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.

.-

.,
/

THE Sh4ALL

,.

-~+

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BORE

TtiBE

OF A POROUS

AS A MOqEL
J
,,
MEDIUM

,_
.. .
.
-_

D.U. von Rosenberg


Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisi.anh

E. A, Martin**
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana

..

*
W

NOW associated
NOW associated
. . . . .-.

with Tulane Univer sit y, New Orleans,


Louisiana
with Chemstrand Co;poration~
Pensacola,
Florida
- .
..
.
-.
.

,.

. ...-

.. . . ... . . . .

. ..

..

-.-,

-, -(

s~

7/37

ABSTRACT

Because
-,
generally,

of the geometrically

impossible

and transport

to- write

phenomena

-,

irregular

precise

nature of porous

analytical

in them except

equations

in trivial
.

matter,

cases.

it is necessary
,,

to use a simplified

model

media

it is

of fluid motion
{a

As a practical

for deriving

such equations.

L..

? One of the oldest

and simplest

such models

is the small bore tube of circular

cros 8- section.
-.
The results
,

of the ex~erimental

work reported

equation for. miscible

fluid displacement

to analogous

displacement

determined

miscible
parameter

from

is the hypothetical

pore radius is, proportional

1
here show that the Taylor

to the volume

from

a small

a porous
pore

bore. tube is app~cable

medium.

radius.

to surface

The only un-

It was found that this

ratio

and to the square

root of the permeability.

. .

..
-.

..

.. . .. ..

INTRODUCTION

To describe
,.

a matter

the mixing

of ccmsiderable

phenomenon

a fixed bed reactor


water

bearing

industry

of fluids. flowink. in PO~OUS media h-

interest

is manifest,

to engineers

for example?

and in the invasion

sand strata.

because

in recent

year~

in th6 backmixing
by contamikted

It is of particular

of the use of kigh pressure

become
~;

This

of r eactarits
water

importance

in

tif fre ah

to the petroleum,

gas to displace

petroleum
:

fr.orn under grmtnd deposits.


Because

the detailed

structure

of a porous

medium$

such as a sand

strata

,,

or a column of catalyst pellets,


is generally
very ir regulat,
an
.,
To write preadequate description
of its geometz y is difficult to obtain.
t
cise a~lytical-

equations

it becomes impes sible


necessary
.

to create

quate description
sufficiently

A survey

except

a model

accurate

it is hoped,

The model

of the medium

that prediction~

of the subject

by engine&s.

porous
clusters

a simplified

should be simple

and are given in terms

favored

and/or length,

of fluids flowirg through


..
AS a practical
matter it is

cases.

from which,

of the literature

strongly

and diffusion

in trivial

can be derived.

chosen to represent
radii

of motion

representative

use are fairly

.,is indeed

but still

baaed upon its

01-measurable

properties,

shows that the use of models

Among

the. imaginary

media are bundles of parallel


of spheres,

but ade-

devices

tubes of varying

tubes with communicating

dead

..

spaces,

and sirnply~

single

small bore tube of circular

cross-section.

.It

. .

..--.

,---,

---

.,-

---

, ----

----

.
.,

2
..

ig. with this latter. model


that despite

that this paper

its sirnp-licity

the model

many cases and that its usefulness


complicated
..

does provid$
can probably

mechanics.

In most practical
,.

cases

(3)

In generals

a porous

medium

medium

are very

,,

differs

irregular

gradients

adjacent

medium

There

flow channels;
As pore

(3)

(4)

There
..

fluid mechanics

may not be applicable.

are not significant.

be laminart

scale;

(5)

sizes

approach

,,

is analogous to

is a principal

direction

the stream

lines

scale;

There

(2)

in

of f low$ althtnzgh the flow be


Molecular

diffusion

may be significant
molecular

Frequently,

.,,.

. . . .. . i . ... . . .

