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A k zo N o b e l S u r f a c t a n t s A m e r i c a

3 0 0 S o u t h R i v e r s i d e P l a za

Chicago, Illinois 60606

Te l e p h o n e : 31 2 . 9 0 6 . 7 5 0 0

Fa x : 31 2 . 9 0 6 . 7 8 3 8

For Product Information,
MSDS and on-line ordering:
A k zo N o b e l S u r f a c e C h e m i s t r y A B
S-444 85 Stenungsund


Te l e p h o n e : 4 6 . 3 0 3 . 8 5 0 0 0

Fa x : + 4 6 3 0 3 7 71 61 6

A k zo N o b e l C h e m i c a l s L t d .

1 C i t y C e n t e r D r i v e, S u i t e 31 8

Mississauga, Ontario

L5B 1M2

Te l e p h o n e : 9 0 5 . 2 7 3 . 5 9 5 9
Fa x : 9 0 5 . 2 7 3 . 7 3 3 9

C a n a d a O n l y : 1 . 8 0 0 . 4 8 9 . 91 2 4
A k zo N o b e l Q u i m i c a L t d a .

R o d o v i a A k zo N o b e l , 707
Bairro Sao Roque da Chave

a o Pa u l o - B r a z i l

CEP:13295-000 CLEANERS
Te l e p h o n e : + 5 5 11 4 5 91 8 8 0 0

Te l e f a x : + 5 5 11 4 5 91 - 1 4 9 5

A k zo N o b e l C h e m i c a l s P t e. L t d .

41 S c i e n c e Pa r k R o a d

# 0 3 - 0 311 2 , T h e G e m i n i

S i n g a p o r e S c i e n c e Pa r k I I


11 7 610

Te l e p h o n e : 6 5 7 7 3 8 4 8 8

Te l e f a x : 6 5 7 7 3 8 4 8 4

telefax: 65 773 84 84

All information concerning these products and/or all suggestions for handling and use contained herein are offered in good faith and believed to be reliable. Akzo Nobel Surface Chemistry LLC and its affiliates, however,
make no warranty as to the accuracy and/or sufficiency of such information and/or suggestions, as to the products merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose, or that any suggested use will not infringe any
patent. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as granting or extending any license under any patent. Buyer must determine for himself, by preliminary tests or otherwise, the suitability of these products for his
purposes. The information contained herein supersedes all previously issued bulletins on the subject matter covered.

Berol, Armohib, Arquad, Ethomeen, Aromox and Elfacos are registered trademarks of Akzo Nobel or affiliated companies and are registered in one or more countries including the United States. AG, Ethylan
and Armolube are trademarks of Akzo Nobel or affiliated companies.

2002 Akzo Nobel Surface Chemistry LLC Publication SC02-02

Narrow range nonionics are
unique surfactants offered
by Akzo Nobel.

Alcohol Ethoxylates
Narrow Range
Akzo Nobel offers a range of ethoxylated alcohols Product Chemical Cloud pt Appearance % Active Properties Main Applications
for cleaning applications. Narrow range ethoxylated Name Description (C) @ 25C
alcohols are the foundation of our product line.
Berol 260 Narrow Range 58 Liquid 100 Degreaser Waterbased Degreasing
C9-11 Alcohol Low Foaming Vehicle & Engine Cleaners
I n t rod uction with 4EO Hard Surface & All Purpose
0 Cat Cleaners
R-OH + n R-O 0 H
Berol 266 Narrow Range 26b and Liquid 100 Degreaser Waterbased Degreasing
C9-11 Alcohol 58b Low Foaming Vehicle & Engine Cleaners
ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY, WATER with 5.5EO Dispersions Hard Surface & All Purpose
Ethoxylation can be achieved by the reaction of an Two Cloud Points* Cleaners
alcohol with ethylene oxide. The ethoxylation distri-
INDUSTRIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL bution can be influenced by the catalyst (Cat) and by (including textiles)


the choice of the alkyl group (R) of the alcohol.
A narrow range ethoxylated alcohol, also a
LABORATORIES AND MANUFACTURING Berol 840 Narrow Range 52 Liquid 100 Extremely Low Low Foam Cleaners (e.g.
called peaked ethoxylated alcohol, has an ethoxyla- Ethoxylated Alcohol Foaming Metal Cleaners & CIP)
SITES AROUND THE WORLD, AKZO NOBEL tion distribution curve that is narrower than the Defoaming Waterbased Alkaline
equivalent standard alcohol ethoxylate and contains Wetting Cleaners
considerably lower free alcohol. This gives the non- Automatic Dishwashing
YOUR ENVIRONMENTAL, COST AND ionic surfactant focused properties and a very low Hard Surface Cleaners

