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VOLUME 3 NUMBER 4

DIGITAL VIDEO LEVELS


The system set up to establish video levels
is identical in both SD and HD digital systems.
This issue reviews the assignments of levels
and ranges within the 10-bit range of numbers
for both Y and C, deals with numbers in both
binary and hexadecimal (hex), presents some
data observations for common signals, explains
conversion from analog to digital and presents
data levels for all colors in 100% and 75% color
bars for both SD and HD systems.

reserved for use in the preambles (a sort of


"heads up") for sync words. The numbers are
zero ( 000) and 11 1111 1111 in binary (3FF in
hex). Note that the black level converts to 040
in hex and peak white converts to 3AC. Keep
these numbers in mind. A range of levels above
peak white and below black is provided for both
headroom and "footroom." However the hex values 000 to 003 and 3FC to 3FF are set aside
for sync purposes.

Y Signals

C Signals

The 10-bit system offers a range of 210 or


1024 discrete levels. But not all are used for
video levels. See Fig. 1.The binary numbers at
the very bottom and top of the available range
are excluded from use as video levels, and

The color-difference signals, B-Y and R-Y


labeled Cb and Cr, are scaled to fit the full
span of 100% ( 350 mV) and placed upon a
50% pedestal so that the full range is in positive
numbers. See Fig, 2.

IRE

mV

BINARY
HEX
11 1111 1111 3FF
11 1010 1100 3AC

109.5 766.3 Excluded


100.00 700.0 Peak White

0.0
-7.3

0.0
-51.1

Black
Excluded

Fig. 1 Y Signal levels

IRE

mV

BINARY
HEX
11 1111 1111 3FF
11 1010 1100 3AC

109.5 766.3 Excluded


100.00 700.0 Peak White

00 0100 0000 040


00 0000 0000 000

0.0
-7.3

0.0
-51.1

Black
Excluded

00 0100 0000 040


00 0000 0000 000

Fig. 2 Chroma Signal levels

Teleproduction Test is produced by Leader Instruments Corporation, a manufacturer of video, audio and industrial test instruments. Permission is
granted to reprint part or all of the contents provided a credit line is included listing the following:

Leader Instruments Corporation


6484 Commerce Drive Cypress, CA 90630

1 (800) 645-5104 www.LeaderUSA.com e-mail: sales@LeaderUSA.com

Note that the Cb and Cr swings sit on a pedestal


at 200 in hex. In addition the peak extends
somewhat higher to 3C0 in comparison to the
3AC peak in Y.
Data Displays

rising at address (0005). By advancing the sample address you will see that Y reaches 3AC at
address (0019). See Fig. 4. What you have
observed in data is the rise time of the white
bar.

Figure 3 shows the serial data display from


the LV 5100D. The signal is 100% color bars
and line-select has been set to line 33 to make
sure the line to be observed is in the active picture area. The MODE has been set to LINE

An alternative data display is obtained by


selecting the COMPONENT <MODE>. (Touch
F-2 to the right of the screen.) Here the data is
rearranged to appear in columns of Y, Cb and
Cr. Look at Fig. 5. Of the 1440 active samples
per line half (720) are Y. These are shown in
pairs for Y and Y' in the left columns, and the

Fig. 3 Serial data display

Fig. 5 Component data display

in which samples are listed in the order in which


they occur, starting with Cb and continuing with
Y, Cr, Y'. CbThe sample address has been
set to 0000 to show the first sample, Cb, after
SAV (Start of Active Video). Since the early
samples for 100% bars will be for the white bar
the chroma values Cb and Cr are zero so that
the value of the chroma pedestal, 200, will
appear for Cb and Cr throughout the white bar.
Note that Y starts out at 040 (black) and begins

addresses range from 0000 to 0719. The chroma addresses are co-sited with the Y samples.
Note that the chroma addresses are half of the
address for Y. This particular snapshot for data
is near the end of the transition from the white
to the yellow bar. Y has reached 348, the correct Y value for yellow in 100% bars, but the
slower rise time of Cb and Cr have kept Cb and
Cr from reaching 040 and 249 at address 0049.
The next four pages present values for
100% and 75% color bars for both SD and HD
systems. Levels for decoded signals are given
in % (IRE), millivolts and Hex. The difference
between SD and HD values is the result of colorimetry differences between the two systems.
SD values are based on the SMPTE formula for
Y in use in the NTSC system:
Y = 29.9%R + 58.7%G + 11.4%B
Y for HD systems is calculated using the
formula given in SMPTE RP-177 and 274M:
Y = 21.26%R + 71.52%G + 7.22%B

Fig. 4 Y reaches 3AC at address 0019.

Note the increase in green and the reduction of


red and blue.

HD 100% COLOR BARS


WHT

%
mV
HEX

100.00
700.0
3AC

YEL

92.78
649.5
36D

CYAN

78.74
551.2
2F2

GRN

MAG

71.52
500.6
2B2

RED

21.26
148.8
0FA
28.40
199.4
13A

Cb

61.46
430.2
267

50.00
350.0
200

11.46
80.2
0A7

0.00
0.0
040

50.00
350.0
200

88.54
619.8
359

95.42
667.9
397

54.58
382.1
229

38.54
269.8
199

BLU

7.22
50.5
07F

100.00
700.0
3C0

100.00
700.0
3C0

BLK

0.00
0.0
040

50.00
350.0
200

50.00
350.0
200

Cr
0.00
0.0
040

Bar-Center
Address

0123

0364

0602

4.58
32.1
069

0841

45.42
317.9
1CE

1079

1318

1557

1786
gpm1/02

Levels in % (IRE), millivolts and HEX for 100% color bars in accordance with
SMPTE RP-177 and 274M based on the formula Y= 21.26%R+71.52%G+7.22%B.

HD 75% COLOR BARS


WHT

%
mV
HEX

YEL

CYAN

GRN

MAG

RED

BLU

BLK

100.00
700.0
3AC
69.56
487.1
2A2

59.06
413.4
245

53.64
375.5
216

Cb

41.4
289.8
1B3

21.09
147.6
0FD

12.51
9.4
0B0

84.06
558.4
331
50.00
350.0
200

15.95
111.7
0CC

87.50
612.5
350

46.60
326.2
1E1
12.50
87.5
0B0

0.00
0.0
040

50.00
350.0
200

87.50
612.5
350

53.45
374.2
21F

Cr

5.42
37.9
06F

78.91
552.4
303

58.59
410.1
24D

50.00
350.0
200

21.36
149.5
0FB

50.00
350.0
200

15.94
111.6
0CF
gpm1/02

Bar-Center
Address

0123

0364

0602

0841

1079

1318

1557

1786

Levels in % (IRE), millivolts and HEX for 75% color bars in accordance with
SMPTE RP-177 and 274M based on the formula Y = 21.26%R+71.52%G+7.22%B.

SD 100% COLOR BARS


WHT

%
mV
HEX

100.0
700.0
3AC

Cb

YEL

88.6
620.2
348

CYAN

70.1
490.7
2A6

Bar-Center
Address

58.7
410.9
242

50.0
350.0
200

MAG

41.3
289.1
1AA

16.9
118.3
0D7

50.0
350.0
200

0.0
0.0
040

29.9
209.3
146

33.1
231.7
169

91.9
643.3
377
58.1
406.7
249

RED

83.1
581.7
329

66.9
468.3
297

0.0
0.0
040

Cr

GRN

100.0
700.0
3C0

BLU

11.4
79.8
0A4

100.0
700.0
3C0

41.9
293.3
1B7

BLK

0.0
0.0
040

50.0
350.0
200

50.0
350.0
200

8.1
56.7
089

gpm1/02

0097

0279

0451

0625

0803

0985

1157

1335

Levels in % (IRE), milliv olts and HEX for 100% color bars for SD (601) signals based on the formula
Y = 29.9%R + 58.7%G + 11.4%B.

