Global Media and Culture

Author(s): Mark Poster
Source: New Literary History, Vol. 39, No. 3, Literary History in the Global Age (Summer,
2008), pp. 685-703
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
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Global Media

and Culture

Mark Poster
need
of a constantly
market
expanding
over the
its products
chases
the bourgeoisie
whole
It must nestle every
surface of the globe.
The
for

where,

settle

everywhere,

establish

connections

everywhere.
The bourgeoisie

its exploitation
has through
char
given a cosmopolitan
acter to production
and consumption
in every
In place of the old wants,
satisfied by
country....
of the country, we find new wants,
the production

of

the world

market

for their satisfaction
of
the products
requiring
. . .And as in material,
distant
lands and climes.
so also in intellectual
The intellectual
production.
creations

of individual

nations

become

common

property.
?Karl

in Question

Global Discourse
global

Increasing

basic conditions
a result

of

relations

intensified

the

catalyze

of culture

changed,

exchanges

Marx1

question

diminished,

across

national,

of

culture:

are

the

or supplemented
ethnic,

and

as

territo

rial borders? What are the major discursive
regimes that have emerged
in connection
with the phenomenon
of global culture? What models
of

analysis

are

best

suited

to

examine

these

exchanges?translation,

to
Do they appear
transcoding,
mixing,
homogenization?
hybridity,
most
the
in
Do
the
context?
these
pose
present
productive
questions
the challenges
and opportunities
concepts articulate
posed for culture
the
of
intensification
One
global exchanges?
by
rapid
might
inquire as
at
another
conditions
for
the
about
level,
well,
epistemological
framing
the problems
of global culture. What discursive
enable ask
positions
are
in
of writing/
the
the
first
the
conditions
What
ing
question
place?
on
a
stance
that
the
of
critical
open
speech/word
question
processing
"I
culture?
Is
the
the
think"
of
the
Western
global
subject,
philosophi
cal tradition, an appropriate
of discourse
in order to initialize
position
about global culture? Does the fact that a large proportion
of
questions
New Literary History, 2008, 39: 685-703

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686

NEW

LITERARY

HISTORY

occur only with the mediation
of information
global exchanges
the notion of the other?
incite a need to redefine

Have We Become
Very often

the figure

cosmopolitan.2

has

terms

the

by

wrote

of View"

Point

framed

been

discourse

Kant

Immanuel

tory from a Cosmopolitan
culture

Cosmopolitan?

that governs

Since

in 1784, the problem

"universal"

and

have

"cosmopolitan."3

by invoking
very

in

term

the

His

of global

addressed

recent

interest

is the

culture

a Universal

for

years, major publications
of a sense of the planetary,

This

mopolitan."4

about global
"Idea

in recent

Especially
of the emergence

machines

the issue
the term "cos
to Kant

returns

often

of the issue. For the eighteenth-century
and his formulation
philosopher,
a determination
is
of reason alone, requiring no practical
cosmopolitan
effort of travel, or acquaintance
with, or study of the societies of the world.
use
term
the
it is as though the human species might
of
cosmopolitan,
By
a
its
fate
from
vantage point that is not local, not rooted in
only
question
a somewhere,
not tied to any specific space or place but somehow
itself
is
notorious
And
this
from
who
Kant,
cosmopolitan.
global, planetary,
in the eighteenth-century
backwater
for residing almost without absence
in eastern Prussia. Kant deploys
the term Weltb?rgerlicher
of K?nigsberg
ansieht

cosmopolitan
as

point

it confronts
the

which

society

citizen

of

the

of view for him
of

the

for

problem

a

of

(viewpoint

question
race
human

administers

world

...

law

in

world)

a

is achieved
peace.

is the

"The

writes,

well

institution
is determined
the problem of a global political
himself. Because
of governments
but by the philosopher
so
society" is deemed
important, Kant finds it necessary
rely

and

force,
to

cosmopolitan

before

zone

Kant

"a

upon

Well

instituted

the

the

others

humanity

this

from
as

civic

intentioned,

not by leaders
"universal civic
to turn to and

the earth

proclaimed
like Kant

moved

greatest

view."

to render

thinkers
easily

of

question

pundits

treaties

Enlightenment
and

of

point

neoliberal

alone

a universal

of

However

The

reason

through

He

achievement

men."5

among

manner.

special

a

assertion

as a free-trade
the universal.

problematized

positing
a universal

man

economic

practical

as

rational

creature

Poststructuralists

species.

out difficulties
and postcolonial
theorists since the 1970s have pointed
in Enlightenment
of the universal
with the assumption
thought.6 The
to include
of
the
of
mankind
failed
proclamation
universality
obviously
nonwhites,

seriously
cosmologies
contained

women,

children,

non-Christians,

and

so

forth,

detracting

to a community
the aspiration
of peoples. Religions
of all kinds, well before the European
Enlightenment,

from

elements

of

universality,

elements

that were

even

more

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and
also
limited

MEDIA

GLOBAL

AND

687

CULTURE

and restricted

This "universality" included
than those of the philosophes.
in the category those of other religions only if they converted
or, even
name
term
of
sometimes
the
the
worse,
they
designated
humanity
by
the tribe or ethnic grouping.
takes on a new
Today the question of humanity as a whole or universal
it is a practical fact that people,
dimension:
and cultural
commodities,
inten
objects circulate around the planet and do so with ever-increasing
are
Humans
actions:
their
sity.
today through
cosmopolitan
everyday
they
on
emigrate,
they work
products used in other countries,
they consume
manufactured

objects

elsewhere,

they

create

use

and

texts,

and

images,

One might well claim a cosmo
that are globally disseminated.
even
one
never
status
if
left K?nigsberg.
has
politan
today
But is "cosmopolitan"
the best term to use in the context of present
I think not. First, the term derives from European
day globalization?
contexts and reflects its origins as Weltb?rgerlicher ansieht. An adequate
sounds

term for the phenomenon
that

are

of

inclusive

today must

heterogeneous

be determined

through

cultures.

planetary

Second,

processes
term

the

I shall argue that contemporary
far too human.
universality
that to a great extent rely upon information machines
arises in practices
or media, and these must be included in the formulation
of the concept
of universality, just as earlier uses of the term needed
and the discourse
is human,

to be

to

revised

include

and

women,

non-Europeans,

children.

Humans

so they
of these machines,
become universal only through the mediation
are an essential part of the picture.
are partners to humans
in global exchanges,
Ifmachines
do they affect
the parameters

two-sided:
global

of

culture?

first, culture

The

is put
these

second,

exchanges;

event

of

culture

global

exchanges

is then

by the extent

into question

require

immediately

and quality

information

of

machines

or media.
is difficult enough. Taken together,
Each of these problems
a
for the humanities
and social
constitute
challenge
truly complex
they
sciences,

in

particular

for

critical-

theory

and

cultural

studies.

