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. . ... . . .5pg..g_.a%. .---

-.-.

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--.-.-._,

._

EFF~CT
OF ELUPTiCAL
FRAqTURESON
SWEEP EFFICIENCIES
IN WATER FLOODING
OR FLUID INJECTION
PROGRAMS

~~

,. ,.,-

By
J.

Paul B. Grawfo rd, Tames Pinson*


Jack Simmons**
and Bobby L; Landrum***
,Texas Petroleum
Research Committee
A. and M. Division
College #tation, Texas

,2

\
.

ABSTRACT

A potentiometric
horizontal

elliptical

displacement

model

study has been made to estimate

fractures

programs.

on the pe~forniance

The center

well

of water

the effect
floding

of

or fluid

of a five - spot patte m was assumed


,,

to be fractured

with an elliptical

axes oi the elipses

studi~s the o~ientation

and the sweep efficiency

dete rrhined.

For

was rotated

the conditions

elliptical

fracture

had a greater

effect

, ., ,

The

spacing.

sp~cing-

.,

In

about the ce~ter

well

studied the sweep ef ,.

.,

.-

vaxied from 32 to 64 pe rcenti

of @e major,.

of ti-e .fracture
;

..

Iicikhcy

of ,the well

f rorn 25 to 50 .perc.ent of the well


.

separate

The lengths
,

were 50, 65, 75 and 85 percent


1 ,

width of the clip ses varied

.panc@ce fracture.
-,

It was found ~a~ *e .ori;ntation


ok the sweep efficiency

of the

than the size of

!.

the fracture.

The. same size fracture

35 to 60 percent
>.
,-

>

depending

on its orientation,
.>

The mest unfavorable

with like s.~connecting injection


!

and pioduci~

~
!?*

of from

orientation.

,,

was Wand to be t.hat$i wlkch the rntijo+ an-ii rninbi &es


-j.,
.,
.
.1.

~-. above re suited


in much greater
.
&.k,_.&
.=-.L......- ...LZ2
.+.LL
=.-.
_ .;._..
=_._-...;.......... - L .c.+.,

could .resqlt in a sweep efficiency

wells.

.oft.lie el~ps-e ,c-okcided


.>

Fxaciures

sweep. effJcienc$es;
.,J+>_=__>___
-,>....A..=..
.,,; _ .

P$e sent Atldres S. - Th6 California


Company
Present
Address - Standard Oil Company of. Te%ak,.,
?1

rotated
,..

._~_.___w_

450 to -

_ .-,~-.:..i.i

:=+ .- ~. .

~,
,

:=....*.2

_..

2
.

I.

INTRODUCTION
Commercial
nearly

hydraulic

i5 years.

fracturing

The last few years

tured at a rate of about 100 wells


fracturing

and indicated

~oo&ng(l)(2)(3)

factor

to ten percent
of from

flooding

for

have been frac-

In the early

practice

three

may be ver,y desirable


?:

studies indicated

of the. well

that fractures

spacing may increase

to five even for clean wells

a two or three percent


~,

oil and gas wells

per day~

that fracturing
These

-e

~ of five

has been practiced

of

there appeared to be seine apprehension


among some enginee m
.,
,+.
,
wells in fields subject to water flooding.
the merit of fracturing
..
1

regard$ng

fears

of oil wells

rate would,
~rmit
. . ::

~fields not economic-a~ly

faster

feasible

operations

having

Early

field

-.

a radius

the injectivity

by a

would only be

The increased

and perhaps

otie rw$se.

when water

and &ere

.,re duct.ion in sweep efficiency?

flooding

of

data appeared

~
>

,,.

to -co~irm
*

tie

original

theoretical

studies made with the potentionietric

rnodel$ and now f~actu;ing


of wells is :conside red an accepted
;
/
~completion in many fields sqbject to flooding.

...

In the early

f ractwre

tre~tments,

the volume
,-

of fracturing
,

form
1

of
/

fluids

,;-:

.?

and sand weights

were quite small.

1
might be Usedl however~
, primary.

y
f ,./.

producing
,.

Some, of the-fields

O&y a few hundred pounds .of s~pd


,..,,
.,
,,,
,
in
,- ,an effort to obtain a greater increase in
_
.
. . . ..
. . . .. .
; *--

ability,
very large treatments axe nowqsed widely.
[
,.
,.
.
having. large f sacture treatments. are nbw being water

~
.

