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N ational S urvey on D rug Use and H ealth

The NSDUH Report August 12, 2005

C
ocaine, including crack cocaine,
Cocaine Use: was responsible for 12.8 percent
of admissions to substance abuse
2002 and 2003 treatment services in 2002.1 The National
Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)
asks persons aged 12 or older to report their
use of illicit drugs, including cocaine. NSDUH
defines cocaine use as use of cocaine in any
In Brief form, including crack cocaine. NSDUH also
asks a separate question about the use of crack
● In 2002 and 2003, more cocaine. This report examines past year
than 5.9 million (2.5 percent) cocaine and crack cocaine use among persons
persons aged 12 years or aged 12 or older, as well as cocaine abuse or
dependence. NSDUH defines dependence
older used cocaine in the
on or abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol using
past year criteria specified in the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-
● Cocaine use rates ranged
IV),2 including symptoms such as withdrawal,
from 1.6 percent in Idaho to tolerance, use in dangerous situations, trouble
3.9 percent in Colorado with the law, and interference in major
obligations at work, school, or home during
● Males were more than twice the past year. All findings presented in this
as likely as females to have report are annual averages based on
used cocaine in the past combined 2002 and 2003 NSDUH data.3
year and to have met the
criteria for abuse of or Cocaine Use
dependence on cocaine in In 2002 and 2003, 5.9 million (2.5 percent)
the past year persons aged 12 or older used cocaine in the
past year, and more than 2.1 million (0.9 per-
cent) persons used cocaine in the past month.
Persons aged 18 to 25 (6.7 percent) had a
higher rate of past year cocaine use than
The NSDUH Report (formerly The NHSDA Report) is published periodically by the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Services Administration (SAMHSA). All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission
from SAMHSA. Additional copies of this report or other reports from the Office of Applied Studies are available online: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov
Citation of the source is appreciated. For questions about this report, please e-mail: shortreports@samhsa.hhs.gov
NSDUH REPORT: COCAINE USE: 2002 AND 2003 August 12, 2005

persons aged 26 or older (1.9 percent) and youths


aged 12 to 17 (1.9 percent) (Figure 1). Males (3.4 Figure 1. Percentages of Past Year Cocaine* and
Crack Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Age
percent) were more than twice as likely as females
Group: 2002 and 2003
(1.6 percent) to have used cocaine in the past year.
Asians had the lowest rate of past year cocaine use 8%
(0.7 percent) compared with other racial/ethnic Cocaine
groups (Figure 2).4 6.7 Crack

6%
State Estimates of Cocaine Use
Figure 3 presents State-level estimates of the rate of
cocaine use in the past year.5 States with the highest 4%
rates fall into the top quintile (fifth) and are shown in
red; States with the lowest rates are in the bottom
quintile and are shown in dark blue. Cocaine use 1.9 1.9
rates ranged from 1.6 percent in Idaho to 3.9 percent 2%

in Colorado.6 0.9
0.6
0.4

0%
Crack Cocaine 12 to 17 18 to 25 26 or Older
An estimated 1.5 million (0.6 percent) persons aged
12 or older used crack cocaine in the past year, and
586,000 (0.2 percent) persons used crack cocaine in Figure 2. Percentages of Past Year Cocaine* and
the past month. Persons aged 18 to 25 (0.9 percent) Crack Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by
Race/Ethnicity: 2002 and 2003
had the highest rate of past year crack use, followed
by persons aged 26 or older (0.6 percent) and youths
aged 12 to 17 (0.4 percent) (Figure 1). Males (0.9 American 3.8
percent) were more than twice as likely as females Indian or
Alaska Native 1.3
(0.4 percent) to have used crack cocaine in the past
year. Asians had the lowest rate of past year crack
cocaine use (0.1 percent) compared with other racial/ 2 or 3.7

ethnic groups. Blacks (1.6 percent), American Indians More Races 1.5
or Alaska Natives (1.3 percent), Native Hawaiians or
Other Pacific Islanders (1.2 percent), and persons who Native Hawaiian 3.1
identified themselves with two or more non-Hispanic or Other
Pacific Islander 1.2
races (1.5 percent) had higher rates of past year crack
cocaine use than whites (0.5 percent) and Hispanics
Hispanic 2.8
or Latinos (0.5 percent).
or Latino 0.5