.,

can occur
pockets

if

dimensions
ordinary
*.
however$ the-se cliff er ences

..

of

flow in a tube in these

on a microscopic

shagnant fluid;

. .-.

into areas

,.

from

in the direction

steady- state on a macroscopic


4
between

(1)

Even though the flow regime

are 10Cal velocity

be extended

in

in that direction;
(2) The flow regime is
. .
of wetted surface to void volume is relatively
large.-

flow in a porous
(1)

predictions

gsadient

The ratio

aspects:

accurate

fluid flow in a porous

flow in a small bore tub: in these aspects:

laminar;

and it will be shown

of flow and a pressure


.

,..

is concerned,

. .

-. .

----

..

3
->
,.

Theoretical
If the Poiseuille
laminar

Equation

Coiwiderations
(1) describing

the pressure

flow in a tube be compared with the Dfarcy

flow in a porous

medium~ the similarity

gradient

Equation

(2) for

of the two expressions

becomes
.

..

../

evident:

for

:,

.,

(1 az b, c)

(2)

it is seen~ may be regarded

The pemneability~
square

of the radius

hydraulic

radius

or square

is a more

this quadity is the ratio


,
be difficult

to assign

to surface
lationship

ratio

surface

logical

choice

of void volunie

a meaning

permeability

sine e the shear


,,

and are diminished

radius

of a tube.

of parameter

to wetted

to the
The

in this cas ee since

surface,

and while it would


k

to a ra@ius. in a por tius .medium~ the volume

dbes have a-physical

between

be expected&

of the hydraulic

as being analogous

significance.

and volume
stresses

Furthermore,

to surface

resisting

ratio

flow increase

a r e-

r-nay logically
with increasing

with increased
.. void volume:

..

That the permeability.


surface
meter

ratio was suggested


has been incorporated

Experiments
.

is proportional

. .. . .

characteristic

have verified
..

by Fair

?.

to the square

,..

that the volume

length of both porous

to

and Hatch (1) in 19330 and this para-

in the K@~eny-Carman

.. . .. ..

of the volume

to surface

permeability
ratio

~--- (6)
equation
,

is indeed a

. ...

media and tuba%

-----

Thus Equati~;n (1, c) ~#

,,
I

I
is valid

for both types

however,

the predicted

of the Kozeny-

When it is applied

of fluid conduits,
pressure
,..

gradie~t

Car man Constant,

must be increased
.-. .

which has been interpreted

to porous

media,

by the factor
as the product

,,

The small

of a;,shape fadtoz and the tortuo sit y.


,..

bore tube has in effect


~.

ierv~d as a model of a porous. medium in this caseThe qtiest~~n then


\
arisep whether the tube might serve as a model, for other; transport phenomena,
,
This

question

the mixing
..

of two fluids

-- --from a column

(5, who found that

was posed in 1956 by von Rosenberg


that .occurrkd

when one of the fluids was displaced


,.
-,
of sand by the other was similar to the mixing found by

Taylor(4)

when one fluid was displaced from a small bore tube by another
.,.
,fluid miscible .in the fiist=
It was suggested that Taylorss de cription of
r
the mixing in a tube could be extended by analogy to that in a Iicolumn of sand
if the average
dimension

lateral

di,s$ance for diffusion

corr e spending to tfie tube radtias.

could be characterized
I
1

by a ,single

.
i.
,

,-

When a soluble

.,
fluid,

changes

substance

is dispersed

in concentration

and convection.

in a moving

at a point result

This may be expressed

from

incompressible
.,

both mqlebular

by the following

analytical

,
diffusion

equation

, (3)

if change of volume

with mixing

is negligible.

,
-=

(3)

%A7C

DV2C.
at

In general

D is a unction
position

function

of time,

equation

it is necessary

of concentiaticm
and viscosity.

f-

and temperature e, And


In order

, a

I
to find solutions

of this

.,

to know not only the applicable

boundary

conditions,
---.---
-.. .

