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CHAPTER 11

## THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

POINTS TO REMEMBER

Distance between points P(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) is

PQ
(i)

x 2

x 1

y 2 y 1

z 2 z 1 .

## The coordinates of point R which divides line segment PQ where

P(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) in the ratio m : n internally are

mx 2 nx 1 my 2 ny 1 mz 2 nz 1 .
,
m n ,
m n
m n
(ii)

The co-ordinates of a point which divides join of (x1, y1, z1) and
(x2, y2, z2) in the ratio of m : n externally are

mx 2 nx 1 my 2 ny 1 mz 2 nz 1 .
,
m n ,
m n
m n

Direction ratios of a line through (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) are x2 x1,
y2 y1, z2 z1.

a

l
a

(i)

(ii)

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, m
a

, n
a

## Vector equation of a line through point a and parallel to vector

b is r a b .
Cartesian equation of a line through point (x1, y1, z1) and having
direction ratios proportional to a, b, c is

111

x x1
y y1
z z1

.
a
b
c

(i)

## Vector equation of line through two points

a and b is r a b a .

(ii)

Cartesian equation of a line through two points (x1, y1, z1) and

x x1
y y1
z z1
(x2, y2, z2) is x x y y z z .
2
1
2
1
2
1

## Angle between lines r a 1 b 1 and r a 2 b 2 is given

b b
by cos 1 2 .
b1 b 2
Angle between lines

x x2
x x1
y y1
z z1
and

a2
a1
b1
c1

y y2
z z2

is given by
b2
c2
a 1a 2 b 1b 2 c 1c 2

cos

a1 b1 c 1 a 2 b 2 c 2

## Two lines are perpendicular to each other if

b 1 b 2 0 or a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0.

Equation of plane :
(i)

## r n p and corresponding Cartesian form is lx + my + nz = p

when l, m and n are d.c.s of normal to plane.

(ii)

(iii)

Passing through a and normal to n is r a . n 0 and
corresponding Cartesian form is a(x x 1) + b (y y 1) +
c(z z1) = 0 where a, b, c are d.r.s of normal to plane and
(x1, y1, z1) lies on the plane.
Passing through three non collinear points is

r a b a c a 0
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x x1
or x 2 x 1
x3 x1
(iv)

(v)

H a v in g

y y1
y2 y1
y3 y1

in te rc e p ts

(i)

(ii)

## a, b and c on co-ordinate axis is

x
y
z

1.
a
b
c
Planes passing through the line of intersection of planes

r n 1 d 1 and r n 2 d 2 is

r n 1 d 1 r n 2 d 2 0.

Angle between planes r n 1 d 1 and r n 2 d 2 is

n n
given by cos 1 2 .
n1 n 2

(iv)

## Angle between a1x + b1y + c1z = d1 and a2x + b2y + c2z = d2

is given by
a 1a 2 b 1b 2 c 1c 2

cos

(iii)

z z1
z 2 z1 0
z 3 z1

.
2
2
2
2
2
2
a1 b1 c 1 a 2 b 2 c 2

Two planes are perpendicular to each other iff n 1 . n 2 0 or
a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0.

## n 1 n 2 for some scaler

(i)

a1
b
c
1 1.
a2
b2
c2

Distance of a point a

a n d
.

(ii)

0 or

from plane

n d is

ax 1 by 1 cz 1 d

12.

(i)

.
2
2
2
a b c

## Two lines r a 1 b 1 and r a 2 b 2 are coplanar.

Iff
a 2 a1
b 1 b 2 0 and equation of plane,

containing these lines is r a 1 b 1 b 2 0.

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113

(ii)

x x1
y y1
z z1

and
a1
b1
c1
y y2
z z2

b2
c2

Two lines

x x2
a2

x2 x1
a1
a2

y2 y1
b1
b2

z2 z1
c1
0
c2

## and equation of plane containing them is

x x1 y y1 z z1
a1
b1
c1
0
.
a2
b2
c2

(i)

The angle between line r a b and plane r n d

b n
is given as sin .
b n
b

90

(ii)

x x1
y y1
z z1

and plane
a1
b1
c1

## a2x + b2y + c2 z = d is given as

sin

(iii)

a 1a 2 b 1b 2 c 1c 2
2
a1

b1 c1 a2 b 2 c 2

A line r a b is parallel to plane r . n d

b n 0 or a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0.
r = a + b

r . n =d

114

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1.