.,

Consequently,

it was a @rpo&e

and orientation

of large

ment program.

of this paper to dete rrnine the effect

fractures

on the sweep efficiency

,,

The potentiome@ic
.

,model was, used in making this study.

of the model has been explained


model

neglected

ratio is one,

and steady- state conditions

approximately

.,
1/211deep,

a copper st rip properly


assumes

exist.

The application

The potentiometric

gravitational,
The model

effects

are

was 201~x 20tf by


.,

The elliptical

formed

fracture

was obtained

to obtain. the desired

that the conductivity

with that of the matrix

(4)\5)(6)Q

preciously

as sprnes that the inobility

a model

of a fluid di sfplace A ,

11. ANALYSIS

. .

of size

proper.,

of the fracture
~~ ~~

f racture
is very

~.y the use of


shape. Such

great

com~ared
,$

.,
-

III. DISCUSSION
Figure

AND RESULTS
i shows two elliptical

horizontal
fractures
(Ellipses A ,and B)
,,
create d at the center of a five Rspot pattern.
The f rac:ture orientation is
.,
:
r:
.,
shown to be 45@ with the IIytt axis.
Both major and &inor axe-s &incide with.
. . .. ...!
,,
.,
,.- ~- .-..
1

lines connecting input and &tput wells.


The major -es
of ellipses A and B
.. . .
;:
we~e ;50 and 65 percent of the well spacing,. d$ X4spectively.
The f ~ac~ure

.,
; ~

i..

widths for the two fractures


were
-:..-

37.3 and 56.--3percent .of the well. spacing.


,.

Solid lines show ihe shape of the swept area when water breaks through a~lthe
,.. .-.
.
..
....
..
.
.
..
.
.
....
.
.
.,.
.?------------- .-.
2:
smaller f r~cture at the center well.
-The, dashedlin~s
;how the s~pe of the
~
,,
.f .
...oilrnwater

inte iface when water,. breaks, through at the larger


,,.
.

of the tw~ elliptical

-...

,,
. ...-....
.
.-. .-,----.--. . .

...:- ...

.. .. . . . . ... ...
..--. . . ..

. --,

,.

4,

;,.
1

at Wells

No:

efficiency
Wells

Note that. water

was equal to 47.8 percent-

No,

1 and No.

through from
efficiency

For, elliptical

1, 2t 3 an~ 4 wag the same.

Wells

3 a short time before


No.

2 and No.

The area of fracture

was 44.6 pe rcdnt.

broke

but, note that the sweep, was only 3* 6 percent

mately

that the unfractured

pattern

the sweep

through from

fracture

to break

B, the sweep

B is about twice ,that of A


.

will be re,called

A,

fluid could be expected

For elliptical

4.

kacture

less

..

than for fractire

has a sweep efficiency

A.

It

of approxi -

72 per cent.

Figure

2 shows the sweep efficiencies


The f xacture

zontal fractures.
the well

spacing

fracture

were

for ellipses

lengths

for large d, more

hori-

are shown to be 75 and 85 percent

tAtf and B t, xe spectively.


-.

28.8. and 48. i percent


,,.

elongated

of, the well

spacing.

of

The width: of the


.!
,l?or these t~e

. ..

>..

fractures
, ,

the water
/

breakthrough

broke

through from

,would have bccurrpd

from

Wells

~ and 3 considerably

Wells

2, and 4.

The.sweep

before

ef~ciencies
.4,

..

for el~ptical
percent,

fractuties

iA~ arid ltB II were

respectively.

A@in

no~e the, small effect


.
/
.:.:
/
,.
,.

on the sweep efficiency.


.,
,.~
,
)

Figure

3 shows the sweep efficiency


,.

, the ellipti~al
the major

fractur~

axes were

found to be 32,8 percent


,

had. been oriented


50 arid 65 percent

*he greater

and 3 ii 7
,<

el~pse

-,
:
when

,.
$he tytf axis, < The Iength ~f
.

of the well

has .,

~)

and shape of the swept qreas


600 wi~

spacing.
.,.

/
. . ..

The width of the

-.
.- .
. .
.... . .
. ...
.
... . - . ......
minor axes of, the eEipses were 35.,3 imd 50.9 perceqt, of the, well ,spacing.
..
,.
,
)
For this case it wa$ found that he s;e6p efficiencies
were 58.2 percent and
+,

-.,.