Global Media
as a
or media
information machines
there dangers of regarding
on
has not
of universality? The discourse
component
cosmopolitanism
less global media.7 One exception
focused much on the media, much
in the
is an essay by Martin Hand and Barry Sandywell on "cosmopolis"
and
of
Culture
it
illustrates
issue
Theory,
Society.8 Unfortunately
special
some of the limited directions
the
that can be taken when confronting
all
Hand
and
that
media
media.
of
global
question
global
Sandywell argue
are equally complicit with the forces of neoliberal
transnational
capital
Are

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688

NEW

ism. Their Marxist
media

planetary
radio, film,
this

and

by capitalist corporations.
television may be fruitfully
at

since,

perspective

least

systems of communication,
only to the few. Scholars

examined
these

historically,

requiring
committed

large capital
to cultural

of

to media

audiences

few-to-many

investments

available

Some

computing.

such

scholars,

as Manuel

of

and resistive
radio,

on positions
restrictions
of speech
film, and television do present
that have been deeply shaped by advertisers,
enunciation
investors,
the capitalist class.
the other actors within
One might argue differently
for new media, digital technologies,
networked

of

especially
of control

Nonetheless,

programming.9

from

exclusively
are

media

studies,
the degree
the Birmingham
School variety, might dispute
to the creative
media
by the culture industry by pointing
response

HISTORY

to emphasize
the control of all
broadcast
media
like
Perhaps

leads them

framework

LITERARY

and
and
and
have

Castells,

just that.10 But Hand and Sandywell will have none of it. For them,
"The Web is no more
than a new culture industry elevated by corporate
a
into
of global hegemony."11
The fact that
market
powers
position
done

the Internet
is architecturally
different
from broadcast media does not
them from their critical position.
Yet one may readily show
is
voices so that every node in the network
that the Internet multiplies
a position
of speech; that digital formats of texts, images, and sounds

dissuade

cultural

render

bringing
same

time

easy

objects

to fruition
producers;

to alter,

the dream
that

store,

national

borders

and

reproduce,

that all consumers
almost

might

disseminate,

become

at the

in Internet

disappear

that the technology of networked
computing when compared
exchanges;
to producing
and transmitting
television and radio shows or making
and
era
so
in
is
affordable
films
the
well
that, by 2005,
analog
distributing
over one billion people had regular access to it (imagine
if all of them
were producing
and
radio
These
indications
television,
film,
shows).
new may be at hand in the field of media
are summar
that something
in favor of the old questions:
"the
ily dismissed by Hand and Sandywell
critical questions
remain: who controls
about the new digital capitalism
infrastructures
the global media
of the information
age? Who decides
industries? Who will police the
the form and content of the new media
terms from the information
in short, will benefit
in material
Net? Who,
true that capitalists are eager to in
it is certainly
revolution?"12 While
vest in successful Web ventures and that traditional owners of "content"
strive

to maintain

control

over

their

cultural

wares,

neither

of

these

ap

of capitalist principles
has been even remotely
successful
in
plications
the arena of the Internet. The music and film industries are decisively
at risk in the digital environment,
that cannot be said about
something
domain
of
and YouTube
other
Web
like
any
spaces
capitalism.
MySpace
media
but
remain
have been purchased
vital avenues
by
conglomerates

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MEDIA

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689

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their modest,
folk to share and distribute
but at times quite
in our Marxist
None of this causes any hesitation

for ordinary

creations.

interesting,
Yet it must be granted
critics of cosmopolitanism.
that the continuing
of media ownership
is a fact exacerbated
concentration
by globalization
In the music
and threatens democracy.
industry, a mere handful of firms
and similar trends are found
control 80 percent of global CD production,
as well as radio, film,
in newspaper,
and
book
periodical,
publications
Some argue that the same tendency affects digital media,
the advent of convergence.13
in the
The likely outcome
especially
no
near and far terms of networked
means
cer
is
media
computing
by
more
is
and
its
toward
democratic
communications
tain,
opening
global
are
is
The
that
uncertain.
these
open political questions
point, however,
rather than the paralyzing
that call for active engagement,
rhetoric that
and television.

with

in every nook and cranny.
capitalist machinations
the most important point I would
like to raise concerning
global
is that networked
media
computing
places in the hands of the general
that are linked to their existences
in
information machines
population
discovers
But

of the efforts of the capitalist class (as well
the assemblage
of human and information
in
for as a phenomenon
unprecedented
an innovation
is
that
drastically chang
technologies,

fundamental
ways. Regardless
as those of the nation-state),
must be accounted
machine

the array of media
link
machine
ing the character of culture. For the human/information
of the binaries of space and time, body
introduces new configurations
and consumer,
and mind,
indeed all the
subject and object, producer
constituents
that form cultures. While
the economic
raised by
questions
not
account
Hand and Sandywell are valid and exigent,
do
for the
they
nor
at
in
of
resistance
and
stake
networked
potentials
change
computing,
that opens both sides
do they address the politics of culture in a manner
of the question:
the new aspects of surveillance and control by established
and economic
that fall
orders
interests, but also the practices
political
outside
these initiatives and portend great trouble for them.
Hand and Sandywell, along with so many other scholars who come to
similar

conclusions,

are

aware

of

these

potential

risks

and

affordances.

as global citizenship:
"digi
They
of
the polity as an electronic
talized capitalism
of civic renewal, raising us into
processes
inaugurating
global village,
the era o? global citizenship."14 But they are too quick to dismiss such rosy
. . .
as when
outcomes
they write: "Cyberculture
simply builds upon and
and
of class, gender,
social inequalities
further deepens
the chronic
a
to
race created by the course of modern
is
If
be
there
capitalism."15
in
the
Internet
it
will
culture,
(or cosmopolitan)
surely engage
global
raise

crucial

of cosmopolitanism
promises a reconstruction

the specter

ways.

