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without prior permission of Lecturer:Ahmednoor Hussein Mohamed

Spoken English Course Curriculum
Course Overview:
Learning to speak English well may be the best thing you can do to improve your life.English is
a universal language. The world has changed. If you want to learn the world you need to learn
theEnglish language.With IT, we can open ourselves to the world and the only way
we can connect to the world is through the English language.If you are a business man
you would have to learn English to expand your business to overseas.If you are a student you
would have to learn English for a brighter future.If you are a professional, you would have to
learn English for the benefit of your career.Even if you are just a street walker, still you
need to learn English to understand what's going on in theworld. No matter who you
are. Learning English is very important.The format of the class would include theory
classes on etiquette and manners, grammar & vocabulary. Conversation classes for
building fluency. Group discussion classes including debates, thought processing,language check
Course Goals:
The purpose of the course is to synchronize educational fineness with human
excellence, to promote self -development and creativity in a stress free atmosphere,
to emphasize on providing the most modern a ndsophisticated learning environment
co Moreover, it is to develop a more qualified and learned society.T h e G o a l i s t o
create a society where English speaking capability can be harnessed by
e a c h a n d e v e r y individual to increase his/her potential to succeed in their professional and
personal life. We seek to liberatethe person from his inability to communicate in the corporate
language of the whole worldwhich is English.
Course Objectives:

Frame grammatically correct sentences in English.

Fluently speak in English in any situation.

Express yourself in groups of people confidently.

Able to present your thoughts more effectively.

Participate at higher levels in Group Discussions and meetings.

Present yourself more confidently in personal interviews.

Speak in Neutral Accent and also pick-up UK/US Accent.


There are different ways to greet people:
Greeting means welcoming someone with particular words or a particular action.
When meeting people formally for the first time, we greet by shaking hands and
saying "How do you do?" or "Pleased to meet you."
"How do you do?" isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".
When young people meet informally they sometimes greet and say "Give me five!" and
slap their hands together (high five).
Generally we do not greet by shaking hands with people we know well. We greet by
just saying 'hi' or 'hello'
Here are some expressions you can use to greet people.



Good morning, good afternoon, good evening.
How are you?
How are you doing?
How do you do?

Responding to greeting

Hi, hello.
Good morning/Good afternoon/Good evening.
I'm fine thank you (thanks)/Okey! Thank you (thanks)/Can't
complain/Not bad.
How about you?/And you?
How do you do?

Things to remember about greeting:
When you greet someone and say:
"How do you do?"
this isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".

Related material

Saying goodbye
Saying hello (greeting)

Saying Goodbye
Parting phrases
There are different expressions or phrases to say goodbye. These parting phrases
depend on situations and the people involved, their social status and personal

Leaving and saying goodbye

All right, everyone, it's time to head off.

Anyway, guys I'm going to make a move.
Ok, everyone, it's time to leave you.
See you later / tomorrow / soon.
Talk to you later!

If you want to say goodbye in a hurry

I'm so sorry, I've got to rush off / run / hurry!
I'm afraid I'm going to have to rush off / run / hurry!

Saying goodbye politely after meeting someone

Nice to see you.
It's been lovely to see you.
It was great to see you.
Good to see you.
Have a lovely / nice evening.
Have a good day.

Saying goodbye to your hosts

Thanks very much for dinner/ lunch - it was lovely!
Thank you very much for having me.

Other ways to say goodbye

Take care
Bye Bye!
Later man / bro!
Have a good one!
It's time to be going!
So Long!