PERFORMANCE GOALS THROUGH OUR odor especially when derived from the short chain
Cloud Point (C) of:
alcohol. a 5g product 25ml 25% butyl diglycol solution *This product shows two distinct cloud points across a
FOCUS ON QUALITY, SERVICE AND temperature gradient in water.
When phenol or alkyl phenol is ethoxylated b1% product in water

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT. the ethoxylation distribution is narrow compared to

the broad distribution obtained with fatty alcohols
such as C9-11 alcohol. By using a special catalyst, a EFFICIENCY
narrow distribution similar to that observed with Use of a short chain alcohol ethoxylate with a
YOU WITH AKZO NOBEL CLEANING phenols can be achieved for fatty alcohols. narrow distribution of ethoxylation results in faster
PRODUCTS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS. Generally, lower degrees of ethoxylation soil penetration, improved cleaning and lower foam How to choose the Right
give higher amounts of free alcohol in the product. properties. Nonionic Surfactant
Berol 840, Berol 260 and Berol 266 all contain Comparison of Berol 260 with a standard
less than 1% free alcohol resulting in low odor and alcohol ethoxylate, for example C9-11 alcohol + 6
improved performance. Grease/oil Low Cloud pt Berol 260
EO, shows reduced foam and improved degreasing.
Soil type
Berol 260 vs. Standard
Ethoxylation Distribution Comparisons Ethoxylated Alcohol Product Particulate High Cloud pt Berol 266
Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s
Product Page 25
Narrow C9-11 Berol 260
Berol 260 Time Small Molecule or
20 Standard C9-11 X=5%
Nonionics ............................................. 0-1 Berol 266
Hydrotropic Co-surfactants .................. 2-3 % 15
Foaming Low Berol 840
Specialty Blends .................................. 4-5 X=3%
Functional Surfactants ......................... 6-7
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Rheology Modifiers ............................ 8-9 5
Foam (ml) & Degreasing (%)
Technical Data ...................................10-11
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Foam =0 min Foam =5 min Degreasing
Cross Reference ....................................12
Ethylene Oxide (Moles)
Formula: 1
8% Nonionic+7% TKPP+X% SXS 10g/l Dilution
Akzo Nobel offers Hydrotropic co-surfactants
that can be selected for either low foam or
high foam cleaning applications.
Hydrophilic Quaternary
Ammonium Compounds

Product Chemical Appearance % Active Properties Main Applications

Name Description @ 25C

Berol 563 MC Proprietary Liquid 100 Hydrotrope Waterbased Degreasing (Acid or Alkaline)
Cationic Dispersing Vehicle Cleaners & All Purpose Cleaners
Medium Foaming (Inert listed)

HYDROTROPES Berol 563 SA Proprietary Liquid 100 Hydrotrope Waterbased Degreasing

Cationic Dispersing Vehicle Cleaners
A hydrotrope is a substance that increases the Hard Surface & All Purpose Cleaners
solubility of an ingredient that is slightly soluble
in water. In cleaning formulations the nonionic
surfactant can be insoluble in the presence of Hydrotrope Activity Alkylpolyglucosides
electrolytes, such as chelates and builders. There-
fore, the addition of a hydrotrope is required to AG 6202 Alkyl Liquid 65 Low Foaming Low Foam Cleaners (e.g. Metal Cleaners & CIP)
develop a shelf stable cleaning formulation. Polyglucoside Hydrotrope Waterbased High Alkaline Cleaners
Berol 563 SA Dispersing High Caustic Cleaners
Many surfactants can serve as
Good Wetting
hydrotropes while at the same time bringing
SXS Demulsification
additional functions such as corrosion protection,
boosted cleaning, low foaming, etc. Choosing the AG 6206 Alkyl Liquid 75 Low Foaming Low Foam Cleaners (e.g. Metal Cleaners & CIP)
right hydrotropic co-surfactant is critical to the Berol 522 Polyglucoside Hydrotrope Waterbased High Alkaline Cleaners
development of extremely effective water-based Dispersing High Caustic & Concentrated Cleaners
Good Wetting
cleaning formulations. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
As shown graphically, the amount of Phosphate Esters
Hydrotrope required Al %
hydrotrope needed to obtain a formulation that
is clear up to 70C depends upon the choice of Berol 522 Phosphate Ester Liquid 43 Medium Foaming Liquid Alkaline Cleaners
hydrotrope. Hydrotrope Liquid Detergents
A formula with 5% Berol 260 and 6% trisodium Solubilizer Hard Surface Cleaners
citrate requires different levels of hydrotropes as
Protein Removal Metal Cleaning
shown to obtain a formula clear up to 70C.
Corrosion Protection

