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Submitted to: Mr. Rajesh
Submitted by: VIBHOR JAIN from VIT UNIVERSITY
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT IN RESARCH DESIGN AND STANDARD ORGANISATION The summer training in RESARCH DESIGN AND STANDARD ORGANISATION was held under the auspices of Mr.D.K.Srivastava director air brake lab I am indebted to all for their help and suport during the training in RDSO ,lucknow.i am thankful to m triloki singh and our honourable guide for their guidance and support .he was a great help in augumentaion Of our practical as well as our theoritical knowledge.he provided me with valuable and prodogiuos guidance ,pain staking attitude,reformative and prudent suggestions throught my project. Last but not the least i would pay my gratitude to rdso lucknowwho provides me with the oppurtunity to visit them and learn something.
INTRODUCTION TO RDSO
Railways were introduced in india in 1853 and as thier development progressed through the twentieth century,several company managment systems grew up. To enforce standardization assosiation and co-ordination setup in amongst various raiway systems,the indian railway conference (IRCA) was 1903,follwed by the central standards office(CSO) in 1930, for preparation of designs ,standards and specifications.however till independence,most of the designs and manufacture of railway equipments was entrusted to foreign consultants. With independence and the resultant phenomenal increase in country’s new industrial and economic railway activity,which resulted in increase demand of railway transportaion-a organisation called testing and resarch centre(RTRC) was setup in1952
conducting of railway
stock,permanent way etc. Central standards office(CSO) and the Railway Testing and Reseach Centre(RTRC) were integrated into a single unit named Research Designs and Standards Organization(RDSO) in 1957,under Ministry of Railways at Lucknow. The status of RDSO has been changed from an ‘attached office’ to ‘zonal railway’since 01.01.2003. All the directorates of RDSO except Defence Research are located at Lucknow. Cells for Railway Production Units and industries, which look after liaison, inspection and development work, are located at Bangalore, Bharatpur, Bhopal, Mumbai, Burnpur, Kolkata, Chittaranjan, Kapurthala, Jhansi, Chennai, Sahibabad, Bhilai and New Delhi.
RDSO has a number of laboratories which are well equipped with research and testing facilities for development, testing and design evaluation of various railway related equipments and materials. Some of these are: Air Brake Laboratory is equipped with facilities for simulating operation of air brakes on freight trains up to 192 wagons and 3 locomotives as also for simulation of passenger trains up to 30 coaches. Brake Dynamometer Laboratory has facilities to develop and test brake friction materials for locomotives, coaches and wagons. A unique facility in India , this laboratory has also been used by R&D organisations of Ministry of Defence like DMRL, DRDL and HAL for
indigenisation of brake pads for defence aircraft. B&S Laboratory has a 6mx14m heavy/testing floor on which full scale models of beam, slabs, columns, towers, shells and other components made of concrete, steel, brick etc can be tested under static, dynamic or pulsating loads. The Laboratory is equipped with analogue strain indicator, multi channel dynamic strain recording system, switching & balancing units, acoustic emission equipment, data acquisition system etc. for recording various parameters. Diesel Engine Development Laboratory has four test beds capable of testing diesel engines from 100 to 6000 HP with fully computerized systems for recording of over 128 test parameters at a time. This facility has already enabled RDSO to develop technologies for improving fuel efficiency, reliability and to extract higher output
from existing diesel engines. Fatigue Testing Laboratory for testing prototype locomotive and rolling stock bogies, springs and other railway equipments subjected to stress and fatigue so as to ascertain their expected life in service. Geo-technical Engineering Laboratoryis
equipped with facilities for determining strength parameters of soil in lab and field condition. The State-of-art Sub-surface Interface Radar (SIR) system, Laser based soil particle analyser, and computerized consolidation test apparatus have been installed in the lab. The lab also has computerised Static Triaxial Shear apparatus for determining the strength of soil as well as the design of embankment.
Metallurgical & Chemical Laboratory is capable of destructive and non-destructive testing of metals, polymers, composites, petroleum products and paints for providing information to be used in design and also for monitoring performance of materials in service. The M&C laboratory include Scanning Electron Microscope, Ultrasonic Direct Flaw reading and spectrometer, other non Detector
destructive examination equipment, polymer and composite evaluation facilities, thermal analyser, corrosion engineering evaluation facilities including weather meter, static 760 hour AR test rig for grease testing. Psycho-Technical Laboratory for assessment of critical psycho-physical attributes of operational staff such as drivers, switchmen and station masters for efficient operation.
