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3. Masukkan ikan jantan terlebih dahulu, biarkan selama 5-10 menit agar beradaptasi.

4. Masukkan ikan betina kedalam gelas bekas air mineral (gelas aqua bekas) lalu taruh di tengah-tengah
ember, agar ikan jantan melihat ikan betina dan menghindari serangan ikan jantan, istilahnya PDKT dulu
lah hehehe. Biarkan ikan jantan memamerkan siripnya. Biarkan selama sehari, sampai cupang jantan
mengeluarkan gelembungnya.
5. Setelah gelembung banyak lalu lepaskan ikan betina dari gelas air mineral. Jika ikan cupang jantan
masih galak akan terjadi sedikit drama kejar-kejaran antara ikan cupang tetapi ini wajar kok, biasanya
hanya berlaku beberapa jam saja. Tetapi jika sudah siap jantan akan merayu betina dan memulai ritual
perkawinan hehehe.
6. Jika cocok
7. Jika ikan jantan sudah mengusir betina dan betina terlihat sudah kempes perutnya segera pisahkan
ikan betina dari ember karena jika tidak ikan betina bisa memakan telurnya sendiri. Biarkan ikan jantan
menjaga telurnya sampai menetas. Beri makan ikan jantan secukupnya selama manjaga telur agar tidak
memakan telurnya. Biasanya burayak akan terlihat bergerak setelah 2-3 hari. Perhatikan dengan jeli
karena ukuran anak ikan cupang sangat kecil sekali.

Penampakan warna pada ikan dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor yaitu jenis kelamin,
kematangan gonad, genetik dan faktor geografi. Cupang jantan dapat a c d b 9
dibedakan dari warnanya yang cerah dan menarik, bentuk perut ramping, serta sirip
ekor dan sirip anal panjang. Sementara cupang betina berwarna kurang menarik,
bentuk perut gemuk serta sirip ekor dan sirip anal pendek. Akibatnya, ikan cupang
jantan memiliki nilai komersial tinggi karena sangat disukai dan diburu oleh pecinta
ikan hias, Sehingga akan lebih efektif dan menguntungkan bila hanya diproduksi
dan dipelihara jantannya saja (Zain, 2002). Ikan jantan sangat agresif dan memiliki
kebiasaan saling menyerang apabila ditempatkan dalam satu wadah (Ostrow,
1989).

Ketika bertelur, betina akan mendekati sarang dan memiringkan badannya untuk
dijepit oleh jantan dengan meliukkan tubuhnya agar jantan bisa menyemprotkan
spermanya ke telur-telur tersebut (Perkasa dan Hendry, 2002)

Proses pemijahan ikan cupang berlangsung dengan cara betina mengeluarkan telurtelurnya dan jantan membuahi dan memunguti telur-telur serta meletakkannya
didalam sarang busa. Setiap ikan cupang (Betta splendens) dapat menghasilkan
rata-rata telur sekitar 400-500 butir dalam satu kali proses pemijahan. Cupang
jantan akan menjaga sarang, merawat telur, dan larva yang menetas sekitar dua
hari kemudian. Pada habitat aslinya, beberapa jenis ikan cupang ditemui
menngerami telurnya di dalam mulut (Mouthbreeder). Dalam satu periode
pemijahan biasanya anak cupang hias yang hidup mencapai 60% betina dan 40%
jantan. Padahal cupang hias yang laku dipasaran hanya yang berjenis kelamin
jantan, kecuali untuk tujuan sebagai induk betina (Perkasa, 2001)

Perkembangbiakan Betta sp. bersifat bubblenester, yaitu membuat sarang busa


sebelum memijah dan telur-telur dimasukkan ke dalamnya (Linke, 1994;
Sanford,1995).

The bubble thus formed was blown at the surface and the operation repeated until a
circular mass was produced 75 mm. (= 3 inches) in diameter. Another layer of
bubbles was next blown which had the effect of raising the first out of the water.
Seven or eight layers were formed in 3']1, but as the Jater bubbles were blown only
under the central portion, a domeshaped structure resulted. Leaves of duckweed
and other small objects which happened to float over the area selected, were raised
on the dome, but were there as the result of accident and not of design i they will
be seen in the plate. So viscid is the secretion enclosing the bubble, that though
exposed to the air for ten or twelve days it still fulfilled its fuuction.
On the third day the nest was completed and breeding commenced. The period is
apparently determined by the female; when the ova are ripe and possibly
occasioning some diEComfort she ascends to beneath the nest. Then takes place
that marvellous display comparable to the actions of gallinaceous birds. The fins of
the male are extended to the utmost, the gill membranes protruded and the bloodred gills exhibited beneath. The body and fins become resplendent with iridescent
colours and quiver with intense excitement. The female thereupon approaches her
mate and is turned upon her side. As he tightens his body round she becomes
upside down. In three or four seconds the pressure is relaxed and the male assumes
a position below.
The eggs are then extruded and caught by the pectoral and ventral fins where they
remain for a few seconds, to ensure fecundation. They are next allowed to fall,
being slightly heavier than water, when they are collected by the male waiting
below. If the time is prolonged he will snck them in from the fins possibly to

