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KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

MINSTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION


JAZAN UNIVERSITY
Faculty of Science

Physics Department

Final exam Laser and its applications Phys412

Academic Year (1435-1436) Allowed Exam time: 2Hours

I. Complete the following sentences by selecting the appropriate: 8 Marks


a. Gas lasers are pumped by ( Optical source Electrical discharge) while solid state lasers are pumped by
( Optical source Electrical ) discharge
b. Gases are normally of ( Wide Narrow) absorption bandwidth while solids are of
( Wide Narrow) absorption bandwidth
c. Laser power density is (Directly- Inversely ) proportional to the laser spot size and peak power is
(Directly- Inversely ) proportional to the laser pulse duration
d. Ar+ laser is an example of (Atomic-Ionic- Molecular) gas lasers while CO2 is an example of (Atomic -
Ionic- Molecular) gas lasers

II. Put true ( ) or false ( ) for the followings 7 Marks


1. The coherence time (c) is inversely proportional to the laser line width () ( )
2. Pumping of Argon laser (Ar+) need high current to achieve the population inversion ( )
3. In He-Ne Laser, the laser is occurred in He atoms and the Ne is an auxiliary gas for efficient pumping ( )
4. The depth of focus of a laser beam is considered as half of the Rayleigh range (2Z0) ( )
5. Pumping of solid state lasers with flash lamps is more efficient that arrays of laser diodes ( )
6. In free electron laser the emission line width is inversely proportional to the number of undulators ( )
7. The threshold of population inversion N th is inversely proportional to the threshold gain th ( )

5 Marks
III. Choose the correct answer for the following:
1. The spectral energy density ( ) and total energy density are related as:
( ) ( )
a. b. ( ) c. d.
( ) c
2. Photon flux density is related to total energy density as
c h h
b. b. c. d.
h hc c c
3. The radiation intensity I is related to the total energy density as
nc c n
c. I b. I n c c. I d. I
n c
4. For a laser cavity of length L filled with gas of refractive index 1 , the number of possible longitudinal modes is
given by : (c light velocity in vacuum)
a. L/2c b. 2L/c c. 2c/L d. c/2L

Dr. Mohamed Fadhali


KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
MINSTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
JAZAN UNIVERSITY
Faculty of Science

Physics Department

5. Light propagation in optical fibers require the satisfaction of total internal reflection between core and cladding
which is achieved by the condition
a. ncore ncladd b. ncore ncladd c. ncore ncladd d. none of that

14 Marks
IV. Choose only two questions
1. Using photon flux density and starting from the following rate equation (
dN 2 I
( ) N )
dt h
show that the gain coefficient is given by ( 0 ( ) ( )N )

2. Prove that the threshold of population inversion is given by N th th where th is the threshold gain

and is the interaction cross section
3. Prove that for two level systems under thermal equilibrium no laser action is possible?

V. Solve the following problems


1. For a blackbody cavity with a volume of (V=1cm 3). Calculate the number of modes that fall within a
bandwidth ( 10nm ) centered at the wavelength ( 600nm )
5 Marks
2. An ion Argon laser with a wavelength of 514.5 nm with a spectral bandwidth of 2GHz and a cavity
length of 50 cm. find the number of possible longitudinal modes?
3 Marks
3. Determine whether or not the following mirror arrangements lead to stability:
One mirror with radius of curvature of 5m and the other with radius of 3m, separated by a distance of 4m
3 Marks

4. Calculate the threshold of population inversion for ruby laser ( 694.3nm ) If the mirrors
reflectivities are R1=R2=0.9 and the life time for spontaneous emission is ( sp 3 103 s ) , length of
the laser medium is 5 cm and its refractive index is (1.7). Assume the line shape function
( g ( ) 1.11012 s ) and neglect the coefficient of internal losses 5 Marks

Useful constants:

h=6.63 x 10-34 J.S c= 3 x 108 m/s K B 1.38 1023J / K

Good Luck
Total Marks : 50 Marks

Dr. Mohamed Fadhali