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Maria de Lourdes Bacha

Jorgina Santos

Vivian Iara Strehlau

A comparative overview of leisure time and third age people in AB and CD


social classes in São Paulo: a study on habits, attitudes and psychographic
profile.

São Paulo
2010
Acknowledgements and Dedication:

I am thankful for the economic and financial support from MackPesquisa; I dedicate it to my
beloved children who encouraged me greatly, Ana Elisa e Júlio Flávio. (Maria de Lourdes
Bacha)

I am thankful for the opportunity of taking part in the project that originated this book as well
as all my always present friends. I also dedicate it to my daughter Renata Vianna. (Jorgina
Santos)

I am thankful forthe encouragement of friends and colleagues and dedicate it to my family .


(Vivian Iara Strehlau)

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About the authors

Maria de Lourdes Bacha


Ms. Bacha is graduated in Business Administration from Universidade de São Paulo and
holds master, doctoral and post-doctoral degrees in Communication and Semiotics from
Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo. She worked as a didactic coordinator in the
Social and Applied Science Center of Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie between 2006
and 2008. At present, she is a professor in the Department of Communication and Languages
of Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie. She has many years of professional experience in
marketing research as well as qualitative and quantitative projects. She also has many books
and articles published.

Jorgina Santos
Ms. Santos obtained a master´s degree in Communication and Semiotics from Pontifícia
Universidade Católica de São Paulo in 1999. At present, she is an assistant professor at
Universidade Paulista. She has experience in Sociology with emphasis in Sociology,
especially dealing with subjects such as third age, low income, leisure activities, attitude
towards medicine purchase and popular social classes.

Vivian Iara Strehlau


Ms. Strehlau obtained a doctor´s degree in Business Administration from Fundação Getúlio
Vargas - SP in 2003. Prior to this, she obtained a master degree (1996) and a bachelor degree
(1986) from the same institution. She took part in the Programme of International
Management of the London Business School. At present, she is a professor at Escola Superior
de Propaganda e Marketing/SP – ESPM and at INSPER. Her research interests are In
Consumer behavior and International Marketing. She has five books and several articles
published.

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SUMMARY
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 007

CHAPTER 1 HOW AGED PEOPLE IN AB AND CD SOCIAL CLASSES IN SÃO


PAULO DEFINE THEMSELVES AND HOW THEY LIVE ..... 009
1.1 HOW THEY DEFINE THEMSELVES (SELF-CONCEPT) ................................... 009
1.2 HOW THEY FEEL ....................................................................................................... 013
1.3 HOW THEY LIVE ........................................................................................................ 014

CHAPTER 2 WHAT THEY ARE DOING IN THEIR FREE TIME ................... 029
2.1. LEISURE AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES ................................................................. 029
2.2 VOLUNTARY WORK AS A LEISURE ALTERATIVE.......................................... 040
2.3 TOURISM AS A LEISURE ALTERNATIVE ........................................................... 044
2.4 TECHNOLOGY AS A LEISURE ALTERNATIVE ................................................. 049

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS................................................................................... 055

REFERENCES .................................................................................................................. 056

APPENDIX

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PREFACE

The aging of the earth’s population is the most important demographic shift in the history of
mankind. It is affecting governments, businesses, and families globally. The number of people
age 60 and over living on this planet is expected to quadruple in 40 years, and this older age
segment is projected to grow even faster in developing countries like Brazil. This
demographic shift is creating opportunities and challenges for governments and businesses,
respectively.

This book presents a comprehensive analysis of the older segment of the Brazilian population.
It presents useful information that has been published, including previous studies, as well as
the results of a survey designed to uncover the lifestyles and attitudes of those older adults in
AB and CD classes. The book contains a wealth of information on a wide variety of topics
ranging from financial to health and leisure. Scientific methods are employed to gain
additional insights into the lifestyles and consumption habits of older Brazilians in AB and
CD classes.

This book is a must read for anyone who wants to learn about older Brazilians as consumers
and as a demographic segment in general. It should be of interest to businesses interested in
tapping this growing market segment; and it should be of interest to government officials as
well to educators who wish to understand the AB and CD social classes. The wealth of
information, statistics and findings makes it one of the most interesting and useful book to
have as a reference guide.

George P. Moschis, Ph.D.


Alfrerd Bernhardt Research Professor of Marketing and
Director, Center for Mature Consumer Studies,
Georgia State University,
USA

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Presentation

This work “A comparative overview of leisure time and third age people in AB and
CD social classes in São Paulo: a study on habits, attitudes and psychographic profile” is the
result of researches conducted by the authors with individuals over 60 years old since 2005.
The details on methodology and statistics techniques used in this study are presented in the
appendix.
The book is organized in two chapters: “how aged people in AB and CD social classes
in São Paulo define themselves and how they live” and “what they are doing in their free
time”. It also presents brief theoretical references at the beginning of each chapter, which are
followed by analyses of the results.
This study differentiates from the others for presenting both descriptions and
comparisons of habits and attitudes as well as psychographic profiles of third age people in
AB and CD social-economic classes in São Paulo. When describing psychographic segments
for third age people, it is offered to academic or marketing professionals interested in the
subject ways of maximizing their strategies or improving their communication with this
public.

INTRODUCTION
Global aging has become a great challenge for most
nations, either developed or not. Brazil is aging. According to The percentage of the
Brazil´s Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), Brazil elderly is 9.3% of the
started 2008 with 190 million inhabitants and a population population (17.6 million
growth rate of about 1.2% a year. It is worth mentioning that Brazilian people) aged
over 60 whose total
the fecundity rate of the Brazilian population has been income is R$ 18 billion a
decreasing. If the current natality rate is kept, Brazilian month; 10% of them earn
population will stop growing within 20 years. According to the more than 20 times the
last measurement of Brazil´s National Sample Survey of minimum wage. People
Households (PNAD), carried out between 2007-2008, Brazilian over 66 years old have
more than R$ 22 million
fecundity rate dropped again in 2007, reaching an average of invested in Bovespa, the
1.95 children per woman. According to IBGE´s projection, if Brazilian stock market
this tendency is kept, by 2030 the rate will be 1.59 children per (PNAD, 2007,
woman in fertile age. BM&FBOVESPA,
The forecasts indicate that life expectancy of Brazilian 2009).
people – currently about 73 years old – may reach 78.3 in
2030, which may mean that the elderly population tends to
increase more and more, changing the Brazilian demographic data.
According to Brazil´s Institute of Geography and Statistics – IBGE (2008), there are
17.6 million Brazilian (9.3% of the population) over 60 years old. IBGE also shows that the
number of elderly people is increasing more rapidly than the number of young ones:
• The group in which people are between 60 and 64 years old represented 32.3% of the
population in 1996 and 30.5% in 2006.
• The group in which people are 75 years old or over represented 26.1% of the Brazilian
elderly people in 2006 and 23.5% ten years before that.
• The group in which people are 80 years old or over represented 11.5% of the population
over 60 in 1996 and 13.2% in 2006.
According to PNAD (Brazil´s National Sample Survey of Households, 2007), the
Brazilian elderly population corresponded to 19 million people or 10% of the population in
2006, from which 45% lived in four states: São Paulo (4.4 million), Minas Gerais and Rio de

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Janeiro, with 2.1 million each. In Rio de Janeiro, the proportion of the elderly exceeded 14%.
In 2006, the country became part of the group of the ten countries with more elderly people,
along with China, India, the United States, Japan, Russia, Germany, Italy, France, and Spain
(O ESTADO DE S.PAULO, 2006).
Both medical advances and improvement in life conditions contributed to the increase
of Brazilian people´s life expectancy in 17 years between 1940 and 1980 (from 45.5 to 62.6
years old respectively). In 2000, this indicator reached 70.4 years old and it may reach 81.3
years old in 2050, basically the current level of Japan (81.6 years old), the first in rank.
Among the 192 countries or areas studied by ONU, Brazil retains the 89th place. The global
average of life expectancy at birth was 65 years old in 2000 and it may reach 74.3 years old
between 2045 and 2050. (IBGE, 2005).
Another relevant and important piece of information refers to data from PNAD, 2007:
the total income of the current Brazilian elderly population is R$ 18 billion a month; 10% of
them earn more than 20 times the minimum wage. People over 66 years old have more than
R$ 22 million invested in Bovespa, the Brazilian stock market (PNAD, 2007,
BM&FBOVESPA, 2009; NUNOMURA, 2009).
This book defines the elderly or third age according to the Brazilian Statute of the
Elderly (Law nº 10741, of 2003, that is, those who are 60 years old or over). In spite of some
criticism, it was chosen the social-economic categorization of the interviewees in AB and CD
social classes, according to Brazilian Economic Classification Scheme, for its operacional
facility and for being part of the vocabulary of the media and agencies.

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CHAPTER 1: HOW AGED PEOPLE IN AB AND CD SOCIAL CLASSES IN
SÃO PAULO DEFINE THEMSELVES AND HOW THEY LIVE

This chapter aims at analyzing how third age people from


São Paulo define themselves and how they live In short, the results of
this study show that it is
1.1. HOW THEY DEFINE THEMSELVES (SELF-CONCEPT) possible to say that there
are differences on how
Although there are variations in the definitions of self- third age people
concept, most authors agree that: belonging to AB and CD
• self-concept consists of a set of interconnected attitudes and social classes perceive
themselves, which
beliefs that na individual has about himself or herself, reveals the presence of
• these beliefs are the result of social interaction, self-concept dimensions
• they are hierarchical and systematically organized in a way that in the analyses that were
carried out, such as self-
• the most central components of the structure are more resistant to
esteem, self-percetion,
changes, but self-consciousness,
• due to the nature of the system, changes in one aspect may lead to actual self, ideal self,
changes in other aspects. situational self, social
• self-concept maintenance and improvement constitute a self and possible self.
motivational force to social behavior (SANTANA, 2003;
PELISSARI, 2006).
Self-concept is formed when individuals internalize it, taking into account the way
people perceive and assess them. So the individual´s self-perception is built around the
representations of others which work as a mirror reflecting an image and enabling one to
discover, structure and recognize oneself. This relationship takes place during social
interaction through communication, that is, looks, feelings, perceptions and expectations
(TAMAYO, 2002).
Self-concept can reveal whether a person is satisfied or not with himself or herself and
this feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction will influence the individual´s social interactions
(school, family, work).
Self-concept can be categorized according to Mowen and Minor (2000) as follows:
• Actual self. How a person really perceives himself or herself.
• Ideal self. How a person would like to perceive himself or herself
• Social self. How a person thinks others perceive him or her.
• Ideal social self. How a person would like others to perceive him or her.
• Expected self. A self-image situated somewhere in between the actual and the ideal selves.
• Situational self. A person´s self-concept in a specific situation.
• Extended self. A person´s self-concept that includes the influence of personal possessions
on self-image.
• Possible selves. What a person would like to become, could become or is afraid of
becoming.
• Affilitated self. How a person defines himself or herself in assocition with other groups or
people.

The analysis carried out to understand the meaning of the third age to the elderly was
elaborated using a Likert scale adapted from Stuart-Hamilton (2002) and Burns, Lawlor;
Craig (2004) and performed according to Netemeyer, Bearden and Sharma (2003), DeVellis
(2003).

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The following table (Table 1) presents a comparative
study between social classes regarding their agreement to the As it can be observed in
assertions belonging to the scale that measures people´s the assertions, the topics
with which individuals
attitude towards old age. As it can be observed, the assertions belonging to AB social
with which individuals in AB social class agree the most class agree the most (over
(over 90%) are: Active old age (94%); Time of wisdom 90%) are: Active old age
(94%); Maturity phase (93%); Gray-haired population (93%); (94%); Time of Wisdom
Body changes (93%); Senior Citizen (92%); Leisure age (94%); Maturity Phase
(93%); Gray-haired
(90%). On the other hand, none of the assertions reach such population (93%); Body
level of agreement among individuals in CD social class. The Changes (93%); Senior
closest ones are Senior citizen (89%), active old age (87%) Citizen (92%); Leisure
and time to rest (85%). Age (90%). On the other
The assertion “Body Changes” is more important to hand, none of the
assertions reach
individuals in AB social class than to the ones in CD social percentages equal to or
class (93% and 66% respectively) as well as “leisure age” over 90% among
(90% and 60% respectively). individuals belonging to
CD social class. The
highest ones are: Senior
Citizen (89%), active old
Tabela 1: A comparative study of self-concept in AB and age (87%) and time to rest
CD social classes (85%). The assertion
“Body Changes” is more
Level of Level of important to individuals
Assertions Agreement Agreement from AB class than to the
AB (%) CD (%) ones belonging to CD class
Active old age 94 67 (93% and 66%
Time of wisdom 94 75 respectively) as well as
“leisure age” (90% and
Maturity phase 93 71
60% respectively).
Gray-haired population 93 75
Body changes 93 66
Senior Citizen 92 89
Leisure age 90 70
New youth 88 66
Age of feelings 87 64
The best age 78 72
Time of retirement 73 74
Integration 71 70
Time of resignation 70 57
Time to rest 62 84
Incapacity 18 16
Isolation 11 22
Uselessness 7 13
Abandonment 7 12
Source: The author

Besides the descriptive analysis, a Factor Analysis was also performed (see appendix)
which results are presented as follows.

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Chart 1: A comparison of component 1 obtained from factor analysis

AB CD Time of active life:


Time of experience Time of active life related to dimensions
regarding attitudes,
Gray-haired population Maturity phase feelings and knowledge
about their own abilities,
Time of wisdom The best age apperance and social
Body changes Body changes acceptability, all of them
with a positive value. It
Senior Citizen Integration involves the recognition
Maturity Phase Leisure age of body changes but also
the possibility of living
Leisure Age Age of feelings actively and leisure time.
It also presents an
Time of wisdom indication of a process of
New youth interiorization.

Active old age


Source: Table. Factor Analysis attached.
Time of experience: actual self-
concept (how people perceive
themselves) and ideal self-
concept (how a person would like
to be perceived) at the same time.

In both samples, the first component to emerge referred to a combination of


“Situational selves” and “Social self”.
There is a common idea that it is a maturity phase during which body changes happen.
The main idea in AB social classes is the experience whereas in popular classes is active life,
which conveys an intense participation in the family and in society, indicated by the idea of
integration, active old age, new youth and leisure age.

Chart 2: A comparison of component 2 obtained from factor analysis

AB CD
Time to renew experiences: The
Time to renew experiences Improductive phase assertion “Time to renew modes of
Time of resignation Uselessness life” can be related to “situational
self” (a person´s self-concept in a
Integration Abandonment specific situation) along with
“social self” (how a person thinks
New youth Incapacity others perceive him or her.
Age of feelings Isolation
Active old age
Improductive phase – possibly
The best age connected to a greater self-
Source: The authors consciousness of one´s own
limitations and outcome in life.

The second component to emerge in AB class was “Time to renew experiences” which
refers to the idea of a well-lived and social old age, partly similar to the CD class first
component. On the other hand, the second component to emerge in CD class in high numbers
was “Improductive phase”.

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Chart 3: A comparison of component 3 obtained from factor analysis

AB CD
Improductive phase Resting phase Self-concept resting phase in its social
dimension, referring to the Self that
Incapacity Time to rest one shows to others.
Uselessness Time of retirement
Isolation Senior Citizen Improductive phase, self-
consciousness, refers to moments in
Abandonment which people seem to be aware of
Source: The authors themselves, their incapacity and
uselessness and fell abandoned or
isolated.

