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Project Report

On

ATM

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of 5th sem.

Of
Bachelor of computer application

Submitted to

C.C.S University Meerut

2016-2017

Submitted by

Vikas Kumar, (9688093)

Ravi Kumar, (9688070)

Mohd. Shahzad, (9688049)

Under the supervision of

Ms. Aarti Yadav

Department Of Computer Application

Beacon Institute Of Technology, Meerut


Table Of Contents

Introduction

Problem Statement

Basic introduction of Project

Objective and Scope

Tools and Technology used

System Analysis

Preliminary Analysis and information gathering

Feasibility study

Input Output

System requirements specification

Software Engineering model used

Cost Estimation

System Design

Project Planning

Modules

Data flow diagram

E-R diagram

Limitation and Future Aspects

Conclusion

References
CERTIFICATE-1

It is certified that project report ATMSubmitted by Vikas Kumar,


(9688093) , Ravi Kumar (9688070), Mohd. Shahzad,(9688049) in partial
fulfillment of the requirement of Degree of BCA, embodies original work and
has been done under my supervision

Dated: . Sign of Guide


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincerest gratitude to my respected teacher Ms.AATI


YADAV under whose supervision and direction this project has been
undertaken. He is the guiding force and prime inspiration to lift me from the
initialization state to the successful completion of the project. His friendly
guidance and discussions over the complexities of a real time project have
invoked a deep thought in me.
Undertaking a project such as this places an equal if not greater
pressure on friends and family members closest to me. Thanks to all those
who helped me in one-way or other, and to all, whose names go unmentioned.

Vikas Kumar, (9688093)

Ravi Kumar, (9688070)

Mohd. Shahzad, (9688049)

PREFACE
The entitled project Computerization of services in Hotels and Hotel
Management-A Comparative study of public and private sector Hotels in
Himachal Pradesh is made keeping in mind all the aspects of the hotels. By
all the aspects I mean, it will be capable of doing all the necessary
operations/functions that are done in any Hotel for example-reservation of the
customer, booking of the customer ,clearing the Guest Folio of the customer
etc. Since all the work that is to be done by this software can also be done
manually, but this consumes time and labour. So this software will be a relief
to those who have to do all this work manually. The knowledge of computers
and programming has become a basic skill needed to survive in present
information based on society.
The motive to make this project is to make such kind of software which
is very easy to use. There will not be need of any training and the person who
does not have much knowledge of computers can also use this .Through this
project the details of the customers that visit in the hotel can be retrieved if
necessary. All the records of the customers will be kept for further enquiries.

Vikas Kumar, (9688093)

Ravi Kumar, (9688070)

Mohd. Shahzad, (9688049)


. INTRODUCTION
Problem Statement:

Basic introduction of Project:

Viewed from a purely technical perspective, an ATM is simply a safe with an


electro-mechanical input and output system which is itself controlled by a fully
electronic user interface.
Organization that manufacture ATMs include Fujitsu, IBM NCR and
Siemens-Nixdorf expended great effort on the user interface itself; taking into
considerable care to maximize the speed of the entire customer interaction and
keeping the language the used for the interaction process a clear and
straightforward as feasible. Most ATMs nowadays use a cathode-ray tube (CRT)
for the visual interface, although some ATMs of an older design make use of a
system where by the different interface pages are scrolled mechanically behind
a glass screen. Incidentally, one reason why colors ATM screens have not taken
off is because no one has yet developed a reliable color screens which is easily
visible in exterior daylight.
It is important that a ATMs user interface should not only be easy to use
and clearly understandable but should be designed so as to minimize the
likelihood of the customer leaving without taking from the machine all the
things he needs to take. These are the cash, paper receipt and above all, the card.
There is no doubt that the card is the most likely items to be forgotten by a
customer, who sees the purpose of the interactive process being to obtain cash.
Consequently, ATMs usually have some kind of sound alarm, which only ceases
when the customer has removed his card from the slot. Some machines also
provide visual message to remind the customer to retrieve the card, especially if
the functions is one where the customer is not going to lingering by the machine
until the cash has been dispensed.
In order to prevent security problem if the customer nevertheless forgets
to retrieve the card, the machine will swallow the card after a short period
normally about 30 seconds. The customer will then usually need to apply
centrally to get the card returned, although if ATM is situated in the lobby or
through the wall of a branch where he is known, he can sometimes get the card
back from the ATM by asking for the branch to extract it.
The machines currently in use allow user to draw any sum of up to a
limited account, view the current position of their accounts and order a new
chequebook. To obtain money from the unit the customer need special ATM
card and is notified of personal identification number, which is not shown on the
face of the card. The card must to be inserted into machine and the personal
number typed in. the machine will validate the code number and if correct will
allow access the banks computer to check the account balance and if there are
sufficient funds, to withdraw cash.