Signal Testing Laboratory for testing of all types of signalling equipments such as safety signalling relays, power supply equipments, signalling cables, electro-mechanical signalling equipments/ components etc. There is an exclusive environmental testing section equipped with environmental testing facilities as per ISO:9000. These include, programmable heat, humidity & cold chambers, mould growth, rain chambers. Signalling Equipment Development Centre has been set up in the Signaling Lab. In this Centre, working signaling equipment & systems have been set up. The working systems include SSI, universal axle counter, VLSI axle counter, AFTCs, In addition,equipments poly-carbonate lenses, LED signal lamps, triple pole double filament lamps, power supply equipment etc., have also been displayed. Track Laboratory for testing full scale track panel
under dynamic load patterns similar to those encountered in service. Stresses at the various locations of track components under simulated load conditions are measured and recorded for analysis. This has helped in rationalising and optimising design of track structures for Indian conditions. Mobile Test Facilities for recording of track parameters, locomotive power and conducting oscillograph trials for evaluating vehicle-track interaction as also for monitoring track conditions. For condition monitoring of OHE under live line and to facilitate directed maintenance of electrification, a Network of testing and recording apparatus (NETRA) car, first of its kind , developed by RDSO is actively in service for scanning OHE in Railway.
AIR BRAKE LABORATORY
Laboratory is being utilized to study and optimize Train brake characteristics with different type of distributor reservoir valve, multiple effect locomotive of train operation parting, varying leakage rates, screw compressors and main capacities, performance of distributor valves, air dryers etc. The main function of laboratory is to study and optimise train brake characteristics with different type of distributor valves, multiple locomotive operation, varying leakage rate, compressive and main reservoir capacities, effect of train parting, performance of distributor vales etc.
AIR BRAKE LAB
The laboratory is equipped with Three locomotive controls stands can be used any where in the formation with varying compressed air flow rate up to 16Kilo litre per minute with seven compressor. The laboratory is also equipped with single car test rig and endurance test rig for distributor valves. Data acquisition and analysis is fully digitals.
Laboratory is equipped with a test rig having the complete pneumatic circuit of 192 wagons and 30 coaches with twin pipe air brake systems. Three locomotive control stand can be used any where in the formation with compressed air flow rate up to 16 kilolitre per minute with the help of 7 screw compressors. Data acquisition process is completely digital. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION In air brake system compressed air is used for getting brake force. The compressed air is supplied to the train brake pipe from locomotive. The brake pipe pressure is maintained at 5kg/cm2 and the pressure can be maintained by driver between a value of 0 and 5 kg/cm2.
The magnitude of braking force increases in step with the corresponding reduction in brake pipe pressure and vice versa. The compressed air from the locomotive through the hose assemblies and cut off angle cocks of successive wagons, charges brake pipe throughout the train length. In individual wagons the compressed air, after passing through dirt collector for filtration, charges the auxiliary reservoir through the distributor valve. During charging, the distributor valve also keeps the brake cylinder vented to the atmosphere thus keeping the brake released
A reduction of brake pipe pressure whether intentional or accidental will initiate brake application by admitting the compressed air in to the brake cylinder from auxiliary reservoir through the distributor valve. The piston movement in brake cylinder causes application of brake.
When the brake pipe pressure increases the distributor valve reacts to the pressure increase and vents the brake cylinder to the atmosphere. This releases the brake.
FATIGUE TESTING LABORATORY
This laboratory is installed for fatigue testing and structural strength analysis of bogie frames and their components for rolling stocks and FRP sleepers. These are tested by simulating service loads in order to optimise the design, study of residual life of components and endurance test of rubber components etc.