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690

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HISTORY

itself, there is another side to the question
to media.
Satellite
of globalization
technology?distinct
the planet as its target of
from but connected
with the Internet?takes
Lisa Parks informs
This system of information machines,
communications.
to the Internet

In addition

of the relation

us,
that

constitute

we

what

munications

"the spheres

shapes

significantly

as

know
connect

satellites

of cultural

'the

global.'"16
across
cultures

and

economic

Like

the

activity
com

Internet,

national

and

traditional

to different
sorts of exchanges.
but they lend themselves
boundaries,
transmit
broadcasts
These technologies
(television and radio) over
easily
very

wide

continuous

promoting

footprints,

for

connections,

example,

with their cultures of origin. They also enable geographic
of migrants
a boon
location devices to pinpoint
relatively small objects and humans,
the
skies with ever
for surveillance
practices of many kinds. Populating
to global
satellites lend themselves
increasing density, communications
but also to close control by extent powers. They are
cultural dissemination
media, allowing greater freedom for individuals and groups
double-edged
In this respect similar to
institutions.
and greater control by dominant
satellite media are therefore open
the Internet, asWendy Chun discloses,
to vastly divergent political uses.17 They may solidify modern
institutions
of global political
culture.
but also may lead to new directions

and

Analog

Culture

Digital

are now digital,
and this technological
media
change
sig
the
of global culture. The shift from
influences
nificantly
development
alters the basic features of the production,
analog to digital technology
Global

storage,

and

reproduction,

changes
Some

view

the

dissemination

of

to the future of culture,

is essential

as

changes

entirely

culture.

in its global

especially
while

progressive;

these

Understanding

spread.

rue

others

them

as

are beside the point and
of these positions
lines of inquiry. The fact is that we are now faced
lead down fruitless
to develop
them in the
with digital forms of culture and must attempt
most beneficial
and creative directions.
Social institutions,
the
especially
the end of civilization.

and

nation-state

the

Both

corporation,

have

to

begun

ers

and

teachers,

as well

as cultural

workers

the

recognize

in culture from analog to digital and have mobilized
to their own ends. It is incumbent upon
technologies

change

to adapt

the newer

university

research

in all fields,

to come

to

terms

the emergence
of digital culture and to attempt to shape its practical
of human freedom, ways
forms in ways that best further the deepening

with

that,

to a

state and
significant

large

extent,

are

in conflict

with

the

tendencies

of

the

nation

the corporation.18 The fate of global culture is currently at a
stage and the political alternatives are stark. If the nation-state

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GLOBAL

MEDIA

AND

691

CULTURE

has

its way, American
forms of copyright will prevail globally and if the
in its aims, culture will be increas
transnational
succeeds
corporation
commodified.
The
introduction
of digital technologies,
however,
ingly
of global culture, and the university, a key
facilitates alternative models
must play a major role in resisting the
of these technologies,
developer
forces
other
and offering
less constraining
cultural practices, ones that
the vital premise of the free exchange
of all cultural forms.
of
culture
have
served
of
well
the development
Analog
technologies
First
film
modern
book
then
and
then
the
radio,
society.
production,
and television have all extended
cultural forms to most levels
telephone
of society. For Theodor Adorno
and Max Horkheimer,
this phenomenon
has massified
the
of
class
dialectic
society, undoing
struggle and distract
preserve

of the oppressed.19 For others, such as Walter
like film have brought
the masses closer
Benjamin,
analog technologies
to critical thinking and opened new forms of political
opposition.20 Many
of analog cultural technolo
have argued that even the most benighted
cultures to subsist, even in highly
gies, television, has enabled national
like
and
nations
the
United
States. Benedict Ander
populated
dispersed
ing the critical

son's

attention

contribution,

important

in this

context,

was

to articulate

the

salient

role of the analog technology
of print in the formation
of the nation.21
to the importance
And Michael Warner
of print newspapers
pointed
in opening
the cultural space for democracy
by positioning
ordinary
to public thinking.22
individuals as contributors
These
techno-cultures
formed practices
of reading, writing,
analog
are
and
that
and
far
from
viewing,
listening
specific
amorphous. As Mar
shall

McLuhan

urged,

the medium

is the

message.23

In

the

case

of

analog

creates what I call fixed cultural
the medium
of culture,
technologies
and
sounds
that
and
texts,
may be widely disseminated
objects:
images,
et
stored
celluloid
films,
records,
(books,
cetera)
effectively
long-playing
but are not easily altered by the consumer of culture. What you see on the
printed page is what everyone else with a copy also sees. If you scribble
on your page, only your copy is affected. Analog media
resist alteration
once

they

are

reproduced.

They

encourage

the

value

of

the

original,

the privileged
of the author or creator, the remunerated
role
position
costs are not negligible,
of the reproducer,
since material
and a sharp
the producer
and the consumer
of culture. In fact,
distinction
between
practices of consuming
analog culture promote
celebrity of authors and
two
fan appreciation
and
consumers,
among
vastly different
positions
of
In
modern
cultural
the
theorists
practices.
period
analog
production,
and authors, from
have rebelled at such constraints
to
more
Sterne
the Oulipo
group, and
recently Mark Dan
the limits of analog texts.24 Cultural
ielewski, have wrestled with loosening
the tyranny of analog authors, arguing
studies scholars have disputed
like Roland

Barthes

Lawrence

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692

NEW7 LITERARY

HISTORY

for the creativity of readers.25 And finally historians
of print, like Adrian
have
shown how the vaunted
Johns,
stability and fixity of the analog
book is often overstated. Johns admits, however,
that intellectuals
from
de Condorcet,
Immanuel
John Locke to Denis Diderot, Antoine-Nicolas
as
to
essential
human
Kant, and Johann Herder
imagined print
progress
because
itmaterialized
in a relatively permanent
form.26
writing
And yet there are significant differences
with digital cultural produc
tion. Digital cultural objects have a material
support that unifies them.27
Instead

of

paper,

and

vinyl,

texts,

celluloid,

and

sounds,

are

images

em

in computer machine
code and even further in a binary logic
or zero and one, or
of on/off,
that
pulse and lack of pulse. This means
a
more
the medium
in
role
than
in
culture
defin
plays
leading
analog
nature of the cultural object. All cultural
ing the material
objects now
be
and
in networked
disseminated
stored,
may
produced,
reproduced,
bedded

in

computers

same

the

information

machine.

re

the material

Compare

sources

and television
required for printing presses, movie production,
to those for the networked
transmissions
and it is apparent
computer,
that a vast dissemination
of cultural production
is well under way, with

to do what it took
in a position
fully one-sixth of the human population
armies of cultural creators and producers
to do in the modern
period
of

culture.

analog

Most
text,

instead

crucially,
image,

and
that

programs

sound.
almost

of fixity, digital
These

cultural
enable

always

the

gives us fluidity

technology
are

objects
user

to

on

opened
alter

them,

of

a PC
store

by
the

altered file, copy it, and distribute
it. Digital
texts, images, and sounds
differ from analog
in this respect. Perhaps hypertext
was the earliest
instance of this. New cultural practices
have developed
and continue
to be developed
that start with the changeability
of the computer
file
to create new cultural objects and then to distribute
them in new ways.
The

consumer

has

a user,

become

maker,

or

creator.

