.
.,
/
THE Sh4ALL
,.
~+
.>
BORE
TtiBE
OF A POROUS
AS A MOqEL
J
,,
MEDIUM
,_
.. .
.
_
E. A, Martin**
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
..
*
W
NOW associated
NOW associated
. . . . ..
,.
. ...
.. . . ... . . . .
. ..
..
.,
, (
s~
7/37
ABSTRACT
Because
,
generally,
of the geometrically
impossible
and transport
to write
phenomena
,
irregular
precise
nature of porous
analytical
in them except
equations
in trivial
.
matter,
cases.
it is necessary
,,
to use a simplified
model
media
it is
of fluid motion
{a
As a practical
for deriving
such equations.
L..
and simplest
such models
cros 8 section.
.
The results
,
of the ex~erimental
work reported
fluid displacement
to analogous
displacement
determined
miscible
parameter
from
is the hypothetical
1
here show that the Taylor
to the volume
from
a small
a porous
pore
medium.
radius.
to surface
ratio
. .
..
.
..
.. . .. ..
INTRODUCTION
To describe
,.
a matter
the mixing
of ccmsiderable
phenomenon
bearing
industry
interest
is manifest,
to engineers
for example?
sand strata.
because
in recent
year~
in th6 backmixing
by contamikted
It is of particular
become
~;
This
of r eactarits
water
importance
in
tif fre ah
to the petroleum,
gas to displace
petroleum
:
the detailed
structure
of a porous
medium$
such as a sand
strata
,,
equations
to create
quate description
sufficiently
A survey
except
a model
accurate
it is hoped,
The model
of the medium
that prediction~
of the subject
by engine&s.
porous
clusters
a simplified
should be simple
favored
and/or length,
cases.
from which,
of the literature
strongly
and diffusion
in trivial
can be derived.
chosen to represent
radii
of motion
representative
.,is indeed
but still
01measurable
properties,
Among
the. imaginary
but ade
devices
tubes of varying
dead
..
spaces,
and sirnply~
single
crosssection.
.It
. .
...
,,

.,

, 

.
.,
2
..
its sirnplicity
the model
does provid$
can probably
mechanics.
In most practical
,.
cases
(3)
In generals
a porous
medium
medium
are very
,,
differs
irregular
gradients
adjacent
medium
There
flow channels;
As pore
(3)
(4)
There
..
fluid mechanics
be laminart
scale;
(5)
sizes
approach
,,
is analogous to
is a principal
direction
the stream
lines
scale;
There
(2)
in
diffusion
may be significant
molecular
Frequently,
.,,.
. . . .. . i . ... . . .
.,
can occur
pockets
if
dimensions
ordinary
*.
however$ these cliff er ences
..
of
on a microscopic
shagnant fluid;
. ..
into areas
,.
from
in the direction
(1)
be extended
in
in that direction;
(2) The flow regime is
. .
of wetted surface to void volume is relatively
large.
flow in a porous
(1)
predictions
gsadient
The ratio
aspects:
accurate
laminar;
,..
is concerned,
. .
. .

..
3
>
,.
Theoretical
If the Poiseuille
laminar
Equation
Coiwiderations
(1) describing
the pressure
flow in a porous
gradient
Equation
(2) for
becomes
.
..
../
evident:
for
:,
.,
(1 az b, c)
(2)
The pemneability~
square
of the radius
hydraulic
radius
or square
is a more
to assign
to surface
lationship
ratio
surface
logical
choice
of void volunie
a meaning
permeability
radius
of a tube.
of parameter
to wetted
to the
The
surface,
between
be expected&
of the hydraulic
as being analogous
significance.
and volume
stresses
Furthermore,
to surface
resisting
ratio
flow increase
a r e
rnay logically
with increasing
with increased
.. void volume:
..
Experiments
.
is proportional
. .. . .
characteristic
have verified
..
by Fair
?.
to the square
,..
to
in the K@~enyCarman
.. . .. ..
of the volume
to surface
permeability
ratio
~ (6)
equation
,
is indeed a
. ...