In AB classes, the third component involves the same assertions, but with slightly
lower numbers. The third component in CD classes is “Resting phase” and “idleness”,
indicating the ideas of retirement and seniority, which are connected to the “Social self” e to
what old age means to others.

Chart 4: A comparison of component 4 obtained from factor analysis

Accomodation phase: “their self” to


others, once they have fulfilled their
AB CD duty and are entitled to a deserved
rest or “possible self” (what a person
Resting phase and idleness Accomodation phase would like to become).
Time to rest Gray-haired population
Time of retirement Time of resignation Time to rest and idleness: refer to
Source: The authors self-concept, in which the perception
of one´s own body is an important
attribute.

Finally, the fourth component to emerge in both samples refers to the idea of resting in
AB social classes and accomodation in CD social classes, which can be also connected to the
idea of accepting the limitations of old age, which does not seem to represent a positive
attitude towards old age.
It is noticed that third age people belonging to different In short, it is possible to say
social classes have different self-concept, such as active life and that there are differences on
integration to people in CD social classes and importance of life how third age people in AB
experiences to those in AB social classes. Individuals belonging and CD social classes
to popular social classes also show accomodation, resignation perceive themselves, which
reveals the presence of self-
towards the passing of time. The idea of uselessness and concept dimensions in the
incapacity is present in both samples as well as the idea of “Time analyses that were carried
to rest”. On the other hand, the terms with which individuals out, such as self-esteem and
agreed the most were senior citizen (89%), body changes (88%), self-percetion.
time to rest (85%).

1.2. HOW THEY FEEL

The way interviewees feel was assessed according to the assertions listed in the table
below and they refer to:

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• Occupation or professional fullfilment (I do not worry about finances; I feel
professionally fulfilled; I try to enjoy each and every moment of my life; I feel extremely
contented with the life I have; In my life, nothing is more important than my work);
• Vitality (I am full of vitality; I feel younger than many young people I know; I am very
happy with my present life; I think it is worth taking risks in order to have new
experiences);
• Family (I can easily give up a pleasure for the sake of my family´s well being; In my life,
nothing is more important than my family);
• Independence/Power (I do only the things I like; I feel completely independent; I feel
professionally fulfilled; I don´t like having people control my decisions; Nobody controls
my life; It is essential to feel that I have control over people and situations; I am entitled to
do the things I want without explaining myself to others)

Data analysis shows controversial aspects. As to fulfillment and professional


achievement, the highest percentage is among individuals in AB social classes; on the other
hand, when it comes to family, individuals in CD social classes are more dependent. As a
consequence of both factors mencioned above, it can be said that the level of independence
and power is higher in CD social classes, possibly due to financial and professional
independence of interviewees in AB social classes. It is also worth mentioning that the elderly
in CD social classes show more vitality and youth. However, neither of the groups would take
risks in order to have new experiences.

Table 2: Comparative study “how they feel”

Level of Level of
Assertions
Agreement Agreement
Occupation/fulfillment AB (%) CD (%)
I don´t worry about finances 69 47
I feel professionally fulfilled 50 19
I try to enjoy each and every moment of my life 48 10
I feel extremely contented with the life I have 31 10
In my life, nothing is more important than my work 25 36
Vitality AB (%) CD (%)
I am full of vitality 67 83
I feel younger than many young people I know 62 73
I am very happy with my present life 59 74
I think it is worth taking risks in order to have new experiences 34 25
Family AB (%) CD (%)
I can easily give up a pleasure for the sake of my family´s well being 57 70

In my life, nothing is more important than my family 41 69


I do only the things I like 56 15
I feel completely independent 52 18
I feel professionally fulfilled 50 19

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Independence/power AB (%) CD (%)
I don´t like having people control my decisions 48 15
Nobody controls my life 46 18
It is essential to feel that I have control over people and situations 44 15
I am entitled to do the things I want without explaining myself to others 34 32
Source: The authors

1.3 HOW THEY LIVE

Housing status: Kind of housing


Interviews revealed that 98% of people in AB social classes own the house they live
in, which is already paid off. This piece of information is important because it constitutes an
indicator of quality of life, even though this subject is not part of this study.
As to CD social classes, the percentage of people that own the houses they live in is
88%, from which 93% is already paid off, as shown in the following table. It is worth
mentioning that owning a house has been the dream of many Brazilian people, mainly
because of the facility in obtaining a mortgage.

Table 3: Housing status: kind of housing


The residence you live in is AB (%) CD (%)
Your own 98 88
Rented 1 8
Other: Lent 1 4
Have you already paid your residence off? AB (%) CD (%)
Yes 98 93
No 2 7
Source: The authors

Housing status: Who they live with


The following table shows analysis of the housing status from the point of view of
who they live with. Data show that AB and CD social classes are equivalent, that is, the
percentage of people who live with their spouses is 50% and 52% respectively. About one
third of the people live with their children, 35% and 36% respectively. This percentage may
be related to the information made available by IBGE regarding the Brazilian elderly as the
head of the family as well as the provider. Only 10% of the interviewees in both classes
claimed to live by temselves.

Table 4: Housing status: Who they live with


At present you live with: AB (%) CD (%)
Your spouse 50 52
Your children 35 35
By yourself 10 10
With your parents, siblings, other relatives 5 3
Source: The authors

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Family structure
Taking their marital status into consideration, the biggest difference among answers
given by interviewees in both AB and CD social classes refers to being married or not. 73%
of the elderly in AB social classes and 58% of the ones in CD social classes claim to be
married compared to 27% of people in AB social classes and 42% of those in CD social
classes who claim not to be married.

Table 5: Family structute: marital status and number of children

Marital status AB (%) CD (%)


Married 73 58
Widow(er)/Separated/Divorced/Single 27 42
How many children do you have? AB (%) CD (%)
None 5 7
Up to 2 46 25
From 3-5 44 47
Over 5 6 21
Source: The authors

It is interesting to notice that regarding family contact, interviewees in CD social


classes tend to be more dependent on their family and children, 69% of them think that
nothing is more important in their lives than family compared to 41% of people in AB social
classes; 58% feel depressed when they are far from their family against 36% in AB social
classes; 66% of people in CD social classes consider relatives their best friends compared to
30% of people in AB social classes; over twice the percentage of the interviewees in CD
social classes claim to feel depressed when they do not get in touch with their children and
grandchildren (46% x 20%).

Table 6: Attitude towards family contact

Assertions AB (%) CD (%)


Nothing is more important in my life than family 41 69
I feel depressed whenever I am far from my family 36 58
My relatives are my best friends 30 66
I feel depressed if either my children or grandchildren don´t call me every other 20 46
day.
Source: The authors

Religion and religious practices


When it comes to praying or going to churches or cults at least once a month, elderly
people in AB social classes seemed to be more religious (95% and 70% in AB social classes
compared to 72% and 40% in CD social classes respectively). However, only 79% of people
in AB social classes and 66% of those in CD social classes claim to have an active religious
life. Most people are catholics: 88% in AB classes and 73% in CD classes. Few people claim
to be atheists (2% and 5% respectively).

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Table 7: Religion and religious practices
At least once a week At least once a week
Frequency
AB (%) CD (%)
Pray 95 72
Go to churches or cults 70 44
What is your religion? Classes AB (%) Classes CD (%)
Catholic 88 73
Protestant 5 12
Other 5 10
No religion 2 5
Do you have an active religious life? Classes AB (%) Classes CD (%)
Yes 79 66
No 21 34
Source: The authors

Place of birth
Taking into account the place of birth, there are relevant differences between both AB
and CD classes. The percentage of people from São Paulo among interviewees in AB social
classes (61%) is higher than the one among interviewees in CD social classes (43%). On the
other hand, the percentage of migrant people who came from the North/Northeast and
Middle-West of Brazil is 39% in CD classes compared to 21% in AB classes.

Table 8: Place of birth


Place of birth AB (%) CD (%)
Paulistas (from São Paulo) 61 43
From São Paulo (Capital) 37 14
From São Paulo (State) 24 29
South/Southeast 18 17
Other Southeast states 14 13
Other South states 4 4
North/Northeast/Middle-West 21 39
Other North states 6 14
Other Northeast states 13 24
Other Middle-West states 2 1
Source: The authors

Clusters related to self-concept


As a complementary study, a cluster analysis was performed in which 6 clusters have
been identified:

1 Traditional (31% of sample AB)


2 Independent (42% of sample AB)
3 The elderly elite (27% of sample AB)
4 Resigned (47% of sample CD)
5 Depressed (22% of sample CD)
6 Active elderly people (31% of sample CD)

Clusters are described in the following table.

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Table 9. Description of clusters related to self-concept
Cluster Gender Age Income Marital Education Attitude
Status
1 Traditional The highest The youngest The lowest Married The lowest Present the highest average for assertions “The best age”, “New youth”, “Time of
(31% of sample percentage of group; the average education wisdom”.
AB) men highest family level in AB And the highest percentage for “I can easily give up a pleasure for the sake of my
percentage income family´s well being” and “In my life nothing is more important than my work”
between in AB
60-65 years old
2 Independent Both men ans Most people The The highest Education Present the lowest average for “Improductive phase”, “Time to renew experiences” and
(42% of sample women between 66-75 second percentage of level: high “Resting phase and idleness”
AB) years old highest single people school And the highest percentages for “I don´t like having people control my decisions”,
average is in this “Nobody controls my life”, “I try to enjoy each and every moment of my life”, “I only do
family group the things I like”
income in
AB
3 The elderly The highest Most people over The The highest The highest Present the highest average for the assertions “Time of experience” and “Time to renew
elite percentage of 76 years old highest percentage of education experiences” and the highest percentages for “I don´t worry about finances”
(27% of sample women average widow(er)s or level in AB
AB) income separated
people in AB
4 Resigned Both men and Group age The lowest The highest The lowest Present the lowest average for the assertions “Time to live an active life” and
(47% of sample women between 60-70 income in percentage of education “Improductive phase” and the highest average for “Time of resignation”
CD) years old CD (about widow(er)s level in CD
1-2 and separated
minimum people in CD
wages)
5 Depressed The highest Group age Income: Most married The highest Present the highest average for the assertions “Improductive phase” and “Resting phase”
(22% of sample percentage of between 60-65 up to 3 education and they are very dependent on their family.
CD) men years old; this is minumum level in CD
the youngest wages (high school)
group.
6 Active elderly The highest Most people are The Both married Education Present the highest average for “Time to live an active life” and the lowest average for
people percentage of over 70 highest and level between “Resting phase” and “Time of resignation” e the highest percentage for “I try to enjoy
(31% of sample women income in widow(er)s middle and each and every moment of my life”.
CD) CD (4-5 high school
minimum
wages)
Source: The authors
Health Care

In a study on consumption factors, Almeida and Kassouf


(2003) have discovered that the highest the income the highest
The elderly in AB social
the consumption level. Besides, as individuals grow old the classes tend to assess
probability of spending more money on health products and their health status better
services increases considerably. They have also found out that than those in CD social
family providers with the highest education levels are less likely classes. Interviewees in
to consume tobacco and its derivatives than those with the CD social classes seem
to be more concern about
lowest education levels. their health and believe
According to Moreira (2000), the elderly think that more in alternative
quality of life and material possessions are closely related, that medicine whereas the
is, having money means being healthy. highest percentage of
This study adopts the definition of health provided by the self-medication is found
among interviewees in
World Health Organization (WHO) as follows: not only the AB social classes.
absence of illnesses and ailments but also the dynamic state of
total physical, mental, spiritual ans social well-being
(Resolution EB101.R2, 1998).
It is also worth mentioning that, according to 2003 PNAD Health Supplement, 78% of
people who are 65 years old or over suffer from chronic illnesses and only 29% of them have
health care insurance (PNAD SAÚDE, 2003).

Table 11: Health care services


Using health care services AB (%) CD (%)
People who prefer going to the doctor only when they get sick 57 47
People who go to the doctor for their routine annual appointment 40 20
People who go to the doctor for their routine half-yearly appointment 2 27
People who go to the doctor for their routine appointment more than twice a 1 5
year
Using health care services AB (%) CD (%)
People who go to health centers and public hospitals 13 88
People who use private health services and have medical insurance 80 10
People who use private health services and are private clients of doctors and 7 2
hospitals
Kind of health care insurance AB (%) CD (%)
Private health insurance 85 10
Medical insurance 35 1
Dental insurance 8 2
Public health insurance (SUS) 7 83
Civil servant health insurance system 5 4
Source: The authors

By analyzing the table above, significant differences between AB and CD social classes
regarding health care services can be identified.
In AB social classes, the percentage of people who prefer going to the doctor only when
they get sick is 57%, higher than the percentage of people in CD social classes (47%). The
difference is surprisingly higher when it comes to routine medical appointments: 40% of the
elderly in AB social classes go to the doctor annually, twice the percentage of people in CD
social classes. On the other hand, interviewees in CD social classes go to the doctor more often,
once a semestre or every two months.
Taking the use of health care services into account, 80% of people in AB social classes
use private health care services (medical insurance), 88% of people in CD social classes go to
public health centers and 83% of them have public health insurace (SUS) only. These results
were also analyzed taking into consideration the precariousness of Brazil´s health care system.

Self-assessment of health status


When it comes to self-assessment of health status, interviewees in AB social classes tend
to consider themselves healthier than the ones in CD social classes. According to the table
below, half of people in AB social classes (57%) think they have excellent or good health
compared to 36% of those in CD social classes.
It is worth emphasizing that six out of ten interviewees in CD social classes think their
health is regular, a number which is higher than the one among individuals in AB social classes.
In general, the percentage of elderly people who think they have bad or awful health is low, 3%
in AB classes and 5% in CD classes.

Table 12: Self-assessment of health status


Self-assessment of health status AB (%) CD (%)
Excellent 19 9
Good 38 27
Regular 40 60
Bad 3 3
Awful - 2
Source: The authors

Attitude towards health


Assessment of attitude towards health was carried out using the Likert scale and the
results are presented and commented as follows: In general, from the point of view of attitude
towards health, it can be said that the elderly in CD social classes are much more concerned
about their health status than those in AB social classes, which can be related to the
precariousness of the health care services offered to these people (most people use the public
health insurance – SUS; people go to the doctor more often and think they have regular health, as
previously stated).
The topics assessed comprise attitude towards self-medication, concern about health,
alternative medicine and media and health. The percentage of third age people in AB social
classes who medicate themselves is higher than the ones in CD social classes. On the other hand,
people in CD classes are more concern about and aware of their health status and search for
medical help more often.
It is also worth mentioning that some alternative methods, such as homeopathy and teas,
as well as articles released in the media are more appreciated by people in lower social classes.

18
Table 13: Attitude toward health status

Self-medication AB (%) CD (%)


I am used to buying medicine without prescription 65 43
I am used to asking the pharmacist for advice on my health problems 49 32
I only take medicine when it is really necessary 35 69

Concern about health status AB (%) CD (%)


The most important thing in life is that my family and I have good health 42 76
I am extremely aware of my health status 38 80
I am always aware of changes in my health status 31 91
I pay closely attention to my physical health during the day 28 77
I am very concerned about my health status 28 92
I am closely involved with my health problems 23 85
I get medical tests constantly 14 73
Alternative medicine AB (%) CD (%)
The results obtained from homeopathy are as successful as the ones obtained from 29 49
traditional medicine
Teas and herbs can sometimes be more effective than traditional medicine 37 73

Media and health AB (%) CD (%)


I am very interested in watching TV programs or reading newspaper and magazine 28 52
articles on health
I frequently read newspaper and magazine articles on body care 24 51
Source: The author

Clusters related to health status


As a complementary study on health, 4 clusters have been identified:

1. Careless with health (49% of sample AB);


2. Healthy (51% of sample AB);
3. Obsessed with health (36% of sample CD) and
4. Not concerned about health (64% of sample CD), which detailed description is presented in
the following table.

