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prof.

Kamiah Arnautović

2014/15

Morfolo
gy
Study
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Table of Contents
1. Subjunctive mood and conditional clauses....................................................3
2. Nouns...........................................................................................................10
3. Nouns: number.............................................................................................13
4. Nouns : case..................................................................................................18
5. Nonfinite verb forms....................................................................................18
6. The analysis of the GC constituents.............................................................22
7. “Objects” in clauses....................................................................................24
8. Functions of clauses...................................................................................26
9. Gcs AS SUBJECTS......................................................................................26
10. Gcs AS OBJECTS........................................................................................26
11. Summary......................................................................................................29
12. Determiners.................................................................................................30
13. Pronouns......................................................................................................30
14. Personal........................................................................................................31
15. Anaphoric pronoun......................................................................................31
16. Demonstrative..............................................................................................33
17. Possessive.....................................................................................................33
18. Possessive.....................................................................................................35
19. Functional adjectives...................................................................................35
20. Possessive genitive.......................................................................................35
21. The double possessive..................................................................................37
22. Indefinite......................................................................................................38
23. Negation.......................................................................................................38
24. Reflexive.......................................................................................................39
25. Interrogative................................................................................................40
26. Relative.........................................................................................................41
27. And clauses...................................................................................................41
28. Indefinite quantifiers...................................................................................42
29. Quantifiers...................................................................................................42
30. Articles.........................................................................................................45
31. The internal structure of s and explitive subjects.......................................52

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Subjunctive mood Kamo sreće da je on malo manje zauzet.

The realistic meaning of this sentence is that he is
and conditional very busy. The situation is completely opposite to
the idea expressed by the sentence and therefore
clauses the verb is marked by “WERE” which expresses
present time – although the form itself is
preterite/past tense.

T his lecture will deal with the last but not
the least important grammatical units in
English. These are SUBJUNCTIVE
MOOD AND CONDITIONAL CLAUSES.
In the case that we wish to express orders,
requests, suggestion, invitation,
instructions etc. then the verb will be in
IMPERATIVE Mood – or the mood of the second
person.
advice,

In a number of previous lectures we spoke about Open the window, please/Otvori prozor molim te.
many grammatical facts we shall deal with in this – This is a request/molba
lecture too. Get out of here now/Izlazi odavde iz ovih stopa –
The first thing associated with the topic of this order/naređenje
lecture is the grammatical category of MOOD. The
second is about the complex sentence containing Go and see that movie. It’s good/Idi i pogledaj taj
the subordinate adverbial clause. This time we film. Dobar je – suggestion/prijedlog
shall speak in more details only about conditional For other types of modalities we use modal verbs
clauses. and they have been discussed separately.
All these possibilities of expressing events have
However, to understand the semantic meaning of been discussed in more details in separate
conditional clauses, we must first repeat what we lectures.
have learned about the grammatical category of
MOOD. First we shall see the formal differences in the
In many previous lectures we mentioned that the verb form which help to distinguish indicative and
verb in the sentence may have or may be marked subjunctive mood.
for six grammatical categories. These formal grammatical differences are obvious
in the forms of SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE AND
These are: SIMPLE PAST TENSE – in indicative and
Transitivity subjunctive mood, especially in the form of the
Agreement verb TO BE.
Tense
Voice We know that in indicative mood the verb BE has
Aspect, and finally got the following forms:
MOOD I am
First let us remember the notion of grammatical You are
category of mood. He/she/it is
We are
MOOD/glagolski način – This is the grammatical You are
category that may refer to different events: They are
If we want to convey the message referring to the And these forms express who the subject is, what
realistic events (the ones that really the subject is like, and where the subject is in
happen/happened/are happening etc) the verb is reality.
marked for the indicative mood.
He works in London/On radi u Londonu. So, when we say:
This sentence expresses the realistic fact and the I am a teacher.
verb is in the indicative mood. We express who the subject is in reality.
He is tall. – describes the subject in reality.
However, if we want to convey a message about Or:
the hypothetical events (that do not/did not or He is in his office – informs where the subject is
have not happened, or which could/might/would in reality.
happen under certain circumstances etc.) then we
express them by marking the verb for the However, if we wish to express our wishes, fears
subjunctive mood, or by modal verbs. or something unreal, we shall need subjunctive
mood.
For example: Simple present tense in subjunctive mood has the
If only he were a little less busy. following form:

4

I be Far be it from me to do such a thing.
You be etc.
He/she/it be
We be Past subjunctive is much more frequently used
You be especially in certain type of sentences.
They be. However, before we move on and start speaking
about such sentences, we must first see the formal
For other verbs in simple present tense, in grammatical differences between past simple in
indicative mood, the verb has the identical form indicative mood and past simple in subjunctive
for all the persons in singular and plural except for mood.
the third person singular (for he/she/it)– and that
is the form of bare infinitive, such as: Past subjunctive survives only in the form of the
I/you/we/you/they work here. verb BE.
And for the third person singular, we must add the In indicative mood, the verb BE has got the
suffix –(e)s to express realistic facts: following forms:
He/she/it work-s here I was
You were
However, in subjunctive mood – the suffix –(e)s He/she/it was
simply does not exist in the third person singular. We were
Therefore the form of simple present tense for the You were
verbs other than BE in subjunctive mood has the They were
following form: Please note that the form WAS is used for the first
I work and the third person in singular.
You work
He/she/it work However, in subjunctive mood, the verb BE has
We work the form WERE for all the persons in singular and
You work plural:
They work I were
You were
Now when we know this formal difference He/she/it were
between present tense of the verb BE and other We were
verbs – in indicative and subjunctive mood, the You were
question is – where and when we should use the They were
form of the verb in subjunctive mood. What is Please note that the form WAS does not exist in
expressed by present subjunctive? subjunctive mood. (Although it is acceptable in
American English)
Present simple subjunctive is used in two
contexts: For other verbs in past tense there is no formal
1. It is used as the grammatical means in THAT- difference between past simple in indicative and
clauses after the expressions of such notions as: past simple in subjunctive mood.
demand, recommendation, proposal, intention Past subjunctive is hypothetical in meaning.
and the like. However, contrary to simple past indicative which
We had better see a few examples of such expresses realistic events in the past, such as:
sentences:
My sister saw this dress.
The employees demanded that he resign. Moja sestra je vidjela ovu haljinu.
This form is typical for American English. In which we express the realistic event that
At the same time, in British English the verb happened in the past, and therefore the verb is
SHOULD which does not convey any meaning is marked for past tense, past simple subjunctive
inserted in such a sentence: expresses unrealistic situations but in PRESENT
The employees demanded that he should resign. TIME.
However, in such sentences it is also possible to
say: Therefore, if I say:
The employees demanded that he resigns. – where I wish my sister saw this dress.
the verb is marked for indicative mood. Kamo sreće da moja sestra vidi ovu haljinu.
We express the situation in PRESENT TIME and
2. Present subjunctive is also used in “optative” the situation is contrary to reality. (My sister is
meaning in certain set expressions, such as: not here and she can’t see this dress).
God save the Queen.
Long live the young couple.
Come what may....

Let us take a look at the meaning of the following In other words. in: A) PRESENT TIME. by the sentence in subjunctive mood. Hypothetical conditional clauses express the This meaning is implied and it needn’t be said absence of possibility to fulfill the condition either after the sentence in past perfect subjunctive. PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. 1. It is (high) time – krajnje je vrijeme Conditional sentences state the dependence of I would rather – radije bih one circumstance or a set of circumstances on I would sooner – prije bih another.5 However. or Here is one more example: B) PAST TIME. However. sentences. Radije bih da to nisi ni rekao. the the unrealistic situation in the past. conditional clauses in English. called the CONDITIONAL CLAUSE. Past simple and past perfect in subjunctive mood For example: are also used in conditional and concessive If only I had not started this business at all. provided (that). These expressions are: After we have seen this structural relationship I wish – želio bih (kamo sreće) within the complex sentence which we call If only – kad bi samo (kamo sreće) CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. Kamo sreće da ga nisam pozvala. they may also be introduced by other compound It is not necessary to utter the implications: “But conjunctions such as: if only. OPEN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES . it’s too late. long as.Conditional sentences are complex sentences containing one Past simple subjunctive and past perfect main clause which can stand as an independent subjunctive are used in the subordinate clause of sentence and the conditional clause or a complex sentence: “IF-CLAUSE” which is always introduced by the 1. or would be. when we want to indicate that a sentences: future action will take place ONLY IF SOMETHING ELSE HAPPENS. he The part of the sentence which tells us what is or is not here now. or that an action A) EXPRESSING HYPOTHETICAL PRESENT would have taken place in the past only if TIME: something else had happened. the sentence which tells us what the result will be. as he is not here”. If we wish to express unrealistic situations in the These are: past time – we use past perfect subjunctive. clauses. Open conditional clauses express an open The implication is: But I did invite him and now possibility to fulfill the expressed condition. after certain fixed expressions that denote subordinating conjunction IF and expresses the unrealistic situations in present time or in the past condition. The implied meaning to express reality is: But. was necessary for something else to happen is If only I had more time. if we wish to express unrealistic The sentence implies: but you did say that and situations in the PAST TIME – we must use PAST now it’s too late. But I did start this job and the sentence expresses Now. we use conditional I wish he were here now. it is time to discuss. IF CLAUSES are dependent and cannot time. or “But I haven’t got more time”. HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONAL CLAUSES If only I hadn’t invited him. Da samo imam više vremena. because it is understood from the fact that the sentences are expressed by subjunctive mood. let us see what As if – kao da information they convey. or would have been if the condition The implied meaning expressing reality is: exists or had existed is called the MAIN CLAUSE. 1. in more details. OPEN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES For example: 2. I would rather you hadn’t said that. suppose etc. There are two semantic types of conditional clauses and their meaning affects the combination B) EXPRESSING HYPOTHETICAL PAST TIME: of grammatical forms. Kamo sreće da je on tu sada. stand alone as an independent sentence. respectively. Kamo sreće da nisam ni započeo ovaj posao. But I haven’t got more time. The part of Kad bih samo imao više vremena. Conditional clauses are introduced chiefly by the It is obvious that the situation in reality in present subordinating conjunctions IF (positive condition) time is completely opposite to what is expressed or UNLESS (if not/negative condition). on condition that.

modal verb with present Present perfect + present infinitives) If you have travelled all night. there can't be a different result sometimes). IMPERATIVE – for requests. neće ni ući cijelo jutro. he will have left the office and grammatical combinations: gone home. Past subjunctive + Present Present perfect + future conditional (or If he has done that. So. Mood is a grammatical category referring to the It's a fact. Let us see the examples of different combinations: But please note that although the fulfillment of Present + present (Zero condition) condition in such clauses is left unresolved. odmah ga uhapsi. now. hypothetical condition in PRESENT Present + future perfect TIME is expressed by making the following If you don’t hurry. Ako je stigao kasno sinoć. + Ako si to rekao. he won’t combination of tenses is possible: come in at all this morning. also with future and imperative. I shall bring it tomorrow. arrest him at once. not about one speaker’s attitude toward an utterance.. potreban ti je odmor. ZERO CONDITIONAL CLAUSES INDICATIVE – for statements of facts The 'if' in this conditional can usually be replaced SUBJUNCTIVE . However the realistic fact is “I am not you” and this condition is not fulfilled in the present time. Additionally. Past perfect + future Therefore. commands. drveće ogoli. If he arrived late last night. I am sick. For example: about MOOD: If water reaches 100 degrees. desire or condition meaning. advice etc. If Clause Main clause Ako ne požuriš. ZERO CONDITIONAL CLAUSES We can make a zero conditional sentence with two If the fulfillment is considered less likely SHOULD present simple verbs (one in the 'if clause' and one is used in the conditional clause: in the 'main clause'): Should he refuse to do it. (It is always true. apologize to him. but it's still true that I'm sick every time I eat However. I'm talking in general. we shall need the tenses in If the report is finished. he will sleep all day. bit će kažnjen. any other Ako je to uradio.for statements of probability. All tenses All tenses in Present perfect + imperative in indicative mood indicative mood If you have said that. Therefore. if we wish to express the absence of peanuts) possibility to fulfill the condition either in present Present + future or in past time. The result of the 'if clause' is Traditional grammar recognizes three moods: always the main clause. the following If he hadn’t come in when you arrived. the sentence expresses an unrealistic or hypothetical situation. For example: suggestions. possibility of fulfilling the condition is Ako lišće opadne. izvini mu se. For example: Past tense + future If I were you I would never say that. the If the leaves fall the trees are bare. maybe. ja ću ga donijeti sutra. FUTURE + IMPERATIVE You have just seen many different possibilities to combine different tenses in indicative mood and All cross-combinations are possible.6 In clauses of open condition. particular situation.. If + present simple. Ako bude odbio da to uradi. . Ako si putovao cijelu noć. ZERO CONDITIONAL CLAUSES This conditional is used when the result will Once again we must repeat the following facts always happen. modal verbs are also used for similar it boils. it always boils. you need a rest. Ako je izvještaj gotov. Da sam na tvom mjestu to nikada ne bih rekao. spavat će cijeli dan. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. in the clauses of open condition we used ZERO CONDITIONAL CLAUSES all tenses in INDICATIVE MOOD to express an If I eat peanuts. WHEN/WHENEVER water reaches 100 degrees. by 'when/whenever' without changing the concession. purposes. on će otići iz ureda i otići će kući. open and realistic possibility to fulfill the (This is true only for me. IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE Ako nije ušao kad si stigao. nevertheless entertained. not for everyone.. present simple. . condition expressed by the IF CLAUSE. he will be punished.

combinations are possible in conditional Please note. then we have the following combination of A) EXPRESSING PRESENT TIME: grammatical forms: IF may be translated in two ways: If clause: DA + prezent Past perfect subjunctive KAD BI Main clause: Past conditional or any other modal verb followed B) EXPRESSING PAST TIME: by perfect infinitive If is translated by DA + perfekt You should also note that simple present tense in For example: open conditional clauses is frequently translated If you had come to the lecture yesterday you could by BUDEM. In this case. OPEN CONDITION: Again. here are the translation If he had a car he wouldn’t be late. the meaning of the sentence is: but he But. sentence. HYPOTHETICAL CONDITION: following combinations: A) PRESENT TIME: If clause: If I had more money I would buy a car. OPEN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES: If we wish to express the hypothetical condition in IF is translated by AKO the past time. a number of grammatical time. a thing. DA JE UŠTEDIO novac mogao je otići na odmor. sve ću ti objasniti. If he had a car. BUDEŠ – which we call “futur have asked him all that. I shall explain everything: completely opposite to what is expressed by the AKO DOĐEŠ SUTRA. you can express the same idea express. the main clause can change: If clause + main clause. If he had saved some money he could have gone What is expressed here is: But you don’t know me on holiday well. AKO BUDEŠ DOŠAO SUTRA. that the position of the if clause and sentences. . the most important thing is to properly Main clause + if clause understand what information they convey and what is the semantic content of what we wish to In other words. sad bi bio gladan. the realistic situation in the past is If you come tomorrow. uttering two different structures: To make it easier. Da si jučer došao na predavanje mogao si ga sve to We had better see a few examples of translation pitati. 1. or an unrealistic situation in the HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONAL CLAUSES: past. or However. the realistic fact is “he hasn’t got a car and he did have breakfast and therefore he is not hungry is always late”. Sometimes you can make cross-combination of grammatical forms in which case you have the 2. the condition is not fulfilled in present As you can see. so you said such a thing. Da on ima auto on ne bi kasnio. or equivalents of the subordinating conjunction IF: He wouldn’t be late if he had a car. he would not be late. Da me bolje poznaješ ne bi takvo što rekao.. Again. sve ću ti objasniti. DA SAM MU REKAO istinu on bi se naljutio. Past conditional B) PAST TIME For example: If I had told him the truth.7 Da nije doručkovao. he would have been If you knew me better you wouldn’t have said such angry. Or we may have this combination: If clause: Past perfect subjunctive Main clause: Present conditional For example: If he had had no breakfast he would be hungry now. Main clause: KAD BIH IMAO više novca kupio bih auto. equivalents: The meaning expressed is: But you were not at the lecture so you didn’t ask him all that. now. egzaktni”. Past subjunctive DA IMAM više novca kupio bih auto.

