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without prior permission of Lecturer:Ahmednoor Hussein Mohamed

Spoken English Course Curriculum
Course Overview:
Learning to speak English well may be the best thing you can do to improve your life.English is
a universal language. The world has changed. If you want to learn the world you need to learn
theEnglish language.With IT, we can open ourselves to the world and the only way
we can connect to the world is through the English language.If you are a business man
you would have to learn English to expand your business to overseas.If you are a student you
would have to learn English for a brighter future.If you are a professional, you would have to
learn English for the benefit of your career.Even if you are just a street walker, still you
need to learn English to understand what's going on in theworld. No matter who you
are. Learning English is very important.The format of the class would include theory
classes on etiquette and manners, grammar & vocabulary. Conversation classes for
building fluency. Group discussion classes including debates, thought processing,language check
Course Goals:
The purpose of the course is to synchronize educational fineness with human
excellence, to promote self -development and creativity in a stress free atmosphere,
to emphasize on providing the most modern a ndsophisticated learning environment
co Moreover, it is to develop a more qualified and learned society.T h e G o a l i s t o
create a society where English speaking capability can be harnessed by
e a c h a n d e v e r y individual to increase his/her potential to succeed in their professional and
personal life. We seek to liberatethe person from his inability to communicate in the corporate
language of the whole worldwhich is English.
Course Objectives:

Frame grammatically correct sentences in English.

Fluently speak in English in any situation.

Express yourself in groups of people confidently.

Able to present your thoughts more effectively.

Participate at higher levels in Group Discussions and meetings.

Present yourself more confidently in personal interviews.

Speak in Neutral Accent and also pick-up UK/US Accent.


There are different ways to greet people:
Greeting means welcoming someone with particular words or a particular action.
When meeting people formally for the first time, we greet by shaking hands and
saying "How do you do?" or "Pleased to meet you."
"How do you do?" isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".
When young people meet informally they sometimes greet and say "Give me five!" and
slap their hands together (high five).
Generally we do not greet by shaking hands with people we know well. We greet by
just saying 'hi' or 'hello'
Here are some expressions you can use to greet people.



Good morning, good afternoon, good evening.
How are you?
How are you doing?
How do you do?

Responding to greeting

Hi, hello.
Good morning/Good afternoon/Good evening.
I'm fine thank you (thanks)/Okey! Thank you (thanks)/Can't
complain/Not bad.
How about you?/And you?
How do you do?

Things to remember about greeting:
When you greet someone and say:
"How do you do?"
this isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".

Related material

Saying goodbye
Saying hello (greeting)

Saying Goodbye
Parting phrases
There are different expressions or phrases to say goodbye. These parting phrases
depend on situations and the people involved, their social status and personal

Leaving and saying goodbye

All right, everyone, it's time to head off.

Anyway, guys I'm going to make a move.
Ok, everyone, it's time to leave you.
See you later / tomorrow / soon.
Talk to you later!

If you want to say goodbye in a hurry

I'm so sorry, I've got to rush off / run / hurry!
I'm afraid I'm going to have to rush off / run / hurry!

Saying goodbye politely after meeting someone

Nice to see you.
It's been lovely to see you.
It was great to see you.
Good to see you.
Have a lovely / nice evening.
Have a good day.

Saying goodbye to your hosts

Thanks very much for dinner/ lunch - it was lovely!
Thank you very much for having me.

Other ways to say goodbye

Take care
Bye Bye!
Later man / bro!
Have a good one!
It's time to be going!
So Long!

Slang Goodbyes

Catch you later
Peace! / Peace out
I'm out!
Smell you later

I'm . Introducing others: Here are expressions to introduce others:      Jack. Leila. Pleased to meet you.. . Nice to meet you.. I'd like to introduce myself... I'm .. I'd like to introduce you to Betty.Final goodbye  Farewell (when you intend never to see your interlocutor again) Related material   Saying goodbye Saying hello (greeting) Introducing yourself and other people Introducing yourself and others There is a range of ways to introduce yourself and people. I'm . this is Barbara. Useful responses when introducing yourself or other people:  Nice to meet you. Jack.. have you met Nicolas? I'd like you to meet Liza. Barbara this is Leila. I'm . I'm . Let me introduce myself..... please meet Nicolas. Introducing yourself: Here are expressions to introduce yourself:       My name is ....