prevent their being taken by the female who promptly devours them. The male
having given the eggs a coating of mucous, places them beneath the bubbles to
which they adhere. From three to seven eggs are extruded each time, and the
operation is repeated until from one hundred and fifty to two hunclred are produced.
The female is not allowed in the vicinity of the nest when laying is completed, and
the male is untiring in his care of the eggs, constantly moving their position and
recoating them with mucous.
On the third day the eggs hatched; the larviB remained beneath the bubbles for
some time but occasionally showed a tendency to sink; they were immediately
taken in charge by the watchful father and replaced. In a day or two the numbers
disposed to leave the shelter of the nest increased to such an extent that the
male could not possibly secure them all, though he frequently had seven or eight in
hi's mouth at once. He would search for them at the bottom of the vessel and
securing some, carry them to the surface and blowout a little mud with the larvre.
Many, however, were eaten by the female, and though the fishes bred on three
occasions, at the end of a fortnight following', all the fry had disappeared. Possibly
the weather proved too cold for the young, as it subsequently became for the
adults, for they died also during the winter.

Waite, Edgar R., 1904. The breeding habits of the Fighting Fish (Betta pugnax,
Cantor). Records of the Australian Museum 5(5): 293295, plate xxxviii. [22
December 1904].
Australian Museum, Sydney

In addition to being brighter colored and having longer fins, the


easiest way to tell males from females is to put the new Betta fish in a
flat sided container and put it next to the tank of another male. If it
flares up at the site of the other male Betta, then congratulations, it's
a boy. If, on the other hand, it suddenly shows vertical stripes, then
the Betta fish is a girl. (Female Betta fish - when they're older than 4
months - will have a bumpy white spot on their underbellies. It's the
"ovipositor" (egg spot) where she'll release her eggs from when she's
breeding.

Start by introducing the male into the tank. Put him into a cup and float it in the
new tank for about a half hour, to let him adjust to the new water temperature.
After half an hour, add some of the tank water to the cup, and wait for another 20
minutes to a half hour. Then release him into the tank. Let him look around and
check things out for while. After a couple of hours, put the female into a smaller
tank and set it next to the breeding tank so the two can get a look at each other.
If he starts flaring and she starts showing vertical stripes, it means they're
interested in each other! He should start building a bubble nest - but this could
take anywhere from a few days to a week or more, so you're going to have to be
patient.

If after an hour or so they're not showing any interest in each other, or worse, the
female is flaring at the male - which is her way of saying "Get Lost!" then it's time
to try the second female.
If they've shown that they're interested in each other, then it's time to introduce
the female into the tank.
Make sure the temperature of the water is around 82 F. Remove all but about 5
inches of water in the tank. (This simulates the dry season in your fish's natural
environment, which is their normal mating time.) You may have to adjust the filter
so that it's still working properly now that there is less water in the tank.
Start by floating the female in a cup, and letting her get used to the temperature of
the water. Follow the same steps that you did when you introduced the male into
the new tank - but when you're ready to put your female into the water, insert the
glass tube from a hurricane lamp, placing the biggest end down into the water,
with the narrower end extending up out of the water. Carefully put the female into
the tube, and let her and the male get a closer look at each other. If they're still
acting interested, after half an hour, release lift the glass tube out of the tank, and
let her begin to swim around.
You need to monitor their behavior for the next couple of hours - make sure that the
male isn't getting too aggressive, and that he's not attacking her to the point of
really hurting her
As strange as it seems, one of the signs that the male Betta is ready to spawn is
when he begins biting the female. She will probably react by swimming away and
hiding, but will venture out from time to time, and then hide again. At some point
however, she will come out from hiding, swimming with her head pointed down
submissively toward the male.