SD 75% COLOR BARS


WHT

%
mV
HEX

CYAN

GRN

66.5
465.5
286

52.6
368.2
20D

30.9
216.8
14F
44.0
308.0
1C2

RED

BLU

50.0
350.0
200

Cr

0097

37.4
261.8
18F

25.2
176.4
121

12.5
87.5
0B0

56.1
392.7
237

12.5
87.5
0B0

0279

0451

22.4
157.0
104

8.6
59.9
08B

74.9
524.3
2DF

62.6
438.2
271

50.0
350.0
200

Bar-Center
Address

MAG

BLK

100.0
700.0
3AC

Cb

YEL

18.6
130.2
0E7

0625

81.5
570.5
319

0803

87.5
612.5
350

0985

87.5
612.5
350

43.9
307.3
1C9

1157

0.0
0.0
040

50.0
350.0
200

50.0
350.0
200

1335

Levels in % (IRE), millivolts and HEX for 75% color bars for SD (601) signals based on the formula
Y = 29.9%R + 58.7%G + 11.4%B.

HD Data
HD data is shown in a fashion similar to
SD. The levels used are the same, i.e. 40 is
black in hex for Y and 3AC is equivalent to
100%. The normal span of color signals ranges
from 40 to 3C0. Look back at Figs.1 and 2, and
the drawings on the previous pages. There are
some differences in presentation, however. See
Fig. 6 which shows data for a 1080i 59.94 signal in the SERIAL form on the LV 5152DA
(called LINE in the LV 5100D).

Fig. 6 Serial HD data on the LV 5152DA


The first thing you will notice is that there
appears to be twice as many addresses. There
are eight SAV addresses instead of the four you
see in SD. The reason is that Y and C are carried by separate cables in the parallel output
feeds of the A/D converter. These are joined at
the input to the serializer so we see SAV signals for both Y and C. (This is also the reason
that the final serial data rate is 1.483 Mbs.) The
sample frequency for Y and C is 74.17 Mbs.
These are joined at the serializer to become
148.34 Mbs. The 10-bit serializer multiplies by
10 to yield the 1.483-Gbs serial signal.
Number Crunching
What follows is a simplified illustration of
how the numbers on the previous pages are
arrived at. Levels in %, mV and hex for the yellow bar in HD 100% bars are worked out. The
starting point is the HD Y formula:
Y = 0.2126R + 0.7152G + 0.0722B
Considering yellow from a perfect source of
100% signals R and G are at 100%. B is at
zero. Taking the above fractions for R and G we
get Y for the yellow bar to be 21.26 + 71.52 =
92.78%. Multiplying 700mV by 0.9278 yields
649.46 rounded to 649.5.