- - but also certa~~ f&&io*l

~ela~ionshipq

of U ind b.- For tie-case

in which.,
;.

a pure solute is displaced


that Equa}ion

from a tube by a weak solution,


,.

(3) can be reduced

to Equation

Taylor

(4) by making

shows

appropriate

sitiplifications,
k ,~2Crn

acxr

~*~t

,-
.

where

,,

....:

Xl = X - Ut,

a2 @
,and

now known as the YTaylor


,

k=
,

,.

The sirnplif ying assumptions


,
the tTaylor

The time necessary

in cone entration
action

for appreciable

diffusion.

is negligible
velocity

(3)

diffusion

are as follow:

caused by convective

tran-

variations

of their initial value through the


4
Molecular
diffusion in the longitudinal

(2)

The flow is laminar,

thus

,.

components,

For this restricted

effects

called

to a fraction

.,

and angular

is applicable

(herein
-..

to the Wirne of decayft during which radial

are reduced

of molecular

directioq

which define the flow zegime

Regime~!) to which this equation

sport is long compared

Diffusion

Coefficienttt.

96D

(1)

(4],

..\

dimi~ting

(4)

flow regime

type equation whith predicts

U and D zire con~tant.


,.
,
the mixing is thus described
i
t

radial

a dispersion

by a

that is symmetrical

---

about a plane whicl? is normal to the direction


of flow and which moves
.,
Taylor gives the. solution to Equation {4) as
the average velocity.

c/co
.

. . ..

--

-.

..

,...

. .

(5)

= 1/2 -

1/2 erf (1/2,X1 k -1/2 t-12).


%? +2
2
where
.? f.z. =.~,...
. .$? .dZ,
[0
---erf (-Z) = -erf Z
and

with

.. ... . .

,,
..
6

(The

dimensionless

~~ ?Ic!!o

results

This designati~n

also

{C/Co)

replac,ed

will

henceforth

be referred

Cm-)

Taylor$s

experimental
,

showed good agr eernent with r esults predfcted

In order
tested

to ~~ite
,;

Equation

experirnen~lly$

i.

(5) . for. a por@s

it is necessary

to hypothesize

,SOthat it may be;

that the%e exists

.,

length corre spending to the tube radius~

be designated

to

by this equation~

medium

characteristic
vill

concentration

t$brt. Then,

a.

This

paramet~r

for the case in which a fluid is displaced


,,

from

a porous

medium

of length L by ano$her fluid of the same density

and

,.,

viscosity

which is miscible

Equation

(6).

volume

Equation

in the first,
j

Her e the concentration

f rom the point of injection


,

(5) may be rewritten


/

of the inyading

is given as a function
-

as

fluid at a distance

of the fraction

of pore

displaced.
,.

i/2
C=

(l/2)-(1/2)

erf

[2fi

(~)

(+$s)1
. .

.,
where
The question
whether

there

corresponds
.

the free

cross

the velocity

a characteristic

The only further


,., .
~ectional

profile

periments were

a.

,
is thus reduced

length of a porous
Equation

to determining

medium~

(6) is otherwise

b~ which

equivalent

to

as surnptions that have been made are that

area is constant

for. all cross

is W1.attf on a macros topic

conducted In an effort
..

scale.

to answer
.

./.,

/
-(7)

of using a tube as a model

to the tube radius~

(5).

(6)

V a ~

exists

Equation

sections

and t~t

The following

this question-.

,-

.-=. . .

ex-

... . .

. .
..

. .
,!

,..

Experimental

Ihe experimental

Procedure

procedure

consi~ted

,.

water

essentially.of

potassium
effluent
first
,

from a packed column of glass


.
,.
permanganate

as a, function

saturated

displacing

with diitilled

diagram

water

determination
.,

were

rate.

taken for

Lucite e.nd-plates
,

stainless

(Figure

1 shows
passed

spectrophotometric
.

of sections

at either endt

175-mesh

was

Solution WaS

the zone of mixed fluids

of concentration.