2.

## What is the angle between the lines 2x = 3y = z and 6x = y = 4z?

3.

Write the equation of a line passing through (2, 3, 5) and parallel to line
x 1
y 2
z 1

.
3
4
1

4.

r i j 3 k 5.

5.

x 1
y 3
z 1

and
2
5

x 2
y 1
z

## are perpendicular to each other.

3
2
2
6.

7.

If a line makes angle , , and with co-ordinate axes, then what is the
value of
sin2 + sin2 + sin2 ?

Write line r i j 2 j k

## into Cartesian form.

8.

If the direction ratios of a line are 1, 2, 2 then what are the direction
cosines of the line?

9.

10.

## Write equation of a line passing through (0, 1, 2) and equally inclined to

co-ordinate axes.

11.

12.

13.

## What is the distance between the planes 2x + 2y z + 2 = 0 and

4x + 4y 2z + 5 = 0.

14.

What is the equation of the plane which cuts off equal intercepts of unit
length on the coordinate axes.

15.

## Are the planes x + y 2z + 4 = 0 and 3x + 3y 6z + 5 = 0 intersecting?

16.

What is the equation of the plane through the point (1, 4, 2) and parallel
to the plane 2x + y 3z = 7?

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115

17.

## Write the vector equation of the plane which is at a distance of 8 units

from the origin and is normal to the vector 2i j 2k .

18.

## What is equation of the plane if the foot of perpendicular from origin to

this plane is (2, 3, 4)?

19.

r 3i 6j 2k 0.

20.

## What is the angle between the line

22.

23.

plane 2x + y 2z + 4 = 0?
21.

x 1

r i 2j 2k 1 and

2y 1
4

2 z

and the

## If O is origin OP = 3 with direction ratios proportional to 1, 2, 2 then

what are the coordinates of P?

## SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (4 MARKS)

24.

The line

x 4
2y 4
k z
lies exactly in the plane

1
2
2

## 2x 4y + z = 7. Find the value of k.

25.

Find the equation of a plane containing the points (0, 1, 1), (4, 4, 4)
and (4, 5, 1). Also show that (3, 9, 4) lies on that plane.

26.

r 5i 3 j 6k

of the planes r

27.

## of the plane which is perpendicular to the plane

the line of intersection
8 0 & which is containing

i 2j 3k 4 and r 2i j k 5 0.

If l 1, m1, n1, and l2, m2, n2 are direction cosines of two mutually
perpendicular lines, show that the direction cosines of line perpendicular
to both of them are
m1n2 n1m2, n1l2 l1n2, l1m2 m1l2.

116

XII Maths

28.

Find vector and Cartesian equation of a line passing through a point with
position vectors 2i j k and which is parallel to the line joining the
points with position vectors i 4 j k and i 2 j 2k.

29.

Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (3, 4, 2) and
(7, 0, 6) and is perpendicular to the plane 2x 5y = 15.

30.

## r 2i 6 j 12 0 and r 3i j 4k 0 which is at a unit

distance from origin.

31.

## Find the image of the point (3, 2, 1) in the plane 3x y + 4z = 2.

32.

Find the equation of a line passing through (2, 0, 5) and which is parallel
to line 6x 2 = 3y + 1 = 2z 2.

33.

y 1

z 2

34.

## Find equations of a plane passing through the points (2, 1, 0) and

(3, 4, 5) and parallel to the line 2x = 3y = 4z.

35.

of line

x 2
3

y 1
4

z 2

## and the plane x y + z = 5.

12

36.

Find equation of the plane passing through the points (2, 3, 4) and
(1, 1, 3) and parallel to the xaxis.

37.

## Find the distance of the point (1, 2, 3) from the plane x y + z = 5,

measured parallel to the line

y
3

38.

Find the equation of the plane passing through the intersection of two
plane 3x 4y + 5z = 10, 2x + 2y 3z = 4 and parallel to the line
x = 2y = 3z.