Slang Goodbyes

Catch you later
Peace! / Peace out
I'm out!
Smell you later

.. I'm . ..Final goodbye  Farewell (when you intend never to see your interlocutor again) Related material   Saying goodbye Saying hello (greeting) Introducing yourself and other people Introducing yourself and others There is a range of ways to introduce yourself and people.. I'm . have you met Nicolas? I'd like you to meet Liza.. Nice to meet you.. I'd like to introduce myself. I'm . Barbara this is Leila.. this is Barbara.... I'm . Pleased to meet you. Introducing others: Here are expressions to introduce others:      Jack. Leila. I'm . Let me introduce myself. Jack. Introducing yourself: Here are expressions to introduce yourself:       My name is .. Useful responses when introducing yourself or other people:  Nice to meet you.. please meet Nicolas. I'd like to introduce you to Betty..

Examples:     I can't help you. the new manager. my assistant Jack: How do you do? Nicolas: How do you do? Things to remember:   When introducing yourself or other people in a formal situation use full names. How do you do? Dialogue: Alex is talking to the new manager and his assistant. Mr Alex Litterman. it just means "Hello" 669 Talking about ability How to express ability To express that someone has the power or skill to do something. ("I'm Alex Litterman. . I can stand on my head for five minutes. Nice to meet you.   Pleased to meet you. John: William. I'm unable to help you. William: Hi! I'm William O'Brian. I'm too old.I am busy. Notice how they introduce themselves: Alex: Hi! My name is Alex Litterman. Now I can't. I could work hard. please meet Mr Steve Lynch. Happy to meet you. When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. can and be able are used.") "How do you do?" isn't really a question.

Now I can't. In the future Express ability in the future as follows   I will be able to buy a house when I get a good job. The teacher can assist you after class if you have any questions. I can.  Can you speak Arabic? Yes. I couldn't eat at all when I was ill. I couldn't hear what he was saying. I can't stand on my head.  Can in the past is was able or could Examples: When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. but I can't drive a lorry. Things to remember:  Can is always followed by an infinitive without "to. In the past Express ability in the past as follows   I was unable to visit him. I'm too old. ." Examples: I can ride my bike and I can drive a car. Expressing ability In the present: Express ability in the present as follows:   I can speak good English.

I will be able to find a job. but you can't. . Sure. It is desirable to use the word "please. Sure. Refusing to give permission:    Dialogue: No. I'm afraid. Example: When I finish my studies. I’m sorry. but that’s not possible. please don’t. may I taste that hot spicy couscous dish? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you mind if I asked you something? Is it okay if I sit here? Would it be all right if I borrowed your mobile Phone? Giving Permission:      Yes. go ahead. please? May I open the window. Asking For And Giving Permission Asking for and giving permission: When you ask for permission to use something that belongs to someone else you have to do your best to be polite. Can in the future is will be able. No problem." Asking for Permission:         Can I go out. please? Please. please do. can I have a look at your photo album? Please. Please feel free.

And who's your favorite actor? Cathy: Tom Cruise. Asking about favorite things:      What's your favorite sport? What sport do you like best? What sport do you like most? What kind of sport do you like best? Who's your favorite football player? .. Thanks a lot mummy. is asking her mother for permission to use the computer. Talking About Favorite Things Talking about favorite things When you talk about your favorite things you talk about the best liked or most enjoyed things. eight years old.Liza.. May I read a story before I sleep? Sure! But try to sleep early. And you? Leila: Comedy. Examples:  "What's your favorite color?" "Green. can I use the computer? No." Study the dialogue: Leila is talking to her new friend Cathy: Leila: What kind of films do you like best? Cathy: Science fiction. It's time to go to bed. Liza: Her mother: Liza: Her mother: Liza: Please mum. dear you can't. Leila: I like Robert de Nero most.

Responding:     My favorite sport is football. My favorite football player is Ronaldo. I like football most. Telling The Time How to tell the time in English? There are two common ways of telling the time in English. "Favorite" is American spelling."twenty to three" Here are the different ways to ask for and tell the time. Things to remember:   "Favourite" is British spelling.   Digital: the easier way . I like football best."Two forty " Classical: you say the minutes first then the hour . For 2:40 you can use one of these two ways. Asking about the time: What time is it? time do you make it? 's the time? Have you got the right time? Telling the time: .