Page
At this point, he will become almost frenzied - probably swimming in circles around
her, building his bubble nest, and flaring like crazy!
They will begin swimming together, probably swimming around each other, and it
may look as if they're caressing each other, or it may look as if they're still fighting.
If it gets rough, don't separate them, but keep a close eye on them - some males
will actually kill their mates by being too rough.
When they find the right angle and their bodies fit together perfectly, the male will
wrap around her and squeeze tightly and lock in place for a few seconds - they may
even sink to the bottom of the tank during this "embrace."
When he lets her go, she'll be temporarily paralyzed, and he'll most likely swim to
the bottom of the tank to see if she's released any eggs. If not, they'll repeat the
process as many times as it takes until she does.
As soon as she releases her eggs, he will fertilize them. The eggs will sink to the
bottom of the tank, and he'll begin the process of swimming down, gathering them
up in his mouth, and carrying them up and attaching them gently to the bubble
nest. Since there could be as many as 500 fertilized eggs, this is a lot of work back and forth, up and down. But he'll do it quickly and almost mechanically. He
may be so involved in taking care of the eggs that he'll even refuse to eat for the
next couple of days. Don't worry - he'll start eating again when his job is done.
While he's doing this, the female will swim away and may hide again. At this point,
it's a good idea to remove her from the tank to make sure that she doesn't start
eating the eggs. (Also, if she swims too near the bubble nest, he may kill her.)
Just make sure that you don't disturb the bubble nest when you take her out.
After you've taken her out, cover the top of the tank either with plastic wrap or a
lid, so that there is no cool air moving over the bubble nest
You want a high level of humidity in the tank while the fry are growing too, as this
helps the development of their labyrinth. If you don't do this - most of your fry will
drown, so it's very important!
Make sure that you're changing the water in the tank every other day starting
about 24 hours after the fry are born - but be very careful that they don't get
caught up in the siphon! You'll want to test the water every day, and monitor the
water temperature carefully.
Over the next two days, you'll see the male Betta periodically take the eggs into his
mouth, to clean them. After a couple of days, the chemicals in his mouth change,
and will dissolve the outer layer of the egg shell so that the fry are released.

About thirty-six hours after spawning, you should begin to notice little black dots
that resemble commas on a typewritten page. They will begin to fall out of the
bubble nest and sink to the bottom of the tank.
The male Betta will make several trips to the bottom of the tank to patiently
retrieve them, and put them back inside the bubble nest.
Shortly after that, the fry will begin swimming in a horizontal position on their own.
When that starts happening, you can remove the male Betta from the tank. (If he
starts eating the fry, you can remove him earlier.)
When you remove him, the fry will begin falling again to the bottom of the tank don't worry, they will be fine until it's time to start feeding them.
Betta Fish Secrets By Mike Worthington

When vertical lines begin to appear on the female, and she has grown fatter
(indicating her eggs are mature), she is ready to breed. Some females may also
exhibit a bright white gravid tube protruding from behind the anal fin.
Introduce the female to the males tank. Raise the temperature of the tank to 82
degrees. Once the temperatures raised, lower the water level to about 4 or 5
inches. This simulates the dry season of Southeast Asia, which is what triggers
Bettas to start mating in the wild. At this point the male should start building a
bubble nest if he hasnt already.
Watch for signs of extreme aggression. Chasing and some mild aggression is normal
at first. Dont worry if a fin gets torn (since a Betta's fins tear super easily), but if the
male attacks aggressively, remove the female back to the other tank and try again
each day until the male either accepts her or it becomes obvious that he has no
plans to. In that case, switch to your backup pair.
When spawning occurs, the male coaxes the female to the bubble nest... at which
point they proceed to dance. The male wraps himself around the female and
extracts her eggs, releasing sperm at the same time. This will continue until all of
the eggs have been extracted. At that point, the male will chase the female away
from the nest. Remove the female when this occurs or the
male will kill her.
The male will then gather the eggs and place them into the bubble nest, where he
tends to them to prepare them for hatching.
Treat both tanks with a fungicide at this point to prevent fungus from forming on the
fish or their eggs.