The cohamns=consisted

placed

) A;

of the
/

The medium

and then the p~~mang~nate

of the column at a constant

the top of the column, small samples

the concentration

of fluid displaced.

of the apparatus.

dis -

,.

beads by a weak (75ppm)

and observing

of the volume

pumped, into the bottom


-.. .
a schematic

solution

tilled

of Lucite

pipe tith pressure

.B etween the end-plates

steel

retpiner

screens

fitted

and the pipe were

in order

to prevent

loss
.,

of packing.

The fltiids

in the centers

entered

and left the columfis

The screens

of the plates.

and on the face of each plate was inscribed


which allowed
section
effects!*

the fluid tO flow fairly

of the packingand radial

Columns of three
with three

gradients

a pattern

was designed

the initial

cross-

to eliminate

rend

within the columns,

lengths

and diamet,er 6.were

d~ffex ent bead sizes

to give

six!, cliff er ent packings.

are summarized

tbe end plates

of r.zdial channels

different

of these Packings

1/41 pipe fittings

snugly against

u,niforml$r aczoss

This arrangement

pressure

fitted

thr~ugh

in Table

lo

used in corqbination

The beads were

The properties
of non-porous

,.
.

glass

and were
/

size ranges

approximately

.-20-30 mesh,
;,

used, the beads were


solution,

potassium

chemically

ipert~

washed

and 60-80 mesh~

with large

permanganate
!

media.

were

They wgwe screened


,

40-50 mesh,

The y were

to obtain uniform
the packings

sphezical.

quantities

solutiori,

and water-to

fir st evacuated

to assure

Before, being
<
.

render

acid

tdlem

\,
taWpirtg in ~n effort

good wetting

of air and filled

of hydrochlari~:

packed dry with continual

In order

into three

of all surface sO

with carbon

dioxide.

~ ,-..
.,,
...-.
. ;-

The

,.

carbon

dioxide was then slQwly displaced


.,.

with water.

Finally8

large, quantities
.,.
\
i

of distilled

water

were

of carbon

dioxide~

pumped through the columns

This procedure

apparently

td remove

gave complete

any traces
wetting

of all
\,

surfaces.
In addition
determine
.4
were

to thes& experimental

runs,

there

were

:\
also runs niade ~~

the permeabilities,

calculated

at various

of ~zve of the six{ packings.


The permeabil$ies
,,
,
from J2quaticm (2) on the basis -of head 10Ssacross the do umns
41

flow rates.

It was thus possible

to vary

flow ratea and permeability


the only paramet@r
and perrneabilit

~___

over a wide range,


1/2
.
in Equation
(6)*

y will be discussed
Experimental

,:

permeabilities

of flow rates

and measur 6 ~he values

Results

be.tow. )

the range

,placement- runs--- In e~ch case-the

of column

length~:~,
!

the value of
t
(The relationship
between b2

Lit erature

and Discussion

of the various

which exceeded

thereby

.,
~

1)

The

varying

values

of D were

of Results
measured

used~

columns

were

over a range

of rates

used in the miscible

dis-

permeability y -was. found -ta-be cotistant withs - -- ~,.

a maximum

cletiation

of abo,ut, one per cent from the averages

indicating

,,

that all runs were

within the same (laminar)


)

It was found, in accmdance


.,
the permeability
,,
the v?lume

equation

as a linear

iatio:

K4066i

This

with the considerations

could be represented

to surfaci

sidered

an observed

medium

would have a permeability(

<

and particle

,of the ends ,of the


. c olumnsc
point described

diameter

of these media,
reasoned

insofar

did not exist

The origin

geometrically

ratio

but

column-in the im-

may also be con-

since a non-porous

from

of zer OS The

the weights densitya


,.