.00 three o'clock three Example: Question: What's the time. Making Offers How to make offers in English? It is common that English speakers make offers in conversations in order to be polite and helpful. It's .45 a quarter to three two forty-five 2.40 twenty to three two forty 2.35 twenty-five to three two thirty-five 2.55 five to three two fifty-five 2.12 twelve past two two twelve 2...58 nearly three o'clock two fifty-eight 3.30 half past two two thirty 2..20 twenty past two two twenty 2.50 ten to three two fifty 2. please? Answer: It's two o'clock.09 nine minutes past two two oh nine 2.15 a quarter past two two fifteen 2.25 twenty-five past two two twenty-five 2.57 three minutes to three two fifty-seven 2. When they do so they use these expressions: . 2.Digital It's .00 two o'clock two 2.06 six minutes past two two oh six 2.

Would you like… is followed either by a noun.? English learner must be able to make offers as well as accept or reject them. The following are useful expressions to do so. can and will are followed by the verb without to.Can I… ? Shall I… ? Would you like … ? How about .. or by the verb with to.. Example: "Can I help you?" "Shall I bring you the mobile phone? Shall is more formal than can. Making offers: Can I Shall help you? get you some juice? Would you like a glass of water ? How about some pizza? Examples:      "Can I help you?" "Shall I open the window for you?" "Would you like another cup of coffee?" "Would you like me to clean the board?" "How about a juice? " Remember:    Shall. Example: "Would you like some tea ?" "Would you like to drink some coffee? Responding to offers .

that would be great. If you could. I can do it. That would be very kind of you. thank you If you wouldn't mind." Shock and disbelief Expressing shock and disbelief ." (With a shop assistant. "No thank you. Yes please. It's OK.)  "Can I help you?" "Do you know where the post office is. I'd love to. please." "It's OK. No." Or. that would be nice ."  "I'll do the washing. I'd love one."  "Would you like me to do the the ironing for you?" "If you wouldn't mind."  "Shall I help you with your maths problem?" "Yes. I'd like to. thanks Yes please. That would be very nice of you. Thank you." "If you could. if you like. I'm just having a look." "Yes please."  "Would you like a cup of tea?" "No thanks. I'll do it." "Thank you. Examples:  "Can I help you?" "No thanks.Accepting Declining Yes please. No. that would be great."  "Would you like another piece of cake?" "Yes please. that would be lovely. I can do it myself. Don't worry." "Don't worry. I'll do it.

. taken aback by… I was . I was just stunned by her clothes. I'm in Examples:       I was shocked to hear the news. such as natural disasters... Examples:    I just can't believe he won the race. We're all in complete shock. The news came as a complete shock. came as a complete shock. especially when you feel sad.. Disbelief: I (just) can't believe… can't imagine… It's unbelievable.It is sometimes difficult to say how you feel in unexpected situations. Shock: shocked to hear… stunned by. Here's a list of some common expressions to help you express   shock and disbelief. It's unbelievable that they got married I just can't imagine they were able to get along with each other. Expressing Indifference ... incredible. bad news . I was stunned / taken aback by the news I was completely taken aback by his behavior.

Whatever you do? I don’t mind. . respond to an appointment and cancel an appointment.How to express indifference? Sometimes you may have no particular interest or concern about something and you want to express indifference during a conversation. Here are some expressions you can use: Expressing indifference                So what? Who cares! I don’t care! It’s all the same to me. Making an Appointment Making an appointment Being able to make and cancel an appointment is an important skill in English. It doesn't matter to me Whatever (you want). I don’t mind. It’s your decision. Who knows! Why should I care? It makes no difference to me. Here are some expressions you can use to do this concisely and clearly. You need to be able to:    make an appointment. I suppose so. I have no preference.