") "How do you do?" isn't really a question. Notice how they introduce themselves: Alex: Hi! My name is Alex Litterman. I'm unable to help you. ("I'm Alex Litterman. my assistant Jack: How do you do? Nicolas: How do you do? Things to remember:   When introducing yourself or other people in a formal situation use full names. I could work hard. Mr Alex Litterman. When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. John: William. I'm too old. Happy to meet you. William: Hi! I'm William O'Brian. . I can stand on my head for five minutes. How do you do? Dialogue: Alex is talking to the new manager and his assistant.I am busy.   Pleased to meet you. Now I can't. Examples:     I can't help you. can and be able are used. Nice to meet you. the new manager. please meet Mr Steve Lynch. it just means "Hello" 669 Talking about ability How to express ability To express that someone has the power or skill to do something.

I'm too old. I couldn't eat at all when I was ill. Expressing ability In the present: Express ability in the present as follows:   I can speak good English. Things to remember:  Can is always followed by an infinitive without "to. . The teacher can assist you after class if you have any questions. I can. I couldn't hear what he was saying." Examples: I can ride my bike and I can drive a car.  Can you speak Arabic? Yes. I can't stand on my head.  Can in the past is was able or could Examples: When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. In the future Express ability in the future as follows   I will be able to buy a house when I get a good job. In the past Express ability in the past as follows   I was unable to visit him. but I can't drive a lorry. Now I can't.

 Can in the future is will be able. but you can't. I’m sorry. please do. No problem. please? May I open the window. Sure. Asking For And Giving Permission Asking for and giving permission: When you ask for permission to use something that belongs to someone else you have to do your best to be polite. Please feel free. may I taste that hot spicy couscous dish? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you mind if I asked you something? Is it okay if I sit here? Would it be all right if I borrowed your mobile Phone? Giving Permission:      Yes. It is desirable to use the word "please. Refusing to give permission:    Dialogue: No. can I have a look at your photo album? Please. please don’t. Example: When I finish my studies. but that’s not possible. go ahead. Sure. . please? Please. I'm afraid." Asking for Permission:         Can I go out. I will be able to find a job.

And you? Leila: Comedy. Leila: I like Robert de Nero most. It's time to go to bed. Examples:  "What's your favorite color?" "Green. can I use the computer? No.. is asking her mother for permission to use the computer. Talking About Favorite Things Talking about favorite things When you talk about your favorite things you talk about the best liked or most enjoyed things. And who's your favorite actor? Cathy: Tom Cruise. May I read a story before I sleep? Sure! But try to sleep early. dear you can't. Asking about favorite things:      What's your favorite sport? What sport do you like best? What sport do you like most? What kind of sport do you like best? Who's your favorite football player? . Thanks a lot mummy. Liza: Her mother: Liza: Her mother: Liza: Please mum.. eight years old.Liza." Study the dialogue: Leila is talking to her new friend Cathy: Leila: What kind of films do you like best? Cathy: Science fiction.

"twenty to three" Here are the different ways to ask for and tell the time.   Digital: the easier way . I like football best.Responding:     My favorite sport is football."Two forty " Classical: you say the minutes first then the hour . I like football most. Things to remember:   "Favourite" is British spelling. "Favorite" is American spelling. Asking about the time: What time is it? time do you make it? 's the time? Have you got the right time? Telling the time: . Telling The Time How to tell the time in English? There are two common ways of telling the time in English. My favorite football player is Ronaldo. For 2:40 you can use one of these two ways.

06 six minutes past two two oh six 2.09 nine minutes past two two oh nine 2.35 twenty-five to three two thirty-five 2.00 two o'clock two 2.57 three minutes to three two fifty-seven 2.45 a quarter to three two forty-five 2.30 half past two two thirty 2.20 twenty past two two twenty 2.12 twelve past two two twelve 2.15 a quarter past two two fifteen 2.40 twenty to three two forty 2.25 twenty-five past two two twenty-five 2. please? Answer: It's two o'clock.50 ten to three two fifty 2.58 nearly three o'clock two fifty-eight 3. 2.00 three o'clock three Example: Question: What's the time.. It's ..Digital It's .. Making Offers How to make offers in English? It is common that English speakers make offers in conversations in order to be polite and helpful..55 five to three two fifty-five 2. When they do so they use these expressions: .