. ...
was found to be a, characteristic

as momentum transport
/

that this parameter

,,
. .

becaus e of the

in the sense used here)

wati calculated

to surface

I
,

measured,

probably

by this equation

of each packing.

Since the volume

of

(8)

that a Itflattt pr es sure profile

ratio

of the square

too near the ends of; that particular

vicinity

to. surface

that

Qpz

mediate

volume

function

four of the five perxneabilities

taps beirig placed

This would indicate

given above,

.1gave a value about 14% too high i? one instance,


manometer

,,

.003)

represented

flow regimes

was coicerned,

should be proportional

length

it was

to the h~othetical

pore.
,

radius~

b.

Hence,

the only parameter

Equation
.,

Or,

b2 should ,be directly

( or dimtinsionless

(6) might be expressed

as the product

miped constant of proportionality y.


..= ..-.:
. .. . ..-. ---- ... .. .
all the quantities

except

proportional

the constant

to the permeability y.

group of parameters)
of

The advantage
.

DL
(-@

1/2
and an undet er -

of this expression

are obs emable~

..

~,,

-.. .,.. ;.. .,. -:.,_:: .,,,...+


...
.,..
..........,..,.-.
..-.-....
.-.,-.
..
. . . .----+.:.,,..
:.~
.. .....
L-L,

+.

=--=:+~

..: :.:..-

ii

:, ::.:;,;+?;::.-.;..:;
.,.,

is that
,,

--

..

In order
a two-step
observed

to test whether

procedure

Equation
First

was used-

concentration-ver

(6) described

it,,. was determined


.,

sus-volume

displaced

To do this,

by. q- #isper sion type equation,

the observed

Equation

form:

(6) was rewritten

in ~
/,

I.+
i/2 erf R (
r)

Here R is an artifical

parameter

with an International

the

cslf2-

technique

whether

d~ta could be r epr e ?ented

,.
the following

mixing,

(9)

of dispersion,
Business

Using a r.egres Sion

Machines

162o con-iput er,

the
/!

4
.-

,.

value of R giving
rnin;d ior
,,

the beat fit. of observed

each run,

minimized
.

at particular

This is expressed
4

values

to Equation
1

The line of best fit was ar~itrarily

the sthn of the squares


.,

of concentration

of the differences

values

mathematically

(9) was deter-

taken as that which

between

of V and those predicted

by Equation

,
,

observed

values

by the equations

(10).

(1?)

..

Also

the root-mean-

square

deviation

of each run was calculated.


J.
,,

was

of the approximately

,The average

034, or 3.470 of the invading

rms deviation
,,

fluid concentration

twenty

data points

for the thirteen


I

runs

It should be noted

,
that this technique
cliff erent technique
dispersion
,,
deviation

equation

was recommended
in analyzing
is a matter

by Scheidegger$

similar

data.

of judgment,

of 3.470 would seem to indicate

~3) who used a slightly

.The goodness. of fit of the


of course,

but the aver-age rms

a good .or at least acceptable

fit.

..

The second step- in the atilysis was-tO deie-be

a co~relation

,. ..- . ..-

,,

between
.

~~
r and *K)
..
..

wheiher..the~e existed

1/2
.

That ,.
is,

could the coefficient


. .

of

DL
(~

R= 10-31 + ,038

,,

,.,

(11),
i

The correlation
bablity

coefficient

was found to be .8858 indicating

of this correlation~s

bqing accidental

The r esult~ of this analysis


tube can serve
quired
,,,

.,

1/2

as a modek of a porous

for the .%-intercept

scatter

resulted

mediuin,

that the

but an explanation

is r.e-

(11) and for the considerable


These

and inhornogeneities

runs being outside

less than ,001.

support the hypothesis

by this equation.

from ,end effects

from the experimental

is considerably

of 10.31 in Equation

in the points correlated

probably

strongly

that the pro-

the Taylor

discrepancies

have

inthe packings
regimes

and

It was ob-

...,

served

frequently

precisqly

during the runs that the tfrontl~

nohmal to the direction

or mixed

of flow but varied

zone, was not

in longitudinal

position

,..,

..
by as much as one or two centimeters,
near the ends of the columns
beads,

This apparent

This

and was especially

lengthening

of the mixed

the best fit o~data to Equatio~


,

of R givi;g
at the kigher

values

effect

was more

pronounced

pronounced
in the very

zone would reduce

(9) with the reduction

of R (the r i$zo~ & Iowek permeability

small

the value

-g

greater

and short~r

front

,
lengths).

