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without prior permission of Lecturer:Ahmednoor Hussein Mohamed

Spoken English Course Curriculum
Course Overview:
Learning to speak English well may be the best thing you can do to improve your life.English is
a universal language. The world has changed. If you want to learn the world you need to learn
theEnglish language.With IT, we can open ourselves to the world and the only way
we can connect to the world is through the English language.If you are a business man
you would have to learn English to expand your business to overseas.If you are a student you
would have to learn English for a brighter future.If you are a professional, you would have to
learn English for the benefit of your career.Even if you are just a street walker, still you
need to learn English to understand what's going on in theworld. No matter who you
are. Learning English is very important.The format of the class would include theory
classes on etiquette and manners, grammar & vocabulary. Conversation classes for
building fluency. Group discussion classes including debates, thought processing,language check
Course Goals:
The purpose of the course is to synchronize educational fineness with human
excellence, to promote self -development and creativity in a stress free atmosphere,
to emphasize on providing the most modern a ndsophisticated learning environment
co Moreover, it is to develop a more qualified and learned society.T h e G o a l i s t o
create a society where English speaking capability can be harnessed by
e a c h a n d e v e r y individual to increase his/her potential to succeed in their professional and
personal life. We seek to liberatethe person from his inability to communicate in the corporate
language of the whole worldwhich is English.
Course Objectives:

Frame grammatically correct sentences in English.

Fluently speak in English in any situation.

Express yourself in groups of people confidently.

Able to present your thoughts more effectively.

Participate at higher levels in Group Discussions and meetings.

Present yourself more confidently in personal interviews.

Speak in Neutral Accent and also pick-up UK/US Accent.


There are different ways to greet people:
Greeting means welcoming someone with particular words or a particular action.
When meeting people formally for the first time, we greet by shaking hands and
saying "How do you do?" or "Pleased to meet you."
"How do you do?" isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".
When young people meet informally they sometimes greet and say "Give me five!" and
slap their hands together (high five).
Generally we do not greet by shaking hands with people we know well. We greet by
just saying 'hi' or 'hello'
Here are some expressions you can use to greet people.



Good morning, good afternoon, good evening.
How are you?
How are you doing?
How do you do?

Responding to greeting

Hi, hello.
Good morning/Good afternoon/Good evening.
I'm fine thank you (thanks)/Okey! Thank you (thanks)/Can't
complain/Not bad.
How about you?/And you?
How do you do?

Things to remember about greeting:
When you greet someone and say:
"How do you do?"
this isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".

Related material

Saying goodbye
Saying hello (greeting)

Saying Goodbye
Parting phrases
There are different expressions or phrases to say goodbye. These parting phrases
depend on situations and the people involved, their social status and personal

Leaving and saying goodbye

All right, everyone, it's time to head off.

Anyway, guys I'm going to make a move.
Ok, everyone, it's time to leave you.
See you later / tomorrow / soon.
Talk to you later!

If you want to say goodbye in a hurry

I'm so sorry, I've got to rush off / run / hurry!
I'm afraid I'm going to have to rush off / run / hurry!

Saying goodbye politely after meeting someone

Nice to see you.
It's been lovely to see you.
It was great to see you.
Good to see you.
Have a lovely / nice evening.
Have a good day.

Saying goodbye to your hosts

Thanks very much for dinner/ lunch - it was lovely!
Thank you very much for having me.

Other ways to say goodbye

Take care
Bye Bye!
Later man / bro!
Have a good one!
It's time to be going!
So Long!

Slang Goodbyes

Catch you later
Peace! / Peace out
I'm out!
Smell you later

.. Introducing others: Here are expressions to introduce others:      Jack. please meet Nicolas. I'm . I'm . Pleased to meet you. I'm . Nice to meet you... have you met Nicolas? I'd like you to meet Liza.Final goodbye  Farewell (when you intend never to see your interlocutor again) Related material   Saying goodbye Saying hello (greeting) Introducing yourself and other people Introducing yourself and others There is a range of ways to introduce yourself and people. Leila. I'd like to introduce you to Betty. this is Barbara. Useful responses when introducing yourself or other people:  Nice to meet you. I'd like to introduce myself. Introducing yourself: Here are expressions to introduce yourself:       My name is .... Jack... Barbara this is Leila... I'm . Let me introduce myself.. .. I'm .