THE FUNCTION-FORM INTERFACE And secondly. combine into larger units. Adjective Phrase. form are of immense importance in the study of Između sedam i ponoći mi odgovara. So. Direct objects and Adverbs/Adjuncts individual who is doing the eating and the entire providing the additional information. which particular forms can occur in the sentence in the function of NOMINAL CLAUSES – functioning as the subject the Subject: or the object of a sentence and embedded at the sentence level which means that they make one of S: the main constituents of the sentence./Profesori nikad ne lažu. adverbials at the sentence level and embedded at the sentence level which means that they make PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: one of the main constituents of the sentence. Clauses/Sentences may be the main clause and Subjects can be characterized in terms of the kinds subordinate clause.). subject. That is why we need to distinguish between function and form. -form. the verb? And WHO or WHAT is the sentence We were concerned with two levels of analysis: about? -functions of the constituent parts of sentences. as we said. this semantic classes (noun. Verb Phrase etc. in a simple sentence like: and Fred eats his breakfast in bed. forms. A particular function may be realised by different I n this lecture we shall start with the words and structures that can function as the subject and object of a sentence. (space or time). “form” refers to words. word However. a form of subject – the most prominent function in the the verb TO BE. This book is good. Outside the fridge is not a good place to keep milk. in this lecture. Literal translation: Nespokojan je kako bih ja njega nazvao. verb. Since is so important for proper usage and However.8 Nouns The important linguistic fact is that there is no one-to-one relationship between the function and the form used for its realisation. On the other hand. A rat bit my toe. The inter-relationships between function and Between seven and midnight suits me alright. the embedded clauses at the level of the NP which means that they are not constituents at the So.). the main verb/predicator of the Our first step is going to be the link between the sentence is often. i. language. a detailed discussion of how we can link these two They are usually phrases that specify a location levels more systematically. let us first consider which sentence level but at the level of the NP. enough. of structures (string of words combined together) There are three kinds of subordinate clauses which may be used for the realisation of this corresponding to the lexical parts of speech: function (such as Noun Phrases which is the typical structure functioning as the subject of the ADJECTIVE CLAUSES ( clauses) – occurring as sentence). BCS translation equivalent: . there are some restrictions on understanding language. etc. Restless is what I would call him./Pacov me ugrizao za prst. sentence is about “Fred”.e. because this Noun Phrase refers to the Predicators.. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES – functioning as the Professors never lie./Ova knjiga je dobra. THE FUNCTION-FORM INTERFACE Van frižidera nije dobro držati mlijeko. i. We can identify the expression “Fred” as the Remember that “function” refers to Subjects. this lecture will include Prepositional phrases as Subjects in English. phrases (Noun characterisation of the notion Subject was not Phrase.e. REALISATIONS OF THE SUBJECT THE FUNCTION-FORM INTERFACE We identify the Subject of the sentence by asking In the previous lectures we looked at the various WHO or WHAT carried out the action denoted by components that make up sentences in English. adjective. how the different elements in sentences Fred doručkuje u krevetu. though not exclusively. strings of words (phrases) . sentence which occurs at the very beginning of the sentence – and the forms or phrase structures that ADJECTIVE PHRASE: can be used for the realisation of the subject.

we have listed only five of quite a number of Going on a holiday always creates tensions. What the terrorists said puzzled the police. WE CAN CONCLUDE THAT THE Therefore. Traditionally. in terms of concepts of words. in more MORPHOLIGICAL FORM IS NOT A CRITERION details. indication/indikacija Biti dobar nastavnik je teže no što ljudi misle. Adjective as: happiness/sreća. ness. darkness/tama. If we consider the form. the most common word-class and typical noun endings such as: dog. A description like this is called a NOTIONAL DEFINITION. such as: death/smrt. if we look at the following examples: To be a good teacher is more difficult than people childhood/djetinjstvo. Under this view we look at the shape that words can take. behave in the meaning. 1. The above words have the following endings: Pete breaking the rules is unacceptable. ADVERB PHRASE: sincerity/iskrenost. -ship Da Pete krši pravila je neprihvatljivo. can take. And this could be an endless enumeration of More common as subjects are clausal subjects: words that do not fit into the semantic definition That he will go to New York is obvious. Da će on otići u New York je očigledno. then we are discussing the nouns from the aspect of morphology. their RELIABLE ENOUGH FOR IDENTIFICATION OF classification and grammatical features. things or places.9 Ja bih ga nazvao nespokojnim. the word-class of nouns. London etc. In addition to the above stated finite clauses. arm. . criteria. sentence. Oprezno je ono što bih ti ja predložio da uradiš. is a Noun or a Noun Phrase. Why she consented remains a mistery. Because he is generous doesn’t mean that he is A far better approach is to charectirize nouns rich. using FORMAL and DISTRIBUTIONAL criteria. phrase functioning as the Subject of the sentence ship. it definition enables us to identify Jim. as there is a number of nouns having no However. pain/bol. the The truth is that different words in English can Subject may be also the non-finite ones with the have similar endings. Cautiously is how I would suggest you do it. friendship/prijateljstvo. -tion. but which do not denote people. teacher. animals. nouns are defined as words that Therefore. chair. verb which is not marked for tense (or person/number etc. Prepositional phrases. Odlazak na odmor uvijek izaziva napetosti. Easter etc. book. This lecture will mostly treat grammatical features A problem with the notional definition of nouns is of the nouns and possible classification within this that it leaves a great number of words word-class. if semantic (notional) and denote people. because it offers a characterisation. These include words that denote abstract ideas or concepts. dog. or the shape the nouns Etc. However. THIS WORD-CLASS. Phrases.) Thus. rain etc. this lecture will discuss. To što je on velikodušan ne znači da je bogat. PROPER NOUNS: John. seems that what we have are distributional aeroplane. then. These are. love/ljubav. abolition/ukidanje. Ono što su rekli teroristi zbunilo je policiju. -hood. such However. or SUFFIXES. and Adverb Phrases are not so common Some denote bodily sensations: as Subjects. scholarship/stipendija Da Janet ode na koledž bi bila dobra ideja. dizziness/nesvjestica. kindness/dobrota For Janet to go to College would be a good idea. at where they can occur in the sentences. success/uspjeh. This morphological criteria are inadequate. of nouns. sentential patterns. typical noun endings. which could also be classified as nouns. Some of such words denote emotional states. indeed the typical noun endings and Running a business is a hard work. NOUN SUBCLASSES ARE: things and places. June. in this particular way.brotherhood/bratstvo think. Holland. Distributional criteria refer to the way in which in this case of a word class. unaccounted for. Saturday. . Paris. animals. and the way they behave and function in Zašto je ona pristala ostaje nepoznanica. as nouns.

there are two grammatical numbers: 2. when The typical grammatical endings marked on the adding a suffix for plural. book + s = books nevertheless. different ways: NOUNS It is pronounced as a voiceless [s] if the noun in Noun compounds may consist of the following singular ends in a voiceless consonant: composite forms: book + s = books [buks] NOUN+NOUN: bathroom/kupatilo. whereas the noun “families” grammatical categories: shows that the singular ending –y has changed NUMBER – SINGULAR/PLURAL into “i” before the plural suffix. grammatical form. names of geographic units. postcard/razglednica etc. son + s = sons cat + s = cats Such nouns are: housewife/domaćica. or marked for certain grammatical Family + es = families properties. GENDER – MASCULINE. we must observe the following rules: Nouns in many European languages may be Boy + s = boys inflected. COMMON NOUNS: SINGULAR and PLURAL.[ʃ]. time units etc.[ʒ]. there are two nouns – both ending in –y in the singular form. countries. but their FORMATION OF THE PLURAL: classification into: The plural of almost all nouns is formed by means COUNTABLE NOUNS: they take the plural of a suffix that is written as –s or –es. felt to be single terms. Cat + s = cats [kæts] fireplace/kamin. However. are. FEMININE AND NEUTER THE RULE IS: CASE If the noun in singular ends in –y preceded by a vowel (in this case it is a vowel “o” in boy) then there is no change in writing when forming the plural form: boys . Therefore if we follow the above rule for formation COMPOUND NOUNS: of the plural: One of the characteristics of English is the SINGULAR + (e)s = PLURAL capacity it has for forming compounds – the units We shall get the following word forms: which. and SINGULAR + (e)s > PLURAL . common nouns would be not their characterization by the semantic criteria such as: concrete nouns or abstract nouns. rivers. As the examples have shown. In the above examples.[z]. I n English. names of holidays. traveller’s check/ček etc. each boy + s = boys of which may be used as a separate word.10 A proper noun begins with a capital letter in writing. finally. And. they Nouns: number include: personal names. blackbird/kos VERB+NOUN: pickpocket/džeparoš. POSSESSIVE NOUN+NOUN: The same suffix is pronounced as [z] if the noun in Lady’s maid/služavka. dining. the same suffix is pronounced as [iz] flashlight/blic if the noun in singular ends in any fricative or GERUND+NOUN: affricate : [s]. newspaper/novine.or[dʒ]: walking stick/štap za hodanje horse + s = horses [hɔ:siz] PREPOSITION+NOUN: overalls/radnički bridge + s = bridges [bridʒiz] kombinezon etc. though made up of two or more parts.UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS: having no plural form SEMANTICS OF PLURAL: A SET > 1 but very often they refer to the undivided quantity. Linguistically most relevant classification of Only COUNTABLE NOUNS can be used in plural. the noun “boys” exhibits noun are the ones indicating the following no change in writing. flowerpot/saksija etc. WRITING RULES: INFLECTIONAL FORMS OF NOUNS In writing. The suffix –s or –es is pronounced in three room/trpezarija. singular ends in any voiced consonant: dog + s = dogs [dɔgz] ADJECTIVE+NOUN: son + s = sons [sʌnz] common sense/zdrav razum.[tʃ]. boy + s = boys Usually these changes are made through special family + es = families endings. cities.

vaši Therefore. However. etc. There is a large number of foreign words that have been absorbed into the language. The largest number of wife + s = wives these foreign plurals are of Latin and Greek origin: knife + s = knives thief + s = thieves The nouns borrowed from Latin: half + s = halves SINGULAR PLURAL stratum – sloj strata – slojevi But. there are also many words ending in –f or –fe medium – medij media – mediji that simply add –s to form their plural: larva – larva larvae – larve roof + s = roofs bacillus – bacil bacilli – bacili proof + s = proofs bacterium–bakterija bacteria–bakterije cliff + s = cliffs radius–prečnik radii – prečnici belief + s = beliefs etc. you will find the following Some nouns have the same form for singular and examples: plural. tooth – zub teeth – zubi foot – noga feet – noge However. louse – vaš. sanatoriums lobster – jastog lobster – jastozi etc. the original foreign one and the IDENTICAL SINGULAR AND PLURAL FORMS English one. majority of nouns ending in –f or –fe change the these have not been “naturalized” and they keep letter and the sound “f” into “v”: their foreign plural forms. hypotheses-hipoteze woman – žena women – žene etc. Sometimes. appendixes sheep – ovca sheep – ovce formula formulae. kriteriji muškarci hypothesis-hipoteza.braća virtuoso NOTE: (brethren: the usual plural for the noun virtuosi. Here.miševi language. –EN PLURAL SUFFIX their English plural.bureaus ox – vo oxen – volovi soprano-sopran soprani.sopranos brother – brat brethren . NOUNS NUMBER The nouns borrowed from Greek: IRREGULAR PLURALS: SINGULAR PLURAL 1. such as: SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL appendix appendices. the longer the words have been in the mouse – miš mice . So. the more they tend to conform to the goose – guska geese – guske English plural in –s. CHANGE OF A VOWEL analysis – analiza analyses- There are several nouns which form their plural analize by a change of a vowel: basis – osnova bases – osnove NOUNS NUMBER phenomenon–pojava phenomena-pojave SINGULAR PLURAL criterion-kriterij criteria – man – čovjek men – ljudi. trout – pastrmka trout – pastrmke salmon – losos salmon – lososi Most words taken in fairly recent times from French and Italian have their original and also 3. the plural form etc. some nouns are at the half-way stage with two plurals. uš lice . furmulas deer – jelen.11 However. srna deer – jeleni. “brethren” is now used in the meaning “members of the same society or religious order”: In some cases the two plurals have different meanings: . it is important to mention that a vast especially in the technical language of science.memorandums fish – riba fish – ribe sanatorium sanatoria.virtuosos brother is brothers. aquarium aquaria. Three nouns form their plural in –en: Recent words with two forms are: SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL child – dijete children – djeca bureau-biro bureaux. if the noun in singualr ends in –y preceded by a consonant (in this case it is the consonant “l” in the noun “family”) then the ending letter –y changes into “i” when forming the FOREIGN PLURALS: plural form: families. aquariums srne memorandum memoranda.

princess etc. Animals are usually referred to by the pronoun NOUNS WITH NO PLURAL FORM “it”. freedom. we have these categories: Material nouns: air. uncle. “female” and “inanimate”. Furniture (is) – namještaj (je) agencies) BCS and English are the same only in the case of S the noun “furniture” PLURALS AND COMPOUND NOUNS: Compound nouns usually form their plural as if However. glasses. Thus. decency etc. pencil. ashes (from the fire) scales (persons with great (for weighing) etc. however. pyjamas etc. abstract and many material nouns. pants. NEUTER GENDER – for inanimate objects: book. if the speaker wants to emphasize that they were simple nouns. spectacles. he/she is speaking about only one/single item. 2) There are some compound nouns in which It is possible. A) Articles of dress: trousers.. pliers (table of contents) indices C) Names of diseases and illnesses: mumps.. house. money etc. milk. queen. Abstract nouns: justice. This peiece of furniture is – ovaj komad nots namještaja je breakdown-kvar breakdowns etc. prince NOUNS WITH NO SINGULAR FORM etc. man. . mental powers) genii SINGULARIA TANTUM – These are the nouns (good or evil spirits) that always have only singular form although they may refer to the set greater than zero and formula formulas therefore the grammatical category of agreement (forms of words) is always realized in the singular form (3rd formulae person): (mathematical terms) These are: medium mediums Information (is) – informacije (su) (people claiming communication with Advice (is) – savjeti (su) spirits) Evidence (is) – dokazi (su) media News (is) – vijesti (su) (means. but may also be spoken of as “he” or “she” Many nouns are never used in plural such as most according to their sex. to group words into three both elements take plural: categories according to whether they can be SINGULAR PLURAL replaced by the pronoun “he/on”. table etc. 1) The plural suffix –(e)s is added to the final then the singular reference is made by saying: element of the compound: A piece of information SINGULAR PLURAL A piece of advice armchair-fotelja armchairs A piece of ewvidence tooth-brush-četkica za zube tooth-brushes A pice of news This is generally the case even when the elements A piece of furniture of the compound noun are not themselves nouns: BCS and English correspond each other again only SINGULAR PLURAL in the case of the noun “furniture: handful. Some nouns are never used in the singular form. Lord-justice-sudija lords justices Knight-Templar Knights Templars In all but a few cases these categories correspond (vitez-Templar) to the ideas of “male”.12 SINGULAR PLURAL B) Tools and instruments consisting of 2 parts: index indexes scissors. The concept of gender has no grammatical function in modern English. “she/ona” or man servant-sluga men servants “it/ono” respectively. MASCULINE GENDER – for all words representing males: boy. king. (algebraical signs) measles. D) Miscellaneous other words: genius geniuses Contents (of a book). aunt. FEMININE GENDER – for all words representing These include: females: girl.pregršt handfuls Furniture is – namještaj je forget-me-not-potočnica forget-me.