It would also probably

account to a large

extent for the deviations

,.
of the observed
.,----- .-. -= ..

points from

It i-s fur,ther &es


satisfied
.
.

.e

the criteria

the dispersion
. .

equation~
.. . .. ,.

sar y to know whether


of the Taylor

the experimental

flow regime

,. .
by TaylQx as

~
-. ..--M.-..,-,, .- ..,. . ... . .;-..-,..-..-.-..
:.
:
...
.,
,._.,
-.
.=.A -.+ -
. -

.,

These

-.

. .

conditions

criteria

are given

,.,
;.,,~=:-. ~., ,:,- :. ....... .. ,.. ,,
....-. . ._
-..
, .: ..-. -,~.: ~---~
..= -- -.=~

.,

where

a is the tube <$liiisaud


~ l is the- ~is~nce
,.
portion of the change of cone entration takes places
10:1 between
porous

the terms

of the inequalitiess,

media requires

the media.

an evaluation

However,

error

applicable

and from

, certain

Then the regression

line which

to the

radius$

of Equation

b, of

(6)

to determine

as sumptions were
result ed from

inapplicability y of Equation

of

until it has been determined

to the analysis

that the unexplained-R-intercept

ratios

critekia

pore

Her e the test of applicabili~y

this equation were

was assumed

..
He suggests

of the hypothetical

an irnpas se. Since it was essential

wheiher

which the greater

TO apply these

b cannot be evaluated

which runs fit the criteria,


meets

over

made,

It

expe rime ntal

(6) to some of the data points-

intercepted

the origin

was found (Equation

13).

.
~~
R s .067 (~K)
Comparison
From

of Equation

Equations
al

1/2
(13)
(6) and ( 13) then shows that b is equal to 52=@_

(13) and (9) it may be found that


1.81

27

7=--YHer e A 1 is the product


occurrence

of pore velocity

of concentrations

at the end of the column.


is effectively

(14 a,b)

~)1/2
and the time

claps ed between

of .10 and . 90~ re spectiively,

For the range

the actual distance

between

of values

the

in the effluent

DL
of (zUK! used
, _- 8 this product

the locations

where

C =

90 and

-,

c=.

10 when -the front


-;is m the vicinity
Inequalities

recalled

(12) may now be r e-written


.

that *he se criteria


,.

of the end of the column,

ire
..

as Inequalities
.,

(15),

only approximate.
~_ ...

-
it being

13

(15)
The inequality

on the left is the criterion

and that on the right,


radial

concentration

observed

data,

most runs,
(~~

it was found that no single

with the exception

parameter~

the assumptions
Further

the front length,


this is,

observed

and predicted

given in Figure

( 13).

Points

values
( 14).

of this
diffusion.

of 4

1,

Since

with a prediction

based

However~

(13) a good agr cement

the correlation

by points

outside

observed
.-

and predicted

between

since
between

the assumption

the flow r egime

outside

equation

for mixing

values

of

A 1 iS

have been

good agr cement between

of front length with the scatter


that insofar

for which the

the Taylormgime

is indeed a fairly

It may be thus concluded

R and (~@

based cm all data points

(14) along with observed

for runs cle&ly

data the Taylor

DL 1/2

That is,

values

of

qualitatively

by Equation

the best Correlation

A plot of Equation
3,

( 13) are at least

Equation

However,

of longitudinal

.~ 1 would tend to validate

This plot shows that there

experimental

..

of

omitted.

accidental.,

,.

