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10/22/2014

Heat Exchanger Analysis

Heat Exchanger Analysis

By
David Vaughn
And
Tyler Ware

September 19, 2000
UTC Engr 435
DR.’s Henry, Cunningham, Jones
Introduction
For this analysis a tube and shell heat exchanger was used in a variety of different ways to determine the
convection coefficient different parts of the exchanger. The convection coefficient was found for the tube
side of the exchanger for varying flow rates, and also for the shell side the exchanger for varying flow
rates. This was done by measuring the flow rates for each test and recording the temperatures for the inlet
and outlet of the hot and cold water flow.
Theory and Background
A tube and shell exchanger means that one fluid flows though a series of tubes while the other fluid flows
through a shell that surrounds the tubes. This exchanger had a total of 55 tubes, which amounted to a
total area of transfer of 2.93ft2. The total volume of the shell within this exchanger is 16.0 in3 and the
tubes with have a volume of 8.7in3. This exchanger in particular was set up so the hot water is capable of
flowing through the tubes or the shell, and also the hot and cold water can be set to flow co-current or
counter current. This means that the two streams are flowing the same direction or opposite directions
http://chem.engr.utc.edu/ENgr435/Heat-exchanger/Heat-Exchanger.htm

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and 2 and 3 are the shell entrances. A. depending on where it is flowing. before they both exit the exchanger. Convection is a mode of heat transfer that involves motion of some fluid that either absorbs heat from a source or gives heat to some surrounding. Then the heat is conducted through the tubes to the other side. Modeling http://chem. For example. the hot water is heating either the inside or the outside of the tubes in the exchanger. Figure 1 – Heat Exchanger Diagram On this exchanger the input function for the hot water is a motor percentage which pumps water through a hot water heater and then into the exchanger. It is calculated using the log mean temperature difference. What is actually happening is.edu/ENgr435/Heat-exchanger/Heat-Exchanger. changing the motor input changes the output of hot water flow rate. Conduction is a mode of heat transfer in which the heat is moving through a stationary object or fluid. if the hot water was set to flow in the tubes and counter current with the cold water. depending of whether the flow is parallel or counter. C. The output of the cold water is also varying a flow rate.engr.utc. For the cold water. while the cold water in would flow from B to D and then to 3. For a heat exchanger that flows parallel or counter current then the coefficient of heat transfer is called the over all coefficient of heat transfer. which is found two different ways. then in A the hot water in would take the path to C and then to 1. The way that a heat exchanger works is hot water and cold water enter the exchanger. and D are all 4way valves. B. In Figure 1 is a schematic of the heat exchanger and its system. by what is known as convection. meaning that they have two inputs and two exits. where the process of cold water gaining some heat and the hot water losing some takes place. either the outside or the inside.htm 2/11 . where it is then convected back into the cold water raising its temperature. which depends upon some valve percentage.10/22/2014 Heat Exchanger Analysis respectively. the input function is a proportional valve percentage that varies the amount of cold water aloud to flow through the system from the faucet. 1 and 4 are the tube entrances into the heat exchanger. The temperature is considered a constant coming out of the water heater.

http://chem. For this experiment we decide to divide the actual procedure in to four different groups: first using the hot water in the shell and the flows counter-current. the run button was pushed on the interface.DT1 ) / ( ln (DT2 / DT1 )) For parallel flow : DT1 = Thi –Tci and DT2 = Tho . After selecting the settings we were going to use first.Tco For counter flow : DT1 = Thi –Tco and DT2 = Tho .utc. The other primary equation was as follows: Q = U*A* DTlm Where the Q is the heat exchanged. the first thing to do is to understand the exchanger and to then decide the procedure that will be used in order to take data that will be useful later for analysis. Then for each of the partial procedures the flow rate should be varied for the hot water and the cold water. and the experiment was started. A is the surface area for the heat to be exchanged. and for the last experiments we would leave the hot water in the tubes. After the data was recorded we stopped the program and left the computer as it was when we arrived.htm 3/11 . This equation can be used for both the cold and hot water streams. U is the overall heat transfer coefficient. With this procedure in mind we started the labview Temperature Manual Remote program. and DTlm is a log mean temperature difference and is defined below. They were: Q = Cp(DT) Where Q is the heat exchanged. Cp is the heat capacity. and DT is the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet streams of the heat exchanger.edu/ENgr435/Heat-exchanger/Heat-Exchanger. second hot water in the shell and the flows are cocurrent. third we would leave the flow co-current and switch the flow of hot water from the shell to the tubes. but the flow would be switched to counter current. The temperatures were then recorded off the computer for the hot water input and output and the cold water input and output.10/22/2014 Heat Exchanger Analysis There were two main equations used to analyze the heat exchanger. DTlm = (DT2 .engr.Tci Figure 2 – Tube and Shell Co-Current Flow Procedure In conducting an analysis on the heat exchanger.