,,
I
I
is valid
however,
the predicted
of the Kozeny
When it is applied
of fluid conduits,
pressure
,..
gradie~t
must be increased
.. .
to porous
media,
by the factor
as the product
,,
The small
question
the mixing
..
of two fluids
 from a column
Taylor(4)
when one fluid was displaced from a small bore tube by another
.,.
,fluid miscible .in the fiist=
It was suggested that Taylorss de cription of
r
the mixing in a tube could be extended by analogy to that in a Iicolumn of sand
if the average
dimension
lateral
could be characterized
I
1
by a ,single
.
i.
,
,
When a soluble
.,
fluid,
changes
substance
is dispersed
in concentration
and convection.
in a moving
at a point result
from
incompressible
.,
both mqlebular
by the following
analytical
,
diffusion
equation
, (3)
if change of volume
with mixing
is negligible.
,
=
(3)
%A7C
DV2C.
at
In general
D is a unction
position
function
of time,
equation
it is necessary
of concentiaticm
and viscosity.
f
, a
I
to find solutions
of this
.,
boundary
conditions,
.
.. .
~ela~ionshipq
in which.,
;.
to Equation
Taylor
(4) by making
shows
appropriate
sitiplifications,
k ,~2Crn
acxr
~*~t
,
.
where
,,
....:
Xl = X  Ut,
a2 @
,and
k=
,
,.
in cone entration
action
for appreciable
diffusion.
is negligible
velocity
(3)
diffusion
are as follow:
caused by convective
tran
variations
(2)
thus
,.
components,
effects
called
to a fraction
.,
and angular
is applicable
(herein
..
are reduced
of molecular
directioq
Diffusion
Coefficienttt.
96D
(1)
(4],
..\
dimi~ting
(4)
flow regime
radial
a dispersion
by a
that is symmetrical

c/co
.
. . ..

.
..
,...
. .
(5)
= 1/2 
with
.. ... . .
,,
..
6
(The
dimensionless
~~ ?Ic!!o
results
This designati~n
also
{C/Co)
replac,ed
will
henceforth
be referred
Cm)
Taylor$s
experimental
,
In order
tested
to ~~ite
,;
Equation
experirnen~lly$
i.
it is necessary
to hypothesize
.,
be designated
to
by this equation~
medium
characteristic
vill
concentration
t$brt. Then,
a.
This
paramet~r
from
a porous
medium
and
,.,
viscosity
which is miscible
Equation
(6).
volume
Equation
in the first,
j
of the inyading
is given as a function