the new manager. John: William.") "How do you do?" isn't really a question. ("I'm Alex Litterman. When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. Happy to meet you.I am busy. my assistant Jack: How do you do? Nicolas: How do you do? Things to remember:   When introducing yourself or other people in a formal situation use full names. please meet Mr Steve Lynch. Notice how they introduce themselves: Alex: Hi! My name is Alex Litterman. I can stand on my head for five minutes. I could work hard. Examples:     I can't help you. can and be able are used. it just means "Hello" 669 Talking about ability How to express ability To express that someone has the power or skill to do something. Nice to meet you.   Pleased to meet you. How do you do? Dialogue: Alex is talking to the new manager and his assistant. . Mr Alex Litterman. I'm unable to help you. Now I can't. William: Hi! I'm William O'Brian. I'm too old.

Expressing ability In the present: Express ability in the present as follows:   I can speak good English. In the future Express ability in the future as follows   I will be able to buy a house when I get a good job. I couldn't hear what he was saying. I'm too old. Things to remember:  Can is always followed by an infinitive without "to. ." Examples: I can ride my bike and I can drive a car. In the past Express ability in the past as follows   I was unable to visit him. but I can't drive a lorry. I can't stand on my head. I couldn't eat at all when I was ill. The teacher can assist you after class if you have any questions. Now I can't.  Can you speak Arabic? Yes.  Can in the past is was able or could Examples: When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. I can.

It is desirable to use the word "please. Sure. I will be able to find a job. I’m sorry. Example: When I finish my studies. Refusing to give permission:    Dialogue: No. go ahead. . please do. but that’s not possible. may I taste that hot spicy couscous dish? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you mind if I asked you something? Is it okay if I sit here? Would it be all right if I borrowed your mobile Phone? Giving Permission:      Yes. Sure. Asking For And Giving Permission Asking for and giving permission: When you ask for permission to use something that belongs to someone else you have to do your best to be polite. please? May I open the window. please don’t. No problem. Can in the future is will be able. can I have a look at your photo album? Please. please? Please. Please feel free. but you can't. I'm afraid." Asking for Permission:         Can I go out.

dear you can't. May I read a story before I sleep? Sure! But try to sleep early.. Leila: I like Robert de Nero most. Liza: Her mother: Liza: Her mother: Liza: Please mum. can I use the computer? No. Asking about favorite things:      What's your favorite sport? What sport do you like best? What sport do you like most? What kind of sport do you like best? Who's your favorite football player? ." Study the dialogue: Leila is talking to her new friend Cathy: Leila: What kind of films do you like best? Cathy: Science fiction. And you? Leila: Comedy. Examples:  "What's your favorite color?" "Green. is asking her mother for permission to use the computer. eight years old.Liza.. And who's your favorite actor? Cathy: Tom Cruise. Thanks a lot mummy. Talking About Favorite Things Talking about favorite things When you talk about your favorite things you talk about the best liked or most enjoyed things. It's time to go to bed.

For 2:40 you can use one of these two ways. Asking about the time: What time is it? time do you make it? 's the time? Have you got the right time? Telling the time: . Things to remember:   "Favourite" is British spelling. "Favorite" is American spelling. Telling The Time How to tell the time in English? There are two common ways of telling the time in English. I like football most.   Digital: the easier way . I like football best."Two forty " Classical: you say the minutes first then the hour .Responding:     My favorite sport is football. My favorite football player is Ronaldo."twenty to three" Here are the different ways to ask for and tell the time.

.25 twenty-five past two two twenty-five 2..40 twenty to three two forty 2.58 nearly three o'clock two fifty-eight 3.20 twenty past two two twenty 2..50 ten to three two fifty 2.35 twenty-five to three two thirty-five 2.57 three minutes to three two fifty-seven 2. It's .30 half past two two thirty 2. When they do so they use these expressions: .00 three o'clock three Example: Question: What's the time.15 a quarter past two two fifteen 2. please? Answer: It's two o'clock. 2.09 nine minutes past two two oh nine 2.06 six minutes past two two oh six 2.12 twelve past two two twelve 2. Making Offers How to make offers in English? It is common that English speakers make offers in conversations in order to be polite and helpful.45 a quarter to three two forty-five 2.55 five to three two fifty-five 2.00 two o'clock two 2..Digital It's .