39.

r . 4 i 6 j 8
k 11.

40.

## Find the equations of the planes parallel to the plane x 2y + 2z 3 = 0

whose perpendicular distance from the point (1, 2, 3) is 1 unit.

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117

41.

## Show that the lines

x 1
y 3
z 5

and
3
5
7
z 6
intersect each other. Find the point of
5

x 2
y 4

1
3
intersection.
42.

## Find the shortest distance between the lines

r l 2j 3k 2i 3j 4k and

r 2i 4 j 5k 3i 4 j 5k .

43.

x 2

2y 3
3z 4

## measured parallel to the plane 4x + 12y 3z + 1 = 0.

4
5
44.

Find the equation of plane passing through the point (1, 1, 2) and
perpendicular to each of the plane

r 2i 3 j 3k 2 and r 5i 4 j k 6.

45.

each of the line

46.

x
y
z
x 2
y 1
z 1

.
and
1
2
3
3
2
5

## Show that the plane r i 3 j 5k 7

r i 3 j 3k 3i j .

47.

## Check the coplanarity of lines

r 3i j 5k 3i j 5k

r i 2 j 5k i 2 j 5k
If they are coplanar, find equation of the plane containing the lines.

48.

x 8
y 19
z 10
x 15
y 29
z 5

and

.
3
16
7
3
8
5
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49.

## Find shortest distance between the lines :

r 1 i 2 j 3 2 k

r 1 i 2 1 j 2 1 k .

50.

51.

52.

## from the origin and meets

the coordinate axes in A, B and C. If the centroid of ABC is (), then
show that 2 + 2 + 2 = p2.

## A vector n of magnitude 8 units is inclined to xaxis at 45, y axis at

60 and an acute angle with z-axis. If a plane passes through a point

## 2, 1, 1 and is normal to n , find its equation in vector form.

Find the foot of perpendicular from the point 2i j 5k on the line

perpendicular.

53.

## A line makes angles , , , with the four diagonals of a cube. Prove

that
4
2
2
2
2
cos cos cos cos .
3

54.

Find the equation of the plane passing through the intersection of planes
2x + 3y z = 1 and x + y 2z + 3 = 0 and perpendicular to the plane
3x y 2z = 4. Also find the inclination of this plane with xy-plane.

1.

3.

2.

90

x 2
y 3
z 5

.
3
4
1

4.

r i 2 j 3k i j 3k

5.

= 2

6.

7.

x 1
y 1
z

.
0
2
1

8.

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119

1
3

2
3

2
3

9.
10.

11.

cos1 (6/7).

x
y 1
z 2

, a R 0
a
a
a

10
14

12.

13.

1
6

14.

x + y + z = 1

15.

No

16.

2x + y 3z = 8

17.

r 2i j 2k 24

18.

2x + 3y + 4z = 29

19.

cos

11
21

20.

## 0 (line is parallel to plane)

21.

(1, 2, 2)

22.

23.

r o 6i 4j 3k

24.

k = 7

26.

r 51 i 15 j 50k 173

28.

r 2i j k 2i 2 j k and

29.

x 2y + 3z = 1

30.

r 8i 4 j 8k 12 0 or r 4i 8 j 8k 12 0

31.

(0, 1, 3)

32.

x 2
y
z 5

.
1
2
3

33.

18 43
47
7 , 7 , 7

34.

## 29x 27y 22z = 85

35.

13

36.

7y + 4z = 5

10

25.

3 3

5x 7y + 11z + 4 = 0.

120

x 2
y 1
z 1

.
2
2
1

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37.

38.

21
39.

2 29

x 20y + 27z = 14

units.

40.

x 2y + 2z = 0 or x 2y + 2z = 6

41.

1
3
1
2 , 2 , 2

42.

43.

17
2

44.

r 9i 17 j 23k 20

45.

2x 7y + 4z + 15 = 0

47.

x 2y + z = 0

48.

16
7

51.

8
49.

29

52.

i 2 j 3k ,

54.

7x 13y 4z 9, cos

2 i j k 2

14
1

.
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121