. Would you like… is followed either by a noun. Example: "Can I help you?" "Shall I bring you the mobile phone? Shall is more formal than can. Example: "Would you like some tea ?" "Would you like to drink some coffee? Responding to offers .? English learner must be able to make offers as well as accept or reject them. can and will are followed by the verb without to. The following are useful expressions to do so. Making offers: Can I Shall help you? get you some juice? Would you like a glass of water ? How about some pizza? Examples:      "Can I help you?" "Shall I open the window for you?" "Would you like another cup of coffee?" "Would you like me to clean the board?" "How about a juice? " Remember:    Shall.Can I… ? Shall I… ? Would you like … ? How about . or by the verb with to..

I'd love to. that would be lovely."  "Would you like another piece of cake?" "Yes please. Examples:  "Can I help you?" "No thanks. If you could." Shock and disbelief Expressing shock and disbelief . No. "No thank you. That would be very kind of you. that would be nice ." "Don't worry. I'm just having a look.)  "Can I help you?" "Do you know where the post office is."  "Would you like a cup of tea?" "No thanks." "Yes please. No. I'll do it." (With a shop assistant."  "I'll do the washing. please. I'll do it. I can do it myself."  "Would you like me to do the the ironing for you?" "If you wouldn't mind." "Thank you."  "Shall I help you with your maths problem?" "Yes. That would be very nice of you." "It's OK. Don't worry. I can do it." Or. I'd love one. It's OK. that would be great. thank you If you wouldn't mind. Thank you." "If you could.Accepting Declining Yes please. if you like. thanks Yes please. Yes please. that would be great. I'd like to.

. Disbelief: I (just) can't believe… can't imagine… It's unbelievable. Expressing Indifference . Examples:    I just can't believe he won the race.. Here's a list of some common expressions to help you express   shock and disbelief.. incredible. bad news . We're all in complete shock. taken aback by… I was .. especially when you feel sad.. I was just stunned by her clothes. such as natural disasters. I was stunned / taken aback by the news I was completely taken aback by his behavior.It is sometimes difficult to say how you feel in unexpected situations. The news came as a complete shock. It's unbelievable that they got married I just can't imagine they were able to get along with each other. I'm in Examples:       I was shocked to hear the news. Shock: shocked to hear… stunned by. came as a complete shock..

respond to an appointment and cancel an appointment. Here are some expressions you can use to do this concisely and clearly. It’s your decision. Whatever you do? I don’t mind. . Here are some expressions you can use: Expressing indifference                So what? Who cares! I don’t care! It’s all the same to me. You need to be able to:    make an appointment. I suppose so. Who knows! Why should I care? It makes no difference to me.How to express indifference? Sometimes you may have no particular interest or concern about something and you want to express indifference during a conversation. Making an Appointment Making an appointment Being able to make and cancel an appointment is an important skill in English. I have no preference. I don’t mind. It doesn't matter to me Whatever (you want).

ok? Examples:        "Are you available on the 17th?" "Can we meet on the 16th?" "How does the 3rd sound to you?" "Are you free next week?" "Would Friday suit you?" "Is next Tuesday convenient for you?" "What about sometime next week?" Responding to an appointment: Yes. be ok? What about next .Asking to meet: Are you available on... I really don't think I can on ...... / next.. .. Monday is fine.. I'm afraid I'm sorry I can't on ......" "Thursday would be perfect. / next .. Could we meet on Tuesday instead?" . .? Can we meet on.... Examples:      "Yes." "I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd... I won't be able to.... would be fine...... is fine .. What about the 6th?" "I'm sorry. suits me would be perfect.? free on.. ? Is next .." "Monday suits me. I won't be able to make it on Monday... on .? would next . / next..

