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Animal Kingdom

Animals
multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs
divided into parazoa- includes animals in which cells are loosely aggregated and do not form true tissues or organs
eumetazoa- includes truly multicelllar organisms with organ and organ system level of organization
Classifications:
A. Based on symmetry
Radiata radially symmetrical animals where they can be divided into two identical halves on/by any of the radial planes
along anterior-posterior axis of the body
Bilateria bilaterally symmetrical animals where they can only be divided into two identical halves by a single plane
passing from dorsal side to ventral side and along the anterior-posterior body axis
B. Based on Number of Germ Layers
Diploblastic has two germ layers (outer ectoderm and inner endoderm with a non-cellular mesoglea in between)
Triploblastic has three germ layers (outer ectoderm, middle mesoderm, inner endoderm)
C. Based on Body Cavity (Coelom)
Acoelomata- coelom (body cavity lying between the gut and the body wall) is absent
Pseudocoelomata- a false coelom (body cavity not lined with coelomic epithelium) is present
Eucoelomata- a true coelom (body cavity lined with coelomic epithelium) is present
D. Based on Body Plans
Cell Aggregate includes sponges
Blind sac the alimentary canal has only one opening
Tube within tube Alimentary canal has two openings
E. Based on Blood vascular system
Open Type no blood capillaries
Closed Type has blood capillaries

PORIFERA (Pore Bearers or Sponges)


- primitive, aquatic organism lacking symmetry

have cellular level of organization


characterized by the presence of canal system and may possess minute needles called spicules
can reproduce asexually or sexually
Ex. Sycon, Hylonema, Cliona

Coelenterata/Cnidaria
-aquatic, radially symmetrical, dipoblastic animals
- many exhibit polymorphism; exist in two body forms, polyp and medusa
- ectoderm contains stinging cells (cnioblasts) which can explosively penetrate prey and inject poison
- have tissue level of organization, no blood vessels, no respiratory system
- Ex. Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemonae, Coral
CLASSES:
Hydrozoa
Scyphozoa
Anthozoa
Cubozoa
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
- acoelomates (without a body cavity)
- triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical
- dorsoventrally flattened bodies
- excretion and osmoregulation occur through flame cells
- mostly hermaphrodites
- move via ciliated epithelial cells on lower surface and waves of contractions of body muscles
o Classes
Turbellaria
Trematoda
Cestoda
Nematoda (Round worms)
- Have narrow bodies and pointed at both ends, no body segments, body is covered by a thin cuticle
- pseudocoelomata
- reproduce sexually and sexes are separate
- abundant in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats
- most are microscopic predators, parasites, and scavengers

Annelida
- metamerically segmented (body segments, separated by septa, are rings externally)
- body is externally protected by cuticle

excretion and osmoregulation are achieved by ciliated tubules called nephridia


have a central nervous system
bisexual and hermaphroditic
reproduction occurs by splitting or by mutual fertilization
o Classes
Polychaeta
Oligochaeta includes earthworms
Hirudinia includes leeches
Arthropoda
- outnumber all other animals in population strength
- have segmented body and jointed external skeletons
- covered by a hard exoskeleton made of chitin, which sheds during growth (molting of ecdysis)
- exhibits sexual dimorphism and are unisexual
o Classes
Onychophora includes Peripatus
Crustacea dorsal body surface covered by a shield like carapace (Ex. pranwns, crabs, lobsters)
Myriapoda includes centipedes and millipedes
Insecta comprises the common insects; body is divided into head, thorax and abdomen
Arachnida Body is divided into cephalothorax and abdomen; includes scorpions, spiders, ticks, and mites
Mollusca
- diverse group of animals and second largest group of animals with regard to species number
- soft-bodied animals without segmentation
- respiration happens through gills in the mantle cavity
o Prominent Classes
Pelecypoda or Bivalvia includes mussels, clams, and oysters
Gastropoda Includes snails, slugs and limpets
Cephalopoda Includes octopuses, loligos, sepias
Echinodermata
- marine organisms (radially symmetrical for adults, bilaterally symmetrical for larvae)
- mouth is on the lower surface, and have water vascular system with tube feet
- Ex, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, star fishes, brittle stars
- reproduce sexually (sperm and eggs released in water

Chordata
- having a notochord, dorsal tubular nerve cord, and pharyngeal gill slits
- exhibit diversity in form, physiology, and habits
- make a remarkable contribution in the bio-mass of the earth

Sub-phylum
Hemichordata Ex. Balanoglossus
Cephalochordata Ex. Amphioxus
Urochordata Ex. Ascidia
Vertebrata
characterized by the presence of cranium and a vertebral column
Classes
o Pisces Ex. sharks, Catla
o Amphibia Ex. Frog, Toad, Salamander
o Reptilia Ex. Snakes, Crocodiles, Turtle,
o Aves Ex. pigeon, parrot, penguin
o Mammalia
Sub-classes:
Monotremata Ex. Ant-eater, Platypus
Marsupialia Ex. kangaroo
Placentaliaa Ex. elephant, man monkey, dog, cat, rat, bat