History of atm:
ATM can be traced back to the 1960s, when the first ATM machine was
invented by Scot John Shepherd-Barron and used by Barclays Bank in 1967.
However, while Shepherd-Barron has the major claim to fame, there have been
many other individuals who have also invented some version of the ATM. The
machine itself has evolved over the years, with the earlier versions restricted to
only one or few banking functions. There has been much debate, however, on
who invented the first early versions of Automated Teller Machine. But the
history of ATM can be visibly traced back to the year of 1967.
In 1939, a rudimentary cash dispenser was invented by Luther George Simijian
and established by the City Bank of New York. However, the machine did not
work much and had to be removed within six months of putting up the machine.
The early versions of the ATM were restricted to cash withdrawal only. In the
1967 model, patented by Shepherd-Barron, the plastic cards did not exist and
instead a voucher with a strip of radioactive substance was used for
withdrawing cash. Consequently, the vouchers were matched with a particular
personal pin code used by the bank to identify the customer. The ATM was
inaugurated by renowned British actor, Reg Varney. The personal identification
number was initially a six numbered password, and was later changed to a four
numbered password. However, this automated teller machine was very different
from the modern day teller machines, which is based on an electronic system
between the different branches of the bank. Thus, the history of ATM has seen
many changes over the span of 25 years since 1939.

Another co-patent to the invention of the ATM was Don Wetzel, the Vice
President of Product Planning at Docutel. While the conceptualization began in
1968, the patent was issued only in 1973. This cash dispenser was first used by
the New York based bank, namely, the Chemical Bank. As was the case with the
ATMs of during those years, they were hardly a multi-functional unit.
Moreover, they were not based on any electronic system. Hence, the debit cards,
distinct from credit cards, were given to only selected clients with good track
records. The first ATM cards, with magnetic strips were developed by three
individuals, namely Don Wetzel, Tom Barnes and George Chastain. While there
were many developments in the history of ATM, the service itself took a
stronghold only in the 1970s. Today, the ATM service has become indispensable
to our modern day lives.
Objective and Scope:

To make observation about the concepts & functions of Automated


Teller Machine.
To analyses & discuss the strategic issues present in Automated Teller
Machine.
To understand the nature & structure of Automated Teller Machine.
To link theoretical knowledge with real life.
Scope of the study
The contemporary study of Automated Teller Machine in this project
based on the sample of the different sectors of the banks.
HDFC Bank.
IDBI Bank.
These sample banks have been selected at random. Rather keeping the
consideration of mouth publicity factor by the customer orientation repute
has made the choice.
Tools and Technology used/ Methodology:

The completion of the project involved acute scanning of the library and
different text books. A lot of information has also gathered from the web.

A visit to HDFC Bank and IDBI Bank also made to gather information
pertaining to the project.

The information collected has been diluted and presented in very simple
and lucid manner, which will help the reader to understand the topic.

Scope:
The software supports a computerized banking network called Bank24. The
network enables customers to complete simple bank account services via
automated teller machines (ATMs) that maybe located off premise and that need
not be owned and operated by the customers bank. The ATM identifies a
customer by a cash card and password. It collects information about a simple
account transaction (e.g., deposit, withdrawal, transfer, bill payment),
communicates the transaction information to the customers bank, and dispenses
cash to the customer. The banks provide their own software for their own
computers. The Bank24 software requires appropriate record keeping and
security provisions. The software must handle concurrent accesses to the same
account correctly.

System Analysis:
Study of Current System

The OBS Administration falls short of controlling the employees


activities in analyzing his/her strengths and weakness. The decision for
appraisal of assigning next project to the employee or to train him/her to
enhance the skills where lies with proper projection. He is not provided
with the detailed project information done or to be assigned based on
Application / Verticals.
4.2 Problem and Weaknesses of Current System

Need of extra manual effort.


It used to take much time to find any employee
Not very much accurate.
Danger of losing the files in some cases.

4.3 Requirements of New System

Decision in assigning proper skillful hands for the project is an


important issue in OBS Module. The OBS Administrator should report
with the personal holding the necessary skills required for the project
assignment. The decision in making analysis about the employees skills
is a prime important before booting in. The proposed system of OBS
Module is the right software to be incorporated into the Automation of
OBS Software for helping the organization needs with respect to skilful
Human Resource.
The proposed system provides detail general information about the
employee along with Educational, Certification, Skill and Project details.
It enhances the OBS Management in adding, viewing and updating
employees details and generates various reports regarding employees
skill and experience. Suggestions and Grievances posted by the
employees are upheld for taking care of the necessary steps in forwarding
companys obligation.
.
ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:

Very fast and accurate.


No need of any extra manual effort.
No fever of data loss.
Just need a little knowledge to operate the system.
Preliminary Analysis and information gathering:

Project development approach

The Spiral model is an evolutionary software process model


that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled
and systematic aspects of the linear sequential model. It provides
the potential for rapid development of incremental versions of the
software. Using the spiral model, software is developed in series of
incremental release.

A spiral model is divided into a number of framework activities,


also called task regions. There are between three and six task
regions. Figure depicts a spiral model that contains six task
regions:

Customer communication tasks required to establish


effective communication between developer and
customer.