. can and will are followed by the verb without to. Example: "Would you like some tea ?" "Would you like to drink some coffee? Responding to offers . Would you like… is followed either by a noun. Example: "Can I help you?" "Shall I bring you the mobile phone? Shall is more formal than can.? English learner must be able to make offers as well as accept or reject them.. Making offers: Can I Shall help you? get you some juice? Would you like a glass of water ? How about some pizza? Examples:      "Can I help you?" "Shall I open the window for you?" "Would you like another cup of coffee?" "Would you like me to clean the board?" "How about a juice? " Remember:    Shall.Can I… ? Shall I… ? Would you like … ? How about . The following are useful expressions to do so. or by the verb with to.

thanks Yes please." (With a shop assistant. that would be nice . I'll do it."  "Would you like a cup of tea?" "No thanks. Yes please. Thank you. Examples:  "Can I help you?" "No thanks. that would be great. please. that would be great."  "I'll do the washing." Or. I'm just having a look." "Thank you. thank you If you wouldn't mind. If you could. Don't worry." Shock and disbelief Expressing shock and disbelief ." "Yes please. I'd love to." "If you could. if you like.Accepting Declining Yes please."  "Would you like me to do the the ironing for you?" "If you wouldn't mind. It's OK. That would be very nice of you. I can do it myself." "It's OK. I'd like to. I can do it. that would be lovely."  "Shall I help you with your maths problem?" "Yes. I'd love one. I'll do it." "Don't worry."  "Would you like another piece of cake?" "Yes please. "No thank you. No. That would be very kind of you. No.)  "Can I help you?" "Do you know where the post office is.

I'm in Examples:       I was shocked to hear the news. bad news .. such as natural disasters. I was just stunned by her clothes. Here's a list of some common expressions to help you express   shock and disbelief.. especially when you feel sad. Examples:    I just can't believe he won the race. Shock: shocked to hear… stunned by. Disbelief: I (just) can't believe… can't imagine… It's unbelievable. Expressing Indifference . We're all in complete shock.. I was stunned / taken aback by the news I was completely taken aback by his behavior. taken aback by… I was .. came as a complete shock..It is sometimes difficult to say how you feel in unexpected situations. The news came as a complete shock. incredible.. It's unbelievable that they got married I just can't imagine they were able to get along with each other.

respond to an appointment and cancel an appointment. . I don’t mind. Who knows! Why should I care? It makes no difference to me. Here are some expressions you can use: Expressing indifference                So what? Who cares! I don’t care! It’s all the same to me. Here are some expressions you can use to do this concisely and clearly. It’s your decision. Whatever you do? I don’t mind. It doesn't matter to me Whatever (you want). Making an Appointment Making an appointment Being able to make and cancel an appointment is an important skill in English. You need to be able to:    make an appointment.How to express indifference? Sometimes you may have no particular interest or concern about something and you want to express indifference during a conversation. I suppose so. I have no preference.

..? Can we meet on... What about the 6th?" "I'm sorry. ok? Examples:        "Are you available on the 17th?" "Can we meet on the 16th?" "How does the 3rd sound to you?" "Are you free next week?" "Would Friday suit you?" "Is next Tuesday convenient for you?" "What about sometime next week?" Responding to an appointment: Yes...? would next ...... / next . . be ok? What about next ... would be fine. suits me would be perfect.. on ." "I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd.... Could we meet on Tuesday instead?" . I'm afraid I'm sorry I can't on . Monday is fine. / next.. . Examples:      "Yes....... I really don't think I can on .. I won't be able to make it on Monday.? free on.Asking to meet: Are you available on... / next... I won't be able to..." "Thursday would be perfect.... ? Is next .. is fine ." "Monday suits me.