as
fluid at a distance
of the fraction
of pore
displaced.
,.
i/2
C=
(l/2)(1/2)
erf
[2fi
(~)
(+$s)1
. .
.,
where
The question
whether
there
corresponds
.
the free
cross
the velocity
a characteristic
profile
periments were
a.
,
is thus reduced
length of a porous
Equation
to determining
medium~
(6) is otherwise
b~ which
equivalent
to
area is constant
conducted In an effort
..
scale.
to answer
.
./.,
/
(7)
(5).
(6)
V a ~
exists
Equation
sections
and t~t
The following
this question.
,
.=. . .
ex
... . .
. .
..
. .
,!
,..
Experimental
Ihe experimental
Procedure
procedure
consi~ted
,.
water
essentially.of
potassium
effluent
first
,
as a, function
saturated
displacing
with diitilled
diagram
water
determination
.,
were
rate.
taken for
Lucite e.ndplates
,
stainless
(Figure
1 shows
passed
spectrophotometric
.
of sections
at either endt
175mesh
was
Solution WaS
of concentration.
The cohamns=consisted
placed
) A;
of the
/
The medium
the concentration
of fluid displaced.
of the apparatus.
dis 
,.
and observing
of the volume
solution
tilled
of Lucite
steel
retpiner
screens
fitted
in order
to prevent
loss
.,
of packing.
The fltiids
in the centers
entered
The screens
of the plates.
Columns of three
with three
gradients
a pattern
was designed
the initial
cross
to eliminate
rend
lengths
to give
are summarized
of r.zdial channels
different
of these Packings
snugly against
u,niforml$r aczoss
This arrangement
pressure
fitted
thr~ugh
in Table
lo
used in corqbination
The properties
of nonporous
,.
.
glass
and were
/
size ranges
approximately
.2030 mesh,
;,
potassium
chemically
ipert~
washed
with large
permanganate
!
media.
were
4050 mesh,
The y were
to obtain uniform
the packings
sphezical.
quantities
solutiori,
and waterto
fir st evacuated
to assure
Before, being
<
.
render
acid
tdlem
\,
taWpirtg in ~n effort
good wetting
of hydrochlari~:
In order
into three
of all surface sO
with carbon
dioxide.
~ ,..
.,,
....
. ;
The
,.
carbon
with water.
Finally8
large, quantities
.,.
\
i
of distilled
water
were
of carbon
dioxide~
This procedure
apparently
td remove
gave complete
any traces
wetting
of all
\,
surfaces.
In addition
determine
.4
were
to thes& experimental
runs,
there
were
:\
also runs niade ~~
the permeabilities,
calculated
at various
flow rates.
to vary
~___
y will be discussed
Experimental
,:
permeabilities
of flow rates
Results
be.tow. )
the range
of column
length~:~,
!
the value of
t
(The relationship
between b2
Lit erature
and Discussion
of the various
which exceeded
thereby
.,
~
1)
The
varying
values
of D were
of Results
measured
used~
columns
were
over a range
of rates
dis
a maximum
cletiation
indicating
,,
equation
as a linear
iatio:
K4066i
This
could be represented
to surfaci
sidered
an observed
medium
<
and particle
diameter
of these media,
reasoned
insofar
The origin
geometrically
ratio
but
since a nonporous
from
of zer OS The
. ...
was found to be a, characteristic
as momentum transport
/
,,
. .
becaus e of the
wati calculated
to surface
I
,
measured,
probably
by this equation
of each packing.
of
(8)
ratio
of the square
vicinity
to. surface
that
Qpz
mediate
volume
function
given above,
,,
.003)
represented
flow regimes
was coicerned,
should be proportional
length
it was
to the h~othetical
pore.
,
radius~
b.
Hence,
Equation
.,
Or,
( or dimtinsionless
as the product
except
proportional
the constant
to the permeability y.
group of parameters)
of
The advantage
.
DL
(@
1/2
and an undet er 
of this expression
..
~,,
+.
==:+~
..: :.:..
ii
:, ::.:;,;+?;::..;..:;
.,.,
is that
,,