Fatigue testing laboratory
The laboratory is equipped with different type of load actuators. The laboratory is also equipped with Universal Spring Testing machine
TEST OBJECTIVES: Stress measurement at critical location of bogie frame under different load combination and fatigue test to find out the adequacy of the design from structural strength point of view. To determine the adequacy of the design of the bogie frame from structural strength point of view by applying dynamic load up to 6 million cycles for conducting fatigue test and monitoring the stress at different critical locations. DESIGN FEATURES: 3 axled bolster bogie have two stage suspension with box type construction. Bogie frame is fabricated indigenously from IS:2062 gray cast steel by Indian Railways Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi. For a 2300 HP metric/cape gauge diesel electric
locomotive. The ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of material are 41.8 kg/mm2 and 25.5/24.5 Kg/mm2 respectively. The 3 axled bolster les box type construction bogie is fitted with two stage suspension helical coil springs both in primary and secondary stage of suspension. The locomotive car body weight is transferred directly to the bogie frame through four pairs of secondary helical coil springs located outside bogie beams. The bogie in turn is supported on the primary helical coil springs which rest on either side of axle boxes. The damping in vertical mode in primary stage is provided by four hydraulic dampers each located at end axle boxes. At the secondary stage four vertical hydraulic dampers and two lateral dampers are provided between bogie and under frame. The bogie is fitted with floating type of center pivot arrangement.
The bogie is provided with 3 axle hung nose suspended GE 761 Traction Motors. The bogie is also having conventional brake gear arrangement with single brake shoe per wheel, the bogie is also provided with sandbox arrangement on leading wheels.
FATIGUE TESTING FATIGUE TEST: Fatigue test were planned up to 6 million cycles at a frequency between 4 Hz and 5 under different load combinations as indicated below.
Loading pattern for 6 million fatigue cycling shall be as below but in repeated block of two million cycles. all gauge location on the bogie frame are of very low order the maximum value recorded was found as 4.37 Kg/mm2( tensile) at linear gauge location located in the bottom of long beam where as the maximum value of principal stress computed from rosette gauge was found as 5.75 Kg/mm2 ( compressive ) at gauge location R2 located in the bottom of long beam close to the junction of nose suspension bracket
BRAKE DYNAMOMETER LABORATORY
Brake dynamometer machine performs performance audit tests of cast iron and composition brake blocks. Parameters commonly determined are coefficient of friction; wear rate and temperature rise in brake block and wheel. The effect of sustained down gradient and consequent application of brakes constantly, over along time is also studied. The laboratory equipped with a gyrating mass brake
dynamometer supplied by M/s MAN OF GERMANY, is capable of testing up to a speed of 250 Kmph. Under simulation of axel load up to 25t, brake torque
of 4800 kg-meter and brake force of maximum 6000 kg in wet and dry conditions, with continuous recording and computerized analysis of data.
BRAKE DYNAMOMETER LABORATARY
INFRASTRUCTURE The laboratory equipped with a Gyrating Mass Brake Dynamometer supplied by M/s MAN of Germany, is capable of testing up to a speed of 250 km/h under simulation of axle load up to 25 t, brake torque of 4800 kg-m and brake force of maximum 6000 kg in wet and dry conditions, with continuous recording and computerised analysis of data.
TYPE ACCEPTANCE TEST OF BRAKE BLOCKS PHYSICAL CHECK
After the receipt of the brake block samples in the laboratory, these are registered and identification numbers are stamped on each brake block. These brake blocks are physically checked to ensure that they match the wheel profile of the rolling stock for which testing is to be done.
GYRATING MASS BRAKE DYNAMOMETER BEDDING The brake blocks are fixed on the dynamometer for bedding to achieve about 80% of the block contact area. This exercise is necessary to have a uniform distribution of brake blocks force over the full brake block area during the tests. Bedding of the brake block is done at a speed of 60 km/h and with a brake block force of 1500 kg. During bedding a wheel temperature of 20 to 60 deg. C is maintained. After the contact area of the brake block is bedded to about 80%, tests are started under dry condition.
DRY TESTS Brake blocks are tested under dry condition at speeds of 20 to 140 km/h with an increment of 20 km/h with a brake block force as per test scheme. Three applications are made at each speed. The wheel temperature of 60 to 120 deg. C is maintained, as far as possible, before each brake application. After switching on the system, the DC motor is first run at slow speed. The motor is then accelerated to the desired rpm, corresponding to the required speed. The motor rpm is kept slightly higher than the required braking speed. After attainment of the slightly higher rpm, motor is switched off and brakes are applied at corresponding speed with the help of brake-on switch provided on the control desk. Blower fan, at a speed of 750 rpm, is normally kept running during the tests.