,.

from

values

(Equation (11 ) was influenced


th,eory is valid.

any effects

values

to the

of high values

it is not a test of the theory,

flow regime

is given by Equation

obscured

diffusion

high or low values

In the cases

of observed

same values~

(14) is in part derived

applied

run fit both of them.

to those predicted

a comparison

Equation

were

may be found if the observed

are compared

that for the Taylor

criteria

which led to Equation

justification

in effect,

in part on these

probably

longitudinal

rapid disappearance e of

of those with extremely


f.t

met both conditions,

end effects

justified.

for sufficiently

When these

gradients-

approximately

Thus,

the condition

for neglecting

being aPParetilY
. . .. ..

as can be determined

frorii

in a small box e tube can

,.:
,

14
-,

be applied

at least

quantitatively

One may also ask whether


characteristic

of a medium

permeability,

or momentum

were

calculated

from

to analogous

mixing

the hypothetical

pore

for mass transfer


transfer,

P~iseuillets

stituted with accuracy

data.

in a porous

radius b which is

can be determined
That is,

from

if the value

and D*arc y*s equatiois,

into the Taylor

medium,

of b

could it be sub-

( or other mass transfer)

equation?

.-

This question

was answer ed by calculating

mass transfer

and momentum

and (2) the pore

Equations

The calculated
the Taylor

values

Regime,

of b and b

for all runs,

in Table

smaller

to be linear

II.

A comparison

than b ~

insufficiency

of the theory.

...lated
. ... is ~egarded
can serve

of hypothetical

as strong

as a model

order

pore

of magnitude

discrepancies

radii,

medium,

values
but the

however~
arise

to

from

Yet the fact that

calculated

in such different

and seem to be linearly

support for the hypothesis

of a porous

outside

rangea

It does not appear pos siblea

experimental

of the same

of these

over the entire

these

these two sets of values

as follows.

except those clearly

data whether

are

(lSb)

(16)

b may be expressed

or from

both

as

judge from the experimental

manners,

from

since it has not yet been shown to be equivalent

are given

appears

error

radii

From Equations

(6) and (9),

shows that b is consistently


relationship

pore

2 1/4 =blo

This quantity is designated


From

equation,

radius may be expressed

a=(2Kd)

to b.

transfer

hypothetical

that the small

r ebore tube

.,. .

15

Summary
Beacuse
necessary
flowing

and Conclusions

of the complex

geometric

to use a simplified

in them-

model

The tube of circular

and simple st model~

In some cases
However,

nature of porous
in describing

media,

the mechanics

cross-section

is probably

the tube is inadequate

in the introduction

above.

because

one characteristic

length at a cross-section

it is usually
of fluids
the oldest

for reasons

of its simplicity--there

given
is only ,

-- its use is to be recommended

when possible.
The experiments
transfer
bore

reported

and momentum

tubes were

characteristic
the volume

transfer

applicable,

length relating
to surface

to the square

ratio.

in porous

in a small bore tube,


tional to the

show that for the media

equations

at least

which were

qualitatively,

the two types

square

media

derived

of fluid conduits

This quantity was further

that mathematical
may be derived

The radius

for small
The

was found to be

used.
of flow and transport

on the basis

of this hypothetical

both mass

found t.obe proportional

descriptions

of analo~ous

phenomena

tube would be propor-

root of the permeability y of the medium-

used,

to the media.

root of the permeability y for the media

It is thus suggested
phenomena

here

-.