Planning tasks required to define resources, timelines,


and other project related information.

Risk analysis tasks required to assess both technical and


management risks.

Engineering tasks required to build one or more


representations of the application.
Construction and release tasks required to construct,
test, install, and provide user support.

Customer evolution tasks required to obtain customer


feedback based on evolution of the software
representations created during the engineering stage and
implemented during the installation stage.

Each of the regions is populated by a set of work tasks, called a


task set, that are adapted to the characteristics of the project to be
undertaken. For small projects, the number of work tasks and their
formality is low. For larger, more critical projects, each task region
contains more work tasks that are defined to achieve a higher level
of formality.

In our case, we have to provide medium level of formality for


making a good project report. We will take decision about cost,
schedule and number of iterations required to complete the
software.

PROJECT ESTIMATING AND COST MANAGEMENT


individual component resource expenditure and costs, as well as those for the
total project, should always be at the disposal of the project stakeholders.
When the project is in its formative stages, very little information is
available. Consequently, the accuracy and dependability of the estimate are
very low. In other words, the risks of unforeseen and undesirable occurrences
in the project are very high. Therefore, early plans and budgets are usually far
from definitive and rarely predict the actual cost of individual components
and the definitive cost of the total project. By contrast, at the early stages of
the project, modifications to project plans can be formulated and conducted
with minimal impact on cost and schedule. As the project proceeds into
the various stages of growth, the cost of implementing modifications to the
baseline plan increases substantially.
It would be unrealistic to expect good planning to eliminate the occurrence
of all unexpected events. On the other hand, it is logical to expect a
reduction in the magnitude and impact of project changes when the project
is implemented with careful planning. Whereas a project with casually evolving
plans contains many unexpected changes, a well-planned project has a
significantly lower occurrence of unexpected events. It is therefore essential
that the project manager conduct careful early planning to minimize the
frequency and impact of project changes.
Even if the estimate of costs were reasonably accurate based on the
detailed information available at the time of the early estimates, it is very
likely that implementation costs will not match the planned costs due to
changes in client requirements, design philosophy, and project environment.
Thus, the data collected during the progress monitoring process are used to
quantify the impact of the changes on the general direction of the project's
overall performance.
The next step is to determine whether or not the performance variances
and trends are significant. If variances are deemed significant, an adjustment
of the triple constraints must be considered. This adjustment could be as
simple as a change to the budget value. Alternately, in response to these new
developments in the project environment, the adjustment could involve a
change to the values of all triple constraints.
The basic administrative structure of a typical cost management system
includes a change management board, a configuration management board,
a change request form, and a change log. The change management board
and configuration management board review the changes from a project
management and a technological standpoint, respectively

If the project is an external project, the change management board is


composed of the project manger, the client liaison, technical personnel, and
a contract officer. The change management board defines and implements
the process of handling project change requests. During the implementation
phase, the board ensures compliance with these established processes and
procedures.
The change management board is composed of all the technical specialties
represented in the project deliverable, the client representative,
and the project management personnel. The configuration management
board is charged with monitoring and documenting functional and physical
characteristics of the deliverable's components as defined in the original
project documents. Further, it is charged with managing the changes to
these characteristics, optimizing the effects of the changes, and verifying
conformance of the deliverable's attributes with the client's evolving
specifications.
As an example, the change management board would review, in light
of the client's current expectations, the impact that a change in a sobare
module might have on the delivery date and on the total cost of the project.
On the other hand, the configuration board would be concerned with the
impact of these changes on the inputloutput structure of other modules,
processing speed, maintenance complications, database duplication, and
system complexity.
Procedural consistency in data collection and reporting will encourage
the review of changes by the stakeholders, thus preventing ad-hoc
implementation
of changes. Figures 6-1 and 6-2 show a sample change request form
Purpose
- Standardize the Change Request Information
Common Elements
- Name of Requester
- Requester's Organization
- Date of Request
- Description
- Current Status
- Action Requested
- Change Request Number
- ImpactIBenefit of Change

PROJECT ESTIMATING AND COST MANAGEMENT


Purpose
- To Provide a Documented Record of the Change
Requests Received during the Project
Common Elements
- Name of Requester
- Requester's Organization
- Date of Request
- Description
- Current Status
- Action Requested
- Change Request Number
- ImpactIBenefit of Change
and a typical format for the change management log. The change request
form is the prescribed mechanism by which project changes are requested,
approved, and announced. The change log is an historical account of the
evolution history for scope, configuration, cost, and schedule. Maintaining
the delicate balance between providing timely and complete flow of information
to those who need it, while not overwhelming those who do not need
to receive all the information, is essential in the cost management process. As
each report is designed, defined, and distributed, special attention must be
paid to the rationale for sending a particular report to a particular individual.
The expected response from the recipient of that report should also be
defined in detail. Finally, the cost management process need not be very
elaborate, but needs to be formalized if the project is very small or if it
involves only three or four people.
The necessary data and the essential tools of cost management activities
include the current and updated WBS, cash flow constraints, details of
current estimates and budgets, timely progress reports, accurate change
reports, and cost management software responsive to the specific needs of that
particular project. Project management should never allow the shortcomings
and constraints of the project management software package to handicap
the cost management process. Common solutions for overcoming shortcomings
of the standard packages include opting for an add-on to the package
or augmenting the software with another accounting software such as a
spreadsheet or a database package. Of course, in the best interests of the
project, selecting a different software package should always be an option.