19
Table 15: Summary of Clusters related to health status
Maristal Education
Clusters Gender Age Income Attitude toward health status
status level
1. Careless with Most The highest The lowest The highest Low education Think they have regular health
health (49% of women percantage income in percentage of level (middle Agree with
sample AB) between 66- AB (less married and and high I frequently read newspaper and magazine articles on body care;
75 years old than 5 separated school) I am used to asking the pharmacist for advice on my health problems
minimun people in AB I am used to buying medicine without prescription
wages) Disagree with
Teas and herbs can sometimes be more effective than traditional medicine
I only take medicine when it is really necessary
The results obtained from homeopathy are as successful as the ones obtained
from traditional medicine;
2. Healthy Most men Most people The The highest The highest Think they have good health
(51% of sample between 60-65 highest percentage of education level Agree with
AB) years old and income in widow(er)s (the highest I am concerned about my health
over 76 AB and single percentage I get medical test constantly
people in AB with higher
education)
The results obtained from homeopathy are as successful as the ones obtained
from traditional medicine;
Teas and herbs can sometimes be more effective than traditional medicine
The most important thing in life is that my family and I have good health
Disagree with
I am used to asking the pharmacist for advice on my health problems
3. Obsessed with Most Older people Average The highest Education The highest percentage of people who think they have bad health
health women (over 66) montly percentage of level: middle Agree with
(36% of sample income up married and high I get medical test constantly
CD) to 3 people and school I am used to asking the pharmacist for advice on my health problems
minimum widow(er)s The most important thing in life is that my family and I have good health
wages in CD I am concerned about my health
Disagree with
I am used to buying medicine without prescription
4. Not concerned Most men Younger The The highest Education The highest percentage of people who think they have regular health
about health people highest percentage of level: middle Agree with
(64% of sample (between 60- montly separated and high I am very interested in watching TV programs or reading newspaper and magazine
CD) 65) income in people in CD school articles on health;
CD (over Teas and herbs can sometimes be more effective than traditional medicine
3 mininum Disagree with
wages) I am concerned about my health;
The results obtained from homeopathy are as successful as the ones obtained
from traditional medicine;
Source: The authors
Eating, drinking and smoking habits
The number of discussions on eating habits has risen significantly in the media,
especially because the lastest studies on the population of Brazil indicate an increase of
obesity among individuals over 60 years old. At present, the percentage of overweight people
(40%) is ten times higher than the percentage of people suffering from malnutrition (4%)
(AGÊNCIA BRASIL, 2006).
However, according to Relvas (2006), third age people´s diet is still an unexplored
area of research. Although many companies are willing to explore this new market segment,
little is known about this phenomenom in terms of people´s behavior, desires and needs.
Along with the aging process, body changes may occur, such as the gradual weight
gain during middle-age followed by either weight stabilization or loss late in life. Third age
people´s diet requires attention because their regular body functions change due to their eating
habits (RELVAS, 2006).
Campos, Monteiro and Ornelas (2000) claim that, at the beginning of the 90s, the
percentage of low weight people reached 21% among men and 17% among women from
which the elderly with low income constitute the highest number due to the fact the highest
the per capita income the lowest the percentage of low weight people. However, later studies
conducted in the metropolitan areas of Brazil showed that the elderly population, either men
or women, had gained weight. These results would be a consequence of how aged people live
(with their family, alone or in elderly homes) as well as their socioeconomic conditions,
physiological changes at late age and incapacity to perform routine activities by themselves.
In this scenario, the effects of an inappropriate diet, either due to excess or lack of nutrients,
are relevant and compromise the aged people´s health status.
Vilaça (2006) says that malnutrition is one of the most common disorders to affect the
elderly and it is associated with the increase of mortality rates, susceptibility to infections and
decrease of quality of life. According to Ruga (2003), isolation, depression and many losses
cause lack of motivation to cook and lack of interest in nutrition, which may explain the low
consumption rate of essential foods for aged people (RUGA, 2003).
Perez, Bacha, Vianna and Souza (2006) have analyzed the eating habits of third age
people in AB social classes in São Paulo and concluded, through correspondence analysis,
that both variants weight self-classification and health self-assessement are associated.
Respondents who classified themselves as overweight consume under 900 calories and think
they have regular or good health. Taking into account that Brazil´s population is aging
rapidly, it is necessary to invest in education on diet-related knowledge as well as raise
people´s awareness on the importance of having a healthy diet.

Smoking habit and alcoholic beverages


The percentage of people in AB social class who consume alcoholic beverages and
smoke is 47% and 81% respectively, as shown in the table below, even though 36% of the
interviewees have claimed to rarely consume products from tobacco shops
(cigaretes/cigar/pipe).
Table 17: Tobacco and Beverage Consumption
Up to at least once Up to at least once
Beverage and tobacco as leisure a month a month CD (%)
AB (%)
Appreciate / drink wine / alcoholic beverages 12 7
Consume products from tobacco shops 8 12
(cigarette/cigar/pipe)
Consumption AB (%) CD (%)
Alcoholic Beverage 47 10
Tobacco 81 10
Source: The authors

Number of daily meals


To start with, a data comparison of the number of daily Regarding a balanced
meals was made. Data shown in the table below demonstrate that diet, differences among
aged people in AB and
there are no significant differences in the percentage of aged CD classes are observed,
people in AB and CD social classes (42%) who have 3 meals a especially when it comes
day. The biggest difference refers to those who have 4 meals a to consumption of
day: more than half of the people in AB social classes have 4 nutrients, products to
meals a day (53%), a percentage that drops to 35% in CD classes. improve apperance and
laxative foods. When it
Notice that the percentage obtained in AB classes (53%) comes to vitamins and
surpasses greatly the one calculated for both samples (44%). supplements, no
When it comes to having more than 4 meals a day, there is a differences were
significant difference: 14% in CD classes and 2% in AB classes. observed.

Table 18: Number of Daily Meals


Number of Daily Meals AB (%) CD (%)
1 meal 0 1
2 meals 3 8
3 meals 42 42
4 meals 53 35
More than 4 meals 2 14
Source: The authors

Weight Self-classification

Weight self-classification is associated with body perception which, according to


Brandão (2007), also refers to body awareness, that is, the way people perceive different parts
of their bodies. People differ from each other in the way that they are aware of their bodies
and of all the possible ways of perceiving their bodies, the most prominent being their body
image. Body image would help people realize how they perceive themselves and also how
others perceive them. Besides, people´s life story, the social context in which they were born
and raised, their biological development as well as their life circumstances cannot be taken for
granted once they affect people´s body image. Furthermore, the aging process also influences

22
the way people perceive their bodies and aged people´s body interacts with both themselves
and the environment differently.
The following table shows that more than half of the respondents think they are on
their normal weight. The highest percentage of people who think their weight is well above
average is among interviewees in AB social classes compared to 3% of those in CD social
classes; the percentage obtained in AB social classes surpasses greatly the one calculated for
both samples (7%). However, the percentage of respondents in CD social classes who think
their weight is below or well below average is 8% compared to 2% of those in AB classes.

Table 19: Weight self-classification


Weight self-classification AB (%) CD (%)
Well above average 12 3
Above average 27 27
Normal 59 62
Below average 2 6
Well below average 0 2
Source: The authors

Balanced diet
When it comes to having a balanced diet, there are differences among aged people in
AB and CD social classes, especially regarding the consumption of basic nutrients (99% in
AB compared to 79% in CD), products to improve appearance (100% in AB social classes
compared to 88% in CD classes) and laxative foods (88% in AB and 65% in CD). As to
vitamins or supplements, no differences were identified.
Respondents in both samples show concern about their appearance, which may be an
indicator of these aged people´s high level of self-concept, once according to Sally (1995),
self-concept influences people´s choice of better diets and energetic foods. In the case of
elderly population, some studies on food consumption trends show the consequences on the
nutritional status because despite the consistent improvement in the nutritional status of the
population, new behavior and consumption patterns do not guarantee suitable foods for the
population, especially to the elderly. In other words, the nutritional quantity, quality and
security expected to be found in foods are not enough if the envinronment neither benefits the
absorption of nutrients nor takes into consideration the influence of many health factors as
well as the individual´s quality of life (PENTEADO, 2003).

Table 20: Balanced diet

Balanced diet AB % CD %
Consumption of basic nutrients, such as calcium, iron, etc. 99 79
Consumption of vitamins and supplements 76 79
Consumption of products to improve appearance 100 88
Consumption of laxative foods 88 65
Source: The authors

23
Daily calories ingestion
When it comes to calories ingestion, the most surprising datum is that the subject is
unknown to more than half of interviewees in CD social classes (55%).
The percentage of ingested calories seems to be higher in CD social classes because
22% of the interviewees claim to eat more than 1500 calories daily compared to 10% in AB
social classes. Besides, 47% of the interviewees in AB social classes eat less than 900 calories
a day compared to 15% in CD, which corroborates with Ruga´s conclusions (2003). Even
though these numbers may indicate that the psychographic features of individuals in AB
social classes show they are more concerned about nutrition, according to Morgan and Levy
(2002), it is still a result to be worried about because the numbers are lower than the ones
recommended by the World Health Organization for elderly people (1500 calories).
A recent research conducted in the United States shows that in spite of being aware of
the risks of a high calorie diet, most Americans do not follow the instructions of “The nation's
new dietary guidelines - revised in 2005”. As to a healthy diet, this report demonstrates that
consumers believe in some diet principles even though they eat what they were not supposed
to.

Table 21: Daily calories ingestion


Daile calories ingestion AB% CD%
Under 900 calories 47 15
Between 901 e 1500 calories 10 8
Over 1501 calories 10 22
People don´t know 23 55
Source: The authors

A percentage of 47% of the interviewees in AB social classes claim to eat under 900
calories a day compared to 15% of those in CD.
However, even if the numbers may constitute non-probabilistic samples, it is worth
noticing that more than half of interviewees in CD social classes do not know the amount of
calories ingested daily, leading to the conclusion that the development of healthy eating
programs for elderly people in these social classes constitutes a vast area to be explored.

Clusters related to diet


As a complementary study on diet, a conglomerate analysis was performed and 4
groups with different profiles have been identified. On one side, data descriptive analyses
confirm both national and international research; on the other side, this study makes a
contribution towards typology, which differentiates third age people´s eating habits.

1. Healthy eaters (42% of sample AB)


2. Gourmets (58% of sample AB)
3. Gourmands (62% of sample CD),
4. Vain (37% of sample CD)

24
Table 22: Cluster Features related to diet
Cluster Gender Age Education Level Attitude towards diet

1. Healthy eaters Percentage of Between 66-70 The highest Think their weight is below average
(42% of sample men slightly years old percentage of Have from 3 to 4 meals a day
AB) higher interviewees with Present the lowest amount of admitted
higher education calories ingestion
Present the highest level of basic
nutrients consumption
2. gourmets Percentage of All age groups Education level Think they are on their normal
(58% of sample women up to high school weight
AB) slightly higher The lowest level of basic nutrients
High percentage of calorie ingestion:
over 1500 calories
3 gourmands The highest The oldest Low education Think their weight is well above
(62% of sample percentage of group age (76 level average
CD) women years old or The highest percentage of those who
over) have 4 meals or more
The highest percentage of those to
whom the amount of daily calories
ingestion is unknown
The highest percentage of nutrients
for improving appearance
consumption.
4. vain (37% of Most men The youngest Level of Think they are on their normal
sample CD) group (60-65 education: middle weight
years old) school High percentage of those who have 4
meals a day
The highest percentage of
consumption regarding better
apperance
Second highest percentage of those
who claim not to know the amount of
daily calories ingestion
Source: The authors

Personal Finances
The topic finances aims at presenting people´s opinion and attitude towards their
personal finances. Kinds of financial relationships, attitude towards finances and tendency to
savings.
Taking into account kinds of bank accounts, insurance, retirement funds and bank
cards, there are significant differences among the interviewees in both social classes regarding
personal finances. The topic retirement funds deals with studies on the importance of
retirement to Brazil´s elderly population. Having a bank card is another interesting subject
because reveals an area to be explored despite aged people´s resistance to the use of cards.
It is also worth mentioning that the expansion of consigned credit cards use among
retirees and pensioners of INSS (Brazil´s retirement and pension fund plan) may be slowed
due to conservationism, lack of familiarity with the cards as well as INSS’ own changing
policies. Brazil is also starting to develop principles for the regulation of microinsurance,
according to which insurance policies will be sold to people in C, D and E social classes at
low prices; the market potential is estimated at 100 million people and US$ 180 million. In
Brazil, the microinsurance target audience is found in big city centers (GAZETA
MERCANTIL, 2008). The following table shows a comparative study regarding items
associated with finances in AB and CD social classes.

25
Table 23: Comparative study of AB and CD social classes - Finances
Social Classes Social Classes
“Group” Type
AB (%) CD (%)
Account Bank account 79 24
Check card 45 4
Overdraft 45 3
Income account 22 18
Savings account 24 18
Investments Life insurance 40 3
Personal accident insurance 1 1
Retirement and Pension Funds Public retirement and pension 53 25
Fund Plan
Private retirement and pension 5 31
fund plan (closed or open)
Alimony 5 5
Credit Store cards 53 8
Pre-approved credit 38 7
Source: The authors

Attitude towards finances and savings


The highlights regarding attitude are: increased awareness of financial concerns
among the poorest (27% in AB social classes compared to 47% in CD) as well as the
development of a strong relationship with work in CD social classes. The percentage of
people wo save money for the time of need is higher in AB social classes (85%) than in CD
social classes (59%). However, 20% of the respondentes in CD social classes mentioned debt
payments as a reason for saving money and 8% are concerned about health, which may be an
indicator of the precariousness of Brazil´s health care system for people with low income,
who have public health insurace (SUS) only.

Table 24: Attitude towards savings


Finances and work AB (%) CD (%)
I don´t worry about finances 69 47
A man who doesn´t work is not trustworthy 28 44
In my life, nothing is more important than work 25 36
Savings AB (%) CD (%)
I am not used to saving money 7 11
I am used to saving money for the time of need 85 59
I am used to saving money for paying off debts 1 20
I am used to saving money for eventual expenses on health care - 8
I am used to saving money for buying property 5 1
I am used to saving money for eventual expenses on leisure/turism 2 1
Source: The authors

Clusters related to finances


6 clusters regarding finances have been identified:

1. Hedonist (25% of sample AB);

26
2. Spender (41% of sample AB),
3. Utilitarist (34% of sample AB);
4. Stingy (57% of sample CD)
5. Regretful (27% of sample CD)
6. Cautious (17% of sample CD), which description is presented in the following table.