of

Examples

such

Second Life, and so forth. In each case,
practices are YouTube, MySpace,
the provider of content,
the old cultural
industry, is now the ordinary
individual coupled with a networked
In the case of YouTube,
computer.
some sixty-five thousand cultural
are
for sharing every
objects
uploaded
Cultural
an
has
shifted
from
elite system with
day.
production
clearly
and heavy editing or gatekeeping
to
functions
major capital resources
a

bottom-up,

mass

movement.

in quality to the analog
say that a very different
develop,
participate.

a nonexclusive
In

this

We

system?whatever
set of practices
that

system
sense,

cannot

the

new

argue

that

encourages
cultural

the

is

result

equal

we can
that might mean?but
has emerged
and continues
to
practices

anyone
are

who

wants

oriented

to
to

culture.
global media
Digital culture is not by any means a free for all, however. Older politics
remain and inhibit the new cultural forms: Germans
do not want Nazi

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a

GLOBAL

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AND

693

CULTURE

on the Web;
the Chinese
criticism;
government
propaganda
prohibits
Muslim
fundamentalists
satires of Muhammed,
and so forth.
deplore
Older economic
forms also enter the digital arena: if aWeb site becomes
a
and buy it up, as happened
with
popular, capitalists see moneymaker
YouTube.

Even

worse,

if

receive

pages

particular

numerous

"hits,"

the

new

to pay the creators, turning what was a completely
free
promise
a
into
But
of
form.
the
such
in
space
consequences
digital
commodity
are
as
new
not
as
one
of
the
into
the
old
clear
think.
tegration
might
owners

structure

of YouTube and the other sites mentioned
above
can upload content and anyone can
file sharing. Anyone
download
it. Each user is in that sense a peer. This digital technology
is
in the architecture
of the Internet and is difficult to eliminate.
embedded
use has been the sharing of content
Its most notorious
and celebrated
The

basic

is peer-to-peer

that falls under

laws. Billions
of texts, images, and
existing
copyright
of the statute. Neither
shared in direct transgression
nor the state has been able to prevent
the corporation
such "infringe
has
File
the
ment."
confounded
culture industry, especially
the
sharing
of America
(RIAA) and the Motion
Recording
Industry Association
sounds

have been

Picture Association

of America
(MPAA). The way itworks is this: index
sites
inform
is available, and client programs
sharers
of
what
search
ing
the hard disks of other users to obtain copies. The information
goes
from peer to peer. Only the abrogation
of the first amendment
of the
to stop this from happen
U.S. Constitution
would allow corporations
a
of
has
remained
outside
Thus
deal
culture
the
far,
ing.
good
digital
system.
architecture

commodity
Peer-to-peer
the
Internet.28

It facilitates

is
a

to

fundamental

structure

of

and

communication

inseparable
that

from
is as dif

as face-to-face
it relies upon a highly
speech, although
it promotes
infrastructure.
What
is
the
more,
technological
complex
so that much of
of the technology
user's invention of new applications
ficult

to monitor

what we find on the Internet is not the product of large industry but of
inventive individuals and groups, often with few resources beyond
their
and
their
The
of
skills
imaginations.
history
programming
technology,
of promising
in
is strewn with examples
technology,
especially media
and
turned
novations
that are soon domesticated
into
by corporations
to be seen if the
resistant, uses. It remains
popular, but by no means
same fate will befall the Internet. One of the reasons for hope
is the
nature
of
of
the
the
with
medium,
any
very global
resulting difficulty
like the United
its nature.
States, to determine
nation, even a behemoth
to realize
One does not have to be a futurist or a zealous technophile
the potentials
networked

for deepening

global

freedom

intimately

associated

computing.29

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with

694

NEW7 LITERARY

The

U.S.

has

government

to

attempted

end

HISTORY

file

peer-to-peer

sharing

of the World Trade
law in trade agreements
copyright
Itwants to globalize American
law. Yet in China and much
are avail
of better quality than those sold in U.S. markets

U.S.

by including
Organization.
of Asia, DVDs

to get the
able for fifty cents. And when the U.S. government
attempted
to close down an indexing
site (the Pirate Bay) in
Swedish government
2006, they were met with resistance and failed. The only result of their
was

action

to

increase

the

of

popularity

the

same

the

site,

outcome

that

met

the recording
lawsuits
industry when it sued Napster and threatened
a
cultural
distribution
file
sharers.
Digital
obviously
requires
against
a
no
of
that
doubt
have
will
law, change
complete
copyright
revamping

dire

for

consequences

the

of

relation

to

culture

the

But

economy.

for

our purposes,
the following
is likely: digital production
conclusion
and
a worldwide
of texts, images, and sounds promotes
distribution
process
archi
of culture to a degree far in excess of analog. The technological
a
as
tecture of networked
Castells
Manuel
argues, promotes
computing,
an
to
extent
global media culture
impossible before.30 Cultural practice is
can only be imagined.
becoming
planetary, and the shape itmay take

Global
Anticipations
as

But

itself.

the

of global

culture

twentieth

century

Culture

are no doubt
wore

texts,

the

question

images,
of

and

sounds

around

culture

global

and

more

cultural

works,

began to be distributed
around
the planet. As

at the time embedded
in analog media,
and to mix art practices
from cultures
of

with culture

contemporary

more

on,

the

world

more

becomes

increases
and

more

globally
the flow

exponentially,
exigent.

Perhaps

about it remains the (usually) unwanted
the leading polemic
prospect
of homogenization:
is a world with one culture,
looming on the horizon
one type of voice, one vision of reality. But this position
ignores several
factors: that diversity of languages persists and new languages
(global
arise; that "foreign" cultures are integrated with local cultures
English)
in inventive hybrids; that new local cultures arise among subgroups,
in
not
that
the
thesis
creasing diversity
homogeneity;
homogeneity
ignores
of translation and transcoding;
of cultures
that the mixtures
problems
at the global level are infinitely varied.31
issue of translation
a translation
is not

The
Clearly
not

overlap

attempted

too well

a

itself is highly
complex.
transcoding
the
do
with
isomorphic
original. Languages

If that

have developed

already
either

one-to-one.

and

perfect

translation

the difficulties

were

the

algorithms
or

entailed

used

translation

case,

one

software

would

for the task. Anyone
of

these

in the work. Walter

programs

who has
knows

Benjamin's

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all

argu

GLOBAL

ment

MEDIA

must

translation

AND

695

CULTURE

also be

taken

into account:
translated

fall?the

on what does the brunt of the
or the language into which the

language
is developed
ismade?32 This seemingly paradoxical
translation
question
a
films
of
Chinese
the
of
into
Chow
export
fascinating
analysis
by Rey
in the West.33 The
to the United
States and Asian literature translations
translator is illuminated about his or her own language by the translation,

cinema develops,
and this "original" is altered in the process. As Chinese
new
the position of
at
in
itself
looks
it
Chow argues,
ways, incorporating
the
film
and
the foreigner who will view
ethnography
thereby practicing
culture that is the subject of the
Chinese
upon itself.34 The original?the
anew in the process. The problem
in
of translation
film?is
produced
"a
the context of global culture then, she concludes,
thorough
implies
of both the notion of origin and the notion of alterity as we
dismantling
of global culture then must be
know them today."35 The development
in competition
for
seen not as the negotiation
between fixed cultures
an
new
but
the
will
become
(which language
lingua franca})
hegemony
can certainly
scene
new
outlines
of
whose
cultural
configurations
entirely
a
It
not be discerned
today. Global culture is new project for humanity.
like a tempo
will mix relations of forces with creativity before anything
rary
One

stasis

emerges.

prominent

not about

example

of

the

but about

translation

as a consequence

of

global

new

movement,

most

in the nature

transformations.

notably

from

to

I refer

of what is called "creative industries," and
moron. The concept of creative industries
studies

concerns

mix

cultural

a change

intended
emerged

the work

of

John

an

argument

of culture
the

itself

phenomenon

not at all as an oxy
out of the cultural
Hartley.

Cultural

School of the 1960s. It arose first
studies dates back to the Birmingham
in the writings of Richard
as a tendency
in literary criticism, especially
in a major
intellectual
and F. R. Leavis, but then developed
Hoggart
its greatest
movement
with the work of Stuart Hall. Having
impact on
Michel
de
the work of
cultural
British
studies, paralleling
sociology,
on
the creative aspect of practices of every
in France,
insisted
Certeau
carried out by ordinary people. The
life, including
consumption,
to
in
social theory, from Marx on,
modern
production
privilege given
an
in the routine
resistance
of
to
small
practices
gave way
appreciation
behavior of ordinary folk.
it to in
took this interest in cultural creativity and expanded
Hartley
as new interpretations
as
of
well
of postmodern
clude elements
theory
For
in
the
economic
everyday
Hartley,
digital economy.36
organization
the complex nature of the
not simply creative but reflected
practice was
inventive, and active. Such an
dispersed,
self?multiple,
postmodern
more adaptive not only to contem
was
of
individual
the
understanding
spread of those systems.37
systems but to the worldwide
porary economic
day

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696

LITERARY

NEW

HISTORY

of everyday life lent itself
A new, arguably postmodern,
understanding
more
of the rational self to a
than
the
tradition
easily
Enlightenment
an
No
elite practice of European
deriva
longer
global vision of culture.
in all aspects of
of the individual
tion, culture, seen as the self-creation
to all parts of the world where
the knowl
life, could fairly be attributed
or in formation.
was
in
This
bloom
controversial
economy
edge
highly
of artistic creativity, on the one hand, with
asserted the merger
position
in both productive
and consumptive
the lowly realms of the economy,
on
to
In
his
tribute
Richard
the
other
hand.
aspects,
Hartley
Hoggart,
"artists

proclaimed,

the

became

for

template

a vital

to become

enterprise

was a formula

Here

in a

component

for upgrading

sense.

made

economy,
has

the

constant

Hartley,

of

the

arts,

as Dean,

is

"creative

and

humanities,
industries."

His

to work

went
the

and for
no

the

longer

knowledge

that is

"The rhetoric

analysis:

entrepreneur

to describe
throughout
modernity
to
been
habituated
long
working with

change."39
the

model

with

now,

that

exactly

used

have

merge

were

realms

innovative

competitiveness."38

of the economy

of art and economics

to the same categorical

to describe

been

Artists

two

the

fact,

subject

...

used

In

shifts from its posi
fury of commercial

country's

the sphere

the upgrade globally.
spreading
For Hartley,
the Western
separation

creative

and

entrepreneurs,

for the new economy. Culture
the model
enterprise
to the modernizing
tion as a sphere of opposition

which

the creative
risk,
at

artist.

intuition

his

university
on

business

departments,
travelled
the world

colleagues

and
to
the

to new

centers

to spread the word
like China,
of advanced
industrial societies,
success. At a panel on global media
of creativity as the key to economic
a colleague
at the Beijing Forum of 2006, for example,
of Hartley, Stuart
was
to
meet
off
and
with
industrial
leaders of several
mayors
Cunningham,
the adoption
cities to advocate
of creative industries poli
large Chinese
cies in these places. Interest in creative industries is becoming worldwide
as economic
in a global market.
elites compete
feverishly
as
seen
have
this
trend
than the selling out of art
Many
nothing more
to global capitalism.40 The dangers of creative industries
and humanities
are

clear

ity"

is

with

enough:
to

subject

arts subservient

so

buyouts,

on

resources

many

and

co-optations,

to global

the

side

others

of

means

industry,
of
making

"creativ
the

It is true that economic

capital.
organization
since the introduction
of com
changing drastically, especially
the
culture
of
technology:
hippy engineer
high technology
spilled

has been
puter
over

into

the mainstream

workers who
knowledge
the disciplinary
practices
top-down,

and not

bureaucratic

spatially

as firms

economy

tended
normal

more

and

toward

when
intransigence
for the industrial working

corporation

localizable

relied

economic

was

giving

way

unit.41 Critics

to a

loosely

quickly

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more

on

faced with
class. The
organized

pointed

out

GLOBAL

MEDIA

AND

697

CULTURE

in this brave new world had lost numerous
includ
benefits,
of
work.42
ing especially
security
Other scholars are not so critical of creative industries. They point out
is fading away. Its notion of
that the elite culture of the past centuries
that workers

excellence

and

its elaborate

systems

screening

and

canon-maintenance

be nothing more
than a relic of the
line separating high and low culture
sea change
is a much more extensive
in the contemporary
and humanities
context are by no means clear and much
less assured in their legitimacy.
In blogs and social computing
sites, network culture enables positions
even the non-college-educated.
of speech for the nontenured,
Similar
as only the best known of
venues are
YouTube
in
the
with
arts,
ample

may now in good part
past. Postmodern
blurring of the
is only the discursive
side of what
in practices. The roles of the arts
institutions

sites that promote
The dams

media.