If the final definitive budget is established from an early inaccurate


estimate, the project stakeholders must be sensitive to the precision limitations
of those estimates. In other words, the project estimate should be
treated as a living document and updated as frequently as possible. Therefore,
it is a reasonable to expect that the estimate of the project's total cost will vary
with every estimate update, although a change in estimate will not necessarily
trigger a change in budget.
The cost management process should not be treated as separate from the
estimating and budgeting processes. Estimating and cost management should
be treated as the integrated principal component of a process composed of the
following revolving phases: developing the estimate, establishing the budget,
managing the inevitable changes to the project, and making modifications
to the estimate.
Experienced project managers are fully aware that treating the budget as
an immovable object does not prevent cost variations; it simply discourages
good record keeping, and makes data unavailable that might have isolated
and explained the very possible future cost overruns. When the variance
between the current and forecasted cost values exceeds the threshold set by
the project manager, he or she should request that the budget be adjusted
to the then-current value of the estimate. Understandably, some project
environments preclude this process. In such organizations, project managers
tend to add contingency buffers to the early estimates to mitigate the impact
of future changes. On rare occasions, project managers do not explicitly show
these buffers as such; they simply report the buffer-modified estimate as the
definitive estimate. This practice is not recommended because it distorts the
historical data collection necessary for improving future estimates.
During the implementation phase, the project manager will be placed in
situations where he or she must make tradeoffs among the triple constraints
of the project. The process of making tradeoffs is a consistent one if the
project manager, together with the stakeholders, has determined the ranking
of the triple constraints. Making such a ranking is very difficult for the
stakeholders because they often hold all the triple constraints as important
and somewhat unchangeable. However, the question to ask is, if it is imperative
to make a choice between, for example, cost and schedule, which one
will take priority over the other?

Feasibility study:

Once the problem is clearly understood, the next step is to conduct


feasibility study, which is high-level capsule version of the entered
systems and design process. The objective is to determine whether or not
the proposed system is feasible. The tOBSee tests of feasibility have been
carried out.

Technical Feasibility
Economical Feasibility
Operational Feasibility

TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY

In Technical Feasibility study, one has to test whether the proposed


system can be developed using existing technology or not. It is planned to
implement the proposed system using java technology. It is evident that
the necessary hardware and software are available for development and
implementation of the proposed system. Hence, the solution is technically
feasible.

ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY

As part of this, the costs and benefits associated with the proposed system
compared and the project is economically feasible only if tangible or
intangible benefits outweigh costs. The system development costs will be
significant. So the proposed system is economically feasible.
OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY

It is a standard that ensures interoperability without stifling competition


and innovation among users, to the benefit of the public both in terms of
cost and service quality. The proposed system is acceptable to users. So
the proposed system is operationally feasible.

System Requirements Specification / System Engineering Model


Used:

Hardware Configuration:-

AMD Anthlon 64 Processor 3200+ CPU


2.00 GHz, 256 MB DDR SDRAM
80 GB Hard Disk
15 Color Monitor
52X CD-RW
Multimedia Keyboard, Optical Mouse.

System Software:-

Microsoft Windows-XP Professional


J2sdk-1_4_1_01-windows-i586
Notepad
MS Access-2003
MS Word-2003 for report Typing

Power Conditioning:-

UPS 600 VA with 30 minutes Battery Backup

Software Engineering model used:

There are mainly two types of ATMs which differ according to the way they
operate. They can be called as
Leased-line ATM
Dial-up ATM machines
Any ATM machine needs a data terminal with two inputs and four output
devices. Of course, for this to happen there should also be the availability of a
host processor. The host processor is necessary so that the ATM can connect and
also communicate with the person requesting the cash. The Internet Service
Provider (ISP) also plays an important role in this action. They act as the
gateway to the intermediate networks and also the bank computer.
A leased-line ATM machine has a 4-wire, point to point dedicated
telephone line which helps in connecting it with the host processor. These types
of machines are preferred in places where the user volume is high. They are
considered high end and the operating costs of this type of a machine is very
high.
The dial-up ATM machines only has a normal phone line with a modem
and a toll free number. As these are normal connections their initial installation
cost is very less and their operating costs only become a fraction of that of a
leased-line ATM.
The host is mainly owned by the bank. It can also be owned by an ISP. If
the host is owned by the bank only machines that work for that particular bank
will be supported.
8. PARTS OF ATM

As told earlier, there are mainly two input devices and four output devices
for an ATM. The input devices are:

Card Reader This is a part of the identification of your particular account


number. For this the magnetic stripe on the back of the ATM card is either
swiped or pressed on the card reader so that it captures your account
information. To understand the account information of the user, the data from
the card is passed on to the host processor. The host processor thus uses this
data to get the information from the card holders bank.