Table 25: Cluster Features related to finances


Cluster Gender Age Income Marital Education Attitudes
status level
1. hedonist Most The oldest Over 10 Widow(er)s The highest People who are used to saving
(25% of women group in minimum and single education money for eventual expenses
sample AB) AB (76 wages people level, the on leisure, tourism and health
years old or highest care
over) percentage
with higher The highest percentage of those
education who have an income account,
closed private retirement and
pension fund plan, overdraft,
alimony
2. spender Most men The Income Separated Low education People who are used to saving
(41% of youngest between people level; the money and people who are
sample AB) group in 5-10 highest used to saving money for the
AB (60-70 minimum percentage of time of need
years old) wages people with
middle and They have public retirement
high school and pension fund plan; the
highest percentage of those
who have savings account
3. utilitarist Most men The highest The Married Education People who are used to saving
(34% of percentage lowest people level: high money for buying property
sample AB) of people at income in school and people who are used to
the age of AB saving money for the time of
71-75 years (under 5 need
old minimum
wages) The highest percentage of
people who have check card,
savings account, pre-approved
credit and store cards.
4. stingy Most men The highest Income Married Education People who are used to saving
(57% of percentage between people level: money for the time of need
sample of people at 2-5 incomplete
CD) the age of minimum high school They have income account,
71-75 years wages check card, public retirement
old and pension fund plan, pre-
approved credit and life
insurance
5. regretful Most People More Widow(er)s The lowest People who are used to saving
(27% of women between than half education level money for paying off debts
sample CD) 66-70 years people (middle and and people who are not used
old and have an hight school) to saving money
over 76 income of
up to 1
minimum
wage
6. Cautious Most men The Income Separated Education People who are used to saving
(17% of youngest between and married level in CD: money for eventual expenses
sample CD) group (60- 2-4 people high school on health care
65 years minimum
old) wages They have check card

Source: The authors

27
CHAPTER 2: WHAT THEY ARE DOING IN THEIR FREE TIME
This chapter aims at presenting a summary of how third age people in AB and CD
social classes in São Paulo spend their free time.

2.1. LEISURE AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES

The first articles on leisure date from the beginning of the 20th century, such as
Wolffe et al (1912); however, the first article to deal specifically with the issue is Miller
(1993); both articles focus on the economic aspect.
The study on leisure date from many centuries and go beyond many school subjects
(UNGER; KERNAN, 1983). According to the literature review (URRY, 2001, TASCHNER,
2000, LANCI da SILVA, 2003 to mention just a few), leisure is a complex concept to be
defined, people have different ideas about what leisure is ranging from “what people do when
they are not working” to the description of a specific activity, such as watching TV, gardening
or manual work.
According to Lemos (2005), a research on leisure in Social Sciences has to consider
the writings of French sociologist Joffre Dumazedier, who came to Brazil in the 60s and in the
late 70s. His theories and concepts formed the basis of the contemporary leisure ideology as
well as influenced and still influences many studies on the topic.
According to Dumazedier (1999), leisure is a set of activities individuals can get
engaged in at will after having taken care of professional, family and social responsibilities,
either to rest or have fun, enjoy or entertain themselves as well as increase information level
or improve general knowledge, increase social interaction or creative capacity.
Even though the need for leisure has been increasing and gaining force day after day
in society, the term leisure is associated with other activities, such as recreation and
entertainment, which may cause confusion regarding the understanding of its meaning
(LOMBARDI, 2005).
The concepts of leisure, idleness and free time have been used interchangeably (2006).
DeMasi (2000) focus on idleness, the idle state necessary to creative work and to which we
own all major discoveries and inventions made by mankind; idleness, here same as leisure, is
an art. However, more important than concepts would be individuals having time for
themselves, being free to choose among rest, entertainment, personal development or
volunteer work at will (BONATO, 2006).
The importance of idleness as a formative element of human beings was stated in the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaimed by ONU in 1948 (ONU, 2003), in which
the right for rest, vacation, physical education and sports practice are mentioned (BONATO,
2006)
Leisure is a social right ensured by the Constitution of the Federative Republic of
Brazil in its Article 6, chapter II titled “Social Rights” (Brazil, 1988), and can be considered
as essential as education, sanitation, housing, transportation, health care and diet for each and
every human being.
According to Dumazedier (1999), some conditions benefited the appearance of leisure:
regular release from work at the end of the day, week, year or working life; general social
activities were regulated by the new rhythm of work imposed by industrial production; routine
activities that used to follow the cycles of nature were substituted with a new arrangement
and, as a consequence, a new social order; professional work was detached from other routine
activities and was imposed an “arbitrary limit”, regulated by neither the laws of nature nor
community rules.This arbitrary limit has imposed a new arrangement, clearly separating

28
professional work and working hours from the time necessary to do other activities. Although
leisure had existed before the Industrial Revolution, everyday life has definitely been
decharacterized and changed in both public and private sectors after it, turning leisure into a
marketable product.
In this perspective, leisure seems to provide people with moments for preserving
values as well as experiencing different feelings, which differ from the ones experienced in
the working environment. As result, it can be said that these changes generates a new way of
understanding not only the working hours but also the non-working hours. Work and leisure
have balanced dimensions; the appearance of leisure is intrinsically connected with the
notions of work and working relations in society as well as with the development of and
changes in it (LEMOS, 2005).
Maffei Jr. (2004) examined values related to leisure taking into account its
contribution to the humanization of human beings. According to the author, people aspire to
complete fulfillment when searching for a rich and happy life, which would include attention
to needs such as education, work, health, love, freedom and also leisure along with the
satisfaction of basic needs, such as food, water, clothing, housing. The author points out that
the fact that people value work so much makes leisure a synonym of lazyness or idleness;
however, people need to learn how to allocate time for leisure, understanding it as something
more than just a reward for excessive working or study hours, that is, something important for
self-development.

Leisure activities or leisure contents


According to Marcellino (1990), leisure contents are: artistic, intelectual, physical,
sports, manual work, social and tourist. The essential leisure features related to the attitude of
those who experience it when it is happening are: leisure is playful; it lasts a specific amount
of time; it takes places outside work, during free or spare time; it is carefree and its main goal
is to provide personal fulfillment towards the quality of the activities done. It is important to
highlight that leisure is not idleness.
Leisure activities can be classified in many ways. At first, a classification by
frequency was adopted followed by the classification by Lemos (2005), Formiga, Ayrosa,
Dias (2005.
The Table below shows how leisure activities are distributed between both
socioeconomic classes and presents some interesting results. In general, interviewees in AB
social classes take part in more leisure activities and more frequently than the ones in CD
social classes, that is, the percentage is higher. There are activities which are common to both
social classes, such as “watching TV”, “praying”, “listening to the radio or to music”. The
percentage of people who do “relaxing exercises” is surprisingly different: 57% of
interviewees in AB social classes against 7% in CD social classes. Besides, 81% of people in
AB classes read newspapers compared to 7% of those in CD classes. This proportion is
almost inverted when it comes to “cooking/preparing dishes/culinary”, the only activity
people in CD social classes get engaged in the most: 62% of interviewees in CD social classes
like cooking against 29% of those in AB social classes. Another curious piece of information
is that the percentage of people who wear/buy/choose beauty products as leisure is very
similar in both social classes: 30% in AB and 29% in CD.
According to Acosta-Orzuela (2001), elderly people constitute the segment of the
population that watches TV the most, this being people´s main leisure activity. In general,
they agree on the quality of TV programs, show wide acceptance of contents, have a real
affinity for TV, which is considered the main source of information and entertainment.
Although watching TV is considered a beneficial and important experience to people´s lives,

29
researches show that the intensive use of TV influence viewers´ physical health,
psychological status and quality of life. Regular viewers perceive social reality differently
than moderate viewers, show psychological addiction to the environment and changes in the
self-esteem, beliefs, ideas and values as well as in responses to violence, awareness of danger
and relationship to strangers.
Also according to Acosta-Orzuela (2001), due to lack of other resources and even if
partially, TV would be a way of meeting aged people´s psychosocial and affective needs.

Table 26: Leisure activities done on daily baisis


Activities Daily AB (%) Daily CD (%)

Watch TV 99 80
Talk / chat 91 26
Listen to the radio 89 43
Pray 80 64
Listen to music 72 42
Read newspapers 45 7
at least once a week At least once a week
Leisure activities done
AB (%) CD (%)
Go to churches, cults... 67 20
Watch vídeos and/or DVDs 66 26
Visit friends and relatives 57 24
Read newspapers 34 3
Read magazines 31 2
Do relaxing exercises 29 2
Read book 28 2
at least once a month At least once a month
Leisure activities done
AB (%) CD (%)
Go shopping 79 15
Wear/choose/buy clothes/items of clothing 25 5
Watch vídeos and/or DVDs 20 3
Visit friends and relatives 18 6
Have sex 14 8
Read magazines 13 2
Travel 13 10
Wear/choose/buy cosmetic items and perfumes 11 4
Source: The authors

Leisure activities according to Lemos (2005)


According to Lemos (2005), leisure activities may be related to the following areas of
interest:
• manual work - Hobbies in general, handling of objects and products, gardening,
carpentry, cabinetry, culinary, sewing, etc;
• artistic - museum, library, cinema, theater, samba schools, folk demonstrations, concerts
and spectacles, painting, singing, dancing, playing musical instruments, theater
performances, writing, that is, activities related to aesthetics and body, written, visual
languages etc.

30
• intelectual – intelectual games, chess, backgammon, checkers, bridge as well as lectures
and courses unrelated to work;
• physical – team and individual sports, exercises, extreme sports, group tours, hicking,
alternative relaxing activities, weightlifting, walking, running, fight, dance, to sum up,
physical activities in general;
• social – taking part in groups that promote sociability and organize parties, meetings in
bars, restaurants and parks, nighttime activities, trips and tourist activities in general
(LEMOS, 2005)

Table 27: Comparative study according to Lemos (2005)


Manual Leisure Activities AB (%) CD (%)
Cook/prepare dishes/culinary 29 62
Home maintenance/bricolage/basic home repairs 10 30
Gardening 31 19
Sewing work 16 15
Car and motorcycle repairs 10 6
Cultural/artistic Leisure Activitivies AB (%) CD (%)
Listen to music 91 70
Read newspapers 81 19
Read magazines 59 15
Read books 45 11
Painting and sculpting (art) 11 14-
Go to the theater/attend presentations and exhibitions 7 4
Go to the movies 5 1
Physical activities AB (%) CD (%)
Walk 74 71
Gardening 31 19
Play soccer/basketball/volleyball/tennis 14 19
Go camping/outdoor life 9 12
Ride a bike 7 7
Weightlifting, swimming, exercises with apparatus 6 5
Go fishing/hunting/shooting 5 7
Run/jog 4 17
Take dance lessons/dance 4 3
Social Leisure Activities AB (%) CD (%)
Visit friends and relatives 81 56
Talk/chat 94 50
Travel 14 22
Volunteer work 4 6
Take part in politics 8 5
Source: The authors

31
Leisure activities according to Formiga, Ayrosa, Dias (2005)

Formiga, Ayrosa, Dias (2005) created a Scale according to which leisure activities are
classified as: hedonist, instructive and playful. The following table shows a comparative
study between AB and CD social classes as recommended by the authors mencioned above.

Table 28: Comparative study according to Formiga, Ayrosa, Dias´s adaptation (2005).
Hedonist activities AB (%) CD (%)
Watch TV 100 85
Watch vídeos and/or DVDs 89 51
Talk/chat 94 50
Wear/choose/buy clothes/items of clothing 38 29
Wear/choose/buy cosmetic products and perfume 30 29
Travel 14 22
Go to restaurants 9 7
Go to the theater/attend presentations and exhibitions 6 4
Go to nightclubs/concerts/parties 4 2
Surf the Internet 5 1
Go to the movies 5 1
Playful activities AB (%) CD (%)
Walk 74 71
Play soccer/ball/basketball/volleyball 14 19
Run/jog 4 17
Gamble 3 15
Play board games 3 12
Hydro-exercise 9
Ride a bike 7 7
Play electronic games 1 6
Take dance classes/dance 4 3
at least once a at least once a
Instructive Leisure Activities month month
AB (%) CD (%)
Pray 99 75
Visit friends and relatives 81 56
Go to churches, cults, etc. 81 19
Read newspapers 81 19
Read magazines 15
Sewing work 15
Source: The authors

At present, leisure has become an important area in society, competing with other
forms of socialization; people search for the ultimate way of building relationships and having
experiences; they are adventurous and take the risk of fully exploring their options in life. At
first, free time and idleness obtained from leisure, rest, lazyness, art and culture; then,
organized leisure, managed recreation and entertainment; finally, mass events, amusement,
pastime, education and consumption and, as a consequence, outdo free time because of
leisure; through all theses cases, leisure has been gaining force and now it has become a social
imperative, guiding people´s actions in their search for satisfaction in the outside world
(LEMOS, 2005).

32
As a complementary study, analysis on attitude towards leisure has been performed
using the scale of Unger and Kearnan (1983). The differences between people in AB and CD
social classes regarding attitude towards leisure are shown in the table below. In general, the
highest level of agreement were obtained to “Leisure is self-rewarding”, “It is a spontaneous
fact” and “I don´t feel forced to it”. The most controversial issues are related to the non-profit
feature of leisure, the lack of obligation to leisure activities and the possibility of escaping and
having an abstraction of daily life, especially in CD social classes.

Table 29: Attitude towards leisure


Assertions Classe AB (%) Classe CD (%)
Leisure is self-rewarding 93 84
It is a spontaneous fact 80 73
I don´t feel obliged to do it 75 71
It is not because I need , but because I want to 70 64
Make new experiences possible 69 68
I don´t feel forced to do it 68 74
I feel I can conquer the world 63 55
I feel completely absorbed 60 62
It satisfies my sense of curiosity 58 53
It is absolutely at will 52 45
I feel like a real champion 49 68
I enjoy it not for the profit, but for the activity itself 47 71
It makes me feel part of another world 45 58
It is instantaneous 43 55
It helps forget our daily problems 42 62
I feel so involved that I could forget all the rest 38 71
I feel like I am exploring new worlds 38 71
I feel like I am escaping from everything else 36 76
I don´t need an invitation 27 69
I admit taking risks or having adventures 22 48
Source: The authors

However, access to leisure activities still poses an obstacle to cultural homogeneity


due to unequal economic situations, unequal access to symbolic assets and hybridizing of both
popular and media cultures. In contrast to the economic and intelectual elite, the features of
the popular level of society regarding leisure include: less material and symbolic assets, the
precariousness of cultural scenario and less opportunities to choose activities due to lack of
alternatives, money and intelectual resources (LEMOS, 2005).
Leisure nowadays is neither free nor liberating as ideologies wanted it to be. However,
leisure has gained significant space in society and has become a cultural practice, an end on
its own. Leisure activities motivates people´s desires and vice versa equally. In other words,
leisure is part of the individuals’ way of living and their culture as well as the activities of the
industry of culture, consumption, etc; they are possibilities of satisfying people´s desires.
Leisure is not practice itself, but the way individuals interact in the world. There are many

33
selves: political self, labor self, religious self and leisure self, which can exist and coexist in
each individual differently (LEMOS, 2005).
Table 29 below presents a summary of the groups obtained, showing the highest
percentage of data regarding gender, age, marital status and income as well as information
regarding level of leisure activities done in each group.

Clusters
5 clusters regarding leisure activities have been identified, which description is
presented in the following table.

