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Module #2-Annoted Bibliography

#1: Driscoll, M. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction (3rd ed.) (pp. 71-77). Boston,
MA: Allyn and Bacon.
This chapter discusses how information is processed in the human learner. It is known as
the cognitive information process. Driscoll states that is works much like a computer in that
an input is put in and after some processing, output comes out (p. 74). Atkinson and
Shiffron (1968) theorized that memory storage happens in multiple stages. These stages
go through sensory memory, short-term memory, and finally long-term memory.
The first stage, sensory memory deals with the senses. This is very short-lived and only
holds the information just long enough for it to processed further. The second stage is
working memory, or short-term memory. In this stage, while time and capacity are held a
little longer than the previous, it is limited. It is in the long-term memory stage that
information is permanent. The amount that can be stored here is unlimited and can be a
variety of different types of information.
#2: Guenther, R.K. (1998). Introduction and historical Overview. Human Cognition (pp. 127). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
R. K. Guenthers article gives an overview into the historical perspective of human cognitive
psychology. It is traced back to the view that mental processes were once thought to be
supernatural processes brought about by gods. Now, in the modern world, through much
study we have determined that human thinking is a science. This article attempts to explain
that transformation of thinking.
The text goes on to try to explain how the brain works. It attempts to compare the brain to
a machine and then to a computer. While the brain does work much like a computer (input,
process, output). This was proven to not be a good analogy. By doing this, it takes away
the free-will and thinking of humans and discounts the fact that experiences help to shape
their learning.
#3: Smith & Ragan (1999). Introduction to Instructional Design. Instructional Design (pp. 112). New York: Wiley.
In this text, Smith and Ragan have set out to define instructional design. In their terms it
refers to the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and

instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and
evaluation (p.2). There is a solution to be reached, and the design is that plan that will
reach that solution. The article goes on to define the terms instruction and design.
Instruction is when the learning is geared toward a specified and intentional learning goal.
The terms education, training, and teaching are used interchangeably with instruction
however there can be distinctions made between them all with education being the most
broadly used term.
Next is design. The design is how the instruction is going to be carried out. This takes
much planning and should be done in a systematic way. When designing instruction, one
must ask three main questions: 1) Where are we going? 2) How will we get there? And 3)
How will we know when we have arrived? If these three questions can be easily answered
that a successful design plan has been put into place.

#4: Smith & Ragan (1999). Foundations of Instructional Design. Instructional Design (pp.
13-29). New York: Wiley.
This chapter by Smith and Ragan is a brief summary of the philosophies and theories that
are the basis for instructional design. They give three reasons why the philosophies and
theories should be discussed. First, the theories are the source of principles from which
many of the prescriptions for design arise (p. 14). Second, is that it involves people that are
in a particular field to have a relationship with their field by having a base of knowledge
with which to work. Finally, the study of theory and philosophy of design is a way for
designers to explain the reasons they make the decisions they do.
There are three major philosophies that influence designers in their decision making. There
is the constructivism philosophy in which knowledge is constructed either individually or
socially, not delivered. Then there is empiricism. In this theory, it is proposed that
knowledge is acquired through experiences. The last philosophy, pragmatism, is a
combination of the two.
The remainder of the chapter discusses the major theory bases from which instructional
design has drawn. Learning theories are those that attempt to describe, explain and predict
learning (p.18). Next are cognitive learning theories. These are different because they focus
on the learner as constructing meaning and being an active participant. Next are

developmental theories. Here it is said that humans go through cognitive stages of


development that influence their learning. Finally, there are instructional theories.
Instructional designers draw mostly from these theories. Instructional theories address how
the learning environment may be adjusted in order to facilitate learning.
#5 (additional): Greer, Diana L., Crutchfield, Stephen A., And Woods, Kari L., (May 2013).
Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Instructional Design Principles, and Students with
Learning Disabilities in Computer-based and Online Learning Environments. Journal of
Education, 41-50.
I selected this article because I think it is interesting to see how the instructional design
process works differently for students with learning disabilities. Cortiella (2011) gave
estimates on the number of students in our schools who were identified as learning
disabled. At the time of this study, roughly 5% of K-12 students were labeled as learning
disabled (p. 41). This article begins by outlining the cognitive theory of multimedia learning
and highlights some of the unique cognitive processing skills that some students with LD
possess. It also goes on to talk about how more research is needed to focus on LD
students in the realm of multimedia learning and on producing more specific facets of
learning for them based on their unique needs. There are 5 basic design principles
discussed and how they affect students with learning disabilities. This article goes on to
argue that more focus and research needs to be given to creating and utilizing computerbased and online learning systems tailored to meet the specific needs of LD students.