at 10 am." "I really don't think I can on the 17th. as something unexpected has come up. . I want to Preferences on Monday morning. Is it possible to book an appointment Can I to see with May I Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department . on Monday morning? at 10 am? today? .. I will be unable to keep our appointment for tomorrow afternoon. but something urgent has come up. I'm afraid that I'm not going to be able to meet you after all. Can we fix another time?     Making Business Appointments How to make appointments in English These are expressions you'll probably need to make and change business appointments in English. . due to some unforeseen business... I'd much prefer Friday..  I wonder if I can I'd like to I need to book an appointment to see with Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department .  "Ah. You know we were going to meet next Friday? Well.. Can we meet up on the 19th? Cancelling an appointment You can cancel an appointment as follows      Unfortunately. Would it be possible to arrange another time later in the week? I’m afraid that I have to cancel our meeting on Wednesday... today. I'm very sorry. Wednesday is going to be a little difficult.. if that's alright with you.

Things to remember about preferences 1. I would eat a sandwich. "I'd prefer" + to + verb 2. A cup of coffee would be suitable.Talking about your preferences: Questions about preferences        Which do you prefer tea or coffee? Which do you prefer studying mathematics or physics? Which do you prefer to drink juice or mineral water? Which do you like better basketball or football? Do you prefer pizza or spaghetti? Would you prefer to eat a cake or an apple? Would you rather eat a cake or an apple? Replies      I prefer baseball. "I'd rather" + verb Making invitations Making invitations Do you know how to invite someone to your house for dinner or to go to the movies? What do you say in English when someone invites you? Here are some common expressions you can use when making or responding to invitations . I'd prefer to drink juice I'd rather drink mineral water If I had a choice.

thank you. I'm really sorry. That sounds lovely. I have an appointment. We'd be delighted to have you over for my birthday party. thanks. (*rain check: used to tell someone that you cannot accept invitations now. but I've got something else on. Well. but actually I'm doing something else this afternoon. When should I be there? Declining invitations:        I can't. I'm busy tomorrow. What time? I'd love to. but I'm already going out to the restaurant. Can I take a rain check* on that? That's very kind of you. but would like to do so at a later time) Dialogue: Mike and Ann are in a wedding party: Mike: Ann: Do you want to dance? No thanks. Accepting invitations:       Sure. What a great idea.I'm supposed to be doing something else. I really don't think I can . thank you. I'm a bit tired right now . I have to work. I'd love to. That's very kind of you. Sure.Inviting:         Do you want to go to the movies tonight? Would you like to go to the theater tomorrow? Would you be interested in going to the the stadium next Sunday? How do you fancy going to the the restaurant for dinner? How about going to the movies? Care to come over for lunch? I was just wondering if you would like to come over for a drink. This evening is no good. thanks.

crooked teeth.Mike: Ann: How about having a drink? Sure. fair skin . tall. black hair.. fat. intelligent. overweight. square face. short.. she's old. slim. obese. She's kind chubby. cute. slim.. blonde. regular teeth. bushy eyebrows. straight hair. thin. .. really rich. red-head. middle aged. skinny. beautiful. funny. long. rosy cheeks. tall. well-built. She has got oval face. thin. round face. gorgeous . dark. long nose. Questions: What does Leila / the house look like? can you tell me about Leila / the house? is Leila / the house like? Tell me about Leila / the house! Responses: Well. young. blue eyes. curly hair. round face. I'd love to! Describing people and things Describing: What are some good ways to describe      people? things? feelings? yourself? personality? See the phrases below for examples of descriptions in English. skinny.

naughty.. Expressing obligation Expressing obligation When it is necessary or obligatory to do something. you express obligation.. a comfortable living room.. It is obligatory that I stop when the traffic light turn red. comfortable.of silly. Obligation in the past:  I had to work extra hours to pay my bills. I have got to learn English if I want to live in the USA. It is necessary that I take a taxi. Short dialogues: Martha wants Liza to describe the new secretary: Martha: What's the new secretary like? She's cute. She's got long hair and a round face. Obligation in the future:  I'll have to borrow money. I must see the doctor soon because I don't feel well. Liza: Martha wants Liza to describe the new apartment: Martha: Tell me about your new apartment! It's big. I'm late. . It has got three bedrooms.. clean . nice. It's big. small. Obligation in the present:      I have to finish my work before this evening. and Liza: a spacious kitchen.