Therefore. such as: dijete. it is important to emphasize that in BCS. tele. televizor FEMININE GENDER: stolica. aparat.13 Here. very frequent mistakes that our people make in using English are related to the gender of nouns in our language. This distinction between masculine and feminine gender is marked in English in several different ways: 1) Feminine gender is formed by adding the suffix –ess to the noun designating the masculine gender: MASCULINE FEMININE poet-pjesnik poetess- pjesnikinja host-domaćin hostess-domaćica waiter-konobar waitress-konobarica actor-glumac actress-glumica 2) There are nouns having completely different forms for males and females. we have so called GRAMMATICAL GENDER. called suppletive forms: MASCULINE FEMININE boy girl king queen bull cow sir madam husband wife father mother son daughter brother sister . In this case we have the habit to refer to inanimate objects such as “Zenica” as “she” instead of “it”. though there are not many of them. which means that even the inanimate objects have either male of female gender: MASCULINE GENDER: sto. klupa. ždrijebe etc. knjiga. pile. tašna NEUTER GENDER – is often used even for the entities having either male or female sex. even in English there are some nouns that are marked for gender. However. kauč.

INFINITIVE CLAUSE: He advised me not to invest money at this time. phonetically expressed subjects. All verbal constructions are made negative by the However. full sentences. in fact. the subjects and However. constructions. adjectives When functioning as a subject. These are. gerund or infinitive may function However. (I want ø to leave now) the gentive case. NOUNS : CASE Also. a verbal or adverbs. The participial forms (the ones ending in the The only difference is that the verbal element is suffixes –ING and –ED/-EN) of the verb are not marked for TENSE/AGREEMENT mostly used in their adjectival or adverbial function. in fact. forms CLAUSE: Not having an education is a handicap.. nor is it phonetically realized. They usually function as nouns. (for anyone) to work hard is the imperative NOUNS : CASE nowadays. infinitive clauses and absolute mother decided to stay a little longer. It is called . G OBJECTIVE rammatical case is the third grammatical category I want him to sing.14 Nouns : case remain unchanged in form or they may be reduced to: POSSESSIVE: I can’t stand John’s singing. our next lecture will still be related to use of “not” before the verb. implied from the general context: There is only one morphological ending marking I want to leave now. .TO infinitive form A participle. The internal structure of nonfinite verbal constructions resembles that of a simple sentence. PREPOSITIONAL FORM Grammatical case is. The children not wanting to leave the beach. The verbs are generally reduced to: INFINITIVE CLAUSE: -ING For them to leave the children alone at night IS -ED/EN form. Case distinction and possessive case (genitive) will be discussed in details in the lectures to follow. ADJUNCTS (adverbial modifiers or adjectival INFINITIVE: modifiers-reduced clauses). there is another word class ending in objects from the original simple sentence may suffix –ING but it is used in nominal functions. requires a singular main verb (AGREEMENT): In these constructions the elements of simple CLAUSE: sentence are more changed in form than they are Their leaving the children alone at night IS very in finite dependent/subordinate clauses. function as nonfinite clauses. a relation in which For her to clean the house every day is absolutely one noun or a pronoun stands to some other word necessary. can take: : COMPLEMENTS or Singing is beautiful. their gerund clauses. like the finite verbs in alone in the same way as lexical phrases.) PARTICIPIAL CLAUSE: Nonfinite verb Not knowing anyone in town. construction. All other case relations are To work hard is the imperative nowadays. In nonfinite verbal constructions. However. in some the realization of the subject in the sentence. resolved in English structurally. nonfinite verb clauses. cases. such single verbals have the same NONFINTE may also have their own. or very dangerous. the gerund may be preceded by the negative adjective no. they may not occur in the verbal In modern English case is typically not marked on construction but elsewhere in a sentence or be the noun. like a noun clause. dangerous. in the sentence. . To see is to believe. typical for nouns as a word-class. he felt very lonesome. V ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION: erbal constructions cover participial clauses. (although. the verbal forms.

ADJECTIVE They also end in –ING. the great problem for us in using neither participles nor gerunds. Let us see one more example and the translation In this case the suffix –ING is a DERIVATIONAL that we may get: SUFFIX She likes cooking. gerund usually finishes in the -ING suffix. problem. However its distribution is verb in the sentence. such as: class. at the same time. but. The building/zgrada is a typical noun referring to the thing or entity existing as such. the status of the –ING suffix may be pjevanje. Gerund can take a DIRECT OBJECT – just The building on the right is an old church. dictionary. . The morphosyntactic marker of gerund is In our language./I have been between verbs and nouns – and verbs and nouns working. cooking. Gerund is a deverbal NOUN but not like the one Let us see which VERBAL GRAMMATICAL we had under the item 1. But these words are Therefore. It is fuzzy because it stands halfway I am working. MORNING.NOUN. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES: He likes playing football. Gerund can be formed out of any verb by adding the suffix –ING to the verbal base. Ona voli kuhati 2. like any other verb in English. derivation. The problem might arise from the fact that we do To make this claim clearer we should have a closer not use gerund as often as the English speakers do look at the English vocabulary: in English. The underlined nouns and pronouns are direct objects of the gerund not of the main verb in the You can see the obvious difference: above sentences. the words such as: It is very unlikely that you will translate it in the BUILDING. and the –ING suffix is an INFLECTIONAL This means that gerund retains some grammatical MORPHEME serving to mark the progressive properties of the verb used as the base for its ASPECT on the verb. writing. and nominal and it functions as the subject of the shares many grammatical properties with other above sentence. (just like any other noun). plesanje. EXCITING. EMBARRASSING./I had been working etc. The building of this tunnel is a very important He likes drinking wine. are completely opposed word classes in any In the above cases the form “working” is a VERB natural language.15 IS THE FORM OF A DEVERBAL NOUN. – is the last –ING form we are going to deal treat it as a noun. PRESENT PARTICIPLE: Ona voli da kuha Another deverbal form ending in –ING suffix is ??Ona voli kuhanje. PROPERTIES can be found in gerund: Let us compare these sentences: (a). For example: Versus: His hobby is collecting stamps. Zgrada s desne strane je stara crkva. This word class retains the verbal force in its meaning and takes part in We have already said that gerund is a fuzzy word formation of progressive tenses. traffic problem. (b). They are the English gerund might be the fact that we usually members of other word classes: NOUNS and use INFINITIVE CLAUSE in the places where the ADJECTIVES and as such they are listed in a English speakers use gerund. However. dancing. very fuzzy in English since it can have the status of The English equivalents of above words are: a: building. Meeting you has been a great pleasure. suffix –NJE/-NJA such as in: izgradnja. CEILING . singing. Compare the translation equivalent of the Word classes ending in –ING exist in English: following sentence: 1. with. present participle. nouns. – ??? On voli igranje fudbala. We know that in English dictionaries we can find On voli igrati fudbal. it has some nominal grammatical properties which force us to 3. -DERIVATIONAL SUFFIX -INFLECTIONAL SUFFIX. Izgradnja ovog tunela je veoma važan saobraćajni He left without saying anything. or following manner: INTERESTING. Gerund can be followed by an ADVERB The building/izgradnja – is gerund or deverbal modifying the meaning of the process expressed noun – it refers not to the thing or entity but to by the gerund and not the meaning of the main the process or action./I was working. pisanje and the like. kuhanje.

to other noun: cease etc. It can be preceded by the POSSESSIVE He went on shouting. For example: She stopped to talk to him. Gerund can function as the SUBJECT of a (a child that is sleeping) (a carriage for sentence – and this function is prototypically sleeping) related to nouns: running water a running track Working in these conditions is a pleasure. to (e). (c). She likes dancing. to begin. to finish. Such verbs are: to start. a knitting needle a reading room etc. Gerund can function as the OBJECT OF A supposed to use gerund in English. etc. Sometimes PREPOSITION – and we know that prepositions after such verbs also infinitives may be used but take the nominal complements: they should be avoided because the sentences may She is very fond of dancing. Gerund can function as the OBJECT of the It is time to see the contexts in which gerund and verb in a sentence: not infinitive is used in English: I remember seeing him. Points of distinction between the gerund and the participle in the previous examples are: (b).16 For example: To avoid this let us compare a few examples She likes driving fast. (water which is running) (the endless track) The reading of the will took place in the lawyer’s office. participial adjective. to stop. gerund has most of the GRAMMATICAL (a bear which dances) (a teacher of PROPERTIES OF A NOUN. It can be the SUBJECT COMPLEMENT 1. to go on. verbs) 2. Whenever we want to express the beginning. She started singing. which is partly an adjective. Your hair needs cutting. Seeing is believing. In spite of the fact that it retains some PARTICIPLE grammatical properties of the verb it is derived a dancing bear a dancing teacher from. Why should infinitive be avoided in such 3. She stopped talking to him. Gerund can be preceded by the just like any keep (on). For example: They are looking forward to Mary’s coming. the second sentence containing the infinitive may have yet another semantic interpretation: . Just like any other noun that can modify contexts? To become aware of the ambiguity that another noun (like in the examples: London the infinitive form may cause. to conutinue. can (occuring after the verb BE or some other copular be expanded into an adjective clause. to end. Both the present participle and the noun it The only thing that interests her is dancing. continuation or ending of some action we are (d). different ways. let us consider the bridge. military service and the like) gerund can following two sentences: be THE MODIFIER OF ANOTHER NOUN as well. illustrating adjectival participles and gerunds Reading poetry well needs a lot of practice. His singing drives me crazy. 1. it can easily be confused with the Prestala je pričati/da priča s njim. This last sentence illustrates the gerunds We have seen that we shall face a problem with functioning as the subject and the subject using gerund properly and not confusing it with complement in the same sentence. qualifies take a strong stress. become ambiguous and can be interpreted in Thank you for returning the book. DETERMINER as well: She stopped talking to him. the infinitive just because we use infinitives where the English speakers use gerund. a sleeping child a sleeping carriage (a). The participle. John’s being late worries me. They continued dancing. modifying another noun: 2. construction only gerund takes stress. (f). In the gerund To keep the money that you have found is stealing. In fact it behaves like dancing) a noun in a sentence. She was annoyed at your saying that. a walking stick Both sentences are grammatically correct and they a swimming pool both may have the same semantic interpretation. However. He left without saying anything. They both can have the following translation equivalent: However.

indicate the time which depends on the tense or His being injured caused her great anxiety. like. However. as this form has no forms of nouns and pronouns can be used: tense markers the processes denoted by gerund John’s being injured caused her great anxiety. he saved a lot of money. only possessive refers to processes. we can easily He will never admit having done that. A “subject” representing a human being can He could succeed only by working hard. it is used in its objective case. that of the main verb: His having worked in the factory is no disgrace. everyone. Take it to him without mentioning my name. For these reasons. However. he is saving a lot pronoun. the gerund clause “subject” . 3) in a by phrase. appear in possessive or non-possessive form. we can often find a verbs expressing preference. 2. come to the above interpretation. The form of the “subject” may also depend on the FUTURE TIME: position of the gerund clause in the sentence. a da ne (ne mogu da 1) in possessive or unchanged form. the sentence with the infinitive understood or can be found in another part of the sentence. what problem are we facing here?: 1. Smoking is dangerous. (He will never admit that he has done that) Now. adore.) I hate getting up early. hate. if the “subject” is a noun. it is PRESENT TIME: used in unchanged form. “subject” may be used I can’t help – ne mogu. continuation or ending of the action we may also use the infinitive. Entering these premises is forbidden. she burst into tears. By repairing the TV set himself. informal speech. And if it is not about GC constituents beginning. just like present participle forms. I remember John telling us fairy tales. b) The “Subject” is in another part of the sentence 3. The first interpretation “Prestala je pričati s “Subjects” in gerund clauses njim” expresses the end of the action. (for everybody) He prefers walking to riding in a car.17 She stopped to talk to him. require to be followed by the CLAUSE. and a “subject” prepositions: denoting a lifeless thing or an abstract idea. etc. These are: She thanked John for helping her. if the gerund clause is in the position of the of money. prefer (“subject” à a generic person: people. subject in a sentence. which depends on whether it is used in formal or Gerund. It’s no good – ne vrijedi/nema svrhe It’s no good trying to do it again. Form of the “subject” within the gerund clause It’s no use – ne vrijedi/nema svrhe If appearing within the gerund clause. Since the infinitive clause usually has the semantic (That he has worked in a factory is no disgrace). In formal usage. implies that their conversation has not even started yet. meaning of intention or purpose. The second context in which we should give a) The “Subject” is understood preference to gerund not the infinitive are the In general statements. he will save a lot Thus. we had better avoid infinitives The analysis of the in such contexts to avoid any possible misunderstanding. Gerund is always used after the preposition. anybody. b) Do you mind/Would you mind Smeta li vam/Zamjerate li? 1) The “Subject” in Possessive or Unchanged Do you mind/Would you mind my smoking? Form 4. odolim) 2) in an of phrase. the meaning of the main verb: In informal usage. the It’s no use talking to him about it. too. In fact it is about to begin. dislike. Can have the meaning: The perfect form expresses the time that precedes Stala je da popriča s njim. There are some phrases and adjectives that On hearing the news. Very often the “subject” of the CLAUSE is either 2. If it is a personal By repairing the TV set himself. of money. subjectless gerund clause These are: love. PAST TIME: I remember him telling us fairy tales. He can’t help eating so much. By repairing the TV set himself. Here we can distinguish between a “subject” Namely infinitives can never occur after the designating a human being. etc.