1. Active ladies (16% of sample AB)


2. Enclosed ladies (23% of sample CD)
3. Regular people (13% of sample CD )
4. Updated gentleman (11% of sample AB)
5. Quiet gentleman (37 % of sample CD)

34
Table 30: description of clusters
Cluster Gender Age Marital Income Attitudes
status
1. Active ladies Women The second Varied High ↑ the highest average for careful with myself The lowest percetage for
(16% of sample AB) youngest and others I feel I can conquer the world
group ↑ the highest average for religion It helps forget our daily problems
↑ high for social leisure It is absolutely at will
↑ high for reading It satisfies my sense of curiosity
↓the lowest average for audiovisual I admit taking risks or having
adventures
2. Enclosed ladies Women The oldest Widows Average ↑ a lot of reading The highest percentage for
(23% of sample CD) ↓ not very careful with myself and others I don´t feel obliged to do it
↓ the lowest average for religion It is absolutely at will
↓ the lowest average for social leisure It is a spontaneous fact
activities It satisfies my sense of curiosity
↓ low audiovisual I admit taking risks or having
adventures
Make new experiences possible
It makes me feel part of another world
3. Regular people Men and The second Separated Average → average religion The lowest percentage for
(13% da amostra women oldest → average reading Leisure is self-rewarding
CD) group → average high social leisure It is not because I need , but because I
↓ the lowest average for careful with myself want to
and others I feel completely absorbed
↓ low audiovisual
4. Updated Men The Married Higher ↑ the highest average for leisure with The highest percentage for
gentlemen youngest audiovisual resources Leisure is self-rewarding
(11% da amostra group ↑ the highest average for social leisure I feel like I am exploring new worlds
AB) → average reading I feel so involved that I could forget all
→ average for careful with myself and others the rest
→ average religion I feel I can conquer the world
It helps forget our daily problems
I don´t need an invitation
5. Quiet gentleen Men Average Married Lower ↑ very careful with myself and others The highest percentage for
(37 % da amostra ↓ the lowest average for reading It is not because I need , but because I
CD) ↓ the second lowest for religion want to
↓ the second lowest for social leisure I feel like I am escaping from
↓ low leisure with audiovisual resources everything else
I enjoy it not for the profit, but for
the activity itself
I feel completely absorbed
It is instantaneous
Source: The authors
To sum up, there is a cluster formed by active and sociable women which opposes to a
second cluster formed by enclosed women, not socially active and not engaged in any kind of
leisure activity except reading, an individual activity. Two other groups are essentially formed
by men, one with low income and another with high income; in the first group, men are not
engaged in many activities, probably due to their low income, whereas the second group is
formed by very sociable men. There is also an intermedite group, formed by both men and
women, who are moderately engaged in leisure activities regarding all factors taken into
consideration.
In short, it can be argued that there are few homogeneous clusters, which may lead to
the conclusion that the term elderly does not refer to a homegeneous group and, as a
consequence, one must be careful when using the general term.

Media habits
The third age behavior towards media habits was also assessed. News programs in
general, TV news, movies, documentaries, sports programs, games and talk shows are the
favorite TV programs of people in AB social classes; programs aired during the week
represent the highest percentage of preference. Soap operas and TV series are the favorite
programs of interviewees in CD classes

Television and Radio

Table 31: Comparative study AB x CD – most watched TV programs


Most watched TV programs During the During the During the During the
week week weekend weekend
AB (%) CD (%) AB (%) CD (%)
News programs in general / TV news 91 64 67 57
Movies 60 29 53 33
Documentaries 59 20 26 17
Sports matches 58 19 50 18
Talk shows 54 21 14 20
Soap operas / TV series 51 69 22 61
Sports programs 51 20 17 17
Religious programs/mass 50 29 27 32
TV shows with live audience 48 15 30 25
Country music TV shows 46 18 18 21
Rural TV shows 27 14 16 16
Comedy TV shows 22 28 22 30
Concerts 19 8 4 9
TV shows for women 15 6 4 5
TV series 11 18 4 20
Musicals 9 8 5 10
Children´s TV shows 1 4 - 4
Source: The authors
Radio habits
When it comes to listening to the radio, more than 7 interviewees in AB social classes
(72%) listen to the radio in the morning compared to 45% of those in CD social classes. Only
9% in AB classes listen to the radio in the afternoon compared to 34% of those in CD classes.
As to nighttime habit, the percentage is the same in both AB and CD classes (19%). As
previously stated regarding TV, there are differences between both social classes: aged people
in AB classes prefer news and variety shows whereas respondents in CD classes prefer
watching religious programs, variety shows and country music shows.

Table 32: Most listened to kinds of radio programs

Part of the day people usually listen to the radio AB (%) CD (%)
In the morning 72 45
In the afternoon 9 34
In the evening 19 19
Most listened to kinds of radio programs AB (%) CD (%)
News programs 58 21
Variety 43 37
Astrology 38 3
Popular music/hits 35 13
Talk shows/interviews 32 13
Religious programs 24 37
Sports matches 24 11
Classic music 23 8
Country music programs 13 24
Crime news 4 4
Source: The authors

Print media habits


As previously stated, there are significant differences between aged people in AB and
CD social classes regarding reading habits. O Estado de São Paulo Newspaper and Veja
Magazine are the most-read in AB classes. Folha de São Paulo Newspaper is the most-read in
CD classes, but it is worth mentioning the importance of neighborhood newspapers.
Interviewees´ favorite subjects also vary according to the social class. People in AB social
classes prefer Well-being (73%), Self-help (72%), Sports (69%) and Leisure (63%) whereas
people in CD social classes prefer Humor (70%), Entertainment (66%) and Soap Operas
(64%).

37
Table 33: Print media habits

Examples of print media Usually read Usually read


AB (%) CD (%)
O Estado de S.Paulo Newspaper 71 32
Veja Magazine 62 15
Folha de S.Paulo Newspaper 39 39
Neighborhood newpaper - 37
Época Magazine 35 16
Nova Magazine 33 13
Playboy Magazine 30 7
Jornal da Tarde Newspaper 27 27
Subjects that attract reader´s interested in reading newspapers or
AB (%) CD (%)
magazines
ISTO É Magazine 19 16
Well-being 73 50
Self-help 72 43
Sports 69 45
Leisure 63 54
Science and Technology 53 39
Do it yourself 52 40
Esoterism 48 35
Restaurants/bars 47 32
Profile of interesting or important people 45 36
International affairs 44 36
Animal life 44 46
National and international trips 38 41
Culinary 35 57
Gardening 29 45
Soap-operas - 64
Humor - 70
Entertainment - 66
Source: The authors

Attitudes towards the examples of print media were assessed using a 5-point Likert
scale; the results show that both TV and radio constitute a medicine for loneliness, especially
for aged people in CD social classes (a level of agreement of 58% and 70% compared to 44%
in AB social classes). It is also worth noticing that both TV and radio are important sources of
information for people in CD classes, ways of being updated on what is happening in Brazil,
especially due to the fact that people in CD classes are not used to reading newspapers and
magazines as previously stated in this study. The study on attitudes also show that
interviewees in popular social classes are more influenced by actors (due to their great
exposure to soap-operas), more resistant to and prejudiced against advertisements, have
difficulties in understanding them and do not pay attention to billboards, which leads to the
conclusion that the most appropriate medias for third age people in CD classes are TV and
radio.

38
According to the literature reviewed, one cannot deny the importance of TV as an
alternative and socially accepted way of meeting people´s psychosocial needs, which cannot
be fulfilled through natural ways. This kind of replacement, also known as “compensation”,
would be an strategy used by many aged people who experience activity limitations or
economic, social and physical losses. The progressive increase of obstacles that stop elderly
people from controlling their surroundings results in high investments in secondary strategies
and palliative behavior such as watching TV (ACOSTA-ORZUELA, 2001).

Table 34: Comparative study AB x CD - Attitudes and examples of print media


Level of Level of
Attitude towards TV, radio and newspaper against loneliness Agreement Agreement
AB (%) CD (%)
TV makes me feel less lonely 44 58
Radio is a great companion for me 38 70
Source of information AB (%) CD (%)
Radio news update me on what is happening in Brazil and around the 43 84
world
People who are not used to reading newspapers or magazines are usually 34 54
outdated
TV news stop us from reading the newspaper 25 68
I read the newspaper just because I think I need to be updated 21 42

Advertising AB (%) CD (%)


TV commercial treat us as idiots, most times 42 56
In general, I have difficulties in understanding what TV commercial 36 44
want to convey.
In general, advertisements are dangerous because they sell lies. 30 58
I never pay attention to billboards in the streets 22 59
When actors or famous people advertise a product I feel more confident 21 48
about buying it
Source: The authors

To sum up, it can be emphasized that heterogeinity shows that the aging process is not
the same for all people, that is, it depends on many factors such as education, culture and
economic condition, according to Neri (1995), who defines it as a multidimensional and
multidirectional process, not characterized by isolated processes of improvement and decline
(NERI, 1995).

39
2.2 VOLUNTARY WORK AS A LEISURE ALTERNATIVE

The study of voluntary work as a leisure alternative is being partly forgotten and more
investigations, both empirical and academic, need to be conducted. Researches that associate
voluntary work and leisure are relatively rare, which is why exploring this area of research is
important. Besides, voluntary work is considered a non-paid activity, idea that does not
correspond to the present reality, especially in developed societies as well as some kinds of
organizations such as foundations and museums (STEBBINS ; MCGRAHAN, 2004). This
way this study is conducted taking into consideration the view of voluntary work mentioned
above.
Voluntary work has evolved over the years in Brazil, from assistance-based work to a
solidarity-oriented conception, gaining force after Law 9.608, of February 18, 1998)
A philosophical approach to assisting people turning into a right (enforced by law), the
use of talents to comfort other people and proper training given to volunteers have redefined
voluntary work, which represents public indignation against the aggravation of social
problems (DOMENEGHETTI, 2004)
Domeneghetti (2004) says that voluntary work started in Brazil at the beginning of
16th century with filantropic organizations assisting people in need. Besides, until the end of
20th century, voluntary work had always been associated with the society ladies´ merit. From
mid-70s on, after the appearance of NGOs in Latin America, voluntary work started changing
and the 90s represent a time of great change in voluntary work. Finally, ending the cycle of
changes, at the end of 20th century and more significatly at the beginning of 21st, we witnessed
a silent revolution in schools which was called Educative Volunteers or Young Volunteers
(DOMENEGHETTI, 2004).
Also according to Domeneghetti (2004), the expression “professionalization” of
voluntary work though inappropriate for being a “non-paid” activity, started being used in
1994 to identify a new management approach, which abandoned a “home made” management
style in favor of management techniques and instruments similar to the ones adopted in the
second sector (aiming at profit).
The literature review by Smith (1994), reveals that up to the 70s, the most important
authors, such as Bosserman and Gagan (1972) and Smith (1975), think that people got
engaged in leisure activities and voluntary work at will. Later, Kaplan (1975) and Neulinger
(1981), two experts in leisure, examined how leisure can benefit a person, other people or
both. This leads to the conclusion that the line separating leisure from voluntary work would
be really thin and the study of volunteering may be conducted in a multidisciplinary approach.
According to Demeneghetti (2004), the social practices of voluntary work are inherent
in human personality because human beings become human by means of getting in contact
with other people.
Bussel and Forbes (2002) think it is extremely difficult to determine the meaning of
voluntary work because there are no patterns establing its practice for volunteers are not part
of a homogeneous groups, that is, they belong to different age groups, have different levels of
education, have different experiences and skills. Also there are differences among those
people who work part-time and full-time. People who work full-time participate in voluntary
work as part of the company´s policy or during their free time. On the other hand, people who
do not work understand voluntary work as a job ou even as a chance to develop their skills. It
can be a one-time action or a continuing search that make participants feel enthusiastic
enough to turn the activity into a career, even though the lack of resources may represent a
problem.
Many studies tried to examine why people get engaged in voluntary work and what
they benefit from it. Altruism is usually the main reason along with willingness to help others.

40
Although altruistic reasons seem to be the greatest reason for being involved in voluntary
work, they cause considerable controversy among scholars. Many of them insist that
volunteers obtain benefits from their work. Smith (1981) thinks that one cannot say that
volunteers are not interested in helping others although, in his point of view, helping people
may not be the main reason as volunteers´ speeches convey; society values altruism so that
volunteers should defend the idea of helping people for the sake of doing good; on the other
hand, society would condemn people who get engaged in voluntary work for selfish reasons,
such as achieving a higher social status, having fun or socializing (MASCARENHAS;
ZAMBALDI, 2002).
Bussel and Forbes (2002) say that there are “more selfish” reasons, such as achieving
social or psychological goals. For instance, some people believe that voluntary work help
bring family members together. Moreover, aged people´s have a significant desire to be
useful. The authors of this study, however, reach the conclusion that the main reason seems to
be closely related to the importance of specific values. On the other hand, taking the corporate
view into account, the main reason seems to be associated with image promotion.

Main results related to voluntary work and the third age in São Paulo
At first, it is worth mentioning that the sample of people examined in this study
reveals that the percentage of respondents who take part in voluntary work is low (4% of
interviewees in AB social classes and 6% in CD social classes).
The main reasons for getting engaged in voluntary work are associated with
citizenship (77% in AB classes and 33% in CD classes respectively), religion (21% in AB
compared to 55% in CD) and making use of free time itself (2% in AB against 12% in CD).

Table 35: Reasons for taking part in Voluntary Work


Reasons for taking part in Voluntary Work AB (%) CD (%)
Citizenship 77 33
Religion 21 55
Making Use of Free Time 2 12
Source: The authors

The table below shows the benefits of voluntary work. The percentage rates related to
benefits can be split into social (make new friends, fight isolation, fight depression),
psychological (fight depression), personal (improve self-esteem, obtain recognition, generate
motivation), altruism (take part in a noble cause, give back what one has been given, have
non-material benefits). In general, the percentage of people in CD social classes in lower for
all the topics related to voluntary work.

41
Table 36: Benefits of voluntary work in AB x CD social classes
Benefits of voluntary work (level of agreement)
Social AB (%) CD (%)
Help make new friends 98 56
Fight isolation 95 18
Psychological AB (%) CD (%)
Fight depression 95 18
Personal AB (%) CD (%)
Improve self-esteem 97 33
Help generate motivation 95 18
Help existential growth 95 15
Help self-assurance 95 13
Help obtain recognition 95 22
Altruism AB (%) CD (%)
Take part in a noble cause 96 33
give back what one has been given
Have non-material benefits 96 24
Leisure AB (%) CD (%)
Improve use of free time 94 7
It is fun 81 7
Source: The authors

The voluntary work done by the sample of people selected is predominantly


individual. People in AB social classes think it is a serious job (91%), although non-
professional (91%). On the other hand, people in CD social classes think it is a Non-
professional Job (54%), Specializaed Job (25%), Specialized Knowledge (10%) and Hobby
(25%).

Table 37: Kinds of voluntary work


Kinds of voluntary work AB (%) CD (%)
Individual 91 51
Institution 6 18
NGO/Organizations 4 15
Specific Campaigns 2 13
Other - 9
Applicability of voluntary work AB (%) CD (%)
Serious Job 97 26
Casual Job 2 45
Project-oriented 1 29
Categories of voluntary work AB (%) CD (%)
Non-professional job 91 54
Specialized Job 6 25
Specialized Knowledge 2 10
Hobby 1 25
Source: The authors

42
The table below shows the differences among third age people in AB and CD classes
regarding areas comprising voluntary work. The results can be examined taking into account
motivation for volunteering: citizenship, religion, environment, political and professional
associations.

Areas comprising voluntary work

Table 38: Areas comprising woluntary work


Areas comprising voluntary work
AB (%) CD (%)
Citizenship
Local community actions to combat poverty and racial discrimination as well as
26 5
support employment, shelter and
Social services to the elderly, physically disabled people and the disabled 15 32
Work with / for young people (e.g. scout groups, guides, youth clubs) 5 1
Religious motivation AB (%) CD (%)
Religious organizations or groups associated with the church 19 40
Environmental management AB (%) CD (%)
Environment, ecology, animals 9 5
Associations 5 1
Political groups or parties 28 5
Professional associations / union 5 3
Sports and recreation 2 1
Human rights organizations, women´s right associations 4 17
Demonstrations for peace 2 16
Source: The authors

43
2.3 TOURISM: A LEISURE ALTERNATIVE

According to Embratur, the Brazilian Tourism Institution (EMBRATUR, 2003),


tourism can be defined as:
(...) an industry that mobilizes natural, cultural and human resources in an organized
and planned way, without wearing them out, which mission is to fulfill tourists´
dreams and mainly promote local sustainable development.