You aren’t permitted to .Things to remember: 1. You aren’t allowed to . It is forbidden to ... It's more an advice than an obligation.. I was so absent-minded that I didn't pay attention to the traffic Driver: lights.. Policeman: Well sir. you'll have to pay a fine! Expressing Prohibition Expressing prohibition To express prohibition the following expressions are used..The difference between "Have to" and "must" is that "have to"indicates that someone else has imposed conditions on us. Should also expresses obligation. The simple past of "must" is "had to". But there is a difference between must / have to and should:   must / have to = 100% obligation. . you must stop. " You look tired.. To express prohibition you can use:      It is prohibited to .." Dialogue: Policeman: Don't you know that you must stop when the traffic lights are red? Sorry sir. 4. You mustn’t . The simple future of "must" is "will have to".." should = 50% obligation.. "When the traffic light turn red.. you should have a rest. 2. 3.

Drivers mustn't park their cars here. It is forbidden to walk on grass. She's my daughter. People aren't permitted to throw rubbish here.. Mr O'Brian: Sorry. Dialogue: Notice how prohibition is expressed in this dialogue The security agent: Hey. What are you doing here? You aren't allowed to enter this building. sir. The security agent: Well. but I have an appointment with Dr Leila O'Biran. Students aren't allowed to come too late to school.That sounds OK. Mr O'Brian: Here you are. you. You can take the lift sir. Smoking isn't permitted in hospitals. The security agent: Show me your ID card please. What do you suggest? What do you advise me to do? What should I do? What ought I to do? What's your advice? . Asking for and Giving advice Expressions Asking for advice:      I've got a bad toothache..Examples:       Parking is strictly prohibited between these gates. Dr Leila O'Brian is in the 3rd floor.

Why don't you go to the dentist? You'd better brush your teeth regularly. "Advice" is a noun." 4. I would go to the dentist. You ought to/should avoid eating sweets. I'm afraid. Things to remember about asking for and giving advice: 1. It might be a good idea to brush your teeth on a regular basis. Example: "You ought to stop smoking. If you take my advice. "Ought to" has nearly the same meaning as "should". I wish I could help. You will undoubtedly need it in your higher studies" 2. but I can't. "Advise" is a verb. Example: "I advise you to learn English. Have you thought about seeing a dentist. I advise you to brush your teeth on a regular basis. I'm afraid I can't really help you. Example: "My father gave me this piece of advice when I was young: never give up" 3. The only difference is that "ought to " refers to a moral or external obligation but should is more of an advice. you'll go to the dentist. I wish I could suggest something. Declining to give advice     I don't know what to advise. If you were me what would you do? Giving advice         If I were you." "You should stop smoking. "You'd better" is the short form of "you had better" Example: "You'd better see a doctor!" = "You had better see the doctor" .

Making and responding to suggestions Suggestions The following English phrases and expressions are all used to make suggestions and give advice to people. I'd love to.Study the dialogue: Student: I'm terrible at English and I think I should do something about it. Making suggestions:          Let’s revise our lessons. let's. What a good idea! Why not? . It's a fantastic website for beginners. Yes. Student: I've heard about it. What do you advise me to do? Teacher: I think you should try this website. try the exercises. I'd like to. Yes. What about going to the cinema tonight? How about playing cards? Why don't we do our homework? Couldn't we invite your grandmother to our party? Shall we have a walk along the river? What would you say to a cup of coffee? Don't you think it is a good idea to watch TV? Does it matter if we use your car? Accepting suggestions:      Ok. but what do you think I should start with? Teacher: You'd better start with the lessons.Then. Yes.

" "I suggest we should visit Paris. I'd love to. No. 2.The verb "suggest" can be followed by either:   should + verb = I suggest (that) we should go to the theater. let's not. I don't feel like it. What about going to the library? We have to finish our school project! Alice: That sounds like a good idea. We've seen the film many times before. Refusing suggestions:      No. That sounds like a good idea. Yes.   Yes. why don't we go to the cinema to watch Titanic? Alan: No. I feel like taking a walk. What an awful / bad idea! Things to remember about suggestions: 1. with pleasure." Dialogue: Two friends talking about where to go this evening: Alice: You know Alan. a verb (in the subjunctive form)= I suggest (that) we go to the movies. I dislike going for a walk. But when we finish let's go to the cafè. let's not."That" is optional:   "I suggest that we should visit Paris. I'd rather not. Alan: Yes. Expressing Thanks and Gratitude How to express thanks and gratitude .