or there. Mary denies being threatened by John. any. dislike. not mind. The non-possessive form can usually be found after the Vs: like. may also signal an of phrase “object” (this His going away so unexpectedly was such a shock killing of innocent people). for her. some. However . it must be used in non- possessive form: He can’t imagine anybody in her place being so patient. for instance. In spite of its/it being Sunday. in which case we use its (formal use) or it (informal use). hate. 2) The “subject” in non-possessive form may appear after a preposition: He does not approve of women going out to work. Thus. if the precedes the gerund. “subjects” both in possessive and non-possessive They suggested hiring a car. (*Him going away…) If the or some other determiners do not precede the gerund. they all went to work. Still. sometimes such a “subject” can appear in its possessive form: They don’t allow the door’s being kept open. The “subjects” of the GC can be expletives. (*the yelling of him). I don’t approve of the tests being carried out in the factory laboratory. I have not heard of him being injured. imagine. He insisted on his house being repaired immediately. miss. I have not heard of John being injured. remember. (John threatened Mary. Can you imagine him being a teacher? I remember John being injured. and informal use. this. When the “subject” is followed by a long sequence of post-modifiers. the “object” of the gerund will remain The GCs in the object position may have their unchanged. 4) The “subject” in a by phrase The “subject” of the GC after by reflects the passive voice of a transitive verb. mostly with intransitive verbs: the yelling of John Personal pronouns are not usually used as “subjects” after of.18 must appear in its possessive form in both formal some other determiners. understand. 3) The “Subject” in an of phrase The “subject” of the GC can appear after of.) The form of the GC “object” depends on the presence or absence of some preceding elements that introduce the gerund. “Subject” denoting a lifeless thing or an abstract idea is much less frequent than a live “subject” and appears usually in non-possessive form. A live “subject” can be used either in possessive form (John’s yelling) or after of (the yelling of John). such as a. the “object” will be an of phrase: the killing of innocent people. form.

the shooting of the when expressing the idea of prohibition: birds. e. which is less zagrijavanjem) common. for instance. in which case these are usually the adverbs of manner or frequency: This is done by abruptly lowering the temperature. Adverbs changed to adjective form are usually used in the + Ving + of-phrase construction. because it is possible to insert another his returning the money adjective between the gerund and the existing 2) it may be in an of phrase. IN FINAL POSITION: She suggested correcting my work immediately. Using adverbs in this position may result in ambiguity. i. the GC his monotonous reading of the poem (derived from He read the poem monotonously. Why is the clause Gerund Clause Positions in the Sentence The shooting of the criminals ambiguous? a) subject (The criminals were shhooting Seeing him so ill shocked her. f adverb not in the following cases: after there + be: In gerund clauses containing both an of phrase There is no denying that he is very hardworking.) GCs without a by phrase.19 “Objects” in his reading of the poem which was monotonous which was further reduced to * his reading of the poem monotonous clauses and finally transformed to his monotonous reading of the poem. adjective. My coming late always made her angry. The police rewarded him for promptly informing them about it.e. e. i. may be interpreted either as an active or a No smoking is allowed at public places passive form. birds were shot by someone. If the gerund is preceded by a possessive in which case the adjective-from-adverb is placed “subject”. i. Such constructions are in fact known as free their performing this experiment. It’s very embarrassing not remembering object and the by-phrase is the original subject. the of-phrase is the original (cf. Adverbs in a GC can be c) subjective complement in unchanged form or Distillation is changing a substance from the in adjective-from-adverb form.g.g.g. as in the following examples: His leaving the house immediately made his wife suspicious of him. Or: The criminals were shot) b) finite verb object He recommended visiting her. which is felt to have more nominal character. 1) remain unchanged. and a by phrase. people’s names. was transformed from .: his reporting of the accident the monotonous and quiet reading of the poem Sometimes both kinds of “objects” are possible. Adverbs in unchanged form are used either in (Destilacija je promjena iz tečnog stanja u paru final position or in initial position. shooting these birds or the shooting of these As for the negative adjective no. the “object” may either in front of the gerund. Someone shot the birds or The No trespassing on these premises will be allowed. He was known for never telling the truth. it replaces the birds.e.e. liquid to the vapor state by heating. e. Thus. phrases.

scorn. quit. give up Saving her life caused them much trouble/caused (=stop). consider. (If he goes away.) finding her at such a place. renounce. recommend.) not remembering people’s These verbs are: remember. try: names.20 It’s strange. resent. I remember locking the door. trouble to all of them. practice. intend. (past time) obligatory if the “subject” is within the CLAUSE. enjoy. Don’t forget to lock the door. involve. anticipate. e) object of preposition It’s very embarrassing not remembering people’s She hesitated about going there alone names. It’s embarrassing (. clauses There is no use/need crying over spilled milk. as in: It’s no use crying over spilled milk. hate. cannot 2) verbs expressing cause-effect relationship: help. prefer. encourage. detest. neglect. miss. risk. but garden. My coming late always made her angry. facilitate. appreciate. a consequence of segregation… (non- restrictive apposition) Gcs AS OBJECTS Gerund clause subjects often combine with Verbs requiring either GCs or infinitives as their the verb be as the main verb. advocate. à After some of the above verbs the infinitive refers to the future and the gerund refers to the past. cease. deep on. health. f) apposition It’s been a pleasure meeting you. in general objects mainly show some mental activity or statements: signal indirect speech. GC subjects after anticipatory it can often be replaced with INFINITIVE CLAUSEs. regret. propose. drop (=stop). continue. understand. I remembered to lock the door. Gcs AS SUBJECTS etc. Not remembering people’s names is very embarrassing.: characteristic of informal usage: She began learning/to learn Chinese. before another noun. imagine. risk. and due to their meaning cannot 3) verbs expressing emotion. begin. They risked having an accident. His going away unexpectedly will be considered cannot stand. postpone. disdain. defer. necessitate. avoid. report. His going away will shock her. which is regret. Adjectives after expletive (anticipatory) it or Functions of expletive there can be replaced with nouns. decline. such GCs may express Your wish to go for a walk does not justify your conditional meaning: leaving the baby alone in the house. plan. In an appropriate context. urge. suggest. dread. tolerate. For instance: I cannot help thinking he’s still alive. admit. appear after anticipatory it + Adj. she will be angry. unwise. commence. finish. the term bird-watching (restrictive apposition) Banding. conditional meaning: urge. His going away may embarrass her. give up. My coming late will make her angry. resist. endure. mean. so that obviously they need Jogging early in the morning is very good for human subjects. delay. her saying that. love. justify. hesitate. (future time) as in: . the term rolling. fancy. miss. which may also bear refer to the past: avoid. These are: acknowledge. remember.) gerund clause. noun compound) Cf. After certain transformations GC subjects may (dis)like. CLAUSE subjects may be combined with passive The following verbs can have either gerund or predicates: infinitive objects: attempt. The following verbs can be followed only by the (If I come late. (past time) It’s incredible (. mention. put off. as in: d) noun adjunct It’s very embarrassing not to remember people’s swimming pool (= a noun written separately names. forget. We missed seeing that film when it was at the she will …) local cinema. etc. the two together forming a It’s been a pleasure to meet you. (future time) I’ll never forget finding that old rare coin in my Comma is optional in the above examples. try. start. cannot bear.

Adverbial Function of Gerund Clauses in PPs Sorry for being late. she resorted to passive infinitives: stealing. designate human beings. A good way of doing it = a good way in which you can do it Nominal Function of Gerund Clauses after prepositions and particles (prepositional verbs + Both types of prepositional CLAUSEs may adjectives with the PP complement) sometimes have alternate forms with the Such function of GCs can be found in the INFINITIVE CLAUSE: following sequences: the necessity to learn better V + preposition/particle + Ving: a good way to do it He laughed at my singing. GC and of the main clause are the same. Some of these verbs may have subjects that She strongly objects to his treating her like a child.21 She strongly objects to being treated like a child. and clause equivalents. look forward. the importance of being earnest the preparation for traveling abroad (prepare) OF PREPOSITIONS If a verb is to be used after a preposition. verbs need and want (= require) after non-human It’s hard to reconcile oneself to being sick a long subjects will require to be completed with the time. serve to V On returning home. for instance. The majority of We don’t have enough time for preparing the such GCs. This may seem He dedicated himself to finding a cure. (needs to be cut) My car wants servicing. decide to V GCs as objects of preposition within the PP in forget about Ving. confess. Everybody has the same capacity for being happy. suffice for Ving. limit oneself. do not have the subject. he found the door open. revert: . the time to learn it better He disapproves of mothers going out to work. In this preposition. The gerund clause within PP . reconcile oneself. help (sb) positions that are occupied by adverbs. perform three functions: This is not a good way of doing it. forget to V adverbial function may appear in all three help (sb) in Ving. unimportant at first thought. Only GCs He introduced a new method for testing functioning as objects of prepositions may schoolchildren. an unacceptable (“dangling”) construction will be object. otherwise dedicate oneself. it must nonderivational nouns be nominalized into the gerund. confine oneself. mainly after: way: nouns derived from adjectives or verbs: His language won’t bear repeating. V He passed by me without recognizing me. c) adverbial. serve for Ving. care to V GC in PP modifying VERBS decide on Ving. function. plan to V He couldn’t answer for laughing. rather than a signal of the infinitive: case care must be taken that the “subject” of the accustom oneself. warn (sb) against Ving. gerund. resort. and especially those in adverbial exam. allude. plead guilty. resign produced: oneself. Such constructions usually represent adjective b) adjectival. but most (to) V frequently in initial or final position. the He never reconciled himself to being a prisoner. plan on Ving. Such gerunds are easily paraphrased as When she had no more money. warn (sb) to V If appearing in initial position such GCs do not After the following verbs the obligatory to is a usually have the “subject” within the GC. Your joke will bear repeating.in this function it can modify Some of these verbs can be completed either with 1) verbs or CLAUSEs or INFINITIVE CLAUSEs: 2) adjectives agree in/on Ving. a) nominal. Thank you for helping me. or agree to V care about Ving. suffice to He learned by listening. (=is amusing (capable) enough to be heard again) the possibility of going there She can’t bear to be laughed at/being laughed at. But. (needs to be serviced) Adjectival Function of Gerund clauses after the prepositions The GC in this function usually appears in the of The verb bear in some cases behaves in the same phrase or for phrase. Your hair needs cutting.

22 *After walking for an hour. requires the gerund form as its object. (hearing. weather John was surprised at hearing the news.. the strong wind used.) He is disappointed to hear that they are not coming. permitting. the GC appears after the an abstract noun form already exists. being tired and sleepy. Dinner will be served outdoors. she also learns how to play the piano. the GC appears after the machine). Here are some other prepositions appearing after f) preposition adjectives and signaling GCs: Police are anxious to hear any information OF: He is afraid of being seen with Mary. Thus. FUNCTIONS: PURPOSE (for): This equipment is used for a) gerund heating the house. TIME: CLAUSES When the time of the GC action follows that of the A sequence gerund + of + NP is often avoided if main clause verb. opposed. given. is therefore considered to be a preposition: They are opposed to making concessions. providing (that) you go too. for prepositions prior to or before: instance.. all native speakers will accept the Prior to being tested. These adjectives are usually –ed c2) postmodifier participial adjectives. He was afraid that the police would catch them. such as: accustomed. concerning his whereabouts.. rather than b) When the time of the GC action precedes that of the rotating of the wheel (will destroy the the main clause verb. sequence the rotation of the wheel. ADDITION (besides): Besides learning foreign languages. CONDITION (with): b) concrete noun With increasing the temperature. The girl sitting there is John’s sister. the roof. prepositions after or on: -ING FORMS On/After hearing the news. e) adverbial He left the party early. I will go. the metal will He saw some light coming through an opening in become red. The word to after some adjectives. . MANNER (by. addicted.) that clauses He was disappointed (that) you were not coming. (afraid of going. without) : He learned by listening. they were dried for 12 hours. the GC appears after the prepositions during or in: -ing FORM CAN OCCUR IN THE FOLLOWING During his reading. and started blowing. Seeing is believing. she burst into laughter. c) When the time of the GC action and the time of Summary the action of the main clause verb run parallel. WITH: She was very pleased with their acting.. -ING FORMS c) adjective GC in PP Modifying ADJECTIVES c1) premodifier The most frequent preposition signaling GCs after Some people saw flying saucers adjectives is at. / (to Here are the most usual adverbial meanings of your suggestions) GCs in PPs: She is addicted to taking tranquillizers. everybody was silent. GPs as objects of preposition occuring after adjectives may have alternate forms with: INFINITIVE CLAUSEs: He is afraid to go there alone. dedicated. disposed. AT/ABOUT: She was deeply disappointed at/about losing the d) verb race. FOR: This place is not adequate enough for g) conjunction playing tennis. especially –ed participial adjectives.

and therefore. Pronouns make up a small class of words of very This lecture will not include descriptive adjectives high frequency. For instance: We shall discuss both these subclasses of Tom came late last night. They belong to the closed class of functional words Those pronouns that are not substitutes may which means that they are limited in number and simply have indefinite reference or express the class cannot be enriched by introducing some indefinite quantity: new words with the same function into English. 7) : we. – indefinite doer of the action The class of determiners incude the following sub. and not functional elements.23 Determiners This lecture will not follow the sequence that has been stated above. twenty-fifth. B) pronouns: mine.. all. more. sixty-second. POSSESSIVES: decisive factors in classifying parts of speech we A) adjectives: my. our. functional words that occur before a noun in the Noun Phrase. We mentioned pronouns as a closed class of non- lexical or functional words in the system in one of 4) NUMERALS: the previous lectures. some are inflected may function as pronouns when they are not and some are not../Mnogo se pisalo o našem novom filmu.. may consider pronouns as a subclass of nouns. traditionally.. And they are. may This lecture will be about the non-lexical or function as the subject of the sentence. some are possessive adjectives of the personal pronouns substitutes and some are not. some take adjective followed by nouns. some of the However.. may substitute the entire Noun Phrase.ours. only functional elements -ordinal: fourth.. this lecture will illustrate all classes of pronouns and distinguish the ones that may occur The class of determiners includes various words in the function of the subject. Functional/closed class of adjectives: determiners Those pronouns that are actual substitutes may that must be followed by a noun and may not refer not only to a preceeding noun – its occur alone. that serve as a substitute for a lexical class of 5) : some... : the. S: this/plural:these that/plural: those If we regard POSITION and FUNCTION as the 3. Helen’s . which. a/an indefinite quantity 2. . – 1. one hundred. -cardinal: four. but will first start with the determiners that may stand alone. what.. but also to a larger part of a discourse Pronouns – that may occur alone and frequently that precedes.. and antecedent. that may or may not stand alone.. this definition is applicable to some determiners were divided into two subclasses: types of pronouns but not to others.. Somebody knocked at the door/Neko je pokucao na vrata. He was very tired../Tom je došao kasno determiners and we shall point out which ones sinoć. The traditional definition of a pronoun is: It is a word that takes place of a noun.. few. A lot has been written about our new classes: movie. However. Determiners make a very heterogenous class of Pronouns functional elements that usually occur before a noun in the Noun Phrase.yours. nouns. Only some of the pronouns may because they belong to the class of lexical words function as the Subject in the sentence. your. may substitute (stand instead of) the head noun. This heterogenous class of determiners include a It is clear that the antecedent for the pronoun “he” small group of structure words without in the second sentence is “Tom” named in the characteristic form. previous one... you./On je bio jako umoran. twenty-five.. Although there are a number of dissimilarities among the types of pronouns – some may be All of these determiners except the articles and the freely chosen and some may not.. Some of them may even substitute the noun phrase etc. they. For these reasons. C) possessives from nouns: John’s.. may and which ones may not occur alone. 6) AND : whose. indeed..