...? free on. would be fine. / next .. ? Is next .. ok? Examples:        "Are you available on the 17th?" "Can we meet on the 16th?" "How does the 3rd sound to you?" "Are you free next week?" "Would Friday suit you?" "Is next Tuesday convenient for you?" "What about sometime next week?" Responding to an appointment: Yes.. Examples:      "Yes. / next. I won't be able to.. I won't be able to make it on Monday..Asking to meet: Are you available on. on .... .? Can we meet on....." "I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd. I'm afraid I'm sorry I can't on . be ok? What about next . What about the 6th?" "I'm sorry. / next..... suits me would be perfect......" "Monday suits me. Monday is fine.. Could we meet on Tuesday instead?" .. is fine .....? would next ..... .. I really don't think I can on ." "Thursday would be perfect.

.. Can we fix another time?     Making Business Appointments How to make appointments in English These are expressions you'll probably need to make and change business appointments in English. I will be unable to keep our appointment for tomorrow afternoon... on Monday morning? at 10 am? today? . Would it be possible to arrange another time later in the week? I’m afraid that I have to cancel our meeting on Wednesday. Is it possible to book an appointment Can I to see with May I Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department .. Wednesday is going to be a little difficult. I want to Preferences on Monday morning. You know we were going to meet next Friday? Well. today. if that's alright with you.. due to some unforeseen business.." "I really don't think I can on the 17th. but something urgent has come up..  "Ah. I'd much prefer Friday. . I'm afraid that I'm not going to be able to meet you after all.  I wonder if I can I'd like to I need to book an appointment to see with Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department . as something unexpected has come up.. Can we meet up on the 19th? Cancelling an appointment You can cancel an appointment as follows      Unfortunately. I'm very sorry. at 10 am.

Talking about your preferences: Questions about preferences        Which do you prefer tea or coffee? Which do you prefer studying mathematics or physics? Which do you prefer to drink juice or mineral water? Which do you like better basketball or football? Do you prefer pizza or spaghetti? Would you prefer to eat a cake or an apple? Would you rather eat a cake or an apple? Replies      I prefer baseball. A cup of coffee would be suitable. Things to remember about preferences 1. "I'd prefer" + to + verb 2. I'd prefer to drink juice I'd rather drink mineral water If I had a choice. "I'd rather" + verb Making invitations Making invitations Do you know how to invite someone to your house for dinner or to go to the movies? What do you say in English when someone invites you? Here are some common expressions you can use when making or responding to invitations . I would eat a sandwich.

Sure. thank you. but I'm already going out to the restaurant. That's very kind of you. I'd love to. I have an appointment. We'd be delighted to have you over for my birthday party. I really don't think I can . but actually I'm doing something else this afternoon. I'm really sorry. What a great idea. This evening is no good. What time? I'd love to. Well. I have to work.Inviting:         Do you want to go to the movies tonight? Would you like to go to the theater tomorrow? Would you be interested in going to the the stadium next Sunday? How do you fancy going to the the restaurant for dinner? How about going to the movies? Care to come over for lunch? I was just wondering if you would like to come over for a drink. thanks. thank you. thanks. When should I be there? Declining invitations:        I can't. That sounds lovely. (*rain check: used to tell someone that you cannot accept invitations now. I'm busy tomorrow. Accepting invitations:       Sure.I'm supposed to be doing something else. but I've got something else on. I'm a bit tired right now . but would like to do so at a later time) Dialogue: Mike and Ann are in a wedding party: Mike: Ann: Do you want to dance? No thanks. Can I take a rain check* on that? That's very kind of you.

rosy cheeks. really rich.. tall. well-built. gorgeous . She's kind chubby. long. thin. funny. regular teeth. intelligent. beautiful. Questions: What does Leila / the house look like? can you tell me about Leila / the house? is Leila / the house like? Tell me about Leila / the house! Responses: Well.. fat. tall. She has got oval face.. fair skin . dark. bushy eyebrows. . young. I'd love to! Describing people and things Describing: What are some good ways to describe      people? things? feelings? yourself? personality? See the phrases below for examples of descriptions in English. black hair. slim. curly hair. straight hair. square face. she's old. skinny. crooked teeth. blue eyes.. cute. middle aged. round face. slim. short. obese. skinny. round face.Mike: Ann: How about having a drink? Sure. blonde. overweight. long nose. thin. red-head.