0 11.14 12.60 4.6 11.00 1.80 20.8 4.16 10.80 11.80 11.6 4.50 3.19 14.8 4.40 3.4 3.00 HW Shell Co-Current HW flow CW flow D T1 *C D 4.0 1.5 17.20 13.10 4.85 8.9 1.5 13.8 14.3 4.2 1.edu/ENgr435/Heat-exchanger/Heat-Exchanger.2 4.4 0.5 1.17 15.6 0.5 1.10 11.8 0.4 4.1 1.66 3.htm 4/11 .97 0.07 1.3 12.20 18.87 0.8 4.29 14.70 3.6 4.13 0.94 0.9 2.5 2.30 3.5 18.0 13.1 8.8 3.60 HW shell Counter Current 3.70 3.36 18.5 14.6 4.04 9.4 3.0 HW shell Counter Current HW flow CW flow D T1 *C D 4.20 1.91 0.0 11.4 3.40 4.1 4.5 1.3 12.38 10.98 T2 *C 4.4 4.8 12.8 4.29 13.6 14.Counter Current HW flow CW flow D T1 *C D 4.5 18.5 19.50 3.4 4.2 4.50 3.4 1.94 0.5 14.4 1.90 11.30 9.40 11.2 1.3 4.engr.98 3.65 1.2 3.5 15.7 4.1 14.5 15.9 11.90 14.0 13.8 9.30 HW Tubes Co-Current T2 *C DT Log Mean U (kW/m^2 K) 15.29 T2 *C 12.utc.10/22/2014 Heat Exchanger Analysis Results The results from the spreadsheet were as follows: HW Tube .0 13.25 9.0 4.40 3.6 4.80 12.30 4.11 11.80 10.4 3.80 21.1 12.18 7.99 7.5 16.9 13.6 0.3 12.70 3.90 4.6 4.9 0.21 15.07 http://chem.6 1.7 14.0 1.66 4.14 14.6 1.50 11.

15 1.50 4.70 2.10/22/2014 Heat Exchanger Analysis 4.20 22.edu/ENgr435/Heat-exchanger/Heat-Exchanger.12 1.77 4.49 8.utc.90 11.engr.77 4.htm 5/11 .57 3.00 Table 1 – Collected Data The data was plotted and the results follow: Figure 2 – HW Tube Counter Current http://chem.90 17.

10/22/2014 Heat Exchanger Analysis Figure 3 – HW Shell Counter Current Figure 4– CW Tube Counter Current The Reynold’s number was calculated for the tubes of the heat exchanger and was found to be less than 1000 for all flow rates that were possible.utc. Therefore the flow through the tube side of the heat exchanger was assumed laminar.edu/ENgr435/Heat-exchanger/Heat-Exchanger. Note! – Insert Reynold # vs. U Here http://chem.engr.htm 6/11 .