. at 10 am. I will be unable to keep our appointment for tomorrow afternoon. Can we fix another time?     Making Business Appointments How to make appointments in English These are expressions you'll probably need to make and change business appointments in English. Would it be possible to arrange another time later in the week? I’m afraid that I have to cancel our meeting on Wednesday. .. Can we meet up on the 19th? Cancelling an appointment You can cancel an appointment as follows      Unfortunately. I want to Preferences on Monday morning. I'm very sorry.. if that's alright with you.. on Monday morning? at 10 am? today? . I'm afraid that I'm not going to be able to meet you after all.. You know we were going to meet next Friday? Well.  I wonder if I can I'd like to I need to book an appointment to see with Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department . as something unexpected has come up. Wednesday is going to be a little difficult. due to some unforeseen business.. I'd much prefer Friday..  "Ah. but something urgent has come up. . today. Is it possible to book an appointment Can I to see with May I Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department ." "I really don't think I can on the 17th..

"I'd prefer" + to + verb 2. "I'd rather" + verb Making invitations Making invitations Do you know how to invite someone to your house for dinner or to go to the movies? What do you say in English when someone invites you? Here are some common expressions you can use when making or responding to invitations . Things to remember about preferences 1.Talking about your preferences: Questions about preferences        Which do you prefer tea or coffee? Which do you prefer studying mathematics or physics? Which do you prefer to drink juice or mineral water? Which do you like better basketball or football? Do you prefer pizza or spaghetti? Would you prefer to eat a cake or an apple? Would you rather eat a cake or an apple? Replies      I prefer baseball. I would eat a sandwich. A cup of coffee would be suitable. I'd prefer to drink juice I'd rather drink mineral water If I had a choice.

Accepting invitations:       Sure. thank you. thanks. I'm busy tomorrow. Well. (*rain check: used to tell someone that you cannot accept invitations now. Sure. I really don't think I can . but would like to do so at a later time) Dialogue: Mike and Ann are in a wedding party: Mike: Ann: Do you want to dance? No thanks. but I've got something else on. That sounds lovely. When should I be there? Declining invitations:        I can't. That's very kind of you. I'm a bit tired right now . thank you. Can I take a rain check* on that? That's very kind of you. I'm really sorry. I have to work. What time? I'd love to. thanks. but I'm already going out to the restaurant. I'd love to. I have an appointment.Inviting:         Do you want to go to the movies tonight? Would you like to go to the theater tomorrow? Would you be interested in going to the the stadium next Sunday? How do you fancy going to the the restaurant for dinner? How about going to the movies? Care to come over for lunch? I was just wondering if you would like to come over for a drink. This evening is no good.I'm supposed to be doing something else. We'd be delighted to have you over for my birthday party. What a great idea. but actually I'm doing something else this afternoon.

curly hair. tall. funny. square face. cute. well-built. straight hair. fair skin . regular teeth. blonde. . black hair. slim. red-head. rosy cheeks. she's old. skinny. thin. really rich. I'd love to! Describing people and things Describing: What are some good ways to describe      people? things? feelings? yourself? personality? See the phrases below for examples of descriptions in English. long nose.. dark. blue eyes.Mike: Ann: How about having a drink? Sure.. beautiful. round face. obese. tall. slim. She's kind chubby. gorgeous .. She has got oval face. round face. overweight. bushy eyebrows. crooked teeth. thin. short. fat. Questions: What does Leila / the house look like? can you tell me about Leila / the house? is Leila / the house like? Tell me about Leila / the house! Responses: Well. long.. middle aged. skinny. young. intelligent.

Obligation in the past:  I had to work extra hours to pay my bills. naughty. and Liza: a spacious kitchen. you express obligation. nice. It has got three bedrooms. Obligation in the present:      I have to finish my work before this evening.of silly. I have got to learn English if I want to live in the USA. clean . small. . Obligation in the future:  I'll have to borrow money.. It is obligatory that I stop when the traffic light turn red. Short dialogues: Martha wants Liza to describe the new secretary: Martha: What's the new secretary like? She's cute. It's big. Liza: Martha wants Liza to describe the new apartment: Martha: Tell me about your new apartment! It's big.. Expressing obligation Expressing obligation When it is necessary or obligatory to do something. It is necessary that I take a taxi... a comfortable living room. I'm late. I must see the doctor soon because I don't feel well. She's got long hair and a round face. comfortable.