Cocaine Abuse or Dependence Black or 2.6


African
In 2002 and 2003, more than 1.5 million (0.6 percent) American 1.6
persons aged 12 or older met the criteria for abuse of
or dependence on cocaine in the past year. Persons 2.5
White
aged 18 to 25 (1.2 percent) had the highest rate of 0.5
past year cocaine abuse or dependence, followed by
persons aged 26 or older (0.6 percent) and youths 0.7
aged 12 to 17 (0.4 percent). Males (0.9 percent) were Cocaine
Asian
0.1 Crack
more than twice as likely as females (0.4 percent) to
have met the criteria for cocaine abuse or dependence.
0% 1% 2% 3% 4%
Blacks (1.1 percent) and Hispanics (0.9 percent) had
August 12, 2005 NSDUH REPORT: COCAINE USE: 2002 AND 2003

Figure 3. Percentages of Persons Aged 12 or Older Reporting Past Year Cocaine Use, by State: 2002-2003

Percentages
of Persons
2.77 – 3.90
2.49 – 2.76
2.31 – 2.48
2.13 – 2.30
1.64 – 2.12

higher rates of cocaine abuse or 2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). the following publication: Wright, D., & Sathe,
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental N. (2005). State estimates of substance use
dependence than whites (0.5 th
disorders (4 ed.). Washington, DC: Author. from the 2002-2003 National Surveys on Drug
percent), and the rate for Asians 3. National estimates for persons aged 12 or older
Use and Health (DHHS Publication No. SMA
05-3989, NSDUH Series H-26). Rockville, MD:
(0.1 percent) was lower than that who used cocaine in their lifetime and during
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
the past year were similar for 2002 and 2003.
for blacks, Hispanics, whites, The 2002 and 2003 NSDUH data were
Administration, Office of Applied Studies.
[Available at http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/
American Indians or Alaskan combined to increase the sample size.
states.htm]
Natives (1.2 percent), and non- 4. Race/ethnicity categories are determined by
6. Associated with each State estimate is a 95
combining the responses from separate race
Hispanic persons who identified and ethnicity questions. For this report,
percent prediction interval (PI). These intervals
indicate the precision of the estimate. The 95
themselves with two or more respondents identifying themselves as Hispanic
percent PI for Colorado is from 3.04 to 4.99
were assigned to the Hispanic group regardless
races (0.9 percent). of their racial identification. Respondents
percent; the 95 percent PI for Idaho is from
1.22 to 2.21 percent.
identifying themselves as non-Hispanic were
grouped according to their racial identification.
End Notes Thus, “white” refers to those identifying
themselves as non-Hispanic and white. Figure Notes
1. Office of Applied Studies. (2004). Treatment
5. State estimates presented in this report are * NSDUH defines cocaine use as use of cocaine
Episode Data Set (TEDS) highlights - 2002.
based on data collected in 2002 and 2003 and in any form, including crack cocaine. NSDUH
National admissions to substance abuse
were developed using a small area estimation also asks a separate question about the use of
treatment services (DHHS Publication No. SMA
(SAE) procedure in which State-level NSDUH crack cocaine.
04-3946, Drug and Alcohol Services Information
data were combined with local-area county and
System Series S-22). Retrieved June 28, 2005,
census block group/tract-level data from the Source: SAMHSA, 2002 and 2003 NSDUH.
from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/dasis.htm#teds2
States. For a more complete description, see

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health The NSDUH Report is prepared by the Office of Also available online: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov
(NSDUH) is an annual survey sponsored by the Applied Studies (OAS), SAMHSA, and by RTI
Because of improvements and modifications to
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services International in Research Triangle Park, North
the 2002 NSDUH, estimates from the 2002 and
Administration (SAMHSA). Prior to 2002, this Carolina. (RTI International is a trade name of
2003 surveys should not be compared with
survey was called the National Household Survey Research Triangle Institute.)
estimates from the 2001 or earlier versions of
on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). The 2002 data are
Information and data for this issue are based on the survey to examine changes over time.
based on information obtained from 68,126 persons
the following publication and statistics:
aged 12 or older, and the 2003 data are based
on information obtained from 67,784 persons Office of Applied Studies. (2004). Results from the
aged 12 or older. The survey collects data by 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES
administering questionnaires to a representative National findings (DHHS Publication No. SMA 04- Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration
3964, NSDUH Series H-25). Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies
sample of the population through face-to-face www.samhsa.gov
interviews at their place of residence. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Administration.