The definition globally accepted by the World Tourism Organization - WTO (1998)
views tourism as a set of activities that people get engaged in while traveling and visiting
places different from the ones they are used to, for a period of time that lasts less than a year,
aiming at taking part in leisure activites, doing business, among other reasons. Due to its
multidisciplinary aspect, WTO admits there is not a technical definition for tourism, which
results in having many economic sectors envolved as well as different views and points of
views on the segment.
Nowadays, touristic activity may be a synonym of escaping the stressful daily routine
in search for new landscapes. The act of getting around may be associated with a desire for
adventure, fulfilling a dream or finding exotic places, in a way that people´s sense of
achievement is based on new discoveries (CAVALCANTI, 2006).
Aged people have emerged as one of the most important market segments, due to their
power of buying different kinds of goods and services. For this reason, tourism and leisure
industry has been trying to attract people at the age of 65 or over, because they have great
amount of discretionary money (PETERSON, 2007).
Campos (2003) says that, in general, the discussions on tourism for third age people
focus on how tourism industry can both take advantage and benefit from it: keep business
going in low season; expand and improve hotel chains; encourage travel agencies to decrease
the price; local specialized labor; place value on cultural assets and improve infrastructure of
local community.
This study on turism was conducted based on data obtained from a series of questions:
motivation for traveling, kinds of trip, travel season, kinds of traveling companion, number of
trips, favorite destinations and a great number of statements about attitute on tourism. The
questions related to tourism were elaborated based on theoretical references, mainly Azevedo
(1998), Araújo (2001), Garcia (2001), Beni (2002) , Felice (2002).

Main results on tourism


To start with, it is worth mentioning that respondests were asked about how frequently
they travel (considered as leisure activity) and 14% of interviewees in AB social classes claim
to travel at least once a month against 86% of those who rarely or never travel; on the other
hand, 22% of interviewees in CD social classes claim to travel at least once a month against
78% of those who rarely or never travel.
The table below shows that the main reasons for traveling among interviewees in AB
and CD social classes are social (see relatives/friends again, meet people, make friends).
Reasons associated with leisure itself are secondary.
Regarding the number of trips in the past 3 years, the weighted average found was 6 in
AB social classes compared to 4 in CD social classes.
Taking traveling companion into account, less than 20% interviewees in both AB and
CD classes travel alone. Family members (spouses, children, grandchildren) are the first
choice of companion in AB and CD classes. It is worth mentioning, however, that people in
AB classes appreciate third age group tours more.

44
Taking into considerantion the duration of trips, it can be argued that trips taken by
people in AB classes last longer than those taken by people in CD classes, especially week-
long trips. People in both AB and CD classes prefer traveling during the summer and spring
and their favorite destination is the countryside.

Table 39: Comparative study AB x CD


Motivation for traveling AB (%) CD (%)
See relatives/friends again 87 60
Have fun 83 21
Meet people 47 6
Make friends 46 23
Try new things/visit place 31 6
Go to festival or special events 12 1
Look for spiritual growth 5 6
Engage in physical activities 4 2
Visit museums and historical places 3 1
Health – medical treatment 2 4
Number of leisure trips (last 3 years) AB (%) CD (%)
Up to 5 68 85
From 6 to 10 30 24
Over 11 2
Weighted average 6 4
Traveling companion AB (%) CD (%)
Spouses 27 28
Children 27 27
Friends 14 4
Grandchildren 13 4
Third age groups 9 6
I travel alone 6 17
Other relatives 4 7
Favorite destination AB (%) CD (%)
Countryside 71 61
Beach 17 19
Abroad 7 2
Big city centers 4 5
Favorite season to travel AB (%) CD (%)
Summer 53 61
Spring 30 26
Fall 2 9
Winter 13 11

Average duration of trips AB (%) CD (%)


Up to 3 days 23 60
From 5 to 7 days 59 16
From 8 to 14 days 12 8
Over 15 days 6 16
Average durantion in days 8 6
Source: The authors

45
As a complementary study, interviewees in both AB and CD classes have in their
social relations (family, friends and co-workers) the main source of information regarding
tourism. As to the media, newspapers, magazines and the Internet are the main sources of
information for people in AB classes. Radio and TV are also important sources of
information. On the other hand, there are significant differences in CD classes: print media
(newspapers and magazines) and TV are the most important sources of information.
Regarding travel agencies, more than half people in AB classes use them compared to less
than one third of people in CD classes. The favorite means of transportant is car for people in
AB classes and bus for those in CD classes.

Table 40: Sources of information, use of travel agencies and favorite means of
trasportation

Sources of information
Social relations AB (%) CD (%)
Family members/relatives 69 47
Friends 22 31
Co-workers 1 1
Media
Newspapers/Magazines 60 15
Internet 41 -
Radio 37 1
TV 34 19
Travel/tourist agencies 5 2
Use of travel agencies AB (%) CD (%)
Yes 52 23
No 48 77
Favorite means of transportation AB (%) CD (%)
Car 83 14
Airplane 15 4
Bus 3 82
Source: The authors

Attitude towards tourism


Attitudes towards tourism were examined according to many elements (organization,
insecurity, fear, recommendation and social skills). These elements were obtained from factor
analysis (see appendix). As shown in the table below, many controversial points were
identified throughout the analysis, that is, there are significant differences between AB and
CD classes (especially the assertations in which the percentage is equal to or over 20).

46
Table 41: Attitude toward tourism
Attitude towards tourism Controversial points: third
age tourists need organized
Organization AB (%) CD (%)
trips with companion; third
Third age tourists need places with good age tourists do not have
43 45
facilities (e.g. escalator) work schedules; third age
Third age tourists need organized trips with pre- tourists are free to choose
40 53 the time to travel; I love
established itineraries
trying new foods and
Third age tourists need to travel in drinks; I travel to places
40 39
homogeneous groups recommended by my
Third age tourists need special care regarding friends only; I make friends
36 60 easily, regardless of
food
people´s culture, race,
Third age tourists need organized trips with religion or gender; I hate
35 55
companion being in a crowded place
Third age tourists don´t have work schedules 31 53 surrounded by strangers.
Third age tourists are free to choose the time to Agreed points: third age
29 55 tourists need places with
travel
good facilities (e.g.
Insecurity AB (%) CD (%) escalator); third age tourists
I feel unsafe in places where I don´t know need to be accompanied by
48 65 a family member; I never
anyone
travel without being
I´m afraid of having an accident while traveling 46 60 accompanied by a family
I´m afraid of getting sick while traveling 37 46 member; when it comes to
Third age tourist need to accompanied by a traveling, I accept my
28 27 family members’ opinion
family member
only.
I never visit places where I don´t know anyone 23 54
I never eat food prepared by strangers 22 33
Fear AB (%) CD (%)
I don´t trust people who speak a language I don´t know 36 60
I never travel without being accompanied by a family member 33 37
I love trying new foods and drinks 24 59
I don´t like traveling to other countries 19 34
Recommendations AB (%) CD (%)
When it comes to traveling, I accept my family members´ opinion only 34 37
I never go on excursions 33 41
I only travel to places recommended by my friends 11 38
Social skills AB (%) CD (%)
I make friends easily, regardless of people´s culture, race, religion or gender 42 66
I hate being in a crowded place surrounded by strangers 28 51
I have a close group of friends who frequently travel together. 17 31
Source: The authors

As a complementary analysis, the following clusters have been identified:

1 fearless (55% of sample AB)


2 pampered (24% of sample AB)
3 dependent (21% of sample AB)
4 fearful (22% of sample CD)
5 attached (56% of sample CD)
6 hopelessly unsafe (21% of sample CD)

Clusters are described in the following table.

47
Table 42. Description of Clusters
Marital Education
Cluster Gender Age Income Attitude towards tourism
status level
1. fearles Most The Up to 5 Married Middle Up to 5 trips; the highest percentage travel with spouse and children
(55% of sample men youngest minimum school People prefer traveling to the beach and in the summer; the highest percentage prefer 1/3-day tours;
AB) group (60- wages The highest car is their favorite means of transportation
65 years percentage The highest level of disagreement for: I´m afraid of having an accident while traveling; I make friends
old) with over 5 easily, regardless of people´s culture, race, religion or gender; I never eat food prepared by strangers; I´m
children afraid of getting sick while traveling; Third age tourists need places with good facilities (e.g. escalator);
Third age tourist need to accompanied by a family member; Third age tourists need to travel in
homogeneous groups
2. pampered Both The highest The Married The highest From 6 to 20 trips
(24% da amostra men and percentage highest with up to level of People prefer traveling to the contryside; they also prefer longer trips; airplane is their favorite means of
AB) women of people income in 2 children education transportation
are 66-70 AB (incomplete The highest level of agreement for: Third age tourists need organized trips accompained by tour guides;
years old higher Third age tourists need organized trips with pre-established itineraries; Third age tourists need to travel in
education) homogeneous groups; Third age tourists are free to choose the time to travel; Third age tourists don´t have
work schedules; Third age tourist need to accompanied by a family member; Third age tourists need
places with good facilities (e.g. escalator).
3. dependent Most The oldest The lowest Widow(er) High school More than 6 trips; people prefer traveling abroad or to big city centers and 4/14-day tours; car and bus are
(21% of sample women groups; the income in and their favorite means of transportation
AB ) highest AB separated The highest level of agreement for: I never travel without being accompanied by a family member;
percentage When it comes to traveling, I accept my family members´ opinion only; I only travel to places
of people recommended by my friends; I´m afraid of getting sick while traveling; I don´t like traveling to other
over 71 countries; I feel unsafe in places where I don´t know anyone
years old
4. Fearful Most The Lower Married High school The highest percentage of people who traveled once in the past 3 years; people travel with spouse and
(22% of sample men youngest income; up children and prefer traveling to big city centers; the highest percentage of people in CD classes whose
CD) group (60- to 2 The highest trips last over 8 days and who use travel agencies; bus is their favorite means of transportation
65 years minimum percentage The highest level of agreement for: I never visit places where I don´t know anyone; I´m afraid of having
old) wages of people an accident while traveling; I hate being in a crowded place surrounded by strangers; I never travel
with many without being accompanied by a family member
children
5. attached Most 66-70 years Income Widow(er); Middle People who traveled from 2 to 4 times in the past 3 years; the highest percentage of people who travel
(56% of sample women old from 2 to 6 the highest school and alone or go on excursions; they prefer going to the countryside and 1/4-day tours; bus is their favorite
CD) minimum percentage high school means of transportation
wages of people The highest level of agreement for: I feel depressed when I am far from my family; I never visit places
with 2-5 where I don´t know anyone; Third age tourists need places with good facilities (e.g. escalator, ramps, etc);
children Third age tourists need special care regarding food
6. helplessly Most The oldest The Married Middle The highest number of trips in the past years; more than 4 trips; people travel with spouse and children
unsafe women group (over highest and school and; they prefer going to the beach and 4-10-day tours; car is their favorite means of transportation
(21% of sample 71 years income in separated; The highest level of agreement for: I don´t like traveling to other countries; I don´t trust people who
CD) old) CD the highest speak a language I don´t know; I feel unsafe in places where I don´t know anyone; I only travel to
percentage places recommended by my friends; I hate being in a crowded place surrounded by strangers
of childless
people

Source: The authors


2.4 TECHNOLOGY AS A LEISURE ALTERNATIVE
The topic on technology includes many categories, such as owning a computer,
Internet use, frequency of computer use, main reason for using the Internet and attitude
towards technology in general. To start with, it is worth mentioning that when it comes to
leisure activities, the categories surf the Internet and use own computer had already been
examined with the following results:

Table 43: Internet and computer use


At least once a month At least once a month
Frequency of leisure activities
AB (%) CD (%)
Surf the Internet 30 1
Use own computer 21 7
Source: The authors

This topic aims at analyzing how thirg age people in AB and CD classes in São Paulo
make use of technology as leisure, taking into account the categories owning a computer,
Internet use, frequency of Internet use and attitude towards technology in general.
The global population with Internet access is over 1 billion people (COMSCORE
WORLD METRIX, 2009) and Brazil retains the 9th place in rank with 27.7 million active
Internet users in 2008. China is the first with 179.7 million followed by the United States
(163.3 million) and Japan (60 million).
It is worth mentioning that 12 million computers were sold in 2008, from which 8
million desktops and 4 million notebooks. Regarding cable TV, the number of subscribers
reached 5.4 million; considering the biennium 2007-2008, the percentage of high speed
Internet users and cable TV subscribers has increased to 45% and 13% a year respectively. As
to high speed Internet, the number of users reached 1.9 million, 45% higher than last year´s
first quarter. The number of subscribers with low purchasing power has increased significatly
due to the strategies developed by telephone companies which offer landline phone, width
band internet access and cable TV service at affordable prices (IBOPE, NETRATINGS, 2008;
O ESTADO DE S.PAULO NEWSPAPER, 2008). In Brazil, people who have Internet access
spend three times more time on-line than watching TV (DELOITTE, 2009).
The percentage of homes with Internet access is 20%. Brazil is the second country
with the highest average internet access time; even though the number of home Internet users
has increased, the average internet access time has dropped and France overcame Brazil in
2009. According to polls, Brazilian Internet users have spent 22 hours and 50 minutes on-line
in December against 23 hours and 47 minutes in November. Internet is the means of
communication that develops the fastest in Brazil, an average of 22% from 2002 to 2008,
according to Ibope Nielsen (2009).
The number of aged people with Internet access is increasing considerably; on
average, Internet users at the age of between 55 and 65 years old spent eight more hours using
the Internet in August, 2006 than in August, 2004, according to NetRatings (FILGUEIRAS,
2006). The increasing number of aged people using the Internet seems to be a worldwide
tendency; in the United States alone 90% of the elderly access the Internet on regular basis.
This phenomenom goes against the idea of a digital generation gap. There are many reasons
for this increasing interest in the Internet: be in close contact with friends and family, search
for information, pay bills or chat up to 3 o´clock in the morning, which would not be possible
if they had to physically go to places due to their physical limitations as well as the need for
companionship and special transportation (ÉPOCA MAGAZINE, 2006)
These data show the importance of this market and the existing researches on the topic
highlights that the elderly can generate great interest once people break down stereotypes that
aged people do not like technology and new medias. In fact, both computers and the Internet
have been playing an important role in the life of these potentially attractive people.
One of the seminal studies on the use of the Interned by third age consumers in Brazil
was conducted by Farias (2004), which established the existence of a niche of “cybersenior”
and another one of individuals uninterested in the Internet.
According to Farias (2004), some researches on aged consumers and technology in the
United States date from the 80s, which supports the assertion that age is closely associated
with attitude towards new technology and that this process can be described in five stages as
follows: knowledge of technology, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation,
aged people being the last segment to adopt new products, services or innovative ideas
(FARIAS, 2004).
As to the Internet specifically, some studies demonstrate that among different groups
of consumers who spend time on-line, third aged people who are open to this new technology
break down stereotypes and generate special interest. In fact, both computers and the Internet
have been playing an important role in the life of these “cybersenior” (FARIAS, 2004).
In Brazil there is significant scientific production on technology and the third age. Key
words such as old age, old, elderly, third age are being used in many studies interchangeably.
11 papers on technology and the third age became available on a Digital Thesis and
Dissertation Database (RINALDI, 2007; LIMA, 2007; MORAES, 2006; NUNES, 2006;
BARCELOS, 2006; ALMEIDA, 2006; FIGUEIRA FILHO, 2006; SANTOS, V.L.A. 2005;
TEIXEIRA, 2004; SANTOS, M, 1999; PINTO, 1997).
Rinaldi (2007) examined the influence of hypertext over text comprehension of
patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer; Moraes (2006) analyzed the use of nursing
technology in the care of the elderly; Barcelos (2006) analyzed third age people and their
relationship with information technology and software; NUNES (2006) contributed to our
understanding of digital inclusion in the daily life of aged people, presenting a
multidimensional conception of the aging process. According to the last author mentioned
above, computers have become more than a new way of word processing; computers have
offered aged people new possibilities that put them back in the road to feeling fulfilled and
motivated; even though there are still many things to be studied and learned about the aging
process, there are no doubts that aged people put a lot of effort into having an active life as
well as keeping up-to-date with the evolution of society, which discriminates them on the
basis of age. It is essential that they keep up with what is happening nowadays in order to
prevent being dependent and increase their chances for subsistence and social inclusion.
Teixeira (2004) conducted a qualitative research on the relationship between aged people and
the computer taking into account communication obstacles. Oliveira (2006), Machado (2007),
NICO (2009) and Nunes (2006) are some of the authors whose works deal with the Internet
specifically.
Perez, Bacha and Vianna (2006) examine third age people´s atttitude towards
information technology. The results obtained show that great majority of users make intense
use of the Internet for educational purposes, information searching, sending/receiving e-mails
and accessing services related to price research, classifieds and auctions.
Azambuja Filho, Ladeira, Cabelleira and Costa (2006) divided third age people in
Porto Alegre into three groups in order to conduct a research on technology; according to
them, the complexity of aged people´s behavior leads to the conclusion that in order to
understand the way third age people behave it is necessary to understand the aging process,
which comprises cognitive, biological and affective variants among others.
Regarding computer use, Stuart-Hamilton (2002) highlights that:

50
• Older people may feel inhibited and not use the computer due to feelings of control loss,
dehumanization and anxiety, even though these feelings have nothing to do with being
able of using the computer.
• Studies show that people´s successful initial training also plays an important role in their
future determination to use the computer.
• Cost is an important element as well. Many aged people who would like to take part in
training are prevented from doing it by price. Others may conclude that there are not many
things they might be interested in.

According to Stuart-Hamilton (2002), there may be demographic limits to the use aged
people make of the Internet. Older people can benefit from the environment. For instance,
there is much information available; there are opportunities to take part in group discussions;
there is no hurry to finish the talk, which is very common in face-to-face conversations; all the
benefits without having to leave the security and comfort of their homes. The author also
thinks that comment on changes in people´s lifestyle due to last century´s technological and
scientific advances would be a cliché. However, technology has made a great impact on
automation of tasks, which affects the elderly population due to changes in work routines.
The topic about technology comprises many issues such as owning a computer,
Internet use, frequency of computer use and attitude towards technology in general, and the
results are presented as follows.
Taking leisure activities into account, there are huge differences between AB and CD
social classes regarding surf the Internet (30% of people in AB classes against 1% in CD
classes) and use own computer (21% of people in AB and 7% in CD respectively).

Table 44: Leisure activities


Leisure activities AB (%) CD (%)
Surf the Internet 30 1
Use own computer 21 7
Source: The authors

When it comes to having a computer at home, the table below shows the differences
between both social classes: 83% of interviewees in AB classes have a computer compared to
12% in CD classes.

Table 45: Having a computer


Do you have a computer at home? AB (%) CD (%)
Yes 83 12
No 17 88
Source: The authors

Internet access time is significantly longer in AB classes because 68% of interviewees


have Internet access at home, according to the table below, against 9% of people in CD
classes.

51
Table 46: Internet Access
Do you have Internet access at home? (*) AB (%) CD (%)
Yes 68 9
No 32 91
Source: The authors
(*) Base: interviewees who have computer at home

When analyzing the average Internet access time, people in AB classes stand out. On
one side, 72% of interviewees in CD classes do not use the Internet and, on the other side, this
percentage drops to 30% in AB classes. More than half of interviewees in AB classes (51%)
surf the Internet up to one hour a day.
The following data analysis demonstrates that the average Internet access time is 3.4
hours in AB classes and 1.5 hours in CD classes. This number tend to increase among male
users and people with higher level of education, although 30% of interviewees in AB classes
claim to never use the Internet compared to more than 70% in CD classes.

Table 47: Average Internet access time


Daily average time AB (%) CD (%)
Do not use the Internet 30 72
Up to 1 hour 51 14
From 1 to 5 hours 18 10
Over 5 hours 1 3
Source: The authors

Assessment of attitude was carried out using the Likert scale of agreement, from
which interviewees chose one of the following options: I completely agree, I partly agree,
indifferent, I partly disagree and I completely disagree. According to the following table,
there are significant differences regarding the attitude of individuals in AB and CD social
classes.
The elderly in popular classes show the highest percentage of people who have both
negative attitude and negative perspective on technological advances in general as well as
difficulties with or fear of computers.
In general, when comparing aged people in AB and CD classes, individuals in low
social classes have more difficulties in dealing with technological advances.

Table 48: Aged people´s attitude


Assertions AB (%) CD (%)
In general, I have difficulties in dealing with technological advances around us 36 56
I fear that technological advances may control my live 29 40
When a new electronic gadget is relesead I wait until it becomes affordable for me 27 50
Assertions AB (%) CD (%)
Computers came to help improve my life 25 39
When I purchase an electronic gadget I take into consideration manufactures that provide 23 40
good technical assistance
Computers are dangerous because the cause unemployment 23 44
In general, I am one of the first to buy new electronic gadgets 17 25
Source: The authors

52
Cluster related to technology
Four clusters have been identified:

1. sensible cybersenior (49% of sample AB)


2 fearful and indifferent (51% of sample AB)
3. mildly interested (36% of sample CD)
4. daring cybersenior (64% of sample CD)

Clusters are described in the following table.

Table 49: Description of Clusters related to technology


Cluster Gender Age Income Education Attitude towards technology
level
1. sensible Most men The The highes The highest The highest daily and weekly frequency
cybersenior youngest income percentage regarding the use of own computer and the
(49% of group (60- over 5 with high highest daily frequency regarding Internet
sample AB) 70 years minimun school access; the lowest average for “fear” and the
old) wages highest average for “caution” and “daring”;
the highest percentage for “I fear that
technological advances may control my live”
2 fearful and Most The oldest Income High The highest percentage for I “rarely” use
indifferent women group from 1 to 5 education the computer
(51% of (most minimum level; the The highest percentage for “I never surf the
sample AB) people are wages highest Internet”
over 71 percentage The highest percentage for “fear”
years old) of people The lowest percentage for “caution” and
with higher “daring”
education The highest percentage for “In general, I
have difficulties in dealing with
technological advances around us”
3. mildly Most From 66 to Income Middle The highest percentage do not use the
interested women 75 years from 4 to 5 school and Internet
(36% of old minimum high school The lowest percentage for “fear”
sample CD) wages The highest percentage for “caution” and
“daring”
The highest percentage for " In general, I
am one of the first to buy new electronic
gadgets”
4. daring Most men From 66 to The highest The highest The highest average internet access time
cybrsenior 75 anos percentage level of among interviewees in CD classes
(64% of with an education in The highest average for “daring”
sample CD) income of CD The lowest average for “fear”
1-3
minimum
wages

Source: The authors

53
As a conclusion, it can be said that there are significant differences between AB and
CD classes regarding Internet use (30% in AB compared to 1% in CD) and use of own
computer (21% in AB and 7% in CD respectively).
When it comes to having a computer at home, 83% of interviewees in AB classes have
a computer compared to 12% of people in CD classes. Internet access time is significantly
longer in AB classes because 68% of interviewees have Internet access at home against 9% of
people in CD classes.
When analyzing the average Internet access time, people in AB classes stand out. On
one side, 72% of interviewees in CD classes do not use the Internet and, on the other side, this
percentage drops to 30% in AB classes. More than half of interviewees in AB classes (51%)
surf the Internet up to one hour a day. Data analysis demonstrates that the average Internet
access time is 3.4 hours in AB classes and 1.5 hours in CD classes.
There are significant differences regarding the attitude of individuals in AB and CD
social classes. The elderly in popular classes show the highest percentage of people who have
both negative attitude and negative perspective on technological advances in general as well
as difficulties with or fear of computers. In general, when comparing aged people in AB and
CD classes, individuals in low social classes have more difficulties in dealing with
technological advances.
A factor analysis was also performed and results show three different elements
regarding attitude toward technology. The first one is related to a fear of possible impacts
technology can make in people´s lives. The second element is caution, that is, people are
cautions about experiencing something new, there is no state of excitement; the fact that
people wait to buy something when it becomes affordable and that they prefer manufacturers
that provide technical assistance constitute great example of this behavior. The third element
is daring, that is, interest in something new and take risks when buying things (see appendix)
The analysis conducted made it possible to identify four groups of aged people, two of
them are formed by mostly women: the first group consists of older women in AB classes
who are indifferent to and fearful of technology; the second group consists of women in CD
classes who take risks and claim to be the first ones to buy electronic gadgets even though
they are not technology users, which leads to the conclusion that they buy things because
other people buy them too. As the group formation demonstrates, female groups show less
interest in technology, although one of groups comprises people who buy ultimate electronic
gadgets yet do not use the Internet.
The other groups are formed by mostly men called “cybersenior”, term coined by
Farias (2004), which is relevant to this study. The differences between these two groups is the
level of sensibleness of the youngest group whose members share the highest average for
daring and caution; on the other hand, the group called daring cybersenior is formed by men
in CD classes who are technology users, spend a lot of time using technology gadgets and
present the lowest average regarding caution.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Population aging tend to make an impact on the market and generate the development
of opportunities to meet third age people´s needs, turning the third age segment into an
attractive market to be explored. The third age segment may represent a challenge to some
companies due to its special features and heterogeinity as Moschis (2003) e Strehlau; Bacha;
Lora (2006) pointed out.

54
Research data presented reinforce the idea the image portrayed by marketing experts
do not corresponds to reality once a homogeneous approach in dealing with the elderly is to
be rejected.
Third age people are heterogeneous regarding their habits, attitudes and psychographic
profile. The conclusions presented in this study are the result of years of research, reading
books and articles not to mention the creation of a database related to third age people in São
Paulo. This study determines the group of people who are more open to products and services
as well as suggest the most relevant arguments to reach this public. The group segmentation
according to people´s attitudes may be associated with future aged people´s behavior patterns.
By dealing with the third age as a homogeneous group, companies and professionals
may be losing many opportunities to offer products and services that both satisfy the desires
and meet the needs of this diverse public.
Managing all variants envolved in a study of the third age is a very complex process.
For this reason, this book may represent the first step taken into understanding some groups
from a marketing perspective, taking into account the need to differentiate these groups in
order to make communication with the elderly easier as well as achieve strategic goals not to
mention the chance to offer products and services more appropriate to this public.
In short, the clusters identified can also show that there few homogeneous clusters,
which leads to the conclusion that the word elderly does not refer to a homogeneous group
and for this reason one must be careful when using this generical term.

55
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APPENDIX

Research Methodology

The present study aims at analyzing third age people´s leisure activities in São
Paulo. It is an exploratory-descriptive research, survey-type study, conducted with two
samples of 700 individuals in AB and CD social classes. Taking socioeconomic classes into
account, the samples were selected according to the Brazilian Economic Classification
Scheme (CCEB, 2008) developed by ABEP (Brazilian Association of Research Companies)
to be used as an instrument to classify the population according to people´s purchasing power.
The Economic Classification Scheme is operationally simple and makes it possible to
differentiate and classify the population into A, B, C, D and E according to the score obtained
for owning specific material possessions as well as the education level of the head of the
family. Then it is established a connection with the power to buy a home. The following table
shows the scores according to Brazilian Economic Classification Scheme:

Table 1: Scores according to Brazilian Economic Classification Scheme


Social Class TOTAL SCORE BRASIL
(%)
A1 30-34 1
A2 25-29 5
B1 21-24 9
B2 17-20 14
C 11-16 36
D 6-10 31
E 0-5 4
Source: Anep, 2008

The sample
The size of the sample was choosen at random, taking into account only the minimum
necessary to perform the multivariate analysis which is 150 cases (MALHORTA, 2001).
When selecting the sample, it was also taken into consideration that on average
women live eight years longer than men in Brazil. The difference in life expectancy between
men and women show that: in 1991, women corresponded to 54% of the elderly population;
in 2000, this percentage increased to 55%. So, in 2000, for each 100 aged women, there were
81.6 aged men (IBGE, 2005).
According to IBGE (Brazil´s Institute of Geography and Statistics), the proportion
between male and female population has been gradually decreasing in Brazil. In 1980, there
were 98.7 men for each 100 women, proportion that has dropped to 97% in 2000 and will be
95% in 2050 (IBGE, 2050)
In numbers, there were 2.5 million women in 2000, number that can reach 6 million in
2050. The difference in life expectancy between men and women reached 76 years old in
2000 – 66,7 years old for men and 74,2 years old for women (IBGE, 2005)
In 2001, the percentage of women at the age of 60 or over was 55.8%. From 1996 to
2001, the percentage of men at the age of 60 or over went from 7.9% to 8.2% compared to the
female population, whose percentage went from 9.3% to 9.8% (IBGE, 2005).
Medeiros and Castro (2004) have elaborated a profile of aged people´s situation in the
metropolitan area of São Paulo aiming at presenting elements necessary for formulating
proposals concerning the protection of the elderly. Statistics from the 2000 IBGE census

64
served as empirical base for the study and made it possible for the authors to present a
portrayal of the elderly population, including a brief socioeconomic profile.
According to the 2000 census, the metropolitan area of São Paulo consisted of
1.446.662 people at the age of 60 or over, from which 67% were in the capital. The
population distribution among municipalities in the metropolitan area of São Paulo as well as
among districts in the municipality of São Paulo shows that the central districts of the capital
(Jardim Paulista, Lapa, Mooca, Consolação, Pinheiros) are the ones with the highest
percentage of aged people: from 15% to 21% of the population is formed by people at the age
of 60 or over. Many of the peripheral districts in the municipality of São Paulo, such as
Anhanguera, Cidade Tiradentes, Grajaú, and some municipalities in the metropolitan area of
São Paulo, such as Itaquaquecetuba, Francisco Morato, Jandira, have a population formed by
less than 5% of aged people. So we conclude that the elderly population is concentrated in the
wealthy areas whereas in the poorest areas aged people are less frequent (MEDEIROS;
CASTRO, 2004).
In 1980, the elderly population represented 5.76% of the total population. In 1991, this
percentage increased to 6,78%. In 2000, 8,09% of the population in the metropolitan area of
São Paulo was formed by the elderly. This means an increase of 357.960 people in the elderly
population within this period, corresponding to an increase of almost 2.5%. It is obvious that
the population over 60 years old has increased more than the total population. Between 1980
and 1991, the average population growth rate was 2.3% a year whereas the same age
regarding aged people was 3,8%. In the 90s, the population in the metropolitan area of São
Paulo has increased on average 1.2% a year against 3.2% of the elderly population. In other
words, the percentage of aged people has increased 2.7 times more than the total population.
On one side, these numbers show the vital index of the population and, on the other side, a
decrease of the natality rate as well as an increase of life expectancy (MEDEIROS; CASTRO,
2004).
According to Medeiros and Castro (2004), it is important to hightlight the higher
percentage of women when men among aged people: the elderly population comprises 4.72%
of women and 3.37% of men. For each 100 men over 60 years old there are 140 aged women.
This difference shows not only that women live longer than men but also that longevity rate
for women considerably higher (MEDEIROS; CASTRO, 2004)
It is also worth mentioning that, according to Seade Foundation and the Department of
Social Welfare and Development (Futuridade), São Paulo (capital) is the 24th best city for the
elderly population, among cities with more than 200 thousand inhabitas, and the 503rd among
all cities. This result was obtained after examining life conditions of 4.3 million people over
60 years old who live in one of the 645 municipalities in the State of São Paulo; it was
observed that 14% of them live in inappropriate cities, with low level of development and
well-being, and only 7% live in cities with high quality of life. (O ESTADO DE
S.PAULO,2009).
People in AB social classes: 700 (seven hundred) interviews/cases were selected after
systematic search using a Central Location Method. Visio interviewers talked to people over
60 years old who fit the profile of the Social Classes selected; here are the addresses chosen in
the city of São Paulo: Paulista Avenue area, including the first four parallel streets from both
sides of the avenue, Jardins and Paraíso neighborhood; Ibirapuera Park; Itaim Bibi and
Tatuapé neighborhoods; Tatuapé, Paulista and Aricanduva shopping malls (with prior
authorization); SESCs in Greater São Paulo, except Mooca (with prior authorization); places
downtown near taxi stands; 200 (two hundred) interviews/cases were selected using the
method of conglomerate sample. The selection was made though random raffle in 2 steps:
first, census areas in pre-established neighborhoods in São Paulo were raffled; then the
residences to be visited in each area. Criteria for random substitution of samples were also