the display
are broken

its tutelage
media?all

in video and audio
of cultural productivity
on the control of cultural production
and
art schools, publishing
broadcast
houses,

by universities,
In
of Western
and facilitators
the gatekeepers
modernity.
this context,
the fate of the arts and humanities might well lie in a new
relation to the economic
system, or so at least is the defensive
argument
of many. As Toby Miller argues, "the humanities must change to survive
by showing their relevance to ordinary peoples' concerns."43 And creative
industries

make

just

such

an

argument.

in mind, we must ask if a new
of global culture
the question
cultural politics is possible, required, or emerging. Kevin Robbins argues
no longer accept the assimilationist
at least in Europe,
that migrants,
With

model
unity.44

of

identity

the

whereby
migrants

Contemporary

nation

remains

maintain

multiple,

a

cultural

homogeneous
partial

commitments

to their adopted
location but also to the land of their origins. They
are able to sustain this complex
in part through cheap
of attachments
transport

systems

and

also

through

new

media:

the

Internet

for

e-mail

shows from back
satellites for television
and Web sites, communication
its policy from
Union
home. The European
has, as a result, changed
a
on
to
main
of
culture
the
dominance
the
positive value for
insisting
hybridity
diversity in culture. Global culture thus surpasses postcolonial
of migrant
identities instead of insisting
the heterogeneity
in recognizing
on the relative unity even of hybrid selves. Global cultural politics,
in a
similar tendency to creative industries, loosens the grip of the nation as a
cultural center toward a more
individualizing,
figure of the self.
multiple
are evident in the United
States with Latino/Latina
their
Latin American
relations
with
place of
sustaining deep
migrants
in
similar
connections
back
Asian
engaging
migrants
origin and many
no
means
older
has
eliminated
culture
home.45 This emerging global
by
but has become an increasingly common part of the
forms of nationality
Similar

tendencies

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698

NEW

current

of cultural

landscape
are

cultures
new

direction

cal

formations,

not

won

of

thousands

and

In Robbins's

as

location

the

local

are

cultures

of

were

new

more

becomes

a

histori

that

to imagine

impossible
globalism

global

trend

themselves

of

It is hardly

Yet

HISTORY

future

about

today.

possible
cultures

national

all,
cost

the

culture

between

connections

even

in the process.

actively destroyed
more

at

Predictions

politics.
or

appropriate
is clear.
After

LITERARY

and

"the old and assumed
isomorphism
between
culture, polity, and territory is no longer to be taken as given.
The fundamental
principle upon which national cultures and communi
ties have been predicated
has been called into question."46
dominant.

With

industries

the rise of creative
are

processes

global

words,

and the intensification
outcome

whose

emerging

rizon. None
and cultural

organizations
to

capitalist
tions

that,

Benedict

paraphrase

for Hartley

Instead,

regimes.

and

corporation
at bottom,

are

and Robbins,
to

nation-state
to

attempts

in

preserve

new

the

information

current

case,

discursive

of the
altera

phenomena,

modern

or antagonistic
environment.
or
experiments
imaginary flights

in an

institutions

What

is called for, then,
to outline
that attempt
in order
reorganization
culture is not grudgingly

for institutional
and practical
the most of a future in which global
but celebrated
and embraced.
The
recognized
I believe,
is the full acknowledgment
innovations,
and

each

there are adaptations

to make

humans

murky.

Anderson,

hostile

increasingly
are cognitive
new directions

of migration,
In

are put in doubt.
It appears
cultural politics are on the ho
rise to corresponding
political
and practices.47 One finds no global imagined

cultural configurations
of culture and a new
of this has elicited or given

however, modern
that a new politics

communities,

is

key to such discursive
of the assemblage
of

machines.

Global Media

Culture

For global culture can only be global media culture. From underwater
cables to communications
satellites and the Internet, human
telephone
across
are
the
with
able,
beings
planet
exponentially
increasing frequency,
to

to receive,

send,

One
But

may argue
the increasing

information

to

store,

to distribute

and

texts,

and

images,

sounds.

is always already mediated
(by language).
and dissemination
of
sophistication,
multiplication,

that culture

machines

change

the

experience

of

all

culture.

Every

cultural

now exists

in a (potentially)
object
global context.
are also changing
so rapidly that modern
These
information machines
institutions
have difficulty keeping
The
pace with their development.
culture

industries

tirely within

have

clearly

their commodity

been

unable

to

forms. The music

integrate

new

media

en

industry has globalized

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GLOBAL

MEDIA

AND

699

CULTURE

to a handful
and acquisitions,
the number of
reducing
are
80
of
CD
controlled
sales
above,
percent
major players
by
four or five companies).48
But new media
enable
anyone
technologies
to start their own "culture industry," and this has become
an
emerging
trend in music production. While
the RIAA, after it belatedly awakened
to peer-to-peer
file sharing, has made great efforts to curtail what they
call "piracy," every new attempt (lawsuits against downloaders
and related
software companies)
ismet with increased awareness of file sharing and
ranks of "pirates." Efforts to extend American
law
expanded
copyright
to all nations have been, at best, only partially successful.
Since Presi
through mergers

(as noted

dent

Clinton,

every

U.S.

administration

has

other

pressured

to

nations

to outdated
conform
to innova
the benefits
law, disregarding
copyright
new
tion
media promote.49 The Clinton
administration
also attempted
on the Internet,
to control
the flow of information
that
recognizing
are out of synchronization
boundaries
with its basic architec
are less and less able to monitor
and control the global
ture.50 Nations
or overlap
flow of cultural objects.51 There
is less and less of a match
between
territorial demarcations
of the nation and exchanges
between
national

individuals and groups.
of a new cosmopolitan
Are we then at the point of emergence
cul
culture "cosmopolitan"?
scholars
like
ture?52 Is global media
Certainly
Robbins are discovering
far more extensive global cultural practices than
one might expect. Lisa Parks
on the Australian
use
reported
Aboriginal
to broadcast
of satellite technology
television across the large southern
was selected, and
continent. The culture transmitted by the Aboriginals
most

often

use

of Western

produced,

by

adaptation
group. The Aboriginal
critical

assumptions
cultural

Western

was

technology

of the media

them.