as the impersonal pronoun in our language. or they may act as mention its anaphoric use: namely. Mali Jimmy ima tri broda. SINGULAR PLURAL However. The person or thing being spoken of is called the third person. many pronouns have the ability to serve either of two functions – they may stand Speaking about the pronoun ONE. You can notice that in BCS we use the noun “čovjek” when we want to refer to all individuals. You-ti you-vi So the correct translation of the sentence: Singular you includes the individual hearer. In our language it is possible to leave the Personal pronouns refer to: attributes “veliki” and “mali” to function as the 1. Mali Jimmy ima tri broda. noun “ships” in plural. Therefore. jedan veliki i dva mala. One is their weak lexical content. PLURAL They/oni (for all live beings and for all things without any distinction for gender) However. mentioned noun either in singular or plural. Anaphoric pronoun In addition. are genuine pronouns because they substitute the Whereas the pronoun “ONES” sbstitutes the same persons or things being spoken of. the SPEAKER – called the first person substitutes for the noun “brod”. The third person never takes part in the discourse. a big and two small. since the adjectives “big” and SINGULAR PLURAL “small” may not be left without a noun. the anaphoric adjectives (determiners) that precede descriptive pronoun may serve to replace the already adjectives. others. Little Jimmy has three ships. Where the anaphoric pronoun ONE – substitutes In fact only the third person singular and plural the noun “ship” in singular.24 modification and some do not – there are two individuals but to all human beings and functions features that most pronouns have in common. unknown or unimportant to the speaker. we should also alone in noun function. the result will be the I – the individual speaker ungrammatical sentence: We – includes the speaker and one or more *Little Jimmy has three ships. if we try to translate this sentence I – ja we – mi literally into English. Personal For example: Little Jimmy has three ships. Whatever meanings they have are derived from the context in which they are used. within this class we should also mention the IMPERSONAL PRONOUN “ONE” which is used to generalize for all persons: One should always try to be kind to others. we might conclude that the noun “čovjek” serves not only to refer to the male . The pronouns designating the third person are: It may be used to refer back to the previously SINGULAR mentioned noun either in singular or plural in He/on (for males) order to avoid the unnecessary and stylistically She/ona (for females) awkward repetition of the same noun in the same It/ono (for things and live beings whose sex is sentence. jedan veliki i dva mala Plural you includes more than one individuals Will be: who are the persons spoken to in the discourse. This was the illustration of another function of the pronoun ONE in English. a big ONE and two small ONES. Čovjek se uvijek treba truditi da bude ljubazan prema drugima. a big ship and two small ships. or the hearer is called the mentioned noun in English we use the anaphoric second person: pronoun ONE. For the purpose of substituting the already The person spoken to.

yours and theirs – Takvi ljudi kao što su ovi su opasni. Demonstrative Possessive Demonstrative pronouns point out someone or something. the forms such as: Such men as these are dangerous.ova SINGULAR That/taj.the speaker your/yours – refers to the second person singular this – generally refers to what is near at hand.your. yours.its.te.ove. mine.ovo these/ovi. For example: However. arises from the distributional I must tell you THIS. For example: There is another demonstrative pronoun which This is my book. they may substitute the whole noun phrase./Ovo je moja knjiga may appear before or after a noun.ta.takvo”: ćemo sastanak u našem uredu. may occur alone without being followed by a OR: noun. contrary.takva. Occasionally. Ljudi TAKVI kao što su ovi su opasni.ona first person singular.our.his. my. but now it refers to more thatn one plate. third person plural irrespective of gender.its. point to a part of a discourse that follows: our/ours etc. the demonstrative pronoun may The difference in the form my/mine. We shall have the meeting in our office. his.hers.ono oni. To express possession or belonging there are The most common demonstrative pronouns are: pronominal and adjectival expressions referring to SINGULAR PLURAL each person singular and plural. your/yours – has the same form as the form for Rekao je supruzi da je upravo dobio povišicu singular. Moram ti reći OVO. The distributional difference between the demonstratives this/these and that/those on the one hand and the demonstrative “such/takav” on the other is the following: this/these and that/those may not occur with the articles before a noun: *the this book whereas the demonstrative “such” occurs before the article: .one.ona.her.your and their may not I can no longer afford to go out to expensive stand alone in the noun phrase. Quite on the restaurants for dinner. restorane na večeru. your/yours. They function as the proper pronouns since Men such as these are dangerous.25 such a boy.to those/ti. This/ovaj. (if we express possession referring to the that – refers to what is farther away./Imat This pronoun is “SUCH/takav.ours.ta my/mine – refers to something belonging to the onaj. these possessives must be followed by a Ne mogu si više priuštiti da idem u skupe noun. possibilities of these expressions. their/theirs – refers to something belonging to the TO/OVO joj je bilo veoma drago.ova. individual hearer) This distinction in space is related to the distinction between the adverbs here/ovdje and his – refers to something belonging to the third there/tamo: person singular who is male COMPARE: her/hers – refers to the third person singular who This table (over here) is a female Ovaj sto (ovdje) its – refers to the third person singular neuter in That table (over there) gender Taj sto (tamo) PLURAL Demonstrative pronouns may also point out to our/ours – refers to something belonging to the something that has just been said: first person plural (a speaker and one or more He told his wife he had just received an increase in other individuals) salary. hearer in the discourse THIS pleased her very much.

g. the horses of the soldiers) Possesive pronouns – that stand alone and 3) For plural nouns not ending in –s. /Ova knjiga je moja./Ovaj ured je naš.e.g. the voices of the PRONOUN children) That is my book That book is mine The genitive suffix –’s can have three That is your book That pronunciations: book is yours It is pronounced as [s] when added to the nouns That is his book That book is his ending in voiceless consonants: That is her book That e. That boy’s [bɔiz] book is theirs. which genitive appertains to the person. The possessive. [z]. it is pronounced [iz] when added to Functional the words ending in [s]. it is formed substitute the entire possessive expression. [ʃ[. The genitive form is used to Possessive indicate not only possession in the strict sense but something signified by another noun. cat’s [kæts] book is hers Philip’s [filips] That is our book. the father of the boy) vozu. Helen’s etc. the possessive ending –’s is added to the adjectives or pronouns – in contemporary last word in the string: linguistic analysis all the functional elements that the woman next door’s son/sin žene koja živi u occur before the noun in the Noun Phrase are susjednom stanu classified generally as determiners. This office is ours not yours. using the word “possession” in its widest sense. [ʒ]. We shall discuss this in the lectures to follow. The only my father-in-law’s house/kuća moga svekra exception are descriptive adjectives that occur my father and mother’s friend/prijatelj moga oca i before the noun but they are not functional but majke lexical words and are treated in grammar accordingly. or genitive case shows possession. in this lecture we shall discuss not only For example: this possibility to express possession but the This book is mine. son’s [sʌnz] And. Tom’s house/Tomova kuća His aunt is on the train. For singular nouns. horse’s [hɔ:siz] adjectives judge’s [dʒʌdʒiz] witch’s [witʃiz] When the “possessor” is represented by a string of Not to get confused about the classification into words. The possessive form of the noun (sometimes Possessives also substitute the possesives derived called the “Saxon Genitive”) is formed as follows: from nouns – and they indeed function as 1. Thus the possessive form “John’s father” does not mean that John “possesses his father. (i. by adding –’s: the men’s room (i. nor does “Shakespeare’s death” mean that Shakespeare “possessed” death.e. the father of the boys) without being followed by a noun the soldiers’ horses (i.e. the house of Tom) We might divide the previously stated groups of 2) For plural nouns ending in –s – it is formed by possessives into: adding apostrophe only: Possessive adjectives: that may not stand alone the boys’ father (i. [tʃ] and [dʒ]: e.e. alternative one as well. However. by adding –’s pronouns: the boy’s father/dječakov otac John’s aunt is on the train. . finally. the room of the men) POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES POSSESSIVE the children’s voices (i./John-ova tetka je u (i.e./Njegova tetka je u vozu.e. That It is pronounced [z] when added to the words book is ours ending in vowels or voiced consonants: That is their book.26 Possessive The class of determiners also includes the possessives derived from a noun: John’s. a ne vaš.

(a) a verb to a subject For example: (b) a verb to an object He is a ship’s carpenter. In the case of nouns denoting MEASUREMENT. wife)./On je brodski stolar. počinio ubistvo (b) Thompson was murdered/Thompson je ubijen With proper nouns the genitive is perhaps more common that the “of” genitive construction. two day’s wages Pročitala sam neke Šoove komade ali ni jednu yesterday’s news Šekspirovu. SPACE or QUANTITY: I have read some of Shaw’s plays but none of a week’s holiday Shakespeare’s. Mrs Brown’s car – human without a head noun when referring to a business. the window of the room We are having dinner at my aunt’s (house) NOT: *the room’s window tonight. Or the example: Instead of saying: The punishment of the teacher Oliver Cromwell. we use “of” Jutros moram otići kod frizera construction (also called analytical or “Norman” We visited St Paul’s. For example: NOT: * He is a carpenter of a ship. (a) that he loved his wife Scott’s “Weaverly” (as in the sentence: He did that for the love of his BUT: The collected novels of Scott. In the examples (b) it indicates the object or receiver of the action. . John’s friend. The “of” genitive construction cannot be used with the relation of the noun to the possessive word “classifying genitives”. the Protector of England’s son.(cathedral) genitive): Posjetili smo (katedralu) Sv. For example: For example: The love of his wife Henry’s work may imply two meanings: BUT: the work of Henry and John.g. Uzela je brata pod ruku. there are some exceptions to this rule: She put her arm through her brother’s (arm). with inanimate things. NOT: *the flowers’ coolours etc. the cat’s tail. a spider’s web . may imply: OR: (a) That the teacher gave punishment. They are examples of the OBJECTIVE GENITIVE. or This is the car of the man we met (b) that the teacher received punishment Instead of saying: In all (a) examples the genitive case indicates the The man we met’s car subject or the doer of the action – They are examples of the SUBJECTIVE GENTIVE.27 The possessive genitive is used chiefly with the names of human beings and some animals: The genitive is frequently used “elliptically” – e. Richard Cromwell was the son of Oliver Cromwell. Čija je ovo knjiga? – John-ova When a possessive word qualifies a noun that has something of verbal force (that denotes an action). or We should also use the “of” genitive construction (b) that his wife loved him in order to avoid putting an –’s to a long phrase: (as in the sentence: He was happy in the love of For example: his wife). The Similarly with the “of” genitive when the noun has “of” genitive construction is used mainly for “verbal association”: balance.animals For example: I must go to the hairdresser’s (shop) this morning. the colours of the flowers Noćas večeramo kod moje tetke. Thompson’s murder/Thompsonovo ubistvo – can He has doctor’s degree/Ima titulu doktora have two meanings: Not: the degree of a doctor (a) Thompson committed a murder/Thompson je etc. the walls of the house NOT: *the house’s walls The head noun is sometimes omitted to avoid repetition: However. the Protector of England. Pavla. TIME. beings building etc. an hour’s time Whose book is this? – It’s John’s. However. These are the genitives that may be that of: are completely adjectival.

“ONE OF HENRY’S FRIENDS” and “ONE OF SHAW’S PLAYS” could not be said if this were the case.28 The double possessive An idiomatic construction of the language is the use of the ‘s form and “of” form together: He is a friend of Henry’s We saw a play of Shaw’s This construction is very similar to “ONE OF HENRY’S FRIENDS” or “ONE OF SHAW’S PLAYS” A difference is that “A FRIEND OF HENRY’S” or “ A PLAY OF SHAW’S” could be also said if Henry had only one friend or if Shaw had written only one play. or between: a criticism of Shaw (in the meaning: opinion about Shaw) and a criticism of Shaw’s (in the meaning: opinions by Shaw). This construction is of importance since it enables us to make a difference in meaning between: a portrait of Rembrandt (meaning the portrait of him) a portrait of Rembrandt’s (one painted by him or belonging to him). .

“Not” can also be used as the of the interrogrative pronouns etc. but within a single sentence (if it is not a complex sentence) only one is possible. The pronouns that refer to indefinite persons and things are all singular./Ni jedan everybody/everyone/everything. just like the NOT – it also anybody/anyone/anything derives a negative sentence: nobody/no one/nothing No student here knows the right answer.are used only in negative . and they are used without If we wish to translate this sentence into English. numerals. demonstratives. He is not sleeping/On ne spava. and these are: negative quantifier NO. or a pronoun –one to the may not be followed by any additional – quantifying expressions such as: including the contrast ever/never – where “never” some+body/thing/one denotes the negative semantic concept). it is possible to say: quantifier ANY. but. dozvoljeno da uđe.(anybody/anyone/anything) are Not anybody is permitted to enter./Nikome nije Somebody is at the door.g. PLUS A NEGATIVE VERB.Indefinite pronouns such as: NO – which is used as the (negative quantifier) somebody/someone/something before the noun.or EVERY- quantifier SOME. several s in a Indefinite single sentence are allowed. All indefinite pronouns derived from the negative rather than forms with ANY.generally make a sentence 1. express the grammatical polarity between positive 3. You can see that. whereas./Nisu svi It is time to see other groups of pronouns in studenti iz Sarajeva. These include./Nešto je na stolu. These are: Another in English is the : 1. like we said before. There is not anybody at the door/Nema nikoga na In English there are two functional words used to vratima. (e. or the Noun Phrase. pronouns. demonstrative and possessive pronouns. . is possible. such as: Not many people were present. Not all the students come from Sarajevo. articles. Something is on the desk. s in one sentence). antecedents (they do not refer back to somebody we must know that only one of the offred three s or something already mentioned). possessives. student ovdje ne zna tačan odgovor. (expressions of quantity). 2. used either in: A) sentences (questions) B) negative sentences with the NOT attached to Negation the verb (if they do not function as the subject) For example: Within the context of indefinite pronouns we Is anybody at the door?/Je li iko na vratima? should say a few words about the in English. in our language. English. and -body or – thing./Neko je na vratima. etc. any+body/thing/one no+body/thing/one Let us go back to indefinite pronouns and learn a every+body/thing/one few rules and options in derivation of negative sentences in English: The forms with NO. bilo prisutno. Therefore the translation equivalent to the above sentence in English would be: You could see in the examples that indefinite Nobody in the world ever does such stupid things. All indefinite pronouns derived from the and negative. somebody/someone/something) – may be used in Compare the following examples: declarative sentences: Nobody is permitted to enter.29 NOT – this is a most often attached to the verb In this lecture we shall continue discussing the to derive a negative sentence: closed class of words that occur before the noun in He does not live here/On ne živi ovdje. Contrary to the incorrect sentence: *Anybody is not permitted to enter. in English you can either negate a verb or a noun. Indefinite pronouns refer to indefinite (usually Compare BCS example to English: unknown) persons or things as well as to Niko na svijetu nikada ne pravi takve gluposti. (3 indefinite quantities. pronouns are formed by adding the nouns: (Where only the subject is a negative element./Nije mnogo ljudi We have already spoken about the personal. All indefinite pronouns derived from the However.

himself 3. Predsjednik je lično posjetio fabriku. one must be very careful when using means that it is possible to express the negative reflexive pronouns in English./lit. 1.For derivation of the negative While all these verbs are completed by the sentence there are two possible solutions: reflexive pronoun “SE” in our language. Indefinite pronouns beginning in ANY – are Compare: mostly used in sentences. 3. Since both indefinite pronouns beginning in ANY- and NO. myself 1. this usage is possible only with So. The most common function of these pronouns is In our language the phrase “ne znam nikoga” a REFLEXIVE function. obući se etc. 2. I see nobody at the door. object. 2. Declarative sentence: All these are intransitive in English. EMPHASIZING FUNCTION – when the and plural and to the accusative form of the meaning of the reflexive pronoun is SAM/LIČNO: personal pronoun in the third person singular and For example: plural. And if we try to translate “SE” by using the Literal translation with two s present in our corresponding reflexive pronoun in English. 1. yourself 2. He shaved himself. English. I do not see anybody at the door. You can see that with such verbs a reflexive pronoun changes the meaning of the sentence. yourselves 3. Or there is no such complementation. another function of the reflexive –selves (for plural) which is added to the the pronouns in English is: possessive adjective in the first person singular 2. the NOT may not be herself present in the same sentence: itself Compare: I know nobody in this town./Tom je izrezao papir etc. – Tom se porezao. and Tom cut the wood/Tom je izrezao drva. themselves . Indefinite pronouns beginning in NO. This is not possible in English: It is used to refer to the situation in which the * I do not know nobody in this town. ourselves Mi uvijek sami krečimo svoj stan.30 sentences. we may conclude that: transitive verbs that can take different objects. but. Pay attention to the translation of these sentences: Reflexive He dressed himself/Sam se obukao. but may also serve for Tom cut the bread/Tom je izrezao kruh. in which case it contains two negative elements – on the verb and corresponds our refelexive pronoun: SEBE/SE: on the noun as well. Let us see the same verbs in the same sentences completed by the reflexive pronoun. Compare: sentence: Obukao se vs He dressed ___ Do I see anybody at the door? Obrijao se vs He shaved ____ Negative sentence: ./Sam se obrijao. In our language polarity in two different ways in English: there are many reflexive verbs such as: obrijati se. Indefinite pronouns beginning in SOME./Ne znam nikoga u The reflexive pronoun generally refers to an ovom gradu. English: *I do not see nobody at the door. in negative sentences. However.Tom je porezao SEBE. in English in spite of the fact that the sentences would produce the unacceptable sentence in will remain grammatically correct. this language: will yield a different meaning and interpretation Ne vidim nikoga na vratima. The president himself visited the factory. Tom cut himself. 2. in that case. derivation of the negative ones. /Tom se porezao. I see somebody at the door. The paradigm looks like this: OR SINGULAR PLURAL We always paint our flat ourselves. subject (the doer of the action) is the object of that This literal translation is ungrammatical in action at the same time.are among which the doer of the action can also be the used in declarative sentences. The reflexive pronoun is a combination of the suffix – self (for singular) or the suffix Therefore.may be used in negative sentences. For example: istuširati se.are used Tom cut the paper. animate being – usually a person. 1. in English 1. this However. Tom cut himself.

WHOEVER WHATEVER pronouns in English are: WHICHEVER WHO/WHOM – used for persons: For example: The man who is standing at the door is my Whoever told you to do such a thing?/Ama ko ti je brother. modify the head noun and the entire string has a single function in the above sentence. Most koji vidiš tamo preko je najstariji u gradu. sentences that refer back to the head noun (the However. “his grandfather who died last year” – is a single but for or adjective clauses that function as the function – it is a complement of the postmodifying elements within a Noun Phrase. rekao da takvo što uradiš? Čovjek koji stoji na vratima je moj brat. brackets to see that the entire string makes one integral unit: There are three pronouns: WHO (for persons) [The MAN who answered the phone] [was rude] WHAT (for things) [ČOVJEK koji se javio na telefon] [je bio grub] WHICH (for choice involving either persons or It is clear that the head noun is the word things). THE PHONE” provides the closer description of pronouns instroduce direct and indirect the head noun “man” and makes the integral part questions: of the whole noun phrase “The man who answered Direct question: the phone”. Čovjek koji se javio na telefon je bio grub. . is – is the verb/predicator of the above sentence they do not serve for the derivation of questions. Let us put this string of words into square Pitao je ko se javio na telefon. noun and constitute the integral part of the noun phrase in which they serve as the postmodifiers.31 Interrogative And clauses Now. Namely. it is time to say a few words about the The relative/adjective clause “WHO ANSWERED pronouns. verb/predicator “is”. The example clearly shows that the entire string The pronoun WHAT also introduces which is underlined has a single function in the exclamations: above sentence. it has a very simple structure: S+V+C Relative/adjective clauses serve as the attributive – as it was mentioned in the lecture Nr 2. clauses as the postmodifiers of the nouns heading the above complex structures that function as the Relative/adjective clauses always follow the head subject and the complement. there is a group of pronouns that have the form of pronouns but function differently. pronouns are the words which introduce the or However long and complicated the above sentence adjective clauses placed after the head noun. What a beautiful house!/Kakva lijepa kuća! What dirty shoes!/Kako prljave cipele! WHOSE – is a pronoun that may refer to persons and things: The man whose picture is on the wall is his Relative grandfather who died last year. je slika na zidu – is the subject of the sentence. The relative/adjective clauses starting with the pronoun WHICH – also belong to the single string of words. The underlined strings are single functional units in the above sentence: The man whose picture is on the wall/Čovjek čija Within a very rich system of pronouns in English. WHICH – is a pronoun used for things : For example: The bridge which you can see over there is the The man WHO ANSWERED THE PHONE was oldest in the town. might seem. This entire element makes up a single Who answered the phone?/Ko se javio na telefon? phrase with a single function in this sentence and Indirect question: that is the function of the subject. rude. He asked who had answered the phone. “MAN/ČOVJEK” and it is further modified by the These three interrogtaive pronouns have clause “who answered the phone/koji se javio na generalizing forms: telefon”. the subject and the complement are antecedent noun) and they provide closer complex units that contain relative/adjective description of the head noun.

expressed by a number of among which we shall . both “THAT” should always be used instead of EXISTENTIAL : some.after the quantifier SOME: Among these books there are some (that) I have. the previous one containing the pronoun THAT. it should be noted that the pronoun UNIVERSAL : such as: all. Pročitao je sve knjige ŠTO može da mu That is a pronoun pomogne da položi ispit. “WHICH” if we want to avoid any ambiguity. there are some contexts in which “who” For these reasons we should be careful in and “which” may not be used. However. we shall see some other words that precede only option. If the quantifier is UNIVERSAL – that means that In the above sentence – the clause beginning it refers to the entire set of the individual entities with the pronoun THAT unambiguously refers or aggregate mass contained in that set. first mention: However. Quantifiers Compare the following examples: He read all the books that can help him pass the The term quantity refers to the set of individual or exam. Pročitao je sve knjige koje mogu da mu pomognu In layman’s terms: da položi ispit. aggregate entities. He read all the books WHICH can help him pass the exam. if we substitute the pronoun THAT with If it is existential – it refers to the existence of at the pronoun WHICH – the sentence will become least one individual making a set or to a part of the ambiguous and may give rise to two possible quantity of the aggregate mass. Indefinite Compare it to the ungrammatical sentence: * I told you all which I know. Existential refer interpretations: to the sets greater than zero. Our analysis of the clauses has also shown that NOT: *who I know the head noun may also be followed by some postmodifying elements. because the pronoun “WHICH” is also the PAUCAL : (a) few. several etc. this is the only one that does not belong to the class of WH-words. pomognu da položi ispit.. He is the best man (that) I know. Multal – refer to the indefinite subset of a set – Pročitao je sve knjige KOJE mogu da mu the quantity is close to the entire set. any. it is put into the brackets – which the head noun and contribute to the meaning of means that it can be freely omitted from the the Noun Phrase. each. MULTAL : many.after the quantifier ALL: I told you all (that) I know. Instead a pronoun interpretation of the clauses beginning with the “that” is used: pronoun WHICH. THAT is used: . These are some of which we sentence without causing ungrammaticality. finally. lots of. there is one more pronoun. In this case the clause refers back to and modifies “That” is a pronoun that may substitute (stand the entire utterance – and refers back to the act of instead of) the pronouns “who” and “which”. etc. . However. In other words – it is completely optional even in the contexts in which the pronouns “WHO” and Indefinite quantity in the Noun Phrase may be “WHICH” are not possible. 2. We already know that the internal structure of the NOT: *which I have Noun Phrase may be very complex. have already mentioned in the previous examples. a lot of. no. 1. (a) little. Paucal refer to the very small quantity in the set. every. pronoun that stands at the beginning of the NUMERICAL : ordinal and cardinal numbers etc. However. and that the .after the superlative of adjectives: head noun may be preceded by a string of words. However. THAT – it is used for persons and things. Speaking about the universal quantifier NO – it refers to the empty set. back to and modifies the noun “BOOKS”. reading not the books themselves. relative/adjective clause modifying the entire sentence and referring back to the action expressed by the verb rather than modifying the preceding noun. much.32 In which case the interpretation is equivalent to And. you could have noticed that in all above stated examples where the pronoun THAT is the Now.. quantifiers . plenty .

How many friends does he have in Sarajevo? 1. given to a lot of/lots of in declarative sentences. mass nouns. let us try to express the same ideas On ima malo prijatelja u Sarajevu exchanging the positions of the . These are: On nema mnogo vremena za čitanje. This means that these are between FEW and A FEW. ungrammatical sentences: He has little time for reading. following examples: He has few friends in Sarajevo. and we shall see He has a few friends in Sarajevo. the only possible layman’s terms refer to the semantic meaning and questions start with: the stated semantic classification of the listed . SOME and ANY. However. multal . PAUCAL These refer to a small quantity of something and He doesn’t have many friends in Sarajevo. Whenever we want to get the information about These refer to the completely undefined but quantity (which means to ask a question about existing quantity of something. of the sentence. and LITTLE versus A not limited to any particular type of a noun or type LITTLE. A LOT OF/LOTS OF – may occur in all the above However. FEW/A FEW – malo He has a lot of/lots of friends in Sarajevo. Namely – FEW and LITTLE denote small and insufficient quantity. He doesn’t have a lot of/lots of friends in Sarajevo. On ima malo vremena za čitanje. HOW MUCH/KOLIKO. He doesn’t have much time for reading. FEW/A FEW – precede the countable nouns. MUCH – may occur in negative sentences LITTLE/A LITTLE – precede the uncountable or quantifying over mass nouns. LITTLE/A LITTLE .mnogo English. He has a lot of/lots of time for reading. He doesn’t have a lot of/lots of time for reading. However – they can provide the basic information Whereas it is not possible to begin a question with about their lexical content. Now. . On ima malo vremena za čitanje. in some cases. that. MULTAL QUANTITY How much time does he have for reading? Multal are as follows: *How a lot of/lots of time does he have for many – mnogo reading? much – mnogo The last sentence is completely unaccaeptable in a lot of/lots of . The distinction in the distribution of these is Now we shall see what conclusions we might make very similar to the one mentioned with respect to from the above examples. All the above stated multal refer to the same You must also note that MANY and MUCH are concept – that is the quantity close to the entire used in negative sentences and the preference is set (or at least – over 50% of the set). whereas A FEW and A The logical question would be – why should we LITTLE denote small but sufficient quantity. have the meaning completely opposite to the On nema mnogo prijatelja u Sarajevu. First we shall see their distribution in the On ima mnogo vremena za čitanje. *He doesn’t have much friends in Sarajevo. multal . English. He has a little time for reading. know the grammatical distinction between MANY and MUCH when it can be neutralized by the A Completely unspecified quantity is expressed by LOT OF/LOTS OF. To see how they are used we should take a better look at the following examples: 2. small and totally unspecified observe the examples: quantities in English.malo On ima mnogo prijatelja u Sarajevu. HOW MANY/KOLIKO or These explanations are very far from precise. the phrase: *HOW A LOT OF/LOTS OF Now we shall see how behave grammatically in English and we shall see the possibilities of The simplest way to see this limitation is to expressing big. *He doesn’t have many time for reading.33 The above stated simplified explanations given in quantity of something). their distribution in English is not the This is how the things stand in contemporary same. MANY – may occur in negative sentences Namely: quantifying over countable nouns. the : The reason for this is very simple. there is a slight semantic distinction stated distributions. the result will be the On ima malo (nekoliko) prijatelja u Sarajevu.

For example: Donio je jabuk-a. the conclusion is: 1. . SOME occurs in declarative sentences. it does not necessarily have to refer to the small quantity (though most often it does). Since it is unspecified. the accusative case refers to the concrete object: Donio je jabuk-e (not something else). the separate words – such as SOME and ANY function as the indicators of the existing but unspecified quantity. In most of the cases these . However. speaking about their distribution.34 Let us take a better look at some examples: Have you got any biscuits? Imate li keksa? I’m afraid I haven’t got any. Why have we not translated them? The reason is very simple – in our language we use the gentive case to refer to the unspecified quantity of something. The quantity expressed by our genitive case is simply not specified. whereas ANY – may occur in and negative sentences. What can we conclude from the above examples: First. Onda bih ja (malo) voćnog kolača. I would like some fruit cake. Na žalost nemam. (implies unspecified quantity) However. The conclusion is: In BCS there is a difference marked by the case: genitive case may refer to the unspecified but existing quantity. 2. Then. but existing. Maybe this is the reason for which we often do not translate them by a separate word but by the genitive case marker. although they refer to a certain existing quantity are not lexically translated into our language. since in English the noun is not phonetically marked for the case.

The problem with this class of words is that we The boy looks poor. or [ei] in its In spite of the fact that we use the number “jedan” strong form. begins with a consonant: For example: the boy a book or pronounced as [ði] if it precedes a word a year beginning with a vowel: a girl the office a child Or as [ði:] when specially emphasized: I was told you were Mr Crosby. The form of the indefinite article “an” is The difference is that in English they dispose of a sometimes used even before a normally aspirated separate word class to express either definite or h when the stress does not fall on the first syllable indefinite reference – and these are : a/an or the of the word. years (or some years). are you the Mr The plural of these nouns: a book. Crosby. the indefinite article is used with the to define when to use either of the above stated meaning: one. have no counterpart for articles as a separate word Taj dječak izgleda siromašan. Jeste li Vi TAJ g. Let us compare the two languages. especially because we express definite or For instance. we still have other words to express the same idea. And when we say “taj” [æn] that means – the one I have just mentioned. It is used before a word beginning with a vowel: Therefore. What does it mean to some – in the meaning “neki/neke/neka” (some refer to a definite or indefinite noun? that I do not know). to refer to the indefinite noun – in speech there is It is used before a word beginning with a no confusion whatsoever. a Crosby? child is: Rekli su mi da ste Vi g. in our language despite the fact of not an office having any separate word class to express either an open book definite or indefinite reference. it does not matter which. I have a sister and two brothers Ja imam (jednu) sestru i dva brata. any. Since definiteness is a grammatical category with almost no semantic meaning. it will be very hard Therefore. a year. Ima jedan dječak na ulici. we clearly consonant: interprete the number “jedan” in this context as a boy the unspecific reference (not as a word used for a big boy counting) – and it has the meaning “neki” – an – which is pronounced [ən] in its weak form or somebody I do not know. – as previously mentioned. let us have a look at the following examples and their translation The last group of functional words occuring in the equivalents to see how our language refers to predeterminer position within a Noun Phrase are something that is either definite or indefinite: articles. class in our language. . Articles precede a noun in the Noun Phrase to In BCS we do not have any separate word class to refer to either indefinite (unspecified or refer either to a definite or indefinite noun. books (or some books). when we say: indefinite reference in a different way. child (or some children) – we can see that the idefinite counterpart for the indefinite The problem is what is definiteness or article “a/an” in plural may be the determiner indefiniteness in grammar. Namely. an historical novel Now that we know that the indefinite article “a/an” has a numerical meaning and refers to the THE DEFINITE ARTICLE IS: unspecified noun – the conclusion is that it may the – pronounced as [ðə] if a word that follows occur only before a countable noun in singular.35 Articles To make this situation clearer and make the clearer distinction between what is definite and what is indefinite. a girl. There is a boy in the street. unknown) noun or definite (or already mentioned However. This entire lecture is dedicated to this word class. articles. For example: an hotel. word classes – such as numbers and In English there are only two articles: demonstrative adjectives – as illustrated by the examples. in its strong form. girls Crosby? (or some girls). we use the words belonging to other and known) noun. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE IS: a – pronounced [ə] in its weak form.