." Dialogue: Policeman: Don't you know that you must stop when the traffic lights are red? Sorry sir. " You look tired.Things to remember: 1.. You mustn’t .The difference between "Have to" and "must" is that "have to"indicates that someone else has imposed conditions on us.. I was so absent-minded that I didn't pay attention to the traffic Driver: lights. Should also expresses obligation. . It is forbidden to . The simple past of "must" is "had to"... But there is a difference between must / have to and should:   must / have to = 100% obligation. "When the traffic light turn red. To express prohibition you can use:      It is prohibited to . 4. you must stop." should = 50% obligation. It's more an advice than an obligation.... you should have a rest. The simple future of "must" is "will have to". You aren’t allowed to . you'll have to pay a fine! Expressing Prohibition Expressing prohibition To express prohibition the following expressions are used. You aren’t permitted to . 2. Policeman: Well sir. 3...

Examples:       Parking is strictly prohibited between these gates. The security agent: Show me your ID card please. Asking for and Giving advice Expressions Asking for advice:      I've got a bad toothache. Smoking isn't permitted in hospitals.. sir. Mr O'Brian: Here you are. The security agent: Well. Drivers mustn't park their cars here. It is forbidden to walk on grass.That sounds OK. She's my daughter. You can take the lift sir. What do you suggest? What do you advise me to do? What should I do? What ought I to do? What's your advice? . but I have an appointment with Dr Leila O'Biran. People aren't permitted to throw rubbish here. you. Mr O'Brian: Sorry.. What are you doing here? You aren't allowed to enter this building. Dialogue: Notice how prohibition is expressed in this dialogue The security agent: Hey. Dr Leila O'Brian is in the 3rd floor. Students aren't allowed to come too late to school.

Why don't you go to the dentist? You'd better brush your teeth regularly. I would go to the dentist. Things to remember about asking for and giving advice: 1." "You should stop smoking. "Advise" is a verb. but I can't. You ought to/should avoid eating sweets. Example: "My father gave me this piece of advice when I was young: never give up" 3. Have you thought about seeing a dentist. you'll go to the dentist. You will undoubtedly need it in your higher studies" 2. Declining to give advice     I don't know what to advise. If you were me what would you do? Giving advice         If I were you. "Advice" is a noun. I'm afraid. "Ought to" has nearly the same meaning as "should". Example: "You ought to stop smoking. I wish I could suggest something. Example: "I advise you to learn English. I'm afraid I can't really help you. I wish I could help." 4. If you take my advice. The only difference is that "ought to " refers to a moral or external obligation but should is more of an advice. "You'd better" is the short form of "you had better" Example: "You'd better see a doctor!" = "You had better see the doctor" . I advise you to brush your teeth on a regular basis. It might be a good idea to brush your teeth on a regular basis.

Yes. Yes. Student: I've heard about it. let's. try the exercises.Then. What do you advise me to do? Teacher: I think you should try this website. What a good idea! Why not? . Making suggestions:          Let’s revise our lessons. It's a fantastic website for beginners. I'd like to. Yes. but what do you think I should start with? Teacher: You'd better start with the lessons. Making and responding to suggestions Suggestions The following English phrases and expressions are all used to make suggestions and give advice to people. I'd love to. What about going to the cinema tonight? How about playing cards? Why don't we do our homework? Couldn't we invite your grandmother to our party? Shall we have a walk along the river? What would you say to a cup of coffee? Don't you think it is a good idea to watch TV? Does it matter if we use your car? Accepting suggestions:      Ok.Study the dialogue: Student: I'm terrible at English and I think I should do something about it.

with pleasure. a verb (in the subjunctive form)= I suggest (that) we go to the movies.   Yes. 2. I feel like taking a walk. What about going to the library? We have to finish our school project! Alice: That sounds like a good idea. why don't we go to the cinema to watch Titanic? Alan: No. Yes. No. What an awful / bad idea! Things to remember about suggestions: 1.The verb "suggest" can be followed by either:   should + verb = I suggest (that) we should go to the theater." Dialogue: Two friends talking about where to go this evening: Alice: You know Alan. We've seen the film many times before. I don't feel like it. I'd love to. Alan: Yes. That sounds like a good idea. But when we finish let's go to the cafè. Expressing Thanks and Gratitude How to express thanks and gratitude . I'd rather not. let's not. Refusing suggestions:      No. I dislike going for a walk. let's not."That" is optional:   "I suggest that we should visit Paris." "I suggest we should visit Paris.