Various parameters e.g. braking speed, braking time, run out revolution, brake energy and mean coefficient of friction, are recorded on the data acquisition system. Iron-constantin thermocouples are embedded on the brake blocks to monitor the brake block temperature. Wheel temperature is, however, measured with a highly sensitive contact less sensor mounted almost at the top of wheel tread, close to the rubbing surface. This temperature is digitally displayed. At the end of the test the brake blocks are inspected for cracks, chipping, flaking, hot spot and metallic inclusion. Wheel is also checked for any abnormality. Brake blocks are weighed for wear, before and at the end of each brake block force applied, during the dry tests.
WET TESTS After completion of dry tests, wet tests are conducted on the same set of brake blocks at the same speed and brake forces as dry tests. Continuous flow of water at the rate of 14 litres per hour is allowed to fall on the top of the wheel through small nozzles of 1 mm diameter during wet test. It simulates the rainy season conditions. During wet tests, blowers are not used, to avoid water falling on the top of the wheel, from flying away. Acceleration, running and braking at desired force and wheel temperature are done in the same manner as the dry tests. Brake blocks are weighed for wear, before and at the end of each brake block force, during the wet tests. After completing the wet tests, inspection of both
wheel and brake blocks is done for any abnormality.
BRAKE BLOCK SAMPLES FOR TESTING DRAG TEST After dry and wet tests on the brake blocks are over, all the samples are subjected to the most severe type of braking, simulating the controlling of the train on the ‘ghat’ section by application of brakes continuously. The brakes are kept applied on the wheel for 20 minutes without switching off the motor at a constant speed of 60 km/h. During drag tests, torque
equivalent of about 45 BHP is maintained. For maintaining constant torque, the brake force on the brake block is kept on changing. The temperature of the wheel and brake block is recorded at every 100 seconds. At the end of 20 minutes, maximum temperatures attained by the wheel and brake blocks are recorded. In case of brake blocks catching fire, or any abnormality observed in course of testing, further drag testing is stopped. Immediately after the test, motor is shut off and brake block force is increased to a level specified in the test scheme and brakes are applied and various brake characteristics are studied. During drag tests, phenomena like emission of smoke and spark, formation of r ed band and flaming etc. are recorded. At the end of the test, inspection of the wheel and brake block is done to see any abnormality on the wheel and brake blocks.
OSCILLOGRAPH CAR Oscillation trial is conducted on a new or modified design of rolling stock, which is proposed to be cleared for running on IR track. The purpose of oscillation trial is, thus, an acceptance of a railway vehicle by conducting dynamic behaviour tests in connection with safety, track fatigue and quality of ride. An oscillation trial can be commenced only after receipt of CRS sanction. CRS sanction is accompanied by Joint Safety Certificate from the Railway and Speed Certificate issued by RDSO. In addition, documents like, ‘List of curves and bridges’, ‘Permanent and temporary speed restrictions’ on the route from the railway applicable on the day of run, ‘Test scheme’ from the sponsoring/design directorate and latest summarised ‘TRC results’ for selected detailed test stretches are needed to conduct the trials.
measurements and parameters to be recorded, design particulars of the test vehicle, load vs. deflection charts for individual and nested springs, necessary drawings of bogie, axle box etc for loadcell fitment, instrumentation etc. The oscillation trial is carried out either on ‘Main line’ for operation at less than 110 kmph on 52 kg rail or on 90R rail track and/or on ‘High-speed line’ for operation at 110 kmph or above and up to 140 kmph on track maintained to C&M1-Vol.1 standard. The term Ride quality means that the vehicle itself is to be judged. Ride comfort means that the vehicle is to be assessed according to the effect of mechanical vibrations on people in the vehicle.
The wz factor for ride quality is 0.896*(b3/f) 0.1 and for ride comfort is 0.896*[b3*f (f)/f] 0.1. The term ride comfort is equivalent to RI for locomotive and coaching stock and ride quality is equivalent to RI for freight stock.
Bogie of DMRC coach
Stress Investigation Trials of Double Decker Coach
RIDE QUALITY Ride Index Appreciation 1 2 3 4 5 very good 2 good satisfactory accepted for running dangerous
4.5 not accepted for running
RIDE COMFORT Ride Index Appreciation just noticeable clearly noticeable more pronounced but not unpleasant strong, irregular but still tolerable very irregular extremely irregular, unpleasant, annoying, prolonged exposure intolerable extremely unpleasant, exposure harmful