the results seemed to be completely opposite. Presently the heat exchanger has no insulation and the ambient room temperature has a large effect on the results. One way is to purchase new flow meters. The reason for this is believed to be caused from the baffles within the shell in the heat exchanger. When the hot water was left constant and the cold water varied while flowing through the shell. It was seen that when the flow in the shell reached about 3.7 L/min at which time the U value started to increase with higher flow rates. Also for the flow rates examined the heat transfer rate increases as the flow rate increases. It is believed that the baffles cause the flow to become turbulent. David Vaughn Wrote for report: Modeling Results http://chem. the U increase until the flow rate is around 3. This is extremely important because without accurate flow rates the temperature data is worthless. Another recommendation is to ensure that the flow rates obtained are measured accurately. There are two ways that this may be done.65 L/min. the average U value increases. When the hot water flow is in the tubes and is increased. The U calculated for the hot stream was only slightly different then the U calculated for the cold stream. When the hot water is in the shell.10/22/2014 Heat Exchanger Analysis Discussion When the cold water is left at a constant flow rate and the hot water flow is increased. and the other is to manually measure each flow rate with great care. The average U value decreased with increasing flow rates until the flow was about 3. The response of the average U value with a varying flow rate is different for the hot water in the tubes and the hot water in the shell. the average U value increases constantly with flow increase. It is also recommended that during the process of data collection that the user adjusts the flow rate of only one stream per setup.utc. and which time the U value decreases with increased flow rates. Conclusions The heat exchanger performed as it was expected to perform. The heat exchanger was most effective when the hot water was directed into the tubes and the flow was counter-current. so the U value changes.7 L/min the flow began to be disturbed. This is because the water flow through the tubes is staying laminar therefore making the U value more constant. when the flow increases so much the baffles start to make the flow turn more turbulent than laminar. it is recommended that the heat exchanger be well insulated. If this is not done the graphs of the data becomes very difficult to read and understand. This indicates that there is heat lost to the surrounding areas.htm 7/11 .engr. Recommendations In an effort to reduce the heat loss to the surroundings.edu/ENgr435/Heat-exchanger/Heat-Exchanger.

DT1 ) / ( ln (DT2 / DT1 )) For parallel flow : DT1 = Thi –Tci and DT2 = Tho .edu/ENgr435/Heat-exchanger/Heat-Exchanger.htm 8/11 .Tco For counter flow : DT1 = Thi –Tco and DT2 = Tho .Tci http://chem.18 kJ / kg k Equations: Q = Cp(DT) Q = U*A* DTlm DTlm = (DT2 .10/22/2014 Heat Exchanger Analysis Conclusions Recommendations Also: Collected data for two days of lab Tyler Ware Wrote for the report: Introduction Theory and Background Procedure Discussion Also: Gave both oral presentations Collected data for all three days of lab Appendices Physical properties for water: Cp = 4.utc.engr.

10/22/2014 Heat Exchanger Analysis Data curves and calculations: *see the following sheets http://chem.edu/ENgr435/Heat-exchanger/Heat-Exchanger.utc.htm 9/11 .engr.

The response of the average U value with a varing flow rate is different for the hot water in the tubes and the hot water in the shell.edu/ENgr435/Heat-exchanger/Heat-Exchanger.65 L/min.utc. The reason for this is believed to be caused from the baffles within the shell in the heat exchanger.engr. This is because the water flow through the tubes is staying laminar therefore making the U value more constant. when the flow increases so much the baffles start to make the flow turn more turbulent then laminar. When the hot water is in the shell. When the hot water flow is in the tubes and is increased. so the U value changes. When the hot water was left constant and the cold water http://chem. the average U value increases.htm 10/11 . When the cold water is left at a constant flow rate and the hot water flow is increased. the average U value increases constantly with flow increase. and which time the U value decreases with increased flow rates. the U increase until the flow rate is around 3.10/22/2014 Heat Exchanger Analysis Discussion When looking at the results from that data taken it is seen that the heat exchanger does perform as it should.

7 L/min at which time the U value started to increase with higher flow rates.engr.utc. the results seemed to be completely opposite.edu/ENgr435/Heat-exchanger/Heat-Exchanger.10/22/2014 Heat Exchanger Analysis varied while flowing through the shell. http://chem.htm 11/11 . The average U value decreased with increasing flow rates until the flow was about 3.