...This page will present different ways of expressing thanks and gratitude in English. Thank you. To my mind.. . Expressing thanks and gratitude Here are different ways to say thank you and to show your appreciation for something done or given to you. As far as I'm concerned... That was very kind of you. How can I ever thank you enough for all you've done? You have been extremely supportive through this difficult time. Examples:                 Thanks. Thanks for being thoughtful. You've been very helpful. it's you... Thank you for being there for me.... If anyone deserves thanks.. It seems to me that.. As I see it. In my point of view / my opinion... I want to thank you for all the support and concern. I appreciate what you've done for me. You express thanks to tell someone that you are grateful for something that they have done or given to you.. Sincere thanks.. I thank you from the bottom of my heart. I am grateful.      Expressing Your Opinion How to express your opinion Expressing opinion I think. According to me. I am indebted to you. . What you've done means a lot to me..

 Agreeing or disagreeing  Agreeing with an opinion: I agree with this opinion. I take the view that..... I disagree with you.. Disagreeing with an opinion: I'm afraid.....From my point of view. I completely agree with this view..Talking about Complaints What are complaints? Complaints are expressions of "displeasure or annoyance" in response to an action that is seen by the speaker as unfavorable.. what are the expressions needed to express and respond to complaints? Complaining: Here are expressions you can use when complaining:  I have a complaint to make... I agree with you... In my experience.. My personal view is that... I don't agree with you. This idea is right. This is absolutely right. . I couldn't / can't agree more. Partial agreement: I agree with this point of view. but... but. As far as I understand / can see/see it. . but. Suppose you want to complain about the pizza you have just ordered because it's too salty. . I can't agree with you. I am of the opinion that. I'm not sure I agree with you I think you're wrong      Complaining .

I'm afraid.Excuse me but you are standing on my foot. there isn't much we can do about it. I'm angry about the way you treat me.He's too noisy .. I'm sorry to say this but. but this will never occur / happen again. I'm really sorry. I'm afraid I've got a complaint about.. I want to complain about. I'm afraid there is a slight problem with the service in this hotel... We are sorry but the food is just alright. I'm afraid I've got a complaint about your child. I'm afraid there is a slight problem with... we promise never to make the same mistake again. Responding to complaints Positive response to complaints:    I'm so sorry.. I'm sorry to say this but Your pizza is just too salty. 2.       Sorry to bother you but.. 1. 4.... I'm sorry.. Examples: I have a complaint to make. 3. your food is inedible. we'll do our utmost/best not to do the same mistake again. I'm angry about. 5. Negative response to complaints:    Sorry there is nothing we can do about it.. Things to remember about complaints: .. I want to complain about the noise you are making. Excuse me but there is a problem about.

(Unfortunately. but for past hopes. (some time in the past) Hope can be used to specify a desired outcome. the possibilities remain open. For future hopes. It's too salty" is one possible way of expressing a complaint. it is considered too rude and you'd better use more polite expressions if you want to get what you want! Expressing Hope The difference between "wish" and "hope" How to use "wish"   Wish is most commonly used in hypothetical (or imagined/unreal) situations: Example: I wish (that) you were here. Examples: I hope you can come to the party on Saturday. but the grammar is slightly different: Examples: I hope (that) you have a Merry Christmas. Although "I'm angry about your pizza." How to use "hope"   Hope can also be used in expressions of goodwill.(but you didn't) I had hoped to see you at the party on Saturday. and I miss you. the outcome has usually been determined already. (but I didn't) Other ways to express hope You can also express hope in the following ways: . (some time in the future) I hope (that) you had a nice Birthday.) Sometimes wish is used in greeting and expressions of goodwill: Example: We wish you a "Merry Christmas. you're not.When expressing a complaint in English. it helps to be polite.(future possibility) I was hoping that you would come to the party.