Parks's
not

another

argument
case

is
of

that

Aboriginals'
but

imperialism

an

that promoted
the interests of the non-Western
uses of satellite media,
she writes,
"challenge

that

satellite

television

and

imperialism

neocolonial

works

only
control."53

as
The

an

of

agent
Inuit,

like

to enhance
the Aboriginals,
their
successfully adapt satellite technology
and to preserve
culture with global knowledge
their own practices and
are widely evident
in the literature of global
beliefs.54 Similar findings
a
media
of new media
culture. There exists
myriad of local adaptations
that promote
combinations
of cultural parts in infinite varieties. Ien Ang
warns,

however,

that

the

spread

of

popular

identities might have more to do with
of images and
free dissemination
an
upper or middle
suggests
cosmopolitan
of global culture are
the recent articulations

ethnic

than with

restricted
broadly

limits, extending
across the planet

cultures

between

and

across

corporate control of culture
sounds.55 If the figure of the
class liberal persona,
then
well beyond those relatively

the imagined community of participants
and throughout
all social strata.

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quite

700

NEW

LITERARY

HISTORY

The subject who, like me, writes and thinks about global media culture
does not resemble
the cosmopolitan
of the past. For the epistemological
students
of
is linked to different
of
contemporary
global media
position
information

machines

from

the

of

cosmopolitans

earlier

not

epochs:

the technology
of analog print, and perhaps photographic,
culture, but
to his
of
the
that
alters
the
relation
networked
writer
digital
computing
to the
like me are connected
native land, ethnicity, and gender. Writers
the fiber-optic
cables and communication
world
immediately,
through
satellites that cross and envelop
the earth. This de terri torialization
of
his or her position of speech and relation to cultures
media
(file sharing, Wikipedia,
Peer-to-peer
technologies
everywhere.
online
and the rest)
YouTube, massively multiple
MySpace,
gaming,
in
the
its
location
from
detach
the binds
space,
body
partially
loosening
to the local, and connect
the writer with global culture. This shift in
the critic changes

volves an "intimacy" with
Everyone now potentially
can be interpreted
alities and conflicts.

that cannot be ignored.
in
the
which
participates
cyborg experience,
as the basis for a new species with its own common
information

machines

"global culture" is quite distinct from the
even granting
their extent and
centuries,
planetary borrowings
new
current
of
One
of
the
aspect
configuration
importance.
global culture
is the heavy reliance it entails on highly complex media
As
technologies.
we begin to study and to learn about contemporary
we
global culture,
on information machines,
to its dependence
need to pay close attention
What

today might

be called

of earlier

to the

intricate,

and

heterogeneous,

varied

assemblages

that

are

invented

and practiced by users across the globe. This is perhaps one of the great
in the present. The current global
challenges for scholars and intellectuals
media
deriving

culture
from

is multicentered,
all

corners

of

its voices,
the

earth,

violating

practitioners,
assumptions

and
about

inventors
center

and periphery, North and South, First and Third Worlds, Western
and
and
colonizer
and
colonized.
This
non-Western,
subaltern,
per
imperial
backed, or promoted
haps fragile global culture is not endorsed,
by the
great powers that be. It requires a new political
theory and new political
that might promote
its expansion.
century global
practices
Twenty-first
or might not conflict with national
culture might
and ethnic cultures
a
of the past, but it is certainly different
from them. It might
constitute
counterforce
against the major powers that quite naturally seek nothing
more
than their persistence.
If the tendency of neoliberal,
transnational
to
to
has
been
and
continues
be
the
corporations
globalize
planet with
their habits and ways of doing things, then the task confronting
global
that might extend
culture is to promote
something different,
something
democracy

in unforeseen

and

unforeseeable

University

directions.

of

California,

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Irvine

GLOBAL MEDIA AND CULTURE 701
NOTES
1

Karl Marx

Croft,
2

and Friedrich

13.
1955),
See, for example,

Cosmopolitics:

Thinking

The Communist Manifesto

Engels,

(New York: Appleton-Century

edited by Pheng Cheah
and Bruce Robbins,
volume
the important
Univ.
of Minnesota
and Feeling Beyond theNation
Press,
(Minneapolis:

1998).
3
David

his discussion
of cosmopolitan
for example,
Held,
political
theory by
begins
State to Cosmopolitan Gover
to Kant, Democracy and the Global Order: From theModern
turning
nance (Stanford,
CA: Stanford Univ. Press,
1995), 221.
4
of the Second Age of Moder
"The Cosmopolitan
Ulrich
Beck,
Sociology
Perspective:
no. 1 (2000): 79-105; Jacques Derrida,
Cosmopolites de
of Sociology 51,
nity," British fournal
tous lespays, encore un effort! (Paris: Galil?e,
1997); Mike Featherstone,
"Cosmopolis,"
Theory,
1-16.
?f Society 19, nos. 1-2 (2002):
from a Cosmopolitan
Point
Immanuel
Kant, "Idea for a Universal
History
IN: Bobbs-Merrill
On History,
Beck
ed. Lewis White
Publishers,
(Indianapolis,
Culture
5
6

For a recent

example

Slavoj Zizek, Contingency,
Verso,
2000).
The Cheah/Robbins
7

of theorizing
Hegemony,

the universal,

Universality:

see

Butler,

Judith

not a single
collection
contains
of media
and does so
the question
essay mentions
on
no
on
media
and does
has
essay
essays
"cosmopolitics"
at all: Daniele
and
of media
raise the question
Archibugi

in
16.

1963),

Laclau, and
on the
Left (London:

Ernesto

Contemporary Dialogues

Spivak

of View,"

the Gayatri
essay on media. Only
collection
of
briefly. Yet another
not mention
Mathias

media

theorists

or
eds.,

Koenig-Archibugi,

2003).
(London: Verso,
Debating Cosmopolitics
or Citadel:
as Cosmopolis
On
the
and Barry
8
Martin
Hand
Sandywell,
"E-Topia
a
of the
or De-democratizing
of the Internet,
or, Toward
Critique
Logics
Democratizing
no. 1-2 (2002):
New Technological
197-225.
Fetishism,"
Theory, Culture ?f Society 19,
9
See, for example,
(London: Methuen,
John Fiske and John Hartley, Reading Television
Culture
Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory
(New
1978) and Henry
Jenkins,
York: Routledge,
1992).
The Internet Galaxy: Reflections
10 Manuel
Castells,
Oxford
Univ. Press, 2001).