However. The indefinite article is also used in certain a short time ago/maloprije etc. The same situation is with the numbers where it is The indefinite article is used to refer to a person irrelevant whether we shall use the indefinite known only as a name. NOT: a Professor of English. a poem by Milton. a small town in Lancashire. the indefinite However. Remember our example: Neither do we use the indefinite article after the Mr and Mrs Spencer are in a taxi. a thousand – means one thousand Neki/Izvjesni g. What weather we are having! But notice: “What a pity”/Kakva šteta/Baš šteta – The definite article can be used before singular or although the noun “pity” is generally an plural nouns whether countable or uncountable.. noun in singular: He is rather a fool. Šteta je što. used before singular predicative nouns denoting a profession. uncountable noun.. expressions of measurement. The indefinite article is used before a countable For example: noun in singular when it is mentioned for the first Blake. However. introduced by WHAT. Notice also the constructions: We have lessons three times a week..000 pounds a year. It is used: 1. the indefinite article is not used after and therefore specified by the previous context.. Sramota je/Šteta je. if it precedes the countable Many a ship has been wrecked there. Imati glavobolju/bol/prehladu.36 It is obvious that the indefinite article has a He was given a title of Duke.. For example: article “a” or the number “one”: A Mr. quite a.... class: phrases. Lowton.. if the noun denotes a title or office that To make a fool of oneself/Napraviti budalu od can only be held by one person at a time. about): He used to be a teacher till he turned writer. Johnson je navratio da vas vidi kada ste bili vani.. such a. Mary’s father is an officer in the Navy... Before a noun that has already been mentioned However. etc. tajna Is he a Conservative or a Socialist? All of a sudden/Iznenada It’s a shame to do that. For example: He drove the car at ninety miles an hour.. this construction will be discussed in article is not used: details in the lecture about adjectives and What good milk this is! comparative constructions. the verb TURN in the meaning BECOME: (with the meaning: the one we have just spoken He was a Conservative but he turned Socialist. What a lovely house! The construction SO+ADJECTIVE+A should be What a foolish thing to do! also kept in mind: He is not so clever a boy as his brother. .. It’s a pity that... many a. It is also used before a noun in apposition when The taxi is in Victoria Street. Now. but he said his name was Mr Johnson”. such as: George is an architect. the thing or person is assumed to be unfamiliar. For example: He earns 100. As Chairman of the Society. etc. trade. an English poet.. The indefinite article is. the sebe indefinite article is not used: To be in a position to/biti u poziciji da Mr Priestly was Professor of English at Oxford University. rather a.. I have had such a busy day. meaning: Mr and Mrs Spencer are in a taxi. Johnson called to see you when you were a hundred – means one hundred out.. with uncountable nouns. We use this article in exclamatory sentences There were quite a lot of people there. nouns RANK or TITLE: The taxi is in Victoria Street. I call on Mr X to (But it is not used in the expressions such as: speak. to have a headache/a pain/a cold/. to have toothache/rheumatism/influenza. let us see the most frequent uses of the The article “a” gives a meaning “I have no idea indefinite article not related to its numerical who he is.. He gained the rank of Colonel. also. “Lycidas”.. I want to keep this a secret/Hoću da to ostane He was a Christian.) NOT: as a Chairman to have a chance/opportunity to/imati šansu/priliku da. time and is not specified by the context. The indefinite article is used in a number of religion. numerical meaning.

The rich should help the poor. chains of mountains and oceans: In the above text. 6. Mostly these name has been dropped. 9. Other examples are: the Bible.37 Let us analyse the articles in the following text: The Sahara (desert) Once upon a time there was a little boy who lived The Crimea (peninsula)/Krim (poluotok) in a cottage. It is used before a noun which is followed by a 13. the play “King Lear” And before the superlatives used as nouns: For example: Nouns expressing trades or professions often This is the best I can do. It is used before the names of ships. the Odeon Cinema 4. the indefinite article “a” the Thames. it is time to see where the definite article is The USA not used. 7. The definite article is also used before a noun aeroplanes: that is to be particularized by a defining clause: the Queen Mary This is the book that I promised to lend you. For example: adverbially. shops. institutions etc. The cottage was in the country and the boy had lived there all his life. For example: . where the name is representative member of the set/kind – in the an impersonal one. the noun “people” has been omitted... follow the proper noun – and they are preceded by The most he can get is a fine of 30 pounds. The definite article is used before the name of a Again. It is used with the nouns having only one hotels. The situation is similar with nouns in apposition: In the meaning: the old people do not understand Rome. trains and 2. the house with the green shutters 14. The old do not understand the young. the cook etc. For example: Bio jednom jedan dječak koji je živio u kolibi. 10. The definite the Atlantic article “the” denotes a thing or person already the Alps mentioned in the previous text. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. The United Kingdom The Netherlands Now. the general manager used as nouns and denoting a whole class: Lizzie. And it is used in cases where a common noun Namely. name of the country has the plural form): Where the noun “cook” has been omitted. 5. country that is a union of smaller entities (or if the The French cook is better than the English. We use the definite article before ordinal 15. the Army and Navy Stores. It is also used before superlatives used numbers in titles: attributively. 11. the fourteenth of April Mrs Smith is learning the violin. The definite article is used before adjectives Brown. It is used before groups of islands. either definite or indefinite. For example: meaning: “the only one” the Ritz Hotel. the young people. For example: the planet Mercury I like Shakespeare but it is modern drama that the poet Byron interests me the most. The West Indies Koliba je bila na selu i dječak je u njoj živio cijelog The Bahamas svog života. the butcher 16. 8. For example: Queen Elisabeth II (Queen Elisabeth the Second) This is the oldest building in Canterbury. the definite article: Jackson. We also use the definite article before the names of rivers. the Danube introduces a new thing or a person. there are the contexts in which no article which usually accompanied the geographical is used. It is used before a common noun followed by a And sometimes before the superlatives used proper noun which identifies it. We use the definite article before the names of 3. the Lord the Midland Bank (meaning:God). and before the names of musical instruments the road to London used in a general sense: the letter from America Mrs Smith plays the piano. The definite article is used before a singular defining prepositional phrase such as: countable noun to make a generalization about the the battle of Trafalgar species: the Palace of Westminster The horse was replaced by the tractor. the Comet 12. the capital of Italy. the Flying Scotsman Ovo je (ta) knjiga koju sam ti obećao pozajmiti.

For example: definite article is used: Butter is made from cream. when they have the meaning “our cook/our teacher”..m.. if the books are specified like in the President Lincoln etc. However. Come to dinner/lunch/tea with me. we use the definite article. Are you coming to the dinner that we are having 11. We do not use the definite article before most proper nouns: For instance: I walked in Hyde Park. we use the definite article.The definite article is not used with words like: We will have freedom or death. the definite article is obligatory because the names of languages: noun is specified by the postmodifying element She speaks Spanish. Professor Russel Lord Byron However.. He has gone to the school (with the meaning: just NOT: the butter.. The definite article is not used before abstract the Russian language (uncountable) nouns also used in a general sense: the Protugese language etc. (with the NOT: the Hyde Park meaning: our teacher).. In these examples these nouns have the function NOT: the Trafalgar Square etc. The definite article is not used before the a general sense. meaning: looking around). if we refer just to the building. sentence The books on my desk are not expensive. the definite article is not used before names of However. For the next lecture. (with the NOT: the Regent Street meaning: our cook). For example: However. Life is very hard for some people. school. NOT: the life 9. adjectives will be discussed in details in “OF” then. Do you know Regent Street? Cook has made pies for Christmas. so the omission of the article is natural. instance: . etc. We do not use the definite article before the 12. We start from Trafalgar Square at 9:00 a. For instance: We are going there in Spring/at Easter. to see the building). the definite article is not used names of lakes. The reason King George is that we refer to books in a general sense.38 are the cases when we mention the noun in a The Lake of Lucerne general sense. Mount Vesuvius etc. 1. They are in the church just now (with the NOT: the wheat. 4. Teacher was very pleased with my work.. 6. Wheat is grown in Canada. Neither is it used with the words like: cook. The indefinite article may not be used because it is 7. etc. we usually use the definite article 2. For example: But if the name of the meal is specified by the Winter is the best time for reading. the definite article is used before He has gone to school (with the meaning: to learn) abstract nouns that are limited or quantified: They are in church just now (in the meaning to The life we live here is hard. in London next week? nurse. Mount Everest coast. worship) The work that we do.. church. capes and mountains: before the predicative superlatives. prison when the idea expressed NOT: the freedom etc. Books are not expensive. For example: Lake Superior The sea is deepest about twenty miles from the Cape Cod. We are Doctor Livingston not speaking about any specific group of books. However proper noun: neither do we use the definite article. concerns the use made of the building. 3. “on my desk”. of names. teacher. context. It is not used before the names of meals used in 10. 8. The Cape of Good Hope The Mount of Olives etc. then the materials used in a general sense. However if we use the noun “language”. prepositional phrase starting with the preposition However. 5.. Neither is it used before titles followed by a used only with singular countable nouns. Sometimes. He is happiest when he is working.. if these names are followed by the Your help was most valuable. For example: names of seasons and festivals. We do not use the definite article with the Then.

element of the sentence on the basis of which we I am going to give you the sentences in which can distinguish the above mentioned pieces of there are no articles. A) Brod isplovljava danas. *Ship sails today. A) THE ship sails today. The grammatically correct that they differ only as to the PRESENCE and sentence would be: POSITION of the article: She goes to open THE door. Therefore. Čim sam kročio nogom na otok htio se rukovati sa mnom. be: B) For the meaning Ona ide otvoriti vrata. Another example that will illustrate the importance of PRESENCE and POSITION of the The problem that might arise in using English is article is as follows: the problem with articles. popravi. In the above examples of the translation equivalents we can see that the sentences are not To see what the omission of articles can do. And finally. we can see that the grammatical correctness Sada je izvan opasnosti. How to overcome that is a completely different semantic the problem of misinterpretation and interpretation of the sentence. The sentences differ only as to the As soon as I set foot on the island he wanted to POSITION of the article without which the shake hands with me. the correct sentence would be: A) The first interpretation and translation could A)THE ship sails today. on one word – and that is the missing article. we shall see a few misunderstanding. which case. and the Ona ide ka otvorenim vratima. Brod isplovljava danas. They set off under cover of darkness. articles. right position – to determine the noun. *She goes to open door. To utter such a message. Otpremite jedra danas. situation in which the door is closed. sentences are completely unacceptable. and we shall see their information. where the To make the sentence grammatical with the article is supposed to be placed in the sentence to meaning: produce an unambiguous message. He is beyond reach of danger now. as well as correct interpretation of the above The car was damaged beyond hope of repair. examples would be: Auto je bio toliko oštećen bez ikakve nade da se A) She goes to open THE door. As we have already mentioned. already open and she is moving towards it.39 13. the interpretation again depends only In place of meat we are having fish. Aftwerwards we shall see not only how important it is. B) However. only on the PRESENCE and the POSITION of the Uradio je to tako što mi je pomagao. in Pokazao je veliku hrabrost oči u oči sa opasnošću. our language very often results in ignoring this very important word class in English. and therefore this interpretation depends only on the Let us. The correct sentence with this interpretation Arrange the books in order of size. 1. the article must occur before the noun “ship”. She goes to THE open door. 2. We may conclude that the only way to convey the Krenuli su pod okriljem noći. B) She goes to THE open door. and related in their meaning at all. Umjesto mesa jesti ćemo ribu. there is no such This sentence can also have different word class in our language so the most frequent interpretations and translation: mistakes are related to the omission of the A) Brod isplovljava danas. this sentence may also be interpreted the article must be present in a different position as: in order to yield the acceptable sentence. it is the article and its position as the only class. would be: Poredaj knjige po veličini. we need an article in the We are in sight of land. but also. examples illustrating the importance of this word Again. Now. versus . the definite article is not used in However. the interpretation of the sentence under various stock phrases: B) includes the situation in which the door is He showed great bravery in face of danger. solution is: So the interpretation under A) includes the B) Ship THE sails today. right information in the above examples depends He did it by way of helping me. Na vidiku nam je kopno. article. translation equivalents. again compare the above sentences and see missing article. The fact that we do not have articles in B)Otpremite jedra danas.

the sentence should contain the elements with the following position: B) Plan THE moves slowly. it does not mean that we may ignore it or omit it from the English sentence since the examples have just shown that. And. Otpremite jedra danas. there is yet another possible interpretation. The only reason for this is the absence of the article. . there is one more example showing how important this word class is and that is: *Plan moves slowly. This last example again illustrates that the only difference that changes the interpretation is the definite article “THE” itself.40 B) Ship THE sails today. However. Just like the previous sentence. finally. we need to determine the noun. we may conclude that. For all the previously stated reasons. in English. The first translation is: Plan se odvija sporo. can have two completely different semantic interpretations. despite the fact that we do not have an article as a separate word class in our language. it can still make a great difference in the semantic interpretation of the utterance. However. This interpretation may follow only from the following position of the elements: A) THE plan moves slowly. 3. too. though the article conveys almost no lexical meaning whatsoever. and that is: B) Planiraj poteze polako. this one. To interprete the sentence with this meaning.

postmodifiers (prepositional phrases. his.41 The internal Speaking about this closed class we must say that. that we have seen all the elements that may determiners: occur before the head noun in the Noun Phrase. It is also important to find We already know that modern grammars usually out how to organize the structure of the Noun classify all the elements belonging to the closed Phrase containing several attributes. adverb phrases or clauses etc. it is time to discuss their position and distribution. double. adjective phrases with complements. once etc. Quite on the contrary. tenth etc. Peter’s etc. may cooccur and which ones may not cooccur in the same Noun Phrase.demonstratives – this. many. Predeterminers+ Central determiners + demonstratives etc. we shall now consider all this noun would be like this: heterogenous class of determiners – which includes all those called possessives. The problem with so many elements that may be POST – occupy the position after the central used in front of the noun is their distribution. depends on the structure of s and accompanying DETERMINER. their position is rather And finally. adjectives used attributively etc.numbers – both ordinal and cardinal such as: Negative quantifier: no two. third etc.etc. much If they may cooccur in the Noun Phrase that does Paucal : little. Possessives: both derived from a noun John’s . those. after all the determiners the last rigidly fixed. fifth. each the head noun in the Noun Phrase are also Dual : either. head noun. defined order. PRE – occur at the beginning of the Noun This lecture will finalize our discussion about the Phrase – in front of the articles. elements that occur closest to the head noun are adjectives. Adjectives. Now. in actual usage. few not necessarily mean that they may be placed in Numerals – both ordinal and cardinal such as: front of the noun without respecting certain two. Multipliers: twice. and they are: grammatical function of subject which must : half. too. third. And we shall see their position postdeterminers + adjectives + HEAD NOUN + within the Noun Phrase.– all. few. it is very necessary to know which ones the Noun Phrase. their . they are supposed to occur when “modifying” the head noun in the Noun Phrase. both always be realized in the English sentence. Wh-determiners: which. and these are: We have spoken about closed class of determinative elements which included: Articles: indefinite (a/an). etc. structure of the Noun Phrase with respect to the position of the elements surrounding the head However. seven. my. that/those -possessives – my. class of determinative words as determiners. Demonstrative: such So far we have seen that a number of words may CENTRAL – occupy the central position in occur and cooccur in front of the head noun in the relation to other elements occuring before the Noun Phrase.) . all. our etc. determiners and they include: Multal : many. seven. must follow the strict This lecture is mainly dedicated to the distribution order especially if there are several adjectives of these elements and the strict order in which occurring in the attributive position. in spite of the fact that only articles are the elements For all the above stated reasons the internal that may be classified into this word class. whose.articles – definite and indefinite Demonstratives: this/these. the kind of reference that the head noun in the Noun Phrase has. And possessive adjectives/pronouns: . and definite (the) . some. we distinguish three classes of Now. explitive subjects With respect to their distribution (the position they occupy in the Noun Phrase in relation to each other). that we know that all the above stated Therefore. his. neither etc. that etc. . Existential : some/any The modifying elements that may occur in front of Universal : every. we shall first start with the distribution elements may precede the head noun in the Noun of the closed class of determinative elements in Phrase.