Remember:  "I wish you had done the work" is a regret. wish / if only You can express regret by using wish or if only: I wish / if only + Past perfect Examples:   I wish I had worked harder. I f I hadn't eaten so much. you may use many different structures. If only I hadn't eaten so much. Conditional type 3 You can also express regret by using a conditional sentence type 3. I wouldn't have been sick. Here are some of them.   I would like to have a car. I really want to have a car What I really want is to have a car. I would have passed the exam. Expressing Regret How to express regret Expressing regret means having a feeling of sadness about something that you did or did not do. To express regret in English. . If + past perfect + would + have + past participle Examples:   If I had worked hard. You didn't do the work (in the past) and I am annoyed because of that.

. Apologizing Apologizing To apologize is to tell someone that you are sorry for having done something that has caused him inconvenience or unhappiness: Examples: I must apologize to Isabel for my late arrival.. I regret.. You can express regret by using: regret + Verb + ing OR regret + Noun Examples:   He doesn't regret leaving her. I'd like to apologize for my trouble making. He should have done the work. I regret the things I didn't do.should have Regret may also be expressed by using a modal should: Should have + Past Participle Examples:   I should have sent him an invitation.

.. Please.. Here are some expressions you can use to make and respond to apologies Making apologies:               I do apologize for. Don't worry about it.. Don't mention it... It doesn't matter.. forgive me for..Trains may be subject to delay on the northern line. I'd like to apologize for... Accepting apologies:             That's all right. Please. We apologize for any inconvenience caused. That's OK.. I'm ashamed of... Don't apologize. accept my apologies for.. Don't worry about it. Please. forgive me for my.. It's all my fault.. I must apologize for.... I am so sorry for. Excuse me for . I quite understand.. I shouldn't have...... I apologize for.. I'm terribly sorry for. Never mind. Remember: .. Pardon me for this. No harm done. You couldn't help it. Forget about it.

We may not be able to travel by car. she will go by plane. She will take an umbrella as it could rain heavily there. There's no chance my father repairs it tomorrow. it's impossible to repair that old Chevrolet. but now it has become a real probability. Making and responding to a request ."I'd like to apologize" is the short form of "I would like to apologize" Expressing Possibility What is the difference between possibility and probability? Possibility is when there is a chance that something may happen or be true while probability is the likelihood of something happening or being true: Example: "Until yesterday. It's possible that someone will meet her at the airport.. Possibly. May be she will make the trip alone." It is likely that it will happen. She might buy some presents for the family before she goes. Perhaps she will visit London. the project was just a possibility. I suppose she might spend a lot of money on the presents. There's a chance she'll like the city. Expressing impossibility     No. Expressing Possibility          My grandmother may travel alone. Even a good mechanic can't possibly fix it.

.? will you . please? Could you possibly show me the way to the post office.. please? Will you lend me your book.? Here are some examples of how to make a request. please? Would you mind lending me your pen.? could you . please? Responding to request:     Sure here you are. No. please? Would you help me with this exercise. I'm sorry I need it I'm afraid I can't..... Okey. You can make a request by using:     can you . please? Will you Could you possibly would you mind opening the door for me ? Making Request:      Can you show me your photo album.? would you mind . Can you open the door for me.Making and responding to a request It's important to be polite when you ask for something... Things to remember about making a request: ..

.. Talking about fear Talking about fear There are many words and expressions you can use to talk about fear..... frightened of .1. It means that I don't want to lend you my book.. .. "Would you mind. I don't mind... spooked.? Were you scared of.) 3." (which is a negative response to the request.... It means that I accept to lend you my book) or "Yes. I was afraid of . Could is more polite than can.. The response to the following request: A: "Would you mind giving me your book? " is either   "No.? Were you terrified of. petrified . Questions:       How did you feel? How did you react? What was your reaction? were you afraid of." is followed by a gerund (verb+ing) Example:"Would you mind lending me your book? " 2."(which is a positive response to the request.? Responses: terrified.

It scared the hell out of me. will . shook with fear. won't . isn't going to .scared of ... Short dialogue: Latifa is talking about her fear when she saw the criminal Nancy: How did you feel when you saw the criminal? Latifa: I jumped out of my skin.. Making Predictions Predictions: When making predictions (what we think will happen in the future) we can either use:   will followed by the verb without to. It was a terrifying ordeal. frightened the life out of me. or going to followed by the verb What (do you think) will happen? is going to happen? (I think) . gave me goosebumps.... . sent shivers out of me... I jumped out of my skin... is going to ...