on the Internet, Business,

Society

(Oxford:

or Citadel,"
as Cosmopolis
202.
Sandywell,
"E-Topia
or Citadel,"
202.
and Sandywell,
"E-Topia as Cosmopolis
and Its
Media
and
Telecommunications
of
Global
13 Barney Warf,
"Oligopolization
for Democracy,"
10, no. 1 (2007): 89-105.
Ethics, Place ?f Environment
Implications
or Citadel,"
as Cosmopolis
198.
14 Hand
and Sandywell,
"E-Topia
or Citadel,"
as Cosmopolis
202.
and Sandywell,
15 Hand
"E-Topia
16 Lisa Parks, Cultures in Orbit: Satellites and the Televisual
(Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press,
11 Hand

and

12 Hand

2.
2005),
17 Wendy

Control and Freedom: Power
Hui Kyong
Chun,
MA: MIT Press, 2006).
Optics (Cambridge,
18 Gary Hall, Digitize This Book!: The Politics ofNew Media,
Univ. of Minnesota
Press, 2008).
(Minneapolis:
19 Max Horkheimer

and Theodor

W. Adorno,

Dialectic

1972).
(New York: Continuum,
ming
"The Work
of Art in the Age
20 Walter
Benjamin,
trans. Harry
Zohn
Illuminations,
(New York: Schocken,
Benedict
Anderson,
Imagined Communities: Reflections
ism (New York: Verso,
1983).
The Letters of theRepublic: Publication
22 Michael Warner,
Univ. Press,
MA: Harvard
(Cambridge,
Century America
21

in the Age

and Paranoia
or

Why We Need

of Enlightenment,

of Fiber

Open Access Now
trans. John

Cum

in
Reproduction,"
1969), 217-51.
on the
Origin and Spread ofNational

of Mechanical

and

thePublic

Sphere in Eighteenth

1992).

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

702

23
Hill,

Marshall

McLuhan,

24

1964).
Katherine

25

Fiske

Understanding

Media:

NEW7 LITERARY

The Extensions

ofMan

HISTORY

(New York: McGraw

MA: MIT Press, 2002).
Hayles, Writing Machines
(Cambridge,
and Hartley, Reading Television.
"The Identity Engine: Print and Publication
26 Adrian Johns,
in the Age of the Knowledge
in The Mindful Hand:
toEarly In
Economy,"
Inquiry and Invention from the Late Renaissance
ed. Lissa Roberts,
Simon Schaffer,
and Peter Dear
dustrialisation,
(Amsterdam:
Koninkliijke
van
Nederlandse
Akademie
403-28.
2007),
Wetenschappen,
Lev Manovich,
The Language
MA: MIT Press, 2001).
ofNew Media
(Cambridge,
Alexander
Protocol:
Control
How
Exists
Decentralization
MA:
Galloway,
After
(Cambridge,
MIT Press, 2004).
29 David Morley,
"Where the Global Meets
the Local: Notes
from the Sitting Room,"
in
27

28

Planet
Univ.
30

TV: A Global Television Reader,

Press,
Manuel

2003),
Castells,

ed. Lisa Parks

and

Shanti

Kumar

(New York: New

York

286-302.
The Rise

of theNetwork

Society

(Cambridge,

MA:

Blackwell

Publishers,

1996).
31 George

"We Are Not the World,"
Social Text 31/32
Yudice,
(1992) : 202-16.
"The Task of the Translator,"
in Walter Benjamin:
Selected Writings, vol. 1, ed.
Benjamin,
et al. (New York: Schocken,
Marcus
Paul Bullock
1996): 217-51.
33 Rey Chow, Primitive Passions:
and Contemporary Chinese
Visuality, Sexuality, Ethnography,
32

Cinema
Univ.

(New York: Columbia
Press,

34

Univ.

Press,

1996)

and Writing Diaspora

(Bloomington:

Indiana

1993).
Primitive

180.
Chow,
Passions,
194 (Chow's emphasis).
Chow, Primitive Passions,
36 Richard
The Rise of the Creative Class (New York: Basic Books,
Florida,
2002).
37 John Hartley,
ed., Creative Industries
(New York: Blackwell
Publishers,
2005).
38 John Hartley,
"'There are Other Ways of Being
in the Truth': The Uses of Multimedia
International Journal
140.
Literacy,"
of Cultural Studies 10, no. 1 (2007):
35

39
40

Hartley,
Catherine

41

See Don

are Other
140.
Ways,'"
toWork,"
The Baffler
"Putting Creativity
The Digital Economy: Promise and Peril
Tapscott,
"There

17 (2006): 87-91.
in theAge of theNetworked
Rise of theNetwork Society.
1996) and Castells,
ligence (New York: McGraw-Hill,
42 Dan Schiller, Digital
the Global Market System
Capitalism: Networking
(Cambridge,
MIT Press,
1999).
Liu,

Intel
MA:

43 Toby Miller,
"Can Natural
or Travel Faster? The New
Luddites
Make Things
Explode
Cultural
and
Creative
in Media
Industries: History,
Humanities,
Studies,
Industries,"
Policy
ed. Jennifer
Holt and Alisa Perren
forth
(New York: Wiley-Blackwell,
Theory, and Methods,
.
coming)
44 Kevin
"Transnational
Cultural
and European
Robbins,
Policy
Cosmopolitanism,"
Cultural Politics 3, no. 2 (2007):
147-74.
45
See Aihwa Ong, Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural
(Durham, NC:
Logics of Transnationality
Duke

Univ. Press,
Consumers and Citizens: Globalization
1999) and N?stor Garc?a Canclini,
and Multicultural
Univ. of Minnesota
Press, 2001).
Conflicts
(Minneapolis:
46 Robbins,
"Transnational
Cultural
158.
Policy,"
47 John Tomlinson,
and Culture (Chicago: Univ. of
Globalization
Press, 1999).
Chicago
48 For an excellent
discussion
of media
see Edward
concentration
its inception,
from

Herman

and Robert

McChesney,

"The Rise

of Global

Media,"

in Planet

TV, ed. Parks

21-39.
Kumar,
49 Rosemary

and

The Cultural Life of Intellectual Properties:
Coombe,
Authorship, Appropriation,
The Future of
(Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press,
1998) and Lawrence
Lessig,
Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World (New York:
2001).
Vintage,
and

the Law

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

GLOBAL MEDIA AND CULTURE 703
50
and
51

Laura Gurak, Persuasion and Privacy in Cyberspace: The Online Protests over Lotus Marketplace
the Clipper Chip (New Haven,
CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1997).
The Power of Identity (Maiden, MA: Blackwell,
Manuel
Castells,
1997).

the Borders:
Turner,
Globalization,
Culture,
"Shrinking
Politics 3, no. 1 (2007): 5-19.
53 Parks, Cultures in Orbit, 73.
and Cultural Articulations
54 Ramesh
Ethnic,
Srinivasan,
"Indigenous,
no. 4 (2006): 497-518.
International fournal
of Cultural Studies 9,

52

Graeme

and

Belonging,"

Cultural

55

Ien Ang,

Consumption
363-75.

"Culture

and Communication:

in the Transnational

Media

Toward
System,"

of New

Media,"

an
of Media
Ethnographic
Critique
in Planet TV, ed. Parks and Kumar,

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