The male will stay busy keeping the eggs in the nest and he may refuse food until
the fry hatch which normally occurs 24 to 36 hours after the spawning.
Caring for the fry
Wait 24 hours before feeding the fry. At that time you can give them baby brine
shrimp, daphnia, microworms, or commercially available liquid fry food. The fry will
need to be fed 4 to 5 times a day.
Make sure the tank is covered with a tight lid, or if that's not available use plastic
wrap from your kitchen. This allows the air above the water surface to have a high
level of humidity, which helps each fry's labyrinth to develop. Failure to take this
crucial step can cause most of the fry to drown.
Change the tank water every other day.
Remove the male from the tank once the fry are free-swimming.
When the fry have reached about one inch in length you can begin feeding them
ground-up adult Betta food. Reduce the number of feedings to 2-3 a day.
When the fry reach about 4 weeks old, the males will begin chasing each other.
Thats the time to separate the more aggressive males into their own individual
tanks or bowls.
The females can be kept together for 3-4 more weeks unless they start showing
signs of aggression sooner.
Better Betta Breeding Basics: A Quick Guide That Will End Your Confusion About
Breeding Your Little Ones
By Marcus Song 2006 John Alexander Enterprises, Inc.

Because most of the betta fish you see for sale in pet stores are males, you may not
even
recognize a female betta fish if you were to see one. Female betta fish are often
drab in coloration and
have much shorter fins than male bettas this is particularly true among
ornamental strains that have
been bred for presentation. When looking at a male betta fish, you should easily be
able to determine
what kind of offspring he would produce based on his appearance in regard to color
and fin type. The

same is often true for female bettas, but mainly in the area of coloration. Female
betta fish do come in
the same variety of colors as males of the species but the colors are more muted in
female specimens.
Another difference between male and female betta fish is that males are notorious
for being
extremely aggressive and territorial. Male betta fish are so aggressive that, if placed
in a tank with
another male betta fish, they will typically antagonize one another until one of the
two backs down. This
often results in injury and, for the loser of the battle, it could also lead to stress and
illness. Male betta
fish need to have their own space in order to create their territory and they will
not tolerate the
intrusion of other fish, particularly other male betta fish, into their territory. In some
cases, male betta
fish can be kept successfully in community tanks but only with non-conspecifics. It is
also best to avoid
keeping fin-nipping species of fish like tetras that might nip at the long fins of a
male betta fish in a
community tank environment.
Female betta fish are not quite as extreme as males of the species, but they do still
exhibit some
aggressive tendencies. If multiple female betta fish are kept in one tank, they may
quarrel over territory
until one fish rises into a position of dominance. In order to facilitate the smooth
development of such a
hierarchy it is wise to keep female betters in odd-numbered groups. For example, a
group of three or
five bettas would be more likely to naturally develop a hierarchy within the tank
while a group of two or
four female betta fish may constantly be involved in struggles for territory.
Regardless how many female

betta fish are kept in a tank together, each fish will likely establish its own mini
territory so it is best to
provide plenty of hiding places and tank decorations for your fish to use as natural
dividers.
If you are already keeping your male betta fish alone in the tank, it may be
unnecessary to
prepare a separate betta tank. You will, however, need an additional tank to house
the male betta when
you remove him from the tank once the fry have hatched. Because betta fish fry are
very small when
they are first born you will not need a large breeding tank a 10-gallon tank is
sufficient. As your fry
grow, however, you may want to have an extra tank on hand to use as a grow-out
tank to give your
betta fry more room to develop.
The most important aspect of setting up a breeding tank is to make sure the tank
has a tight
fitting lid. Not only will this prevent your betta fish from jumping out of the tank but
it will also keep the
air inside the tank humid moist air is imperative for the development of the
labyrinth organ in young
betta fry. You should also equip your betta tank with a source of gentle filtration
such as a sponge filter.
Sponge filters are ideal for fry tanks because they provide basic mechanical
filtration without creating
suction or water flow that is too strong for the delicate fry. An aquarium heater is
another important
piece of equipment for the fry tank because your betta fry may not thrive if the
temperature drops too
low. Try to maintain your betta fry tank within the same 75 to 82F range you use
for your adult bettas,
but lean toward the higher end of the spectrum.