. ? Giving directions To give directions use these expressions:      Go straight on Turn left/right Take the first (turning) to the left/right.the.. is beside/in front of/next to. ? Can you show me the way to.? Can you tell me how to get to ... . . ? Where is . from here? How can I get to . ? What's the best way to get to .. The ." "There won't be a rise in house prices next year. 317 Shopping .Examples of making predictions:     "What do you think will happen next year?" "Next week is going to be very busy. ." "He isn't going to win the election. ...." Things to remember about making predictions o "He won't do it" is the short form of " he will not do it.. Asking about and giving directions Asking about direction To ask about directions use these questions:       How can I get to . Go past the restaurant/school. I think. . . . .. .. .

A: Here you are. small. goodbye. B: Thank you. A: Yes it looks nice on you. B: Thank you. B: Thank you. I'll buy it. Can I try it on? A: Certainly. how would you like to pay? B: Do you take credit cards? B: Yes. A: OK. medium. large. Have a nice day! A: Thank you. A: OK. the changing room is over there. we do.Shopping expressions These are expressions used when you go shopping:          Can / may I help you? Can I try it / them on? What size do you wear? What size are you? What color would you like? Extra small. . A: What color would you like? B: A blue one. B: Thank you. A: What size are you? B: I'm a medium. extra large How does it fit? Where is the changing room? How would you like to pay? Can I pay by credit card / in cash? Shopping for a T-shirt A: Can I help you? B: Yes. here's my credit card. I'm looking for a T-shirt. I like it. A: How does it fit? B: It's fantastic.

Please hold and I'll put you through. Mr/Mrs. It's Mr/Mrs. here.              You 've reached .. Complaining . Stereotype can be described as a conventional.? Could I speak to .Conversations on the Phone Telephone conversations It is common that English speakers make phone calls either for business reasons or personal affairs. opinion.. These are expressions you can use in your conversations on the phone....Talking about Complaints How to define concepts can be defined as can be described as X Y refers to means Examples   Citizenship can be defined as the status of being a with its rights and duties. Hang on for a moment. please? Who's speaking? It's Mr/Mrs..... or image. How can I help you? Can I speak to Mr/Mrs. speaking. . I'll see if s/he is in.. company/department. formulaic. Just a second... and oversimplified conception.... please? Who shall I say is calling? Who's calling.. speaking..

.. are types of X... and habits that characterize a particular society or nation    Classifying Classifying  To classify is to divide things into groups according to their type. classes The two are ... kinds classes categories sorts varieties  We can classify X according to ... customs... comprises kinds : . categories sorts varieties  X consists of two types ... can be divided into classes categories sorts varieties  . on the basis of depending on Expressing lack of understanding and asking for clarification . These are. Culture refers to the arts.. Biologists classify animals and plants into different groups  How to classify things in English?  These tables show how you can classify things in English:  There are two types of X: .. The books in the library are classified by/according to subject. These are . and ..  Illiteracy means the condition of being unable to read and write.. kinds of X.

? Do you mean. How yo ask for clarification When you don't understand what someone has said.. I don't quite see what you're getting at. please? Would you elaborate on that .. I'm not quite sure I follow you. Sorry. please? Could you be more explicit? Could you explain what you mean by.? Could you give us an example? I wonder if you could say that in a different way. you can ask for clarification using the following expressions:             What do you mean by... please? Could you repeat please? Could you clarify that. I didn't get your point. Sorry.. please? Could you be more specific. when you fail to understand what has been said to you) and seek clarification from the person you are talking to.Here is a list of useful English phrases you can use to express lack of understanding (that is. How to express lack of understanding When you fail to understand what has been said to you you can use these expressions:          I beg your pardon? I beg your pardon.. but I don't quite understand. I'm not sure I got your point. I'm not quite sure I know what you mean. Could you put it differently.? Could you say that again. please? Clarifying one's point or idea . I didn't quite hear what you said. I don't quite see what you mean.

...... In other words.. Let me explain that in more detail..To clarify your idea you can use the following expressions:        Let me explain that... Let me put it in another way... To put it differently. Sorry let me explain. .. To say this differently..

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