Keypad After the card is recognized, the machine asks further details like the
type of withdrawal you prefer, your balance enquiry, and your personal
identification number (PIN) and so on. Since each card has a unique PIN
number, there is very little chance for someone else to withdraw money from
your account. There are also separate laws to protect the PIN code while
sending it to the host processor. So, the PIN number is mostly sent in encrypted
form.
If your pin number is correct the ATM makes the necessary transactions for the
required amount.

For this transaction, there are mainly four outputs. They are:

Speaker When a particular key is pressed, the speaker provides the feedback
as audio.

Display Screen The questions asked by the ATM machine regarding the
transaction and the input from the user is all displayed on the display screen.
Each step of withdrawal is shown by the display screen. A CRT screen or even
an LCD screen is commonly used as an LCD screen.
Receipt printer All the details regarding your withdrawal like the date and
time and the amount withdrawn and also the balance amount in the bank is also
shown in the receipt. Thus a paper receipt of the current transaction is obtained
by the user.
Cash dispenser This is the central system of the ATM machine. This is from
where the required money is obtained. From this portion the person can collect
the money.
Functions of the Cash Dispenser:
As the whole mechanism is regarding the withdrawal of cash, the cash
dispenser should be highly efficient. These are the main functions that are to be
carried out by the cash dispenser.
It is the duty of the cash dispenser to count each bill and give the required
amount. If there are cases where the bills are stuck together they should be
rejected and instead new notes should be taken. If the money is worn, or even
folded, they will be moved to another section called the reject bin. All these
actions are carried out by high-precision sensors.
There may be cases where the sensors may go wrong. To know this, the
person responsible for the machine checks the number of rejected notes at a
certain interval. If the numbers of notes are a lot than expected, then it would
indicate that either the quality of the bills is not good or there is a problem with
the cash dispenser.
A complete record of each transaction made by a particular ATM machine
is recorded each day and is kept as a journal. This journal is later collected and
then printed out at times. This information regarding the transaction is kept by
the authorities for a period of 2 years. As there may be cases regarding a
particular transaction going wrong, the account owner or also the bank officers
have a right to see the transaction. With this printout the account holder can
contact the host processor.
System Design: . INVENTION OF ATM

Many people have claimed to be the inventor of the ATM. Some believe that
Luther George Simjian did it. Some believe that it was Don Wetzel. Still others
say the inventor is John Shepherd-Barron. John D. White has contacted
ATMmachine.com and gave very convincing evidence that he is the inventor of
ATM and not Don Wetzel. James Goodfellow of Scotland also contacted
ATMmachine.com and gave us convincing evidence of inventing ATM. Since
the patent on an ATM as we know it was never applied until years after Simjian,
confusion on inventor till exists. One reason for confusion is that John
Shepherd-Barron lived in the United kingdom, James Goodfellow in Scotland,
while others lived in USA. We present all the evidence, as we know it on this
page.

The ATM Inventors and the facts:

Luther George Simjian:


In the late 1930's, Luther George Simjian started building an earlier and not-so-
successful version of an ATM, but he did register related patents. He initially
came up with the idea of creating a hole-in-the-wall machine that would allow
customers to make financial transactions; the idea was met with a great deal of
doubt. Starting in 1939, Simjian registered 20 patents related to the device and
persuaded what is now Citicorp to give it a trial. After six months, the bank
reported that there was little demand. Today, as you know, there is a huge
demand!
John Shepherd-Barron:
John Shepherd-Barron had an idea in the 1960's for a 24/7 cash dispenser. At the
time, he was managing director of De La Rue Instruments. De La Rue today
manufactures cash dispensers. In fact, there is a De La Rue cash dispenser in 1
out of every 5 ATM machines built. If you want to believe that Shepherd-Barron
invented the ATM, then the world's first ATM was installed outside a north
London branch of Barclays Bank in 1967. Later In 1967, Shepherd-Barron
presented his idea to a conference of 2,000 US bankers in Miami, after the first
ATMs had been installed in England. He spoke to the conference about the new
self-service banking device he developed. On December 31, 2004, John
Shepherd-Barron, was named an Officer of the Order of the British Empire, or
OBE, by the Queen of England for services to banking. "It was a bit late, but
better late than never," said Shepherd-Barron. Press releases stated that
Shepherd-Barron was the "Inventor of the ATM." But, was he?