To find the hex value we have to consider


the range in decimal values from black to 100%
white. Black is 040 in hex which coverts to 064
in decimal. This conversion is done easily on
the WINDOWS calculator. Go to ACCESSORIES then CALCULATOR on your PC.
When the calculator page appears hit VIEW
and select SCIENTIFIC. Here you can select
HEX and enter 40. Then select DEC and read
64. The same procedure for peak white: 3AC in
hex, yields 940. Thus in decimal the range from
black to peak white is 940-64 = 876. Now we'll
take 0.9278 of 876 to find the value above
black in decimal to be 813. Add this to the black
level at 64 to find the total decimal value of 877.
Enter this number in DEC on your PC calculator
and hit HEX to read 36D.
The color difference signals are a little more
involved because the Cb and Cr swings
exceed 100% and we have to add in that 50%
pedestal. Consider Cb (B-Y). The blue signal is
at zero so B-Y becomes 0-92.78 or -92.78. The
B signal for the blue bar is 100 - 7.22 = +92.78.
This yields a p-p swing for B-Y of 185.66%.
This would clearly overload a system set up for
a span of 100%. To remedy this situation a
"Squash"
factor of 100/185.66 or 0.5389 is
applied to B-Y. Applying the squash factor to the
calculated B-Y for the yellow bar yields
-92.78 x 0.53891 =- 50.00.
Now to add that 50% pedestal to find the value
of Cb (B-Y) for the blue bar to be zero, which
(as you have learned) is 040 in hex.
If you look at the HD 100% color bar signals for Cb on the previous pages you will see
that it swings to zero at the yellow bar and to
100% at the blue bar. Similarly Cr (R-Y) has its
peak excursion at the cyan and red bars. If we
redo for R-Y what we just did for B-Y we would
find that the p-p swing between cyan and red is
157.48% p-p requiring a squash factor of 0.635
to bring Cr into the 100% limit.
Getting back to Cr for the yellow bar we see
that the red signal for yellow is at 100% making
R-Y 100%- 92.78= 7.22. Applying the Cr
squash factor of 0.635 yields 4.58. Adding the
50% pedestal brings Cr level for the yellow bar
to 54.58%. In millivolts this is 700 x 0.5458 or
382.1 mV. Now for the hex value: The total
chroma excursion is from 040 to 3C0.
Converting this to decimal the range becomes
064 to 960 for a number span of 896. Now 896
x 0.5458 = 489 + the 64 at black yields 553 as
the decimal level for Cr at the yellow bar.
Converting to hex via the PC calculator yields
229.
Those "squash" factors developed above
are found in all current color systems. The factors are 0.492 for B-Y and 0.877 for R-Y in the

NTSC system. The effect of the squash factors


must be reversed when converting back to GBR
from Y, B-Y and R-Y. For example, Cb in HD
must be amplified by 1/0.5389 = 1.8556.
Similarly Cr must be amplified by 1/0.635 =
1.5748. In effect B-Y is almost doubled and R-Y
also given a big boost in the recovery of GBR.
G-Y, it turns out receives very little boost. (Ever
wonder why chroma noise always looks purple?)

respectively. The next three, at addresses 16951697 are the CRC data words for the active
picture area of the field. For test signals, like
color bars, these numbers will not change with
data updates. However, the data words at
addresses 1698-1700 form the FF (full field)
CRCs, and these will be seen to change with
each data update if embedded audio has been
switched on at the generator. (The test tones
are not synched to video.

Data in the Blanking Intervals

A signal worth looking for in the HD format


is the control signal for embedded audio. This
appears on line 9 in the 1080i 59.94 format.
The control signal is embedded in the Y signal
while the audio data is placed in Cr and Cb.
Figure 8 shows the control signal and start of
embedded audio in Cb and Cr in the COMPONENT data display of the LV 5152DA.

A very useful feature of the data display is


the ability to show embedded audio and special
codes. Let's look at two examples. The first is in
the SD format and is the EDH (Error Detection
& Handling) codes. If EDH is present in the signal (enabled in the generator) the EDH LED on
the front panel of the LV 5100D or DE will glow.
This signal is placed on line 9 and 272, and the
preamble starts at address 1689. Figure 7
shows the setup using the LINE (serial) data
display with line 9 selected and address 1688 at
the top.

Fig. 8 Audio Control Signal

Fig. 7 EDH Codes


The preamble is 000, 3FF, 3FF at addresses 1689-1691. This is followed by a data block
ID (1F4), a Block Number (200) and a Data
Count (110) at addresses 1692, 1693 and 1694

Compare this COMPONENT display with


the SERIAL display shown in Fig. 6. Note that
the four EAV signals appear in sequence for Y,
but also appear in Cb and Cr. The audio control
pulse has some value as a timing reference
when dealing with timing errors that exceed a
line duration. (See Teleproduction Test Volume
3 Number 3.

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