. .

..-

.-

,.

>

.
!

.._ _ ~
.

.,

5
.

51.9 percent8
that a slight

Coniparing

respectively.
orientation

Figure

of the fractures

3 with Figure

increased

/,.

i it is seen

the sweep efficiency

by

,=

,.

about ten percent


where

water

not occur

of the total pattern

b reeks

through may be of interest.

on the terminal

Figure

position

4 shows the sweep efficiency

percent
differ

for the smaller


little

In Figure

IIYII *S*

oriented

for the elongated


/

Figure

ellipses,
sizes

fractuses
were

re speclivelyi

are, ~z percent

oriented
..

44.3 tid

40.8

The se sweeps
more

same

than *~

were

oriented

,,
75 e from

the

were 66;2 and 5% i p~r~ent for the srnall~~,


...,
,
Attenti6n should be called to the nature
ie~pectively.
..

fractures,

breaks

6 shows the sweep efficiencies


~J,.
{.
:

fractures

were. oriented

750-from
.-,

,.

throughat the srnalle r ellipse.


.,

for the case when the more

the tytt axis.


-..

In this. case,

were 49-7 and 4607 percent,


re Spe ctively.
,..,
:
,,
In Figure 7 the major axes of we fdactures were located

we

elongated

.. .
:

>

sweep
.

efficienciess

->,

does

2.

axes of the ellipses


.

of the shape ~f the front w,hen fl~d

,.

sweep efficiencies

as shown in Figure
.

5 the major

Note that breakthrough

The sweep effici.enci~s

and larger

and larger

for these two fracture

size fractures

The resulting

the ~~y~taxis.

point on the ellipse

Of the ellipses

60 from

The particular

area.

!.

.
W 0 from

the

i.
tt II &is

For

and the re suiting- ~weep efficiencies

the larger

fractuxes

shown in Figure8
..

we m

630 ~- arid- 60.0-

.4

Percent*

the sweep efficie&ies


were
. .
---- ..-.

. . ..
a+d 59,9 perce;t j respectively,;
:~ot~- that for t-hisori~rit~tion
..
.,:-.
,,,
ficiencies. we r-e.practical~y independent, of the ~racture gi,ze..

62.1,

~e sweeP @f= ...


,
.,
...
... .
.

...
.

,.

,.

,.
(.

Figure

9 has been prepared

to show the effect

of fractuxe

size and

orientation

on sweep efficienciess

of, ,elliptically

fractured

thin reservoirs

.,

for the five.

spot pattern.

of the ellipse

The abscissa

divide.d.b y twice

,.
ttra~ustt of We major

axis

shows the length of the major

the well

of the el~pse=

shows the

The abscissa

spacing.

The engineer

axis

should nol% &at the


>.

angles

are cornplirnentaryt

orientation

were

i. e. t the s~me re suits would be, obtained


,,
,.

ox 900; or 15 or 75 measured

zero

. .

Figure

9 shows he

efficiency.

Notice

yery

the sweep efficiency

@ght

the iyt[ axis.

significant

thatif the fracture

from

if the

effect

of orientation

~tradiust is equal to 25 percent,

vary from

about 48 ~o 65 percent

on the sweep

depending

then ~
.-,

on

the orientation

,.
of the elliptical

oriented

zero

either

ficiency..
,

Notice,

be obtained

,.

Fractures
with their
fracture.
.. . .
.,
.
. .

or 90. f~orn the ~tyl~axis give


,,

,.
that a sweep effi~iency
.,

-l
for~~xarnple,

for .elliptidal

the largest

f ractures whose

long axis
,...

sweep ef -

of 60 percent
.,
.3

could .
..

llra@iust~ was equal to15~. 23, 27 ,

.... -

or 40. pe r,cent of the well spacing; +&pending on the. f,ractwm orientation


. .
,,
.<
It is apparim~ that-the fra&ure. rad&
maybe &o &r thre-e times -as great
,,

,.

-,

as other fracture iadii but if the major axed are oriented at zero
,.
. ..*.
-,
--.,
,..
be very sub st?ntially
withthe
lty~~-a~sb tie sweep q~ciencymay
1 .- ,.1.
,.
.,

or 90
,. .--
,..J
greater

.-

., . . .

t+at that wliich would occur for s~me poorly


.
The. data- showthatifor

,..

