a message.

Shandong China Coal Industrial & Mining Supplies Group Co., Ltd.

[Province:Shandong, China]

Yb2d Series Pole-Changing Multi-


Speed Three-PhaseAsynchronous
Motor From Manufacturer
[Aug 28, 2014]
Min. Order: 1 Piece
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, EXW, CIF

YB2D Series Pole-changing Multi-speed Three-phase Asynchronous Motor Introduction

...YDT series motor be use to coal mine, metallurgical,... air conditioning fan air volume

and water pump flow. ...

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Zhejiang Yinda Machine Electricity Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]

Three Phase AC Motor (MS series,


Flange Mount, Aluminum Frame,
IE1)
[Sep 02, 2014]
Unit Price: $30.0 - $35.0/ Piece
Min. Order: 50 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, EXW
Three Phase Aluminum housing Ac Motor Electrical Motor, Electric Motor, Ac

...Upgraded from Y three-phase asynchronous motor, Y2 three-

phase asynchronousmotor is totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC).

Leave a message.

Shanghai Dynamic Technologies Co., Ltd.

[Province:Shanghai, China]

Three Phase Motor for Air


Compressor
[Aug 26, 2014]
Unit Price: US $800.0/ Piece
Min. Order: 1 Piece
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF

Electric Motor Brief Induction Y2 series three-phase ...Y2 series three-

phaseasynchronous motor the rated voltage is 380 V. Rated frequency is 50

Hz. ...ElectricMotor Factory Advantages.


Leave a message.

Zhejiang Kailida Explosion-Proof Electromechanical Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]

Explosion-Proof Three Phase Induct


ion Motor
[Aug 28, 2014]
Unit Price: $81.26 - $85.78/ Piece
Min. Order: 10 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF

Explosion-proof Three phase induction motor Motor Features: YB2 series

AC motortechnical parameter ...Kailida motors advantage: ...Specialized a wide range

of ElectricMotors since year 2002. ...

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Henan Yuchuang Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

[Province:Henan, China]
Three Phase Induction Motor(1.1K
W/1.5KW/2.2KW/3KW/4KW/5.5KW/7.
5KW/11KW/15KW)
[Sep 01, 2014]
Min. Order: 100 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, CIF

Three phase inductionmotor(1.1KW/1.5KW/2.2KW/3KW/4KW/5.5KW/7.5KW/11KW/15K

W/18.5KW/22KW)

Talk to me!

Smart Equipment Co., Ltd.

[Province:Jiangsu, China]

Y2/Y
AC Motor Three Phase Asynchrono
us Electric Motor
[Aug 13, 2014]
Unit Price: $50.0 - $5000.0/ Piece
Min. Order: 1 Piece
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF, DDP, DAP, EXW
Y2/Y AC Motor Three Phase Asynchronous

Electric Motor MOTOR FEATURES ...Motors made for continuous S1 duty

...ELECTRIC MOTOR FEATURES ...Electricmotor continuous duty S1

Electric motor ...insulation ...

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Fujian Willda Machinery Electrical Co., Ltd.

[Province:Fujian, China]

AEEF
Series Three Phase Induction Moto
r 0.75kw 1HP
[Sep 01, 2014]
Min. Order: 100 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF, DDP

AEEF Series Three Phase Electric Motor ...AEEF series three phase asynchronous

electric motor is a kind of low-voltage squirrel cage 3-phase induction motor. ...

+Motor Poles ...AEEF motor ...


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Zhejiang Purity Electro & Mechanical Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]

Y2 Three Phase Asynchronous


Electric Motors-B3 (Y2-90L-2)
[Aug 07, 2014]
Min. Order: 100 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB

The Y series three-phase asynchronous motors that our company designs,... can

reduce the motor over-installation capacity, to increased motor life and reliability;

Reduce noise and vibration; ...

Leave a message.

Jinan Should Shine Import and Export Co., Ltd.


[Province:Shandong, China]

Three Phase Asychronous Motor Tr


ainer AC Motor Teaching Model
Electrical Machine Trainer
[Sep 02, 2014]
Min. Order: 1 Piece
Trade Terms: FOB

Three Phase Asychronous Motor Trainer AC Motor Teaching Model Electrical Machine

Trainer Three phase asychronous motor, for electrical laboratory ...Power supply is AC

380V, 50Hz, three phases.

Leave a message.

Zhejiang Huaming Electric Motor Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]
Pole-Changing Multi-Speed
Yd Three Phase Electric Motor
[Aug 26, 2014]
Min. Order: 100 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF

Trustworthy high quality pole-changing multi-speed

YD three phase electric motor...The series three phase asynchronous motors are

widely used in various mechanical equipments which need steped ...

Leave a message.

Zhejiang Aoer Electrical Appliances Co., Ltd.

[Province:Zhejiang, China]

110V Three Phase Asynchronous


Induction Electric Motor
[Aug 14, 2014]
Unit Price: US $42.0/ Piece
Min. Order: 100 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF, EXW
110v three phase asynchronous induction electric motor specification 1. Rated

Frequency: 50Hz 2. Insulation Class: F 3.2 year warranty 4. OEM, ODM welcome 5. With

big start torque

Leave a message.

Shuanglong Group Co., Ltd.

[Province:Shanghai, China]

YD Series Electrode-Converting
Multi-Speed Three-
PhaseAsynchronous Motor (IP44
IP54 IP55)
[Aug 08, 2014]

the company also designs and produces special specification multi-speed

electric motors upon user's request, including YDT series multi-speed three-

phase asynchronous motorfor blower and pump,...


Leave a message.

Jingjiang Trust Trading Co., Ltd.

[Province:Jiangsu, China]

Electric Motor
[Aug 09, 2014]
Trade Terms: FOB

Model: ED series(Aluminum case three-phase motor) ... Y2 series ...Y2 series motors

can be wiclely used as driving equpments pumps, compressors, transporters,

agricultural and food processing.

Leave a message.

Xiamen Boland Refrigeration Equipment Co., Ltd.

[Province:Fujian, China]
Yjf58-16 Yjf58-10 Yjf58-18 Shaded
Pole Motor (YZ26)
[Aug 29, 2014]
Unit Price: US $3.2/ Piece
Min. Order: 500 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF

1. The quality meet national standards. 2. The products can be made by customers

request. 3. We have marks in Middle East, north America, south America, Africa, Asia

etc. And we also gained the ...

Leave a message.

Suzhou Defeng Electric Machinery Co., Ltd.

[Province:Jiangsu, China]

IE2 High
Efficiency Three Phase Electric Mot
or (Black, Aluminum)
[Sep 02, 2014]
Min. Order: 5 Pieces
Trade Terms: FOB, CFR, CIF, DDP, DAP

IE2 Series High Efficiency Three Phase Electric Motor. IE2 series motor is

3 phasesquirrel cage asynchronous induction motor, it Has outstanding perfomance of

high efficiency, energy saving and...

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