16
Symbols

cross-

sectional

superficial

Used

area

or total cross-sectional

a.

tube radius

hypothetical

concentration

pore

of dissolved

column

permeability

Taylor

or of invading

medium

fluid
.

a cros s-iection

of invading

of molecular

solute

across

concentration

coefficient

of porous

~adius

mean concentration
initial

area

fluid

diffusion

diameter

Diffusion

Coefficient

a2u2
= ~
96D

front length
..

pressure

volumetric
artifidd

flow rate
dispersion

parameter

time

average

velocity

velocity

vector
co-ordinate

or pore

spatial

xl

longitudinal
= x- Ut

co- ordinate

tiscosity

. .

hydraulic

radius

velocity

in principal

director

which moves

of flow

with the mean flow rat e

of tube
>..

volume

to surface
. .

.,

ratio

of a porous

medium

,.

17

Literature

..

Cited

and Hatch? C. P- tFundame ntal Factors Governing


the Streamline
F1OW of Water through SandZ 11 Journal of
American
Water Works Assoc.,
~
No. 11 (1933),
1551-1565.

1.

Fe6!b, G. M.

2.

tMiscible Fluid I)isplacment


in a Porous Mediums .1!
Martin, E. A,
Ph. D. dissertation,
Louisiana State University,
1962.

3.

l~An Evaluation of the Accuracy


e- the Diffusion
Scheidegger~
A. E.
Equation for Describing
Miscible Displacement
in Porous Mediae 11
Proceedings
of the Conference on Theory of Fluid Flow in Porous
Media,
U. of Oklahoma ( March 23-24, 1959) 10 I- 116.

4.

IDisper sion of Soluble


Taylor,
Sir Geoffrey
Flowing Slowly Through a Tube, t Proc.
(London),
219, 1953, 186-203.

5,

of Steady State Single Phase


von Rosenberg~
Do U- lMechanics
Fluid Displace&ent
from Porous Media,1
A, L Ch~ E. Journals 2
No. 1 (1956), 55-580

6*

WyU.ie* M. F. J. and GardnerS G, H- F- lThe Generalized


Its Application
to Problems
off
Kozeny- Car man Equation:
MuItiphase
Flow in Porous Media, t Proceedings
of the Conu. of
ference on Theory of Fluid Flow in Porous Media,
Oklahoma ( March 23-24$ 1959). I-41.

..

._.

.Matter in a Solvent
Royal Society A,

... .

.,

.,

.
...-

..

18

.0

r-

r-*

-.J

o-

:i
6) IZL)

&l

:
..

~9
,

.!

,,,
f.

.- -

..

,.

..

k.

,.,

.,

-?

,>
u-l

C2

--l

..6

1A

r:

,,

Olf-1

e.

cm
c

,+

-4

d
.

1
tI

1-:-

_ ..2
~ .$.
VW
- ,..

.,

c1

.,

Ld

.
.

.
- : =.

-.
-

-.-

--

-:

, .-

.-

..

.. .. . .,

..: -+

... ..

.-

,-.

-.
19

Summary

of Miscible

1/2

Run

DL

Number

() uE-

Displacement

3LI
[4T

Data

(CL.

b~
(Cm. )

.1198

16.767

53,000

274.2

,090s

19.755

53, 000

329.9
148.0

16.328

53,000

96, 000

40.585

.0496

662.6

96,000

,0886

464.9

33.798

.0418

160,000

.0686

30, 34.1

.0337

586.7

. o~!jo

31.943

.0361

633.1

160, 000

i
8

i94.2

17. HR5

.1198

.09?.7

0886

~., j ,, a

,,1

..

..

J,
.

22.128

, 0580

235.9

64, 300

11

64, 300

L2

23.124

,-0675

287, 2

19.482

,0611

393* o

56, 700

13

.. .
..

..

. ..

1052

. 1052
,.0964

e-

.-b

ii

I
.-,

a)

. .

..

...

,.

,,

45

40
.

35

-.

25
f?

0
.

20

Plot of Equation

@
0

( 11)
.

5
,.
-.

1
---

0
c1

100

..

..

1
---

Z(XI

1
-390

1
400

500

600

700

e(x)

. .. . .

%.s

2$

-.

-,...