. You've been very helpful..... it's you... To my mind. You express thanks to tell someone that you are grateful for something that they have done or given to you.      Expressing Your Opinion How to express your opinion Expressing opinion I think. Examples:                 Thanks. Expressing thanks and gratitude Here are different ways to say thank you and to show your appreciation for something done or given to you.. Thanks for being thoughtful. Thank you for being there for me. In my point of view / my opinion.. It seems to me that. If anyone deserves thanks.. I thank you from the bottom of my heart. As far as I'm concerned. I am grateful. As I see it. How can I ever thank you enough for all you've done? You have been extremely supportive through this difficult time... I am indebted to you. That was very kind of you.. I want to thank you for all the support and concern.. Sincere thanks.. .This page will present different ways of expressing thanks and gratitude in English. According to me.. What you've done means a lot to me. . Thank you... I appreciate what you've done for me.

but. .. My personal view is that. I take the view that. I'm not sure I agree with you I think you're wrong      Complaining .... This idea is right.. I am of the opinion that. I don't agree with you...... ...  Agreeing or disagreeing  Agreeing with an opinion: I agree with this opinion... I couldn't / can't agree more.. I disagree with you.From my point of view. what are the expressions needed to express and respond to complaints? Complaining: Here are expressions you can use when complaining:  I have a complaint to make. Disagreeing with an opinion: I'm afraid. I can't agree with you. This is absolutely right. but. . Suppose you want to complain about the pizza you have just ordered because it's too salty.Talking about Complaints What are complaints? Complaints are expressions of "displeasure or annoyance" in response to an action that is seen by the speaker as unfavorable.. I agree with you.. but.. Partial agreement: I agree with this point of view. I completely agree with this view. As far as I understand / can see/see it. In my experience...

3.Excuse me but you are standing on my foot. I want to complain about. I'm really sorry... 1..       Sorry to bother you but. but this will never occur / happen again. I'm angry about the way you treat me.. there isn't much we can do about it.. we'll do our utmost/best not to do the same mistake again. 5. I'm angry about. I want to complain about the noise you are making.He's too noisy .. Responding to complaints Positive response to complaints:    I'm so sorry. I'm afraid there is a slight problem with. 4.. I'm sorry.... I'm afraid I've got a complaint about.. Things to remember about complaints: . We are sorry but the food is just alright. your food is inedible.. I'm afraid there is a slight problem with the service in this hotel.. Negative response to complaints:    Sorry there is nothing we can do about it.. I'm sorry to say this but. we promise never to make the same mistake again. I'm afraid I've got a complaint about your child. I'm afraid. Excuse me but there is a problem about. Examples: I have a complaint to make. 2. I'm sorry to say this but Your pizza is just too salty.

it helps to be polite. you're not. (some time in the future) I hope (that) you had a nice Birthday.(future possibility) I was hoping that you would come to the party.) Sometimes wish is used in greeting and expressions of goodwill: Example: We wish you a "Merry Christmas. Although "I'm angry about your pizza. (some time in the past) Hope can be used to specify a desired outcome.When expressing a complaint in English.(but you didn't) I had hoped to see you at the party on Saturday. but the grammar is slightly different: Examples: I hope (that) you have a Merry Christmas. it is considered too rude and you'd better use more polite expressions if you want to get what you want! Expressing Hope The difference between "wish" and "hope" How to use "wish"   Wish is most commonly used in hypothetical (or imagined/unreal) situations: Example: I wish (that) you were here. the possibilities remain open. the outcome has usually been determined already. (but I didn't) Other ways to express hope You can also express hope in the following ways: . and I miss you. Examples: I hope you can come to the party on Saturday." How to use "hope"   Hope can also be used in expressions of goodwill. It's too salty" is one possible way of expressing a complaint. (Unfortunately. For future hopes. but for past hopes.