James Goodfellow :
As a Development engineer with Smiths Industries Ltd, James Goodfellow was
given the project of developing an automatic cash dispenser in 1965. Chubb
Lock & Safe Co. were to provide the secure physical housing and the
mechanical dispenser mechanism. Eventually Mr. Goodfellow designed a
system which accepted a machine readable encrypted card, to which he added a
numerical keypad. UK Patent No.1,197,183 with a priority date of May 2 1966,
covers this invention, and it is also covered by US Patent No.3,905,461 and
Patents granted by many other countries. These Patents list James Goodfellow
as inventor, along with the late A.I.O.Davies, the company General Manager.
This US Patent still describes the basic ATM function almost 40 years later.
These Machines were marketed by Chubb LTD and installed nationwide in the
UK during the late 60s and early 70s. You can read ATM inventor James
Goodfellow's story here on ATMmachine.com. Thanks goes out to Mr.
Goodfellow for giving us his permission. (Update: In 2006, James Goodfellow
was selected by the Queen to be awarded an OBE for services to Banking as
patentee of the Personal Identification Number (PIN), and his service to
banking.

Don Wetzel:
In 1968, according to a NMAH interview, Don Wetzel, says he was the Vice
President of Product Planning at Docutel, the company that developed
automated baggage-handling equipment. He applied for a patent on an ATM
machine. He said there were two other inventors listed on the patent. They were
Tom Barnes, a mechanical engineer and George Chastain, an electrical engineer.
It took five million dollars to develop their ATM according to Mr. Wetzel. If you
want to believe that Wetzel and company invented the ATM, then you might
want to read the next paragraph.

John D. White:
John D. White told ATMmachine.com that his work started in 1968. He told us
that he installed the first ATM at Rockville Center, LI for the then Chemical
Bank in August 1973. His design was patented on May 9, 1973 for the Docutel
Corporation and was filed on July 29, 1970. The machine was called a "Credit
Card Automatic Currency Dispenser". Mr. White provided copies of his patent
to ATMmachine.com for our review. Indeed it states the inventor of the machine
was John D. White and Kenneth Goldstein, and the assignee on the patent was
the Docutel Corporation. It does seem to us that this is very convincing
evidence that it was White and not Wetzel who received the patent. There is also
a statement in the patent that supports the idea of the modern ATM. "Both the
original code and the updated code are scrambled in accordance with a changing
key", which is basically what happens today. ATMs are programmed with
security keys and the code changes and are scrambled to prevent fraudulent
access to credit card and ATM numbers between the machine, the bank, and the
network processor. We would like to thank Mr. White for contacting us. The
patent drawings he gave us look very much like the free standing ATM that is
sold on ATMmachine.com today.

Jairus Larson:
Jairus Larson told ATMmachine.com that although he did not invent the ATM,
as far as he is aware , he did develop the very first 'on-line' ATM (Diebold's
"550"). The first ATM's were all 'off-line' versions (sometimes referred to as
'stand-alone') meaning they did not have any means to communicate with the
bank. Today's ATMs are 'on-line' meaning they communicate with the bank's
computer system. Mr. Larson was kind enough to give us his account of how
this happened in the early 1970's. You can read about Mr. Larson's ATM
development here.
5. INTRODUCTION TO ATM CARD

If you have a bank account there is a good chance that you have an ATM
card, which stands for Automated Teller Machine. This card gives you the
ability to go to an ATM and perform transactions. An ATM is a machine or
computerized terminal that gives bank customers the ability to access their
funds without the need of a teller or bank employee. Every customer has a four-
digit pin code, as a matter of security that must be keyed in before transactions
can be performed. Customers have access to their funds 24 hours per day, seven
days per week.
6. TYPES OF ATM CARDS

More people use plastic to pay for items than cash. There are many
different types of cards used to make purchases or withdraw money and many
people don't think about the differences. There are significant differences
between ATM, debit and credit cards. There are several different types of cards
that fall under the category of an ATM card.

Basic ATM Card :


Your basic ATM card only has a few uses. It can be used at any ATM
machine for the bank that issued it and sometimes at other banks for a fee. You
can use your ATM card to withdraw and deposit money, check your account
balance and transfer funds. Some ATM cards also have a few more uses like
paying loans and getting cash advances, however ATM cards cannot be used to
make purchases

Debit ATM Card :


An ATM debit card has all the features of a regular ATM card with the
added features of a debit card. This card can be used to make purchases at any
store or online. Typically they will have a credit card logo on them, although
they do not work the same way as credit cards. Every time and ATM debit card
is used; money is taken out of the checking account it is linked to.
ATM Credit Cards :
A new type of debit card is available at some banks. This type of card has
all the features of the ATM debit card plus the features of a credit card. This
card is not only attached to a checking account, but also to a line of credit. This
means that if the person overdrafts on their account they will not incur any fees
and will instead have money taken out of their credit line to be paid back with
interest when funds are made available.
7.WORKING OF ATM