65
established. The choice of neighborhoods took into account the profile of the sample studied,
that is, people at the age of 60 or over in AB Social Classes. The following neighborhoods
were selected: Jardins, Vila Mariana, Moema, Tatuapé, Paraíso, Pinheiros and Vila Madalena.
People in CD classes: the survey was conducted in neighborhoods where pedestrian
flow was intense, such as Penha, Cangaíba, Arthur Alvin, Itaquera, Guaianazes, São Mateus,
Mooca; Ipiranga, Sacomã, Jabaquara and Vila Maria, because they are considered typical
low-class neighbordhoods. The answers given to the questionnaires were typed into survey
sofware SPSS.

Data collection instrument


Personal interviews using structured forms (questionnaires) were carried out by
interviewers of Visio Pesquisa e Consultoria Ltda. The questionnaires consisted of closed
questions and assertions to be assessed, which were arranged in categories related to habits
and attitudes regarding leisure time and third age people.
Respondents were grouped according to filters: age over sixty years old; living in the
municipality of São Paulo; belonging to AB and CD socioeconomic classes (according to the
Brazilian Economic Classification Scheme)
The following sections present the analysis of the sample profile as well as the results
obtained from the application of multivariate analysis techniques previously mentioned.

On the analysis of results


Prior to the aplication of the techiques mentioned above, a careful data analysis was
performed. In the case of this study, in particular, about 10% of the interviews had to be
discounted due to mistakes and omissions related to the key issue of the research; analyses
were performed based on data obtained from 700 interviews carried out with aged people in
AB social classes and 700 interviews carried out with aged people in CD classes.

Sample profile

Table 2: Comparative study of sample profile


Sample Profile – Gender AB (%) CD (%)
Male 63 43
Female 37 57
Total 100 100
Sample profile – Age AB (%) CD (%)
From 60 to 65 years old 45 42
From 66 to 70 years old 35 26
From 71 to 75 years old 14 17
76 years old or over 6 15
Total 100 100

Sample profile – Education level AB (%) CD (%)

Middle school 31 62
Incomplete high school 33 26

Complete high school 14 5

66
Incomplete higher education 14 6
Complete higher education 8 1
Total 100 100

Sample profile – monthly family income AB (%) CD (%)

Up to 1 minimum wage 4 37
From 2 to 5 minimum wages 60 60
From 6 to 10 minimum wages 35 3
Over 10 minimum wages 1 -

Participation in third age groups AB % CD %


Yes 31 28

No 69 72

Participation in travel program for third age people AB % CD %

Yes 36 19

No 64 81

Go to community places (at least once a month) AB % CD %


Church or religious cult 61 48

Union 29 10

Employees’ club or association of the company you used to work for 23 9

Cultural associations 19 9

Friend neighborhood association 15 15

Political party 12 8

Parent-teacher association 10 14

Sports club or association 9 13

Average expenses AB % CD %

Up to R$30.00 43

From R$31.00 to R$50.00 34


From R$51.00 to R$70.00 13
From R$71.00 to R$100.00 4

Over R$101.00 6

Weighted average R$43,70

Average expenses AB % CD %
Up to R$100.00 13

From R$101.00 to R$300.00 48


From R$301.00 to R$500.00 24
From R$501.00 e R$1,000.00 13

67
Over R$1,001.00 1

Weighted average R$332,50 -

Techniques used for analysis


Data obtained were analyzed through usual position and dispersion measurement as
well as aplication of multivariate statistics technique, which make it possible to analyze sets
of data consisting of two or more variants (quantitative). Among the existing techniques the
factor analysis and cluster analysis were selected
Factor analysis aims at finding a set of latent factors in a bigger set of variants, which
may summarize the existing information with little loss; it also make it possible to select
variants that represent the original set. In order to facilitate the interpretation, rotated factor
loadings are used according to Varimax method (HAIR Jr. et al, 2006).
Cluster analysis aims at sorting raw data and grouping them into clusters taking into
accout the existing similarities among elements; when using this technique it is not necessary
to group elements in advance. Cluster analysis is being used in many areas, such as
Antropology, Biology and especially Marketing due to the need to identify population
segments in order to formulate and implement market strategies to better reach this public
(HAIR JR. et al, 2006).
According to MALHOTRA (2001), cluster analysis is an interdependency technique.
The steps to perform cluster analysis followed the literature on the subject (MALHOTRA,
2001, HAIR JR, 2006). Taking into account the variants studied, cluster analysis aims at
gathering individuals in many groups in a way that there is homogeneity inside the groups and
heterogeneity outside them. Hierarchical and optimization are among the most used clustering
methods. Hierachical method was used during the first phase, when interviewees were
grouped through a process that is repeated until a dendogram is established.
The main segmentation variants are: geographic (different countries, states, regions,
etc), demographic (age, gender, income, education level, etc), behavior (knowledge or
attitude) and psychographic (lifestyle or personality) which may be used alone or in
combination.
In order to understand the consumer, it is necessary to understand the differences or
heterogeneity of segments. One of the most traditional approaches use the marketing research
to identify a priori segments. In the a priori segmentation, database is divided in groups in
order to perform compared analysis, for instance: male x female, public x private, small x
medium x big business, light x medium x heavy user. Groups are defined in advance because
heterogeneity is easy to identify, group separation is almost obvious. In the a posteriori
segmentation, heterogeneity is not easy to identify, so techniques are applied in order to
separate database in groups (clusters), such as cluster analysis. There is a current tendency to
identify segments in the latent group through finite modified distribuition (HAHN et al,
2002).
The results for segmentation of habits and attitudes in AB and CD social classes (a
priori segmentation) have taken into account variants regarding self-concept, health, nutrition,
leisure, tourism, technology and attitudes (a posteriori segmentation). The choice of variants
was based on theoretical references in order to fill an existing gap in the literature, that is, the
lack of studies focusing on technology and the third age, which showed significant statistical
differences in the descriptive analysis.
Regarding segmentation, MOSCHIS, LEE, MATHUR (1997) say that it is a very
common strategy in marketing, which involves spliting the market into small groups that are

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very similar when compared to the same big group but complete different when compared to
other groups. The authors mentioned above warn against dealing with the third age market
segment as only one, a homogeneous one. It is necessary to consider the complexity of this
market because some principles applied to other segments may not be appropriate to this one;
besides, the third age market is constantly changing, that is, information on aged people´s
behavior may become obsolete very fast.
Cluster analysis dendogram has shown very agglomerations very distant for making a
choice regarding measurement of conglomerates distance. Delimitations were visually
established, taking into account points of considerable changes. Also researchers´ intuition
played an important role when defining the number of conglomerates (MALHOTRA, 2001).
Clusters have been identified using non-hierarchical K-means cluster analysis through
the use of SPSS software 15.0. Tests have been applied:
• t-test is used to compare average values in two groups (clusters);
• ANOVA is usedto compare average values in more than two groups (clusters), and
• chi-square is used in many situations; in this study, to identify the existence of connections
among categoric values

Details about factor and cluster analyses procedures

Self-concept
Questions put to interviewees were separated in four big groups through factor
analysis. The results showed four relevant factors, related to values of eigenvalues greater
than 1, which represent 60% of the original data set variance and were listed in the rotated
matrix of factor loadings table. Scales dimensionality were examined through factor analysis
using the main elements and retaining factor which self value was equal to or greater than
one. None of the variants were discounted because all presented a degree of commonality
greater than 0.5.
As to AB social classes, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Measure of Sampling
Adequacy (MSA) was performed to adjust data to factor analysis principles and the index
found was 0.877, indicating that factor analysis is appropriate.

Table 3: Comparative study of components obtaines from factor analysis


AB Social Class CD Social Class
Component 1 Time of experience Time of active life
Gray-haired population .788 Maturiy phase .828
Time of wisdom .782 The best age .794
Body changes .780 Body changes .770
Senior Citizen .734 Integration .753
Maturity phase .651 Leisure age .701
Leisure age .585 Age of feelings .679
Time of wisdom .653
New youth .583
Active old age .562
Component 2 Time to renew experiences Improdutive phase
Time of resignation .894 Uselessness .894
Integration .848 Abandonment .838
New youth .738 Incapacity .829
Age of feelings .628 Isolantion .661

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Active old age .564
The best age .564
Component 3 Improductive phase Resting phase
Incapacity .782 Time to rest .804
Uselessness .776 Time of retirement .745
Isolation .727 Senior Citizen .447
Abadonment .726
Component 4 Resting phase Accomodation phase
Time to rest .859 Gray-haired population .809
Time of retirement .721 Time of resignation .548

By analysing the tables, it can be noticed that the component “time of experience”,
related to time of wisdom, gray-haired population, body changes, senior citizen, maturity
phase, leisure age and active old age, is closely associated with what the theoretical references
denominate actual self (how a person really perceives himself or herself) along with ideal self
(how a person would like to perceive himself or herself).
The component “time to renew experiences” can be associated with “situational self (a
person´s self-concept in a specific situation) along with social self (how a person thinks others
perceive him or her).
The component “improductive phase” may be associated with self-consciousness
which, according to the theoretical references, refers to moments in which people seem to be
aware of themselves, their incapacity and uselessness and fell abandoned or isolated.
The component “Time to rest” and “idleness” may be associated with social self and
refers to how people present “their self” to others, once they have fulfilled their duty and are
entitled to a deserved rest or with “possible self” (what a person would like to become).
As to CD social classes, 4 components (factors) have been identified: Time of active
life, Improductive phase, Resting phase and idleness, Accomodation phase. The Kaiser-
Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Measure of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) was performed to adjust data to
factor analysis principles and the index found was 0.842, indicating that factor analysis is
appropriate (HAIR Jr. et al, 2006) and that four components represent 60% of the original
data set variance
The first component was “Time of active life” which refers to assertions that can be
associated with dimensions related to attitudes, feelings and knowledge about their own
abilities, appearance and social acceptability (Carvalho, 2006), all of them with a positive
value. It involves the recognition of body changes but also the possibility of living actively
and leisure time and admiting it is time of wisdom and age of feelings as described by Rolim
(2005); Villa Sanches; Escribano (1999) and Santana (2003) who point out an indication of a
process of interiorization among people over 60 years old.
The second component to emerge comprises the most depressing assertions regarding
uselessness, abandonment, incapacity and isolation, possibly due to people´s greater
awareness of their limitations and life outcomes. This factor is also present in the study with
third age people in AB social classes.
The third component is related to the idea of resting or idleness, there are not many
indications of active life and may be associated with a social dimension of self-concept, which
refers to the Self showed to others.
The fourth and last component is strongly associated with physical appearance and
passive acceptance, possibly changes in appearance, revealing a category examined by
Spinola (1995) which refers to material references to self-concept, according to which
perception of own body is an important attribute.

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Details about factor and cluster analyses procedures related to leisure

In order to complement the descriptive analysis of attitude towards leisure, a factor


analysis was performed taking into account the leisure activities people get engaged in, which
percentage is equal to or over 30%. Varimax rotation was used and KMO test applied, and
the index found was 0.743, indicating that the technique is appropriate. Audiovisual
component Cronbach Alfa coeficient (0.733): Listen to music (0.765), Listen to the radio
(0.763), Watch TV (0.709), Watch vídeos and/or DVD (0.585); Reading component
Cronbach Alfa coeficient (0.814): Read magazines (0.856), Read newspapers (0.785), Read
books (0.782); Careful with myself, my house, my home component Cronbach Alfa
coeficient (0.627): Wear/choose/buy cosmetic items and perfumes (0.786), Cook/prepare
dishes/culinary (0.703), Wear/choose/buy clothes/items of clothing (0.634), Go shopping
(0.514); Social component Cronbach Alfa coeficient (0.517): Visit friends and relatives
(0.681), Do relaxing exercises (0.670), Talk / chat (0.538), Religious component Cronbach
Alfa coeficient (0.626); Go to churches (0.833), Pray (0.668).
Through both factor and cluster analyses, it was possible to identify 5 groups and
demonstrate that they are heterogeneous groups when it comes to leisure activities, which was
one of the aims of this study. The components obtained through factor analysis were
examined along with demographic values, such as income, socioeconomic classification, age
and gender, and five groups were identified, which may indicate that the sample interviewed
comprises different segments regarding leisure activities.
After that, taking into account the whole sample, a cluster analysis was performed and
five groups were identified. The leisure components obtained from factorial analysis were
examined along with demographic values, such as income, socioeconomic classification, age
and gender. Finally, taking into account the whole sample again, a cluster analysis regarding
leisure activities was performed and five third age groups were identified.

Details about factor and cluster analyses procedures related to technology

A factor analysis was performed on the set of assertions presented in the previous
table, taking into account all data obtained (AB and CD classes). After Varimax rotation, 3
factors were identified, which explain 67% of data variability. Note the relevance of factor
analysis once index obtained after KMO test was 0.746 (HAIR JR. et al, 2006). It is worth
mentioning that factor analysis aims at finding a set of latent factors in a bigger set of
variants, which may summarize the existing information with little loss; it also make it
possible to select variants that represent the original set. In order to facilitate the
interpretation, rotated factor loadings are used according to Varimax method (HAIR Jr. et al,
2006). Fear, caution and daring stand out as important factors. Such results are in consonance
with the writings of the authors studied regarding third age people´s attitude towards
technology/computers, especially Machado (2007), Iyer E Eastman (2006) and Eastman e Iyer
(2004).

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Table 4: Rotation matrix of attitudes
Medo Cau- Ousa-
tela dia

Computers are dangerous because the cause unemployment .853


I fear that technological advances may control my live .841
When I purchase an electronic gadget I take into consideration manufactures .862
that provide good technical assistance
Computers came to help improve my life .534
When a new electronic gadget is relesead I wait until it becomes affordable for .516
me
I am one of the first to buy new electronic gadgets .828
In general, I have difficulties in dealing with technological advances around us .615

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