Expressing Regret How to express regret Expressing regret means having a feeling of sadness about something that you did or did not do. I wouldn't have been sick. I f I hadn't eaten so much. Conditional type 3 You can also express regret by using a conditional sentence type 3. If only I hadn't eaten so much. you may use many different structures. . Here are some of them. To express regret in English. Remember:  "I wish you had done the work" is a regret. I really want to have a car What I really want is to have a car.   I would like to have a car. You didn't do the work (in the past) and I am annoyed because of that. If + past perfect + would + have + past participle Examples:   If I had worked hard. wish / if only You can express regret by using wish or if only: I wish / if only + Past perfect Examples:   I wish I had worked harder. I would have passed the exam.

I regret the things I didn't do. You can express regret by using: regret + Verb + ing OR regret + Noun Examples:   He doesn't regret leaving her. . I'd like to apologize for my trouble making.should have Regret may also be expressed by using a modal should: Should have + Past Participle Examples:   I should have sent him an invitation.. Apologizing Apologizing To apologize is to tell someone that you are sorry for having done something that has caused him inconvenience or unhappiness: Examples: I must apologize to Isabel for my late arrival.. He should have done the work. I regret.

forgive me for... Please.. You couldn't help it..Trains may be subject to delay on the northern line... I apologize for. Never mind... I shouldn't have. Accepting apologies:             That's all right.. Don't worry about it. I am so sorry for. I quite understand. No harm done.. Remember: ... Here are some expressions you can use to make and respond to apologies Making apologies:               I do apologize for.. I'd like to apologize for. I'm ashamed of. Forget about it. I must apologize for.. forgive me for my... Please. I'm terribly sorry for... Pardon me for this... It doesn't matter.. That's OK. accept my apologies for.... Don't worry about it. Don't apologize... Excuse me for . We apologize for any inconvenience caused. Don't mention it. Please.. It's all my fault.

"I'd like to apologize" is the short form of "I would like to apologize" Expressing Possibility What is the difference between possibility and probability? Possibility is when there is a chance that something may happen or be true while probability is the likelihood of something happening or being true: Example: "Until yesterday. May be she will make the trip alone. There's a chance she'll like the city. I suppose she might spend a lot of money on the presents. Perhaps she will visit London. Possibly. Making and responding to a request . it's impossible to repair that old Chevrolet. Expressing Possibility          My grandmother may travel alone.. the project was just a possibility. but now it has become a real probability. she will go by plane. She might buy some presents for the family before she goes." It is likely that it will happen. We may not be able to travel by car. It's possible that someone will meet her at the airport. Expressing impossibility     No. Even a good mechanic can't possibly fix it. There's no chance my father repairs it tomorrow. She will take an umbrella as it could rain heavily there.

? could you . I'm sorry I need it I'm afraid I can't...? Here are some examples of how to make a request.. please? Will you Could you possibly would you mind opening the door for me ? Making Request:      Can you show me your photo album. No. Okey. please? Will you lend me your book.. please? Could you possibly show me the way to the post office..Making and responding to a request It's important to be polite when you ask for something.. please? Would you help me with this exercise.? will you .? would you mind .. please? Would you mind lending me your pen. Can you open the door for me. Things to remember about making a request: . please? Responding to request:     Sure here you are.. You can make a request by using:     can you ..

... The response to the following request: A: "Would you mind giving me your book? " is either   "No. I was afraid of . frightened of . "Would you mind. Questions:       How did you feel? How did you react? What was your reaction? were you afraid of.. spooked...? Were you scared of..) 3. I don't mind. petrified . Could is more polite than can."(which is a positive response to the request..." (which is a negative response to the request.." is followed by a gerund (verb+ing) Example:"Would you mind lending me your book? " 2. It means that I accept to lend you my book) or "Yes..? Responses: terrified. Talking about fear Talking about fear There are many words and expressions you can use to talk about fear.1...? Were you terrified of. It means that I don't want to lend you my book. ..

. . shook with fear. It scared the hell out of me.. sent shivers out of me... It was a terrifying ordeal. Making Predictions Predictions: When making predictions (what we think will happen in the future) we can either use:   will followed by the verb without to.. Short dialogue: Latifa is talking about her fear when she saw the criminal Nancy: How did you feel when you saw the criminal? Latifa: I jumped out of my skin.scared of . gave me goosebumps.. or going to followed by the verb What (do you think) will happen? is going to happen? (I think) .. is going to . frightened the life out of me.. won't .... I jumped out of my skin.. isn't going to . will .