Berol 725 Phosphate Ester Liquid 65 Low Foaming Liquid Alkaline Cleaners
Hydrotrope Metal Cleaning
Dilution of these formulations [1:50 with hard water (200 ppm WHO)] results in differentiated cleaning performances Solubilizer Hard Surface Cleaners
under both mechanical and non-mechanical conditions. Selection of Berol 563 SA as the hydrotrope results in a Protein Removal
boost of cleaning compared to the formula using SXS or Berol 522. Corrosion Protection

Degreasing Activity Degreasing Activity Choice of Hydrotropic Co-surfactants

Mechanical Scrubber Test Non Mechanical for Liquid Cleaners


Berol 563 SA Type of

Corrosion or
surface to Berol 522 Berol 725
be cleaned
Berol 563 SA
Berol 522

Oil Fat or
Berol 563 MC or
Berol 563 SA AG6206
0 20 40 60 Particulate
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Type of
Fatty Soil Removal % Fatty Soil Removal % Fat or
Protein Berol 522 Berol 725

2 3
Optimized surfactant blends from Akzo Nobel
are used in various applications,
including car-wash cleaners.

Product Chemical Appearance % Active Properties Main Applications

Name Description @ 25C

Berol 226 SA Nonionic/Cationic Liquid 100 Degreasing Waterbased Alkaline Degreasing

Dispersing Acid Cleaners, Vehicle Cleaners
Medium Foaming (including High Pressure Touchless Equipment)
Hard Surface & All Purpose
SPECIALTY BLENDS Cleaners (inerts listed)
Berol 226 SA is a surfactant blend optimized
for use in water-based degreasing and cleaning
formulations. It combines the benefits of ease of Berol TFR Nonionic/ Cationic Liquid 100 Degreasing Waterbased Alkaline Degreasing
Dispersing Acid Cleaners, Vehicle Cleaners
formulating and excellent degreasing.
COMPARISON WITH NP-9 Medium Foaming (optimized for High Pressure Touchless
Berol 226 SA is highly effective in the
Good Oil-Separation Equipment), Hard Surface Cleaners
removal of organic soils such as greases, fats and Comparison of Formulation D (containing 9% Berol in Waste Water & All Purpose Cleaners
oils. Degreaser formulations based on Berol 226 226 SA) to a formulation with 9% NP-9 reveals that
SA offer excellent cleaning performance for use on Berol 226 SA gives a three-fold boost in degreasing
vehicles, engines, and metal parts. Berol 226 SA performance compared to the NP-9 formulation.
is suitable for use in alkaline, acid and neutral Berol DGR-81 Nonionic Blend Liquid 100 Degreasing Waterbased Alkaline Degreasing
Medium Foaming Acid Cleaners, Vehicle Cleaners
Degreasing Activity Good Oil-Separation Hard Surface Cleaners, All Purpose
Mechanical Scrubber Test in Waste Water Cleaners, High Caustic & Concentrated

Berol LFG-61 Nonionic Blend Liquid 100 Degreasing Low Foam Cleaners (e.g. Metal Cleaners & CIP)
Low Foaming Waterbased High Alkaline Cleaners
Defoaming High Caustic & Concentrated Cleaners

Berol 226 SA
Formula D


As illustrated in the graph, Berol 226 SA is Degreasing Ability
of Berol Surfactants Compared with a Solvent DILUTION OF OUR SPECIALTY BLENDS
compatible with various builders and
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Based System on Dilution
chelating agents. When compared with solvent-based cleaning
Fatty Soil Removal % formulations, our specialty blends exhibit superior
performance upon dilution. Systems containing
Stability of 9% Berol 226 SA 100 solvents, such as 2-butoxyethanol (EB) for example,
with Various Builders & Chelating Agents 9% Berol 226 SA+4% TKPP+3.5% EDTA depend greatly on concentration in order to be
9% NP-9+4.5% STPP