..
In order
a twostep
observed
to test whether
procedure
Equation
First
was used
concentrationver
(6) described
susvolume
displaced
To do this,
the observed
Equation
form:
in ~
/,
I.+
i/2 erf R (
r)
Here R is an artifical
parameter
with an International
the
cslf2
technique
whether
,.
the following
mixing,
(9)
of dispersion,
Business
Machines
the
/!
4
.
,.
value of R giving
rnin;d ior
,,
each run,
minimized
.
at particular
This is expressed
4
values
to Equation
1
of concentration
of the differences
values
mathematically
between
by Equation
,
,
observed
values
by the equations
(10).
(1?)
..
Also
the rootmean
square
deviation
was
of the approximately
,The average
rms deviation
,,
fluid concentration
twenty
data points
runs
It should be noted
,
that this technique
cliff erent technique
dispersion
,,
deviation
equation
was recommended
in analyzing
is a matter
by Scheidegger$
similar
data.
of judgment,
fit.
..
a co~relation
,. .. . ..
,,
between
.
~~
r and *K)
..
..
wheiher..the~e existed
1/2
.
That ,.
is,
of
DL
(~
R= 1031 + ,038
,,
,.,
(11),
i
The correlation
bablity
coefficient
of this correlation~s
bqing accidental
.,
1/2
as a modek of a porous
scatter
resulted
mediuin,
that the
but an explanation
is r.e
and inhornogeneities
by this equation.
is considerably
of 10.31 in Equation
probably
strongly
the Taylor
discrepancies
have
inthe packings
regimes
and
It was ob
...,
served
frequently
precisqly
or mixed
in longitudinal
position
,..,
..
by as much as one or two centimeters,
near the ends of the columns
beads,
This apparent
This
lengthening
of the mixed
of R givi;g
at the kigher
values
effect
was more
pronounced
pronounced
in the very
small
the value
g
greater
and short~r
front
,
lengths).
account to a large
,.
of the observed
., .. = ..
points from
.e
the criteria
the dispersion
. .
equation~
.. . .. ,.
the experimental
flow regime
,. .
by TaylQx as
~
. ..M...,,, . ..,. . ... . .;..,.......
:.
:
...
.,
,._.,
.
.=.A .+ 
. 
.,
These
.
. .
conditions
criteria
are given
,.,
;.,,~=:. ~., ,:, :. ....... .. ,.. ,,
..... . ._
..
, .: ... ,~.: ~~
..=  .=~
.,
where
the terms
of the inequalitiess,
media requires
the media.
an evaluation
However,
error
applicable
and from
, certain
line which
to the
radius$
of Equation
b, of
(6)
to determine
as sumptions were
result ed from
inapplicability y of Equation
of
to the analysis
ratios
critekia
pore
was assumed
..
He suggests
of the hypothetical
wheiher
TO apply these
b cannot be evaluated
over
made,
It
intercepted
the origin
13).
.
~~
R s .067 (~K)
Comparison
From
of Equation
Equations
al
1/2
(13)
(6) and ( 13) then shows that b is equal to 52=@_
27
of pore velocity
of concentrations
(14 a,b)
~)1/2
and the time
claps ed between
between
of values
the
in the effluent
DL
of (zUK! used
, _ 8 this product
the locations
where
C =
90 and
,
c=.
recalled
ire
..
as Inequalities
.,
(15),
only approximate.
~_ ...