. . .. The .the.. ? Can you show me the way to. ? Where is . Asking about and giving directions Asking about direction To ask about directions use these questions:       How can I get to . . . 317 Shopping . ." "He isn't going to win the election. . Go past the restaurant/school.." "There won't be a rise in house prices next year.. . from here? How can I get to .. ? What's the best way to get to . ? Giving directions To give directions use these expressions:      Go straight on Turn left/right Take the first (turning) to the left/right. is beside/in front of/next to... I think. .Examples of making predictions:     "What do you think will happen next year?" "Next week is going to be very busy. . ." Things to remember about making predictions o "He won't do it" is the short form of " he will not do it..? Can you tell me how to get to ...

I'm looking for a T-shirt. small. we do. B: Thank you. extra large How does it fit? Where is the changing room? How would you like to pay? Can I pay by credit card / in cash? Shopping for a T-shirt A: Can I help you? B: Yes. . I'll buy it. A: OK. B: Thank you. here's my credit card. I like it. B: Thank you. A: What color would you like? B: A blue one. large. Have a nice day! A: Thank you. medium. Can I try it on? A: Certainly. A: OK. A: Here you are. goodbye.Shopping expressions These are expressions used when you go shopping:          Can / may I help you? Can I try it / them on? What size do you wear? What size are you? What color would you like? Extra small. the changing room is over there. A: Yes it looks nice on you. A: How does it fit? B: It's fantastic. B: Thank you. A: What size are you? B: I'm a medium. how would you like to pay? B: Do you take credit cards? B: Yes.

.... How can I help you? Can I speak to Mr/Mrs. . formulaic.. Just a second.. These are expressions you can use in your conversations on the phone.              You 've reached . opinion.. or image.. and oversimplified conception.. Stereotype can be described as a conventional. please? Who shall I say is calling? Who's calling. company/department. Please hold and I'll put you through.. Mr/Mrs. speaking..? Could I speak to ... Complaining . I'll see if s/he is in.Talking about Complaints How to define concepts can be defined as can be described as X Y refers to means Examples   Citizenship can be defined as the status of being a with its rights and duties. please? Who's speaking? It's Mr/Mrs. speaking.. here. Hang on for a moment..Conversations on the Phone Telephone conversations It is common that English speakers make phone calls either for business reasons or personal affairs.. It's Mr/Mrs..

. classes The two are ... These are . categories sorts varieties  X consists of two types . comprises kinds : . Culture refers to the arts.. on the basis of depending on Expressing lack of understanding and asking for clarification .. customs. and habits that characterize a particular society or nation    Classifying Classifying  To classify is to divide things into groups according to their type. Biologists classify animals and plants into different groups  How to classify things in English?  These tables show how you can classify things in English:  There are two types of X: ...  Illiteracy means the condition of being unable to read and write.. The books in the library are classified by/according to subject.. kinds of X. kinds classes categories sorts varieties  We can classify X according to .... These are. and . can be divided into classes categories sorts varieties  .... are types of X..

Sorry. I didn't get your point. I don't quite see what you're getting at. How yo ask for clarification When you don't understand what someone has said.? Do you mean. I'm not quite sure I know what you mean. I'm not quite sure I follow you. please? Could you repeat please? Could you clarify that. I don't quite see what you mean. but I don't quite understand. I'm not sure I got your point.? Could you say that again. please? Would you elaborate on that .? Could you give us an example? I wonder if you could say that in a different way. Could you put it differently. Sorry.Here is a list of useful English phrases you can use to express lack of understanding (that is.. How to express lack of understanding When you fail to understand what has been said to you you can use these expressions:          I beg your pardon? I beg your pardon.. you can ask for clarification using the following expressions:             What do you mean by.... please? Clarifying one's point or idea . please? Could you be more specific. please? Could you be more explicit? Could you explain what you mean by. I didn't quite hear what you said. when you fail to understand what has been said to you) and seek clarification from the person you are talking to..

........ To say this differently. In other words.To clarify your idea you can use the following expressions:        Let me explain that. Sorry let me explain. Let me put it in another way.... To put it differently.. . Let me explain that in more detail...

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