-f~actures

or{ented

at zero ,or90 a sweep

oriented

,.,

. .

.,

.Iv.suM--ytiD;~oN~~usl~Ns
J .-_-. .-. . ...

--- ..

....+ +.:+.
-~

, j

.-:_

.. _-:,

.<--...

=.
~,.

;.,,.~.--...-..

. ...2.

. ... . .

..

A. study has been&&de

.:,

.__:.;--fi.A.

of t$e, effect

~.

A.A.

~..+L__A

.-

~-

-,
. ,.
. .
-.
,
_ -,:_:
.z.._._,_.~i-~_~
;=&j:
:
.,,,----+-=--of .pancidce fracttires
oh
the
sweep:
.,
..
J..
. .
.-

..J.

,
c1

e~en for tremendously. long fractures.


.,.
,
.,

~~~ :
. ..

..-,
.,...;_.
. -:=:.... ..::a.A
. ..-

efficiency

as high as 50,pe rceh~ may be expected


.,
!.. ,

f ractu~es.

,,

.,
..

small&
:

,.,
..
~----:a..~

,>:

.-:

,.

,,

7
.,

efficiency

of five-spot

that their major


*

spacing.

The pancake

patternsa

axes were

fractures

Were of such size

equal to 50, 65, 75 and 85 percent


,-..,

The width of the ellipses

vaziedt

of the well

and the orientation

of the ellipses
.,.

varied

from

zero

an increase
>

to 900 ~th

to the iylt axis-

in the size or area of the fracture


.

the sweep efficiency


fractures

reference

It was found that

may not necessarily

ve Xy much; it depends on the orientation.

,,:
may be of the same size and be located

centrally,

change

Elliptical

about an injection

,.
.

or prcducing
depending

.,

orientati&

well,

on the orientation

of the fracture.

and size of the fracture

sweep efficienciess
;

might vary from

35 to 60 percent
.

It is concluded

that the fracture

are
both very
,

may still beobtained


.

Very large

significant.

provide d.!the direction

of the major

,..

..,

.-

axis of an elliptical
,.

yet the sweep efficiency

connecting

pancake

fracture

input ti,d outputwells.


,,

is located

about- 45 f ~om a str~ght


.

line .

.
.-,,,

,+

The swe&p efficiency


or area swept at breakth~ough
kbould not be con- ,.
.!
.,
,,
.
.
side red- as the SQZ6 criterion
IOT rating the pe.rfo ti,tiance of patt,eti-type.
,..
. ,
.,
,., .,
,
di splitc.erne+t.s,
The areq.,swept. & vqrious wate.x-oil xa@s
~hovl~ .~??o be. j ......
.. .
,t.
..
)
considered;
Some patterns give a rapid increase i= water-oil, iatio aft@r
.
,.,
. .,
. .
,.
,,-?
~b~eak~rou#i,
others hake long peri,~d~ of ~roduction at I%w water-oil
ratios. ~.
-.,,
,.
,...
..>.
. . .
.,
,. :.For this reason the overall performance
should be considered.
~

,,.
,;
.:,
,
/
.--

.,.Caution should be. observed


,.
. ..

which tiay ,lat&r be subjict

in sizing .frac~ringtre?tments

to a setiondary
.,

recovery

for

program.

fields. .

. 4~ovgh

; ,
..
an,

. .
.,, .,
~ incre$~e-in

primary

recove~y

maybe

-obtained:by
,.

a lar~

stimulation

..

:;
-,

. ._,.

_ -..

.,.

.
-%
.-=- .------

REFERENCES

2,

Paul B., and Collins S R* ~~. ~ tlAnalysis of Flooding Horizontally


Crawford,
Thin Zteservoirsll,
AIME Meeting,
New York, February,
1954,
Fractured
pape z- 346-G.
Crawford,