Soil Removal (%)

80 effective and dilution significantly reduces their
degreasing performance. Both Berol 226 SA and
Berol DGR-81 are more resistant to loss of effec-
EDTA tiveness upon dilution and decline in performance
TKPP only after a dilution of 1:25 of the base
Trisodium Citrate formulation is used.
Typically, 1% Berol 226 SA can replace
Soda Ash 20
at least 8% EB in a formulation without loss of
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
NaOH Conc (g/l)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Berol 226 SA Berol DGR-81 Solvent/Surfactant

Maximum Active Content (%)

9-10% Surfactant*+6% TKPP+4% Metasilicate
*replaced with 8% EB+2% Surfactant
4 5
Akzo Nobels Functional surfactants are used
in specialty applications, such as
corrosion protection.


Product Name Chemical Appearance % Active Main Applications

Description @ 25C

Penetrating Agent

Ethylan HB-4 Nonionic Liquid 100 Vehicle Cleaning, Rig Cleaning Microemulsions
Perfume solubizers

Corrosion Inhibitor

Armohib 28 Proprietary Liquid 100 Rust Removal in Metal Cleaners (Acid Pickling), Acid
Blend Corrosion, HCI or HCI/HF Mixtures
Corrosion Protection
Armohib is a registered trademark for acid
Armohib 31 Proprietary Liquid 100 Rust Removal in Metal Cleaners (Acid Pickling), Acid
corrosion inhibitors developed by Akzo Nobel.
Blend Inhibitors for Sulphuric, Sulfamic, Citric & Phosphoric Acids
These aliphatic nitrogen inhibitors retard the
Corrosion Rate (lb/ft2/day)

corrosive effects of acids on metals during pickling,

on process equipment being cleaned, and in oil Chain Lubricant
well acidizing operations. These products are
1 formulated for use with specific acids. Armohib 31
Armolube CL300 Cationic Liquid 100 Track Lubricant, Car/Wax Polish, Corrosion inhibitor
may be used with sulfuric, sulfamic, citric, and
Car Undercoating & Sound Deadener
phosphoric acid. Armohib 28 is used with
0.1 hydrochloric acid and hydrochloric-hydrofluoric
acid mixtures. Softeners
Armohib corrosion inhibitors offer low-
0.01 Arquad HTL8 MS Dialkyldimethyl Liquid 83 Softening for Two in One Detergents or Clear Softeners
cost, dependable protection over a wide range of
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 Ammonium Antistatic, Water Repellent
temperatures. Acid attack on metals can be retard- Methyl Sulphate
Armohib 28 (%) ed by incorporating small amounts of Armohib
15% HCL 10 HCL 5% HCL chemicals with the acid without affecting the Arquad 2HT-75 Dialkyldimethyl Paste 75 Softening, Antistatic Emulsifying, Thickener
cleaning action of the acid. Since Armohib Ammonium Water Repellent
Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid with Armohib 28 compounds are all liquid, readily soluble in acid, Chloride
(6 hours at 200F)
non-staining, and do not precipitate on standing,
they are easy to use. Microemulsion Aids

Berol 239 Nonionic/Cationic Liquid 100 Micro-emulsions

PLANT CLEANING Silicon Oil emulsions
Inhibited acids are used extensively in plant
cleaning, both pre-commission and periodic
Berol 251 Nonionic Blend Liquid 100 Solvent Free Micro-emulsions
service cleaning. Although many plants, such as
Solvent Free Degreasers
breweries, dairies and sugar refineries, use acid
cleaning, the major use of acid cleaning is in
power plants.

6 7
Rheology modifiers from Akzo Nobel
provide unique value to cleaners
and detergents.