dual determiners: either. Therefore. description of the head noun.possessives: John’s. *these my shoes Svi/oba/polovica studenata. half can also correct: be followed by an of-phrase. . Postdeterminers may also co-occur with the *the every move etc. whose. This is generally the typical feature of – that they However. limited in number and may not be infinitely Postdeterminer: accumulating in front of the head noun. .articles (definite and indefinite) “a” . on the other hand. this can be neutralized if the quantifying description or modification of the head noun. All these students failed the exam. the following is not grammatically It should be noted that the all.. Such a boy is usually punished. Postdeterminers take their place immediately after determiners just as predeterminers take their Finally. CENTRAL Takav dječak se obično kažnjava We have mentioned that central determiners Here. Phrase.existential and determiners: some/any Here. my. the adjectives modifying it will occur in the following order: However. it is time to go back to adjectives Compare: used in attributive position.universal : every. his. attributes/adjectives is mostly based on their Two young women were successful. The fact is that. that we know the position of the determiners the much trouble that come first in the Noun Phrase. Dvije mlade žene su bile uspješne. our . their meaning. again. contrary to determiners that are Obje mlade žene su bile uspješne. the fact is. They exclude each determiners: other from the same context. . we can see that the predeterminers . if there is a need for more thorough Many young women were successful. For example. For example: *the his poems All/both/half of the students. the case with adjectives. For example under restrictions because they may never co- Co-occurrance of predeterminers and central occur in the same Noun Phrase. *which his books 2. This means if one central determiner is latter. that is to say. whichever.. even if they are stacked in the Noun may occur alone without the central determiner. his few opportunities malo negovih prilika Now. All young women were successful. that/those OR: -wh-determiners: which. the position and distribution of the determiners in the Noun Phrase.42 And we can see the HEAD NOUN is deeply her many roles embedded into the phrase and surrounded by mnoge njene uloge other elements both on the right and on the left. neither Pročitala je pola knjige. etc. are co-occur with central determiners. central determiners: It is possible to use either of these but not both. Peter’s.quantifier: enough “all” and “half” may co-occur with the central determiners – demonstrative “these” in the It is important to note that they never occur former example and the definite article in the together.demonstratives: this/these.negative quantifier: no Svi ovi studenti su pali na ispitu . both. used. we have predeterminer “such” co-ocuring include: with the central determiner – the indefinite article . Attributes may occur in the theoretically unlimited number and they serve for better However.. there is a certain “fixed” order in which For example: they may appear. 1. This order of Both young women were successful. that postdeterminers may co-occur with the central The most peripheral ones. this is not The two young women were successful. any other is excluded from the same context.etc.. . semantic content. occuring immediately determiners. Only predeterminers and postdeterminers may 3) Central determiners. elements occur without the central determiner. Predeterminer: Both the young women were successful. They often denote inherent prve dvije pjesme quality. each She read half the book.. as stated under item 2). For example: after postdeterminers (if any) are the adjectives of the first two poems general description. after having learned the essentials about place immediately before determiners. it is time to see mnogo nevolje the restrictions in their occurance.

small. young) clauses containing the finite predicators to single COLOUR (white. subjects. These are: IT and THERE And. nursing. round etc. with a formal subject (like we said before) or to anticipate a true subject that appears in the Since the texts we are going to analyse and on predicate. finally. we shall only see the possibilities of pronouns. The same happens when there is an in the Noun Phrase. These examples are only for The only thing to do now is to wait. which we shall practice in the last ten lectures and Because explitives are used merely for a which have been taken from the professional grammatical (not semantic) purpose. . let us take a look at the following After the attributes referring to physical state of examples: the noun. However.. operskih pjevača and in one of the previous lectures we said that subject must always be realized in English. Phrases with premodifying but also the After these ones. This Noun Phrase may certainly be reduced in the commercial. but it can also be post-modified in Their chief function is either to provide a sentence different ways. opera etc. we Jane’s air-conditioned white Mercedes Benz car have a few more things to say about the subjects Jane-in klimatizirani bijeli Mercedes that have no lexical meaning and whose only several well-known old French Catholic priests purpose is to provide a sentence with a formal nekolicina poznatih starih francuskih katoličkih subject and to fill up the slot in the sentence that svećenika may not be left without a word – and that is the the first ten expensive brand-new commercial jet position of the subject function. automatic. kitchen.. evening.43 These are. this students. univerzitetskih studenata all those seven excellent young Italian opera Now. preceded by determiners and attributive adjectives. as this goes deeper into the complex sentences containing the embedded clauses and in all her five gifted young French University our lectures we discuss the simple sentence. modern literature dealing with economy.) postmodifiers of the head noun – from the full AGE (old. excellent. sequence of adjectives before a noun. The church in the square nearby The church nearby To see the distribution of all these possible It is clear that postmodifiers may be reduced elements that may co-occur before the Head Noun successively. the purpose of demonstrating more clearly the etc. This includes adjectives referring to: SIZE (big. Explitives have even less semantic content than Namely. electric etc. for example: beautiful. postmodification without going into the details. London. infinitive clause in the postmodifying position: Please note that the examples to follow will contain more adjectives than would normally The only thing we can do now is to wait occur in pre-position. after we have analysed all possible Although explitives are classified as pronouns in internal structures of the Noun Phrase with most dictionaries and conservative grammar respect to the elements occurring before the head books. will be discussed in the lectures to follow in the svih njenih pet talentiranih mladih francuskih next semester. To illustrate this. red. there follow the adjectives postmodifying elements. computer sciences and law are full of Noun expensive. large) Many different structures may function as the SHAPE (square. structures may occur after the head noun. we shall see a few examples. let us briefly see which describing the physical state. Chinese. the next group are PROPER The church which is located in the square nearby ADJECTIVES such as: Negro. college. green) word elements. they actually differ somewhat from other noun. when we have finished with the very singers complex structure of the Noun Phrase that svih tih sedam odličnih mladih talijanskih typically functions as the subject of the sentence. the HEAD NOUN may be not only other pronouns. planes prvih deset skupih novih-novcatih komercijalnih These proform subjects are also called explitive mlaznih aviona. – These adjectives are following manner: not gradable (may not be compared) And finally next to the HEAD NOUN are NOUN The church which is located in the square nearby MODIFIERS or NOUN ATTRIBUTES such as: The church located in the square nearby. gifted etc.

44 grammarians classify them among “structure 2. yesterday. Anticipatory “IT” merely fills subject position. Such verbs are complement. Baš tu sam ga sreo.(or: I am not to blame) It is rumoured that secret peace talks have already Ne treba mene kriviti. Vani je hladno. . IMPERSONAL “IT” Impersonal “IT” often co-occurs with a predicate Other linking verbs than “BE” after impersonal adjective (and sometimes with a predicate noun) “IT” are: plus an adverbial: 1. 4. GET or BECOME: that have the special meanings of: It gets/becomes very cold here in the winter. astonishing. It is important./To je kosilica za travu. DISTANCE: The noun structures in the predicate after It is five miles from the library to my house.(Ja nisam taj kojeg treba begun. anxiety. kriviti). It is not I who am to blame. What doctors can do these days is unbelievable. Izgleda da je to neko malo dijete. usually “BE” is It was here that I met him (= I met him here) used with explitive “IT”. 1./25. It is January 25th. It is a five minute walk to my house. followed by THAT-clause which are the actual This construction permits greater emphasis on the subjects: complement than does the alternate construction It is suggested that you be there on time. The What is this?/Šta je ovo? actual subject is a noun structure in the predicate: It is a lawn mower. (or: He died four years ago). 2. 3. NOUN or PRONOUN COMPLEMENT: Vjerovalo se da je on počinio samoubojstvo. It is cold outside. jedan dan. position: This is the example in terms of space. In a special kind of construction. It is pleasant in the garden. SEEM: It is more fun when we all go together./Deset je sati. Ovdje je mračno. Who is it?/Ko je to? II) ANTICIPATORY “IT” It is Mary?/To je Mary. (For you) to be there on time is important. Do moje kuće ima pet minuta hoda. The amount of work he can do in one day is This is the example in terms of time. A singular form of a linking verb. one day. WEATHER: It is important that you be there on time. It was believed that he had committed suicide. without “IT”: Sugerirano je da dođeš tamo na vrijeme. Bio je to neki pjesnik koji je rekao da živimo u It is sometimes claimed that the noun structures doba tjeskobe. Nevjerovatno je šta doktori mogu uraditi danas./Srijeda je. Impersonal “IT” may also introduce predicates 3. Važno je da budeš tamo na vrijeme. It appears to be a small child. Zapanjujuće je koliko posla on može uraditi za It is ten o’clock. ko je napolju. “IT” AS EXPLITIVE Prije četiri godine je on umro. your being there on time. APPEAR: Can you tell me who is outside?/Možeš li mi reći It is gloomy here. ADVERB COMPLEMENT: words” which do not belong to any part of speech. Govorka se da su tajni mirovni pregovori već It was some poet who said we live in an age of otpočeli. Čini se da je vani vruće. 1. U vrtu je prijatno. It seems to be hot outside. in sentences with anticipatory “IT” are in apposition with “IT”. januar je. anticipatory “IT” may also appear in their regular Od moje kuće do biblioteke ima 5 milja. It is important (for you) to be there on time. TIME: It is astonishing the amount of work he can do in It is Wdnesday. And with verbs signifying weather: It was raining/snowing/hailing/storming It is unbelievable what doctors can do these days. 2. It was four years ago that he died. IDENTIFICATION: Ovdje zimi postaje tako hladno. impersonal “IT” Anticipatory “IT” also occurs with passive verbs of co-occurs with a clause that modifies a subjective believing or communicating. Zabavnije je kada idemo svi zajedno.

etc. language. some existential sentences are not reversible and the idea may be expressed only by Here are some examples: this construction. There are several students in the room. Ima/nalazi se jedan dječak na ulici. You could also notice that when we use this Na stolu ima knjiga. Namely. However. III) “THERE” AS EXPLITIVE The fact that this adverb of place is written and Explitive “THERE” occurs most often with a pronounced in the same manner as the existential linking verb. whereas Several students are in the room. the expression of place is understood literally. Ima mnogo drveća u parku. There is a piano in the room. about the existance of something/somebody. I have a lot of books. Moguće je da oni stignu sljedeće sedmice. Ima/postoje mnoge ideje o tome. construction to inform about “existence” of There is nobody here. The construction with the subject expressed by the explitive “there” is also called “Existential For example: construction” because such sentences inform There are a lot of people there. Mislimo da je moguće da oni stignu sljedeće sedmice. This construction permits the subject subject “there” this should not be the reason for and the important part of the predicate to be laid confusing these two words that function side by side without the linking verb between. and We think it possible that they may arrive next therefore. It is hard to do all this work. “be” agrees in number with the noun following it and occupying the position of a complement. versus: You can also notice that since the subject “there” I find it hard to do all this work. It is possible that they may arrive next week. something/somebody we also use the expression Ovdje nema nikoga. Ima mnogo ljudi tamo. POSTOJI Since the most frequent translation of this The fact is that the first sentence: construction involves the verb “imati” in our There are several students in the room. grammatically completely differently. a very frequent mistake involves the verb from the context: “have”. object of the verb. In fact. (in the room) To avoid this. the predicating verb Smatram da je teško uraditi sav taj posao. with the verb “have”. Teško je uraditi sav ovaj posao. As we are prone of translating the sentences However. please note that the verb “have” has the meaning of possession or belonging and is We have also noticed that the above sentences used only in such contexts like: were reversible. Let us see the following example: may also imply that the students are in the room There is a boy in the street. There are some books on the desk.45 The apposition here is considered to be of the Ima/nalazi se jedan klavir u prostoriji. Instead of saying: He has three brothers. There are several students in the room. This construction is most often translated into our There is a difference in the implication of the language in the following manner: sentences such as: IMA There are several students in the room. (somewhere or generally). and NALAZI SE Several students are in the room. we usually confuse this construction implies that the room is not empty. On the other hand. Another thing may also be confused. of place. not in the hall. For example: . How many students are there? (in the room) There are several students. Compare the following examples: There are a lot of ideas about it. in the complement position. the verb agrees with the noun occuring week. Or: There is a book on the desk. the word “there” is an adverb of place. Yet another thing may be semantically confused. the construction “There is/are” We can also say: denotes existance of somebody or something Several students are in the room. same nature as the apposition with “IT” used as There are a lot of trees in the park. the real semantic subject of the above versus: sentences is a noun following the verb “be”. is neither singular or plural.

COME. Stiže jak vjetar sa zapada. (A poet said that not somebody else). This construction acts as a *There goes he. the progressive verb in the Čini se da postoje dva razloga za njegov uspjeh. In this last example – if we use a pronoun the (A strong wind is coming up from the west) construction is slightly different: There he goes. loose substitute for a passive verb: . Približava se oluja Stiže vrijeme kada se svi moramo suočiti sa svojim (The storm is approaching) stvoriteljem.. Eno ide Jim. There was a poet who said that we live in an age of These are: APPEAR. LIVE. The same construction is possible with the past and not: participle as well. Sometimes when this construction is followed by There seem to be two reasons for his success. HAPPEN. THERE often emphasizes “existence”. Once upon a time there lived a wicked king. Many people were killed in the last war. anxiety. and All the previously stated examples are with the “IT” emphasizes “identification”: predicating verb “BE”. However. There is a strong wind coming up from the west. this construction is also possible with For example: some other verbs as well. It was a poet who said that we live in an age of anxiety. Occasionally there may be a choice between Mnogo ljudi je poginulo u posljednjem ratu. –ing participle. GO. There goes Jim.46 There were many people killed in the last war. (Such a poet exists) . which means: There are three kinds of TV programmes. IDENTIFICATION Jednom davno živio je jedan zli kralj. participle form permits greater emphasis to be placed on the progression of an event: There comes a time when we must all face our There is a storm approaching. SEEM. There are two blankets for each bed. maker.EXISTENCE REMAIN. In such cases. explitive “IT” and explitive “THERE”.