In order to facilitate easy cleaning, keep the bottom of your betta tank bare. You
should also
keep decorations to a minimum, though having a few plants or terra cotta pots in
the tank will provide
your female betta with places to hide from the male should he become too
aggressive. Some aquarium
hobbyists like to install a tank divider in their breeding tanks so they can introduce
the male and female
betta to each other slowly. After separately conditioning the betta fish you can
install the divider and
place the female betta in one half of the tank and the male in the other. Once the
fish have gotten used
to each other and the male begins to build a bubble nest you can remove the
divider and integrate the
two fish.
When selecting a breeding pair of bettas there are two things you should consider:
the health of
the fish and their appearance. If you dont particularly care what your betta fry look
like you can simply
select the healthiest male and female specimens you have available. If, on the other
hand, you are
interested in cultivating a certain type of betta you should select a breeding pair
that exhibits the
characteristics you desire in your betta fry. Both the male and female betta fish
should be in good health
and they should exhibit a healthy appetite and activity level.
Once you have selected your male and female bettas you can begin conditioning
them for
breeding. It is best to condition your betta fish separately because if you keep them
together for too
long the male could antagonize the female. If your betta fish have been properly
conditioned, spawning

will occur fairly quickly after introducing the two fish so it is not necessary to keep
them together in the
tank for long. To condition your betta fish, offer them high-quality live and frozen
foods. Foods like
bloodworms, white worms and brine shrimp are excellent foods for conditioning
betta fish for breeding.
While conditioning your betta fish you should still continue to give them regular
betta pellets, but cut
back on the amount a bit to compensate for the addition of live and frozen foods.
As you condition your betta fish for breeding you should continue to perform your
routine
maintenance tasks. Keeping your betta tank water clean through regular water
changes is an important
part of conditioning your bettas for breeding if the water quality in your betta tank
is poor, your betta
fish are unlikely to spawn. After a week or two of conditioning you should notice the
female bettas
abdomen beginning to swell as it fills with eggs. At the same time, male bettas of
mouth brooding
species should begin to construct a bubble nest along the surface of the tank. After
both of these events
have occurred you can introduce your two betta fish to each other.
Betta fish can be divided into two categories based on their spawning behavior.
Some species,
like Betta splendens, are bubble nesters they build nests in which to keep their
eggs on the surface of
the water by blowing tiny bubbles. Other species of betta, such as Betta pugnax,
are mouth brooders.
Mouth brooding species of betta fish actually take the fertilized eggs into their
mouth to incubate and,
several weeks later, release the fully formed fry. In most cases regarding mouth
brooding species of

betta it is the male of the species that broods the eggs rather than the female. In
fact, male betta fish
take most of the responsibility in caring for the eggs and fry.
When a male betta fish of a bubble nesting species is ready to mate he will prepare
a bubble
nest at the surface of the tank. If you watch closely you may be able to observe
your betta blowing the
bubbles and arranging them in one particular area of the tank. Once the nest is
complete your betta fish
may proceed to guard it against other fish. After you have conditioned your male
and female betta fish
in separate tanks, you can add them to the breeding tank where, if you are breeding
a bubble nesting
species of betta, your male betta will have prepared the nest. Upon the introduction
of the female
betta, your male betta may begin to display his fins to attract the attention of the
female. In some cases,
the male may even begin to chase the female around the tank in attempts to mate
with her. If these
advances become too aggressive, or if your female is not ready to mate, you may
need to remove the
female betta from the tank before the male injures her.
If both of your betta fish are ready to mate they will engage in a sort of courtship
display. At the
culmination of this courtship, the male betta will wrap himself around the body of
the female and the
eggs and sperm will be released at the same time. For bubble nesting species, the
male will begin to
gather the eggs in his mouth immediately after their release, ferrying them one at a
time into the bubble
nest he has prepared. The male betta fish will then guard the nest fiercely and, if
any of the eggs should

happen to fall out, he will retrieve them and put them back in the nest. For mouth
brooding species of
betta fish, the male may catch the fertilized eggs in his anal fins after the female
releases them. The
female may then pick up the eggs in her mouth and spit them out into the water for
the male to catch.
Once the male betta has gathered all the eggs he will proceed to incubate them for
anywhere from one
to three weeks.
Following spawning, there is no reason to leave the female betta in the breeding
tank. In fact,
the male betta may see the female as a threat and he could become stressed or
aggressive. Young male
bettas of mouth brooding species may swallow the eggs prematurely if they become
stressed, so it is
best to remove the female from the tank. Furthermore, the female betta may need
time to rest and
recover from the aggressive advances of the male betta as well as the spawning
process. For mouth
brooding species of betta, the fully formed fry will typically be released between one
and three weeks
after spawning. The eggs of bubble nesting species will remain in the bubble nest
for 24 to 48 hours
before hatching. After hatching, the fry may remain in the nest for an additional
three to four days as
they absorb the remainder of their yolk sac. Once the fry become free swimming it
is possible to remove
the male betta from the tank and to raise the fry separately.
The Right Way to Care for Betta Fish Written By: Katherine Barrington talkfishy.com