Product Name Chemical Appearance % Active Main Applications/Functions

Description @ 25C


Ethomeen S/12 Ethoxylated Amine Liquid 100 Metal Cleaning, Acid Cleaning, Solvent Based
Cleaners, Emulsifier
Elfacos CD 481 is a uniquely modified, water Ethomeen T/12 Ethoxylated Amine Liquid 100 Metal Cleaning, Acid Cleaning, Solvent Based
soluble, nonionic cellulose ether with substantial sur- Cleaners, Emulsifier
face and interfacial activity. These physiochemical
properties and functions allow Elfacos CD 481 to be Foam Modification by Ethomeen O/12 Ethoxylated Amine Liquid 100 Metal Cleaning, Acid Cleaning, Solvent Based
Elfacos CD 481 Cleaners, Emulsifier
used as a multifunctional ingredient for many
cleaning formulations.
Aromox 14DW970 Amine Oxide Liquid 25 Alkaline Cleaner, Hypochlorite Cleaners,
Foam Booster
Viscosity of Elfacos CD 481 Aromox T/12 Amine Oxide Liquid 49 Alkaline Cleaners, Acid Cleaners
in Aqueous Solutions
Arquad T-50 Alkyl-trimethyl Liquid 50 Acid Cleaners,
Ammonium Chloride Hydrogen Peroxide Cleaners
Arquad 16-29 Alkyl-trimethyl Liquid 29 Acid Cleaners,
20000 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 Ammonium Chloride Hydrogen Peroxide Cleaners
Viscosity (cps)

Foam Height,(mm) Ross Miles

15000 Polymers
Initial 5 min
10000 Elfacos CD 481 Ethyl Hydroxyethyl Powder 100 Aqueous Cleaners & Degreasers, Water Repellent,
Testing Solution: Cellulose Gel Cleaners, Foam modifier, Emulsion Stabilizer
0.1% EHEC/HEC in 1.8% Sodium Laureth Ether
Sulfate (SLES). Testing temp: 40C

0.2 0.5 0.8 1 1.2 1.5
Fragrance and Viscosity
EHEC Concentration (w/w%) SURFACTANT
pH Stability of Elfacos CD 481 Akzo Nobel surfactants are versatile rheology
Brookfield RVDV-II, SPDL #5, 10 rpm
modifiers as they can span the range of acidic to
alkaline formulations. 250

Viscosity at 20C (cps)

Amine oxides are useful in hypochlorite
Elfacos CD 481 exhibits the following characteristics: 200
2500 systems while Arquad16-29 is useful in hydrogen
Highly efficient thickener for aqueous systems
peroxide formulations. 150
Viscosity (cps)

2000 0% perfume
Stabilizer/protective colloid foam modification As shown in the accompanying graph, 0.1%
Strong polymer-surfactant interaction to 1500 perfume can have a dramatic influence on the 0.3%
influence phase behavior and interfacial activity 50
viscosity of the cleaning formulation.
500 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

0 Desolubilizer- Sodium Cumene Sulfonate (%)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Clear Viscoelastic Cloudy

Formula: 5% Citric Acid Monohydrate +1.25% Arquad

0.8% EHEC in 3.0% Cetearyl Alcohol 16-29+ 0-0.3% Methylsalicylate (Perfume)+x% Sodium
Cumene Sulfonate
8 9
Akzo Nobel combines technical expertise
with creativity to formulate chemicals
specifically for your needs.
Te c h n i c a l

Product Surfactant Type ~Molecular HLB Foam Viscosity Cloud Pt Surface Tension CMC Wetting
Wt. (mm) (C/Cps) (C) (dynes/cm) (g/l) (sec.)


Berol 260 Alcohol Ethoxylate 336 10.5 20 20/50 58a 27 0.04 11

In building cleaning formulations, several factors are Berol 266 Alcohol Ethoxylate 402 12.1 70 20/50 26 & 58 b
27 0.03 15
critical and need to be monitored. These include Berol 840 Alcohol Ethoxylate 307 11.5 5 20/50 52a 32 4.5 90
critical micelle concentration, cloud point, surface AG 6202 Alkylpolyglucoside 550-630 >20 8 20/265 >100 33.4 16
tension, HLB, wetting and foam.
AG 6206 Alkylpolyglucoside 520-600 0 20/775 34 20

Effect of CMC on Cleaning Hydrotropes

Berol 260
Berol 563 MC Hydrophilic Cationic 25/1150 75c 41
100 Berol 840 Berol 563 SA Hydrophilic Cationic 110 25/940 39 0.04 >600
90 Berol 522 Phosphate Ester 314 80 20/300 24 NA >1000
80 In order to maximize cleaning performance upon
Berol 725 Phosphate Ester 497 5 20/470 55 NA >600
70 dilution, it is essential that the concentration of the
Degreasing %

60 primary surfactant be above its CMC. As shown in

50 the graph, the optimal cleaning of both formulations
40 is obtained above the CMC of the nonionic Berol 226 SA Blend NA NA 110 20/140 >100 27 0.04 15
30 surfactant used.
Berol TFR Blend NA NA 115 20/120 >100 27 NA 18
Berol DGR-81 Blend NA NA 70 20/1600 26/61d 27 0.5 20
Berol LFG-61 Blend NA NA 20 20/1800 33/65d 31 10 >600
00.4 1 0.5
2 3 0.6
4 5 0.76 0.8

