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Fashion: A

Comparative Study on
How Trends Represent
a Society's Principles
Marissa Armstrong
Diana Gomez
JAPN 403
Oct. 19th, 2016
● Research Questions
● Significance of the study
● Research Background
● Research Method
● Sample Survey Questions
● Bibliography/References
Research Questions

1. How do Japanese and American university students use
their style to represent their identity?
2. What effect do media outlets have on university students'
personal style and what they choose to buy?
Significance ● Interest in fashion

of the Study: ● Observation of American & Japanese styles
were vastly different
Marissa ● Price plays a role in decision to buy
● Magazines compared to Social Networking
Services (SNS)
Significance ● Love shopping

of the Study: ● Lived in Tokyo

Diana ● Obirin - liberal arts school
● Trendy vs. fashionable
● GU, Uniqlo, Wego most popular stores
● Japanese have magazines and US has social
Research Background
● History of American and Japanese Fashion
● Media Effects
● American and Japanese Personality Stereotypes
(Individualism & Collectivism)
History of Fashion
America Japan
● Fit & Quality ●
Media Effects
America Japan
● ● Dokusho model represents
general consumer (Suzuki,
● Kogaru are trendy, urban girls
(Suzuki, 2003)
Media Outlets
America Japan
● ● Dokusha models are
influential (Suzuki, 2016)
“Comparison of ● How fit & style play a role in purchasing
○ U.S. → fit/quality
clothing purchase ○ Japan → color/style

behavior between ● Different meanings of fashion

US and Japanese ● Different sources of inspiration

female university
○ U.S. → electronic sources

○ Japan → fashion magazines/displays

“Dress casual: ●

Students rejected formality
Connection between class & leisure
how college ● Also addresses impact of WWII on
students style

● Traces origin of collegiate style
○ Beyond the campus
American style”
“The impact of ● Facebook & Twitter
○ Recommendations
social ○ Consumption

networking sites ○ Gender

on college ● Befriended business = higher
consumption rate
“Capturing ● Website attributes

college students
○ Design/methodology/approach

Surveyed US college students
on the web:

● Three factors proved most valuable
analysis of ○ Product info

clothing web site ○ Customer service

attributes” ○ Ease of navigation
“Materialistic, ● Factors of brand loyalty

brand engaged
○ Influence of materialism

○ Brand engagement in self-concept
and status (BESC)

consuming ○ Achieving and expressing status

consumers and ● Women more materialistic

clothing ● Age not related

● Materialism and brand loyalty
highly related
“The emergence ●

Kogaru are a “social type”
Fashionable, trendy, urban girls
of trendsetters ● Resources required to become
for fashions and trendsetters

fads: kogaru in
○ Time

○ Disposable income

1990s japan” ○ Communication networks
“Dressing ● Looking at pursuit of modern
smartly: ○ Functionality

education for ○

Ability to wash
modernization of ○ Manufacturing

clothing ● Decrease in quality production due

education (Part 1:
to ready-made clothing
● Re-examines the way clothing
it’s background & education should be

“Dressing ● What is considered fashion to
young people

smartly: ● Analyzed 3 male & 3 female fashion

education for
magazine subscribers for 12 months
● Men chose look/style
modernization of ● Women chose abundance in color

education (Part 3:
analyzing fashion
“A comparative
● Questionnaire Survey
● Results divided into 4 factors

study of the
○ Self-Assertiveness
○ Individualism

acceptance of
○ Imitativeness
○ Competitiveness
● Self-assertive people like individualistic
clothing & ●

Individualistic people like to be noticed
Imitators gain confidence by copying
fashion by ●
friends and trends
Minority - those who want to be
others” ●
EXACTLY like majority
Majority - live everyone else BUT
containing sense of personal style
“Endorser ● Whether magazine models
influence the consumer

effectiveness by ● Magazine models represent the

reader model in
general consumer
● 5 key words:
fashion magazine ○ Sincere

advertisement” ○ Impressive

○ Persuasive

○ Reliable

○ Suitable

● Magazine models are influential
Research Method

Total of 60 University Students (30 Japanese University Students and 30
American Students)
● Demographics: 30 Japanese University Students →15 Female, 15
● 30 American University Students →15 Female, 15 Male
● Age range 18-60
Research Tools: Google Forms
Sample Survey Questions

● "Choose 1 male and 1 female outfit that you think would be considered the
most acceptable in your country?" (we will attach 3 male and 3 female images of
different outfit styles)
● "What words most describe your style?" (laid back, cute, sporty, simple, sleek,
trendy, etc.)
● "When buying a clothing item, what factors are the most important for you?
Pick 2. (Longevity, quality, price, style, brand, individuality, other)
● “Which media outlet influences your fashion style the most?” (Instagram,
Pinterest, Facebook, Magazines, Television, other)
Bibliography (1)
Yoo-Kyoung Seock, & Marjorie J.T. Norton. (2007). Capturing college students on the web: Analysis of clothing web site
attributes. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 11(4), 539-552.
Goldsmith, R. E., Flynn, L. R., & Clark, R. A. (2012). Materialistic, brand engaged and status consuming consumers and clothing
behaviors. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 16(1), 102-119.
Suzuki, T., & Best, J. (2003). The Emergence of Trendsetters for Fashions and Fads: Kogaru in 1990s Japan. The Sociological
Quarterly,44(1), 61-79. Retrieved from
Paoletti, J. (2014). Dress casual: How college students redefined american style. Canadian Journal of History, 49(3), 533-534.
Thoene, W. S. (2012). The impact of social networking sites on college students' consumption patterns (Order No. 1510342).
Available from ABI/INFORM Collection; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text: The Humanities and Social Sciences
Collection. (1016196802). Retrieved from
Kawabata, H. , & Rabolt, N. (1999). Comparison of clothing purchase behaviour between us and japanese female university
students. Journal of Consumer Studies & Home Economics, 23(4), 213-223
Bibliography (2)
松本浩司. (2016). 教養としての被服教育を現代化するためのおしゃれ教育学(1):序説・その背景と目指すべき方向性.
名古屋学院大学論集社会科学篇, 53(3), 141-154. doi:
松本浩司. (2016). 教養としての被服教育を現代化するためのおしゃれ教育学(3) : ファッション雑誌を分析する. 名古屋
学院大学論集社会科学篇, 53(1), 53-64. doi:
鈴木嘉彦. (2016). 女性ファッション誌における読者モデルの推奨者効果に関する研究. 埼玉大学経済学会, 13, 37-47.
Retrieved from
西田瞳. (2015).「装い」と「ファッション」の取り入れにおける他者比較の心理. 同志社女子大学大学院文学研究科紀要,
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