There are mainly two types of ATMs which differ according to the way they
operate. They can be called as
Leased-line ATM
Dial-up ATM machines
Any ATM machine needs a data terminal with two inputs and four output
devices. Of course, for this to happen there should also be the availability of a
host processor. The host processor is necessary so that the ATM can connect and
also communicate with the person requesting the cash. The Internet Service
Provider (ISP) also plays an important role in this action. They act as the
gateway to the intermediate networks and also the bank computer.
A leased-line ATM machine has a 4-wire, point to point dedicated
telephone line which helps in connecting it with the host processor. These types
of machines are preferred in places where the user volume is high. They are
considered high end and the operating costs of this type of a machine is very
high.
The dial-up ATM machines only has a normal phone line with a modem
and a toll free number. As these are normal connections their initial installation
cost is very less and their operating costs only become a fraction of that of a
leased-line ATM.
The host is mainly owned by the bank. It can also be owned by an ISP. If
the host is owned by the bank only machines that work for that particular bank
will be supported.
8. PARTS OF ATM

As told earlier, there are mainly two input devices and four output devices
for an ATM. The input devices are:

Card Reader This is a part of the identification of your particular account


number. For this the magnetic stripe on the back of the ATM card is either
swiped or pressed on the card reader so that it captures your account
information. To understand the account information of the user, the data from
the card is passed on to the host processor. The host processor thus uses this
data to get the information from the card holders bank.

Keypad After the card is recognized, the machine asks further details like the
type of withdrawal you prefer, your balance enquiry, and your personal
identification number (PIN) and so on. Since each card has a unique PIN
number, there is very little chance for someone else to withdraw money from
your account. There are also separate laws to protect the PIN code while
sending it to the host processor. So, the PIN number is mostly sent in encrypted
form.
If your pin number is correct the ATM makes the necessary transactions for the
required amount.

For this transaction, there are mainly four outputs. They are:

Speaker When a particular key is pressed, the speaker provides the feedback
as audio.

Display Screen The questions asked by the ATM machine regarding the
transaction and the input from the user is all displayed on the display screen.
Each step of withdrawal is shown by the display screen. A CRT screen or even
an LCD screen is commonly used as an LCD screen.
Receipt printer All the details regarding your withdrawal like the date and
time and the amount withdrawn and also the balance amount in the bank is also
shown in the receipt. Thus a paper receipt of the current transaction is obtained
by the user.
Cash dispenser This is the central system of the ATM machine. This is from
where the required money is obtained. From this portion the person can collect
the money.
Functions of the Cash Dispenser:
As the whole mechanism is regarding the withdrawal of cash, the cash
dispenser should be highly efficient. These are the main functions that are to be
carried out by the cash dispenser.
It is the duty of the cash dispenser to count each bill and give the required
amount. If there are cases where the bills are stuck together they should be
rejected and instead new notes should be taken. If the money is worn, or even
folded, they will be moved to another section called the reject bin. All these
actions are carried out by high-precision sensors.
There may be cases where the sensors may go wrong. To know this, the
person responsible for the machine checks the number of rejected notes at a
certain interval. If the numbers of notes are a lot than expected, then it would
indicate that either the quality of the bills is not good or there is a problem with
the cash dispenser.
A complete record of each transaction made by a particular ATM machine
is recorded each day and is kept as a journal. This journal is later collected and
then printed out at times. This information regarding the transaction is kept by
the authorities for a period of 2 years. As there may be cases regarding a
particular transaction going wrong, the account owner or also the bank officers
have a right to see the transaction. With this printout the account holder can
contact the host processor.
Project Planning:

Project planning must deals with the following things.

Project Complexity: - Project complexity has a strong effect but is heavily


influenced by past practitioner experience.
Project Size: - As size increases the interdependency of elements also
grow. Watch out for scope creep.
The degree of structural uncertainty: - the degree to which requirements are
solidified and the ease of functional decomposition.The purpose of
project planning is to ensure that the end result is completed on time,
within budget, and exhibits quality!
2.1.1Project development approach

The Spiral model is an evolutionary software process model


that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled
and systematic aspects of the linear sequential model. It provides
the potential for rapid development of incremental versions of the
software. Using the spiral model, software is developed in series of
incremental release.

A spiral model is divided into a number of framework activities,


also called task regions. There are between three and six task
regions. Figure depicts a spiral model that contains six task
regions:
Customer communication tasks required to establish
effective communication between developer and customer.

Planning tasks required to define resources, timelines, and


other project related information.

Risk analysis tasks required to assess both technical and


management risks.

Engineering tasks required to build one or more


representations of the application.

Construction and release tasks required to construct, test,


install, and provide user support.

Customer evolution tasks required to obtain customer


feedback based on evolution of the software representations
created during the engineering stage and implemented
during the installation stage.

Each of the regions is populated by a set of work tasks, called a


task set, that are adapted to the characteristics of the project to be
undertaken. For small projects, the number of work tasks and their
formality is low. For larger, more critical projects, each task region
contains more work tasks that are defined to achieve a higher level
of formality.