pa~l B, ~ !8~8timate&

Performance
,,Five Articles
j
3.
,.

4.

5i

.6*

F,looting and ,Gas GyCbg

water

in Horizontally
l?racture.d Thin Re se rvoia?s~t,, Series
World ail ~ Seph ~954 through Jan- 1955
.

Crawford,
Paul B. apd Collins R. E. , ltEstimated Effect o~ Vertical
Fractures
on. Secondary Recoveryf!,
Proceedings
Sixth Oil Recove rzl
Conference,
May, .i954.,

..

**Ele&rical
Model Studies of Secondary
Horner,
W. L. and Bruce~, WC AO ~
Recovery It, h,erican
Petroleum
Institute, Secondary Recovery of Oil in
the United States, p. i95, 2nd e~tion (~950)c
l!potentiometric

Lee$ B. D,,
Reservoirst,

Model Stu&is

Trans. .
AIME

I!The Theory
Muskat, Morrist
-.
,.j~,
2i6; (1949}.

F1OW in Petroleum
,

of Potentiometric
...

Models,

Trans.

MME

.,

. .

.....

.,

of Fluid

174, 41, f1948).

...

,-

.>

...>,

-----

of

..

,.

. ..

.. _

,,

1.

,/
.
,. . ..-

.-.

.,

,.

.,

.-

;.

..
,-.

----

..
.--

-.

..-

:.

.,.

,. .. _..--.-...
.

..

.-

..,.-

..

-,

,.

.-

. ---

,..
.-

.:.,-,

..
,.
.,.

-----

._

.
-.4-
.,

c---

_.

. -. __..

.2-.-.-.

...-_

.
/

. .
I

;
,,

~.SWEEP EFFICIENCY O_FELLIPTICALLY


FRACTURED TH N RESERVOIRS
4-.
5- SPOT PATTERN
~
I
!.
9
lWL
; !~
SWEEP
47.0
50:0, _
37.3
65.0
.,56.3
44.6
I.!
//

ELLIPSE
:.

,,,.
%
%

.,

..

>,
+>
:

..

,,
i

,-:.7~~

1,
[ -

.
FlqURE

,.

,..

..1.

,f..

.,

.: f
.

,.
,.
; ..- -- , ,.

,,

.-,

,.

,,
.

. .

,-

--a.._

..!.

. .

. . ... . . ...

-,....

.-.
. .

,_
Y-

. ..

..:
.,

. . . . .-

....

. ... .
.

.,.

,.

.-,
_. .. -- . - ---

~,,

.. .. ... .-..
..--.-.
4-

SWEEP E~FICIENCY OF ELLIPTICALLY


FRACTURED -THIN RESERVOIRS
4
5- SpOT PATTERN
. .3

>

ELLIPSE
A
B.

~
75.0
85~0
;//

+w
28.8
48. I

/
A ELLIPSii/
3 ELLIPSE.
-~
Y
//~.
..
~50 .
..
.
3
$..:
. .
..,.
.. .
. . . . k/
5

.,

SklkEP
iFF
32.8 %
y.7
%
\1
. ..-..=...

,-

(--/

, ,

..-.

..

.:.3

-,

,.

,.b>

*
.,
-- --mwao~a
,,
1

,----...,- ..-. 1. . .. .
i
,
-t
pd(l
1
.!

. ..-

,,.

;*,

.t

.-:
,.

~}Glj~E

.. .. . .

.
7

&


..

.*

.
..,..

y
#/
#
/,
.,

. i-J.
.
!. / ,
- !.
,.., ..
i-...
2

t.

~ -~
,

.1
-~ ,,

.,,

,,

=
>

., .

,.

s..

.. .

:2, ; -J
..

.. .. .

.
.

t..
. ..

. .

----

.4

.-..,

,.

.,
. .. j.:
/:.
i.
%
..

._.

..

.>

swEEp EFFICIENCY OF ~~~


Elliptically
FRACTURED THIN RESERVOIRS
5- .SPOT PATTERN

~~

1.

* ~#

,.

--------

---

,e---

.,

:,

. .
.,;
4

,,

.
...$

.<

,.

.,
. . . .

,,, .
. . .

. ..

. .,
. .. .

. .-

.
,

.>

.-

- Fl&J~E3
. .

.,

-..
-,
.

.,

.,.

.. .

.!.

,.

,..

.,.
., .-.

. . . .

, ..
... .

. .

. . ..

...

,,

. -.
._ -,-

.,
/

$wE@ EFFICIENCY OF ELLIPTICALLY


FRACTURED THIN RESERV61RS .~
4 J
5- SPOT PATTERN
~
-,
,,
ELLIPSE
A
f B

SWiZ~P3 ii:F.

25.8
42,4

75.0
Q5.O
,;f
/ /

.. -

U2$L @pm\
~

~40*El %
\
\

.\

,,..,,
/

/ ./

i \.: ..
..... . ..
,.

,,

;.

./
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