Conc %
Berol 260 Berol 840
Ross-Miles immediate height at 50C at 0.05%
5% Nonionic+6% Hydrotrope+6% TKPP+ CRITICAL SURFACE TENSION (CST)
6% Metasilicate Viscosity
To obtain good wetting of a surface, the surface Brookfield DVII at 20/25C
tension of the liquid must be less than the critical
surface tension. Critical surface tensions of some Cloud Point
a 5g product 25ml of 25% butyldiglycol solution
substances are shown below.
b 1% product in water
c 1g product in 100 ml 9% NaOH solution
d 5 & 10% product in water
Surface Dynes/cm

Surface Tension
Glass >73

Du Nouy or Whilelmy Plate at 25C (DIN 53 914)
Polystyrene 32
Polypropylene 28 CMC
Critical Micelle Concentration determined using
Teflon 18 Surface Tension

Surface Tension Wetting

Draves, 25C, 0.1%
Water 72

10 11
The responsive partner in rheology
and surface chemistry,
wherever you are.
Creating the
Right Cleaner

Surfactant Type Base Surfactant Hydrotropic Co-surfactant Blends

Nonionic APG Anionic Cationic
Product Name BEROL 260 BEROL 266 BEROL 840 AG 6202 AG 6206 BEROL 522 BEROL 725 BEROL 563 SA BEROL 563 MC BEROL 226 SA BEROL TFR BEROL DGR-81 BEROL LFG-61

Soil Type:
Grease/Oil **** *** *** ** ** *** *** **** **** **** *** **** **
The most important factor in designing the right
Particle ** **** ** ** ** ** * **** **** *** **** *** **
cleaner is to identify the main soil component and
Protein/Fat ** ** ** ** *** **** **** ** ** *** *** ** **
select surfactants that are optimal for these soils.
Protein/Fat1 * * ** *** *** ** ** * * * * *** ***
Important elements to keep in mind are the cloud
Grease/Particle *** ** ** * ** ** *** **** **** **** *** **** **
point of your nonionic, cloud point of your final
formula, CMC, CST of your surface and Mixed2 ** ** ** *** *** ** ** *** *** *** ** *** **
surfactant compatibility.
CLOUD POINT - NONIONIC SURFACTANTS Low Foam *** *** **** **** **** ** **** ** ** ** ** *** ****
The cloud point for a nonionic surfactant is the Hydrotrope Effect _ _ _ Not Required
* **** *** *** **** ****
temperature at which the surfactant becomes Temporary Corrosion No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No
insoluble in water. The solution will become het- Protection (Residual)
erogeneous and phase separation will occur upon Acid Stable Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
further increase in temperature. Hydrogen Peroxide Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
The optimal performance of a nonionic Stable3 Key
surfactant is obtained just below the cloud point Caustic Compatible Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes **** optimal surfactant
*** good surfactant
temperature. As the temperature approaches Suitable for Concentrated No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes ** acceptable surfactant
* poorest surfactant
the cloud point, the surfactant becomes increasing- Formulations
ly insoluble and readily penetrates the oil phase. Soluble in No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Yes 1 In a caustic base formula.

2 A mixed soil of protein,

A higher percentage of surfactant molecules High Caustic oil/fat and particulate.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Yes Yes Yes No 3 When formulated with a

interact with the grease and higher cleaning Self Spliting (Degreasing stabilized hydrogen
peroxide system.
efficiency is obtained. Formulations)
Elemental Phosphorous 0 0 0 0 0 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0
Content (%)
Temperature C



20 Addition of builders and/or chelating agents to The cloud point of the final formulation is extremely
a formulation reduces the cloud point of the important when removing soils heavy in greases
nonionic surfactant. Addition of a hydrotrope and oils. Grease/oil Low Cloud pt
0 improves the solubility on the nonionic thereby Particulate-based soils require dispersion,
increasing the cloud point of the formulation. so the cloud point of the formulation is not as criti- Soil type

The clarity interval is the temperature range cal. For particulate-based soils the most important
Nonionic Addition of Addition of Particulate High Cloud pt
in Water builder or hydrotrope over which the formulation is stable and clear. characteristics of the surfactant is its ability to dis-
chelating agent
perse soil and prevent re-deposition.