In our case, we have to provide medium level of formality for


making a good project report. We will take decision about cost,
schedule and number of iterations required to complete the
software.
2.1.2Project Plan

Stages of Software Lifecycle

Software Requirement Analysis

This is the first stage of the project, which involves


interaction with the customer to understand his/her needs,
requirements, information, required functions, performance and
interfacing in MLM software. For this purpose requirement
analyst will arrange a meeting for gathering information and
additional details for software development. After completing
requirement gathering tasks developer team will take a look for
understand how requirements can be computerized. The
requirement is documented in the form of a Software
Requirement Specification (SRS) which is then presented to the
customer for review.

Design

Beginning once software requirements have been analyzed


and specified, software design is the first of three technical
activities design, code generation, and test that are required
to build and verify the software.

Design is multi level process which defines following details:


Data Design

Architecture Design

Interface Design

Component level Design

Development

The design must be translated into a machine-readable form.


The coding step performs this task. In this stage, the developers
will actually code the programs. The specifications arrived at
the design stage for each and every function will be converted
to code using tools that are finalized for the implementation of
the Software. At this stage the testing methodology to be
adopted will be finalized. For each program test cases will be
prepared and for each of these test cases, test data will also be
prepared. The actual developers will do a first cur checking at
this stage to see that the programs written by them are error
free.

Modules :

Flow Chart/ Activity Diagram:

An Activity Diagram is essentially a flow chart showing flow of control


from activity to activity. They are used to model the dynamic aspects of
as system. They can also be used to model the flow of an object as it
moves from state to state at different points in the flow of control.
Content:
Activity diagrams commonly contain: Fork, Start & End Symbol
ACTIVITY DIAGRAM:-
Class Diagram/ E-R diagrams:

Class diagrams are the most common diagrams found in modeling object-
oriented systems. A class diagram shows a set of classes, interfaces, and
collaborations and their relationships. Graphically, a class diagram is a
collection of vertices and arcs.
Class Diagram is a graph that represents the relationship between the classes
and represents their semantics.
Here ATM works as main class. All other classes are related with this class.
ATM does following operations:
- Verify_pin()
- Check_balance()
- Cash_withdrawal()
- Ministatement()
- Print_receipt()
- Another_transaction()

ATM card related with ATM through many to many relationship.


It does following operations:
- Insert_card_into_ATM()
- Insert_Pin_code()
- Remove_card_after_transaction()

Account holder related with ATM through many to many relationship.


It performs following operations:
- Withdrawal()
- Transfer()
- Balance_inquiry()

ATM server related with ATM by one or many to one or many relationship.
It also performs some task shown as below:
- Updating_after_each_transaction()
- Changing_the_pin_code()
- Showing_exact_balance_after_each_transaction()

Bank Manager associated with ATM through one or many to one


relationship. ATM is not related with this class, but dependent on this class.
So there is a dependent relationship assigned to them. Bank Manager does
following tasks:
- Managing_different_accounts()
- Maintaining_sufficient_balance_in_ATM()
- Access_to_the_ATM_server()

Here, a class Bank not related to any of the class, but some classes are
dependent on these classes which are shown as dependent relationship with
it. Normally this class performs following operations:
- Create_Account()
- Accessing_Account()
- Providing_ATM_card()

Limitation and Future Aspects:

Limitation:
Although I have tried to add all the related features to this online
Bus Reservation System but there are also some limitation.
This system is stand alone system so data saved during different
processes are stored in the machine in which that process was
executed.
So there is the problem of distributed database.

Future Enhancement:
As discussed the limitation of this system, we can implement this
as client/server system. So all the data will be stored in the single
machine, and for any purpose all the data will be retrieved from
this central database.

So there will be no human work require for the employee. There


will be only one person required who will maintain this central
database.
Conclusion

Back in 1969, Chemical Bank announced that a new form of banking was
being launched. With that, customers were provided with plastic cards designed
with a magnetic strip that could be used with a machine built into a wall. Gone
were the days of having to stand in line for a teller or not having money on hand
after normal banking hours. Almost everyone has heard of and used an ATM
machine. Interestingly, some of people feel that ATM machines are the best
thing to happen in the banking world while other people consider them a curse.
The main complaint heard about ATM machines is that while they are
convenient, they are expensive to
use. However, if we look at it from a banking perspective, business is business.
Regardless of what we think of ATM machines, there is no doubt that they have
changed the world and the way in which we do things. For example, think how
many times we have been out somewhere only to discover we have no cash and
we are out of checks, ah, but in the corner, there is an ATM machine. In the
blink of an eye, we swipe the card and now have cash on hand. In addition to
pulling money out, the ATM machine also makes it convenient to deposit
money, transfer money, and check balances. Best of all, to use an ATM machine,
we do not have to go to the bank. We will find ATM machines at other banks,
grocery stores, shopping malls, along the
roadside, Buckingham Palace, airports, in casinos, and even on the South Rim
of the Grand Canyon. For this reason, ATM machines are extremely helpful!

Bibliography

Book Reference

Fundamentals of Software Engineering


By Rajib Mall
Software Engineering
By Ian Somerville
Analysis and Design of Information Systems
By James Senn

Website Reference

www.google.com

www.ask.com
www.microsoft.com

www.iit.edu.com