. you express obligation. It is obligatory that I stop when the traffic light turn red. I'm late. Obligation in the past:  I had to work extra hours to pay my bills. Obligation in the present:      I have to finish my work before this evening. Obligation in the future:  I'll have to borrow money. Liza: Martha wants Liza to describe the new apartment: Martha: Tell me about your new apartment! It's big. Short dialogues: Martha wants Liza to describe the new secretary: Martha: What's the new secretary like? She's cute. and Liza: a spacious kitchen. clean .of silly. comfortable. .. It is necessary that I take a taxi. It has got three bedrooms.. small. Expressing obligation Expressing obligation When it is necessary or obligatory to do something. nice. It's big. She's got long hair and a round face.. a comfortable living room. I have got to learn English if I want to live in the USA. I must see the doctor soon because I don't feel well. naughty.

. .The difference between "Have to" and "must" is that "have to"indicates that someone else has imposed conditions on us. I was so absent-minded that I didn't pay attention to the traffic Driver: lights.. You aren’t allowed to . you should have a rest.Things to remember: 1.." should = 50% obligation. You mustn’t . The simple future of "must" is "will have to". "When the traffic light turn red. you must stop. you'll have to pay a fine! Expressing Prohibition Expressing prohibition To express prohibition the following expressions are used.. 3. Policeman: Well sir.. " You look tired. The simple past of "must" is "had to". But there is a difference between must / have to and should:   must / have to = 100% obligation. Should also expresses obligation.. It's more an advice than an obligation. 4... 2. You aren’t permitted to . To express prohibition you can use:      It is prohibited to ... It is forbidden to ." Dialogue: Policeman: Don't you know that you must stop when the traffic lights are red? Sorry sir.

Asking for and Giving advice Expressions Asking for advice:      I've got a bad toothache. The security agent: Well. What are you doing here? You aren't allowed to enter this building. She's my daughter. but I have an appointment with Dr Leila O'Biran. It is forbidden to walk on grass.That sounds OK. Smoking isn't permitted in hospitals.. Students aren't allowed to come too late to school. Mr O'Brian: Here you are. Drivers mustn't park their cars here. Dialogue: Notice how prohibition is expressed in this dialogue The security agent: Hey. Mr O'Brian: Sorry. sir. you. Dr Leila O'Brian is in the 3rd floor. What do you suggest? What do you advise me to do? What should I do? What ought I to do? What's your advice? .Examples:       Parking is strictly prohibited between these gates.. People aren't permitted to throw rubbish here. The security agent: Show me your ID card please. You can take the lift sir.

You will undoubtedly need it in your higher studies" 2. "Ought to" has nearly the same meaning as "should". I would go to the dentist. I'm afraid I can't really help you. I'm afraid. "Advice" is a noun. I advise you to brush your teeth on a regular basis. Things to remember about asking for and giving advice: 1. I wish I could suggest something. Example: "I advise you to learn English. You ought to/should avoid eating sweets. "Advise" is a verb. Why don't you go to the dentist? You'd better brush your teeth regularly. Example: "My father gave me this piece of advice when I was young: never give up" 3." 4. I wish I could help." "You should stop smoking. The only difference is that "ought to " refers to a moral or external obligation but should is more of an advice. If you were me what would you do? Giving advice         If I were you. you'll go to the dentist. but I can't. Declining to give advice     I don't know what to advise. If you take my advice. Example: "You ought to stop smoking. "You'd better" is the short form of "you had better" Example: "You'd better see a doctor!" = "You had better see the doctor" . Have you thought about seