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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this project has


been made by RAHUL KUMAR of
class XII C on the topic FOAMING
CAPACITY OF SOAPS under the
guidence of our chemistry teacher
Mr. SITARAM SAINI and HAVE
BEEN completed it sucessfully.
Yours truely

RAHUL KUMAR
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my special
thanks of gratitude to my teacher MR.
SITARAM SAINI as well as our
principal MR. H.R. MEENA who gave
me the golden opportunity to do this
wonderful project on the topic
FOAMING CAPACITY OF SOAPS ,
which also helped me in doing a lot of
Research and i came to know about so
many new things I am really thankful
to them.
Secondly i would also like to thank my
parents and friends who helped me a
lot in finalizing this project within the
limited time frame.

INDEX
1.INTRODUCTION
2.COMMERCIAL
PREPARATION
3. EXPERIMENT
4.OBJECTIVE & THEORY
5.PROCEDURE
6.OBSERVATION TABLE
7.RESULT
8.TEST FOR HARDNESS
9.BIBILOGRAPHY

introduction
Soaps are sodium or potassium salts
of higher fatty acids like stearic,
palmitic and oleic acids can be either
saturated or unsaturated. They
contain a long hydrocarbon chain of
about 10-20 carbon with one
carboxylic acid group as the functional
group. A soap molecule a tadpole
shaped structure, whose ends have
different polarities. At one end is the
long hydrocarbon chain that is non-
polar and hydrophobic, i.e., insoluble
in water but oil soluble. At the other
end is the short polar carboxylate ion
which is hydrophilic i.e., water soluble
but insoluble in oil and grease. Long
Hydrocarbon Chain Hydrophobic end
Hydrophilic end When soap is shaken
with water it becomes a soap solution
that is colloidal in nature. Agitating it
tends to concentrate the solution on
the surface and causes foaming. This
helps the soap molecules make a
unimolecular film on the surface of
water and to penetrate the fabric. The
long non-polar end of a soap molecule
that are hydrophobic, gravitate
towards and surround the dirt (fat or
oil with dust absorbed in it). The short
polar end containing the carboxylate
ion, face the water away from the dirt.
A number of soap molecules surround
or encircle dirt and grease in a
clustered structure called 'micelles',
which encircles such particles and
emulsify them. Cleansing action of
soaps decreases in hard water. Hard
water contains Calcium and
magnesium ions which react with
sodium carbonate to produce
insoluble carbonates of higher fatty
acids.
This hardness can be removed by
addition of Sodium Carbonate.
COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS
The most popular soap making
process today is the cold process
method where fat such as olive oil
sector will strong alkaline solution wild
some Soapers use the historical hot
process
Handmade soap different from
industrial shopping, usually and I
accept that is sometimes used to
consume the alkali and is not
removed, leaving a natural
moisturizer soap and detergent
emollient search as search added
actress which is the saponification
process is sufficiently advanced that
the soap has begun after most of the
oils have saponified
So that they remain undirected in the
finished soap.
Soap is derived from either vegetable or
animal fats sodium tallowate is derived
from fat soap can also be made of
vegetable oils as palm oil and the product
is typically softer.
An array of saponification and fats are
used in the process of chest only with
coconut Palm oil to provide different
qualities for example only for oil provides
info coconut oil provides lots of leather
wild coconut and farmers provide
hardness
Sometimes castor oil can also be used as
an event.
Unsaponifiable oils and fats that do not
yield so headed for further benefits.
PREPARATIONS OF SOAPS
IN cold Process and hot process soap
making it may be required the cold
process of making take place at the
sufficient temperature set of a story the
fat big used process can be used right
away because the early and fat saponified
quickly at the higher temperature used in
hot process soap making. Cold process of
making required measurements of alkali
and mouse and computing the ratio using
saponification charts to answer that the
finished product is mild and skin friendly.
IN HOT PROCESS
Hot process in the hot process together at 80-
1000 c saponification which is the soap maker can
determine by taste or by eye.
COLD PROCESS
Cold which is the news to calculate the process
soap makes up the saponification value of the fat
used on a saponification chart appropriate amount
of alkali
Excess unreacted allegory in the shop will result
In a very high PH and can burn are edited skin not
enough so far easy teacher the alkalies dissolved
in water that also heated.
Then if the solid at room temperature .Once both
substances to have cooled to approximately 10
degrees fahrenheit guide this Twister interest
there are wearing levels of traces .
EXPERIMENT
Soap samples of various brands are taken
and their capacity with the next
informing capacities said to be heavy tails
capacities in notice sample taken
separately and their foaming capacity is
observed best cleaning capacity the test
request to be done with distilled water as
well as with the test of soap on distilled
water give the actual strength of the
cleaning capacity request to be done with
distilled water as well as Ca+2 ,Mg+2
capacity.
OBJECTIVE
To compare the foaming capacity of
various soaps.
THEORY
The foaming capacity of soaps upon the
nature of the shop and its concentration
this may be compared by equal having
the same concentrations which saves the
same amount of time used during
disappears gradually the time taken to
disappear in equal sample is determined
the longer the time take it for the form
today disappear elite sample is
determined the longer time taken for the
disappearance of the given sample
offshore of greater is its foaming capacity
cleaning action.

REQUIREMENTS
FIVE 100ml conical flask, 5 test tubes
100 ml measuring cylinder, test tube
stand, weighing machine ,stopwatch
CHEMICALS REQUIRED
5 different of Soap sample, distilled water
, tap water.

Procedure
1. Take 5 100ml conical flasks
add number 1.2345 p put
60 table of water in each
flask and add 8 grams of
soap.
2. Warm the contents to get a
solution.
3. Take 5 test tubes add 1 ml of
soap solution to 3 ml of
water
Repeat the process for each
soap solution in different test.
4. Close the mouths of the test
tube and vigorously for a
minute do the same for all
test tubes and with equal
force.
5. Start the timer immediately
and not is the rate of 2 mm
froth.
OBSERVATIONS
Test tube No. Volume of Volume Time taken for
soap of water disappearance
solutions added
1.Dove 8ml 16ml 1142
2.lux 8ml 16ml 328
3.Tetmosol 8ml 16ml 510
4.Santoor 8ml 16ml 1532
5.Cinthol 8ml 16ml 940
RESULT
The cleansing capacity of soaps taken is
in the order
SANTOOR>DOVE>CINTHOL>TETMOSOL>LUX
From these experiment we can infer that santoor
has the highest foaming capacity in other words
highest cleaning capacity l
Lux on the other hand is found to be have least
amount of time taken disapperance of the foam
Produced and thus is said to be have least foaming
capacity and cleansing capacity test for handness
in water.
TEST for Ca+2 and Mg+2 salts in the water supplied
Test for Ca+2 in water .
H2O + NH4Cl +NH4OH+(NH4)2CO3
No precipitate.
That show negative result for the presence of salts
Causing hardness in water.The water used doesnt
contain salts of Ca+2 and Mg+2 .the tap water
provided is soft and thus the experimental.

BIBILOGRAPHY

1.Together with lab manual chemistry class xii


2.NCERT books of chemistry
3.www.yahoo.com
4.www.google.com
5.www.cbse.nic.in
6.www.ask.com

G.S.B.V. Matiala
Name - Rahul kumar
Class - xii c
Roll no. - 9696174
Subject - chemistry
Project submitted to
MR.SITARAM
SAINI