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# Electrics and Electronics

Material

## Lecturer: Dr. Muhammad Amin Sulthoni

Atoms, molecules, or electrons oscillates about
its equilibrium positions the lattice points.
Lattice vibration is important to study on how
energy is absorbed or transferred in solids.
Nature of lattice vibration depends on the
symmetry of the crystall, number of atoms in unit
cell, type of the bonds between atoms, and
defects existence.
Higher temperatures gives more displacement,
but never above lattice constant.
The force that holds the atoms is proportional to
the displacement, as if they were interconnected
each other by spring
4
1
U = 2
2

= .

U = potential energy
change
= interatomics force
constant
u = maximum displacement

F=-.u=- ;F=m.a

2 2
Maka . + 2 = 0 atau + =0
2

Solusi persamaan: =
Substitusikan u(t) sehingga diperoleh

2 = , = Natural frequency

The displacement occurs only in small
region.
Elastic properties are described
considering a crystal as a homogenaous
continuum, rather than a periodic array of
atoms
Applied forcess described in terms of stress

Displacement described in terms of strain
Elastic constant C relates stress and strain
so that = C.
Stress has meaning of local applied pressure
Applied force F(Fx, Fy, Fz) Stress component ij (i, j = 1, 2, 3 x, y, z)
Similar to stress, we introduce
displacement vector u = uxx + uyy +uzz
Hookes law:

For cubic crystal, due to symmetry, there are existed only 3 constants:

C11 = C22 = C33; C12 = C21 = C13 = C31 = C23 = C32; C44 = C55 = C66

## All other elements are zero (Not existed)

Atomic displacement are small, u << a
Force acting on atoms are assumed as
harmonic, F = -C.u
For displacement along y and z in cubic
crystals, by symmetry the velocities in
transverse mode are the same
Normally, C11 > C44 >
The elastic constants depend on other
constant effective elastic constant
A relation between and k: dispersion
relation, for sound = .k
Lattice vibration occurs as a result from collision between
electron, photon, or phonon on crystal lattice
Photon: quantum of electromagnetic waves
Phonon: quantum of vibration

## Allowed energy level:

= ( + 1 2) where n is quantum number
A normal vibration mode of frequency is given by
= ()
Mode is occupied by n phonons of energy ; momentum
p =
1
Number of phonon at temperature T: =
/ 1
Atom n should be at a position na, but is
displaced by an amount un.
The un-stretched string corresponds to
an interatomic spacing a. So the force on
atom n is
= +1 + (1 )

2
2 = (2 +1 1 )

Assume the wave: , = (+)

Substitute to find

2 = ( + 2)

=
2 2 2 cos

4
2 = ( )
2
2

= 0
2

## with maximum cut off frequency

4
0 =

< < <<
2 2 2
From Heisenberg Uncertainty principle we
can only measure position or speed at a
time.
We can not distinguish u(k) and u(k+2)
Phase velocity:

= /

Group velocity:

= =
2

At small k, sin =
2 2

So that = = =

2
1 2 = 2 +1 1

2 + 1
2 = 2+1 +2
2

And

= 1 (+) , + 1 = 2 ((+1)+)
In matric form

## Then the solution:

Regarding the sign,
there are two
dispersion curves

## Note that the first

Brillouin zone now
is

<<
2 2
Acoustic branch:
1 1 1 1 2 2
2 = + + 4
1 2 1 2 1 2
If k=0, 0=0, A1=A2

Optical branch:
1 1 1 1 2 2
2 = + + 4
1 2 1 2 12

1 1
If k=0, 0 = 2 + , m1A1+m2A2=0
1 2
Acoustics vibration have lower energy,
and thus lower frequencies than optical
vibration.
Optical vibration frequencies are infrared
optical branch.
At boundaries, the wave becomes
standing waves in mono-atomic (k=0).