it being
13
(15)
The inequality
concentration
observed
data,
most runs,
(~~
parameter~
the assumptions
Further
observed
and predicted
given in Figure
( 13).
Points
values
( 14).
of this
diffusion.
of 4
1,
Since
with a prediction
based
However~
the correlation
by points
outside
observed
.
and predicted
between
since
between
the assumption
outside
equation
for mixing
values
of
A 1 iS
have been
the Taylormgime
is indeed a fairly
R and (~@
DL 1/2
That is,
values
of
qualitatively
by Equation
A plot of Equation
3,
Equation
However,
of longitudinal
experimental
..
of
omitted.
accidental.,
,.
,.
from
values
any effects
values
to the
of high values
flow regime
is given by Equation
obscured
diffusion
In the cases
of observed
same values~
applied
to those predicted
a comparison
Equation
were
are compared
criteria
justification
in effect,
in part on these
probably
longitudinal
rapid disappearance e of
end effects
justified.
for sufficiently
When these
gradients
approximately
Thus,
the condition
for neglecting
being aPParetilY
. . .. ..
as can be determined
frorii
,.:
,
14
,
be applied
at least
quantitatively
of a medium
permeability,
or momentum
were
calculated
from
to analogous
mixing
the hypothetical
pore
P~iseuillets
data.
in a porous
radius b which is
can be determined
That is,
from
if the value
medium,
of b
could it be sub
equation?
.
This question
mass transfer
and momentum
Equations
The calculated
the Taylor
values
Regime,
of b and b
in Table
smaller
to be linear
II.
A comparison
than b ~
insufficiency
of the theory.
...lated
. ... is ~egarded
can serve
of hypothetical
as strong
as a model
order
pore
of magnitude
discrepancies
radii,
medium,
values
but the
however~
arise
to
from
calculated
in such different
of a porous
outside
rangea
experimental
of the same
of these
these
as follows.
data whether
are
(lSb)
(16)
b may be expressed
or from
both
as
manners,
from
are given
appears
error
radii
From Equations
pore
2 1/4 =blo
equation,
a=(2Kd)
to b.
transfer
hypothetical
r ebore tube
.,. .
15
Summary
Beacuse
necessary
flowing
and Conclusions
of the complex
geometric
to use a simplified
in them
model
In some cases
However,
nature of porous
in describing
media,
the mechanics
crosssection
is probably
in the introduction
above.
because
one characteristic
length at a crosssection
it is usually
of fluids
the oldest
for reasons
of its simplicitythere
given
is only ,
when possible.
The experiments
transfer
bore
reported
and momentum
tubes were
characteristic
the volume
transfer
applicable,
length relating
to surface
to the square
ratio.
in porous
equations
at least
which were
qualitatively,
square
media
derived
of fluid conduits
that mathematical
may be derived
The radius
for small
The
was found to be
used.
of flow and transport
on the basis
of this hypothetical
both mass
descriptions
of analo~ous
phenomena
used,
to the media.
It is thus suggested
phenomena
here
.
16
Symbols
cross
sectional
superficial
Used
area
or total crosssectional
a.
tube radius
hypothetical
concentration
pore
of dissolved
column
permeability
Taylor
or of invading
medium
fluid
.
a cros siection
of invading
of molecular
solute
across
concentration
coefficient
of porous
~adius
mean concentration
initial
area
fluid
diffusion
diameter
Diffusion
Coefficient
a2u2
= ~
96D
front length
..
pressure
volumetric
artifidd
flow rate
dispersion
parameter
time
average
velocity
velocity
vector
coordinate
or pore
spatial
xl
longitudinal
= x Ut
co ordinate
tiscosity
. .
hydraulic
radius
velocity
in principal
director
which moves
of flow
of tube
>..
volume
to surface
. .
.,
ratio
of a porous
medium
,.
17
Literature
..
Cited
1.
Fe6!b, G. M.
2.
3.
4.
5,
6*
..
._.
.Matter in a Solvent
Royal Society A,
... .
.,
.,
.
...
..
18
.0
r
r*
.J
o
:i
6) IZL)
&l
:
..
~9
,
.!
,,,
f.
. 
..
,.
..
k.
,.,
.,
?
,>
ul
C2
l
..6
1A
r:
,,
Olf1
e.
cm
c
,+
4
d
.
1
tI
1:
_ ..2
~ .$.
VW
 ,..
.,
c1
.,
Ld
.
.
.
 : =.
.

.

:
, .
.
..
.. .. . .,
..: +
... ..
.
,.
.
19
Summary
of Miscible
1/2
Run
DL
Number
() uE
Displacement
3LI
[4T
Data
(CL.
b~
(Cm. )
.1198
16.767
53,000
274.2
,090s
19.755
53, 000
329.9
148.0
16.328
53,000
96, 000
40.585
.0496
662.6
96,000
,0886
464.9
33.798
.0418
160,000
.0686
30, 34.1
.0337
586.7
. o~!jo
31.943
.0361
633.1
160, 000
i
8
i94.2
17. HR5
.1198
.09?.7
0886
~., j ,, a
,,1
..
..
J,
.
22.128
, 0580
235.9
64, 300
11
64, 300
L2
23.124
,0675
287, 2
19.482
,0611
393* o
56, 700
13
.. .
..
..
. ..
1052
. 1052
,.0964
e
.b
ii
I
.,
a)
. .
..
...
,.
,,
45
40
.
35
.
25
f?
0
.
20
Plot of Equation
@
0
( 11)
.
5
,.
.
1

0
c1
100
..
..
1

Z(XI
1
390
1
400
500
600
700
e(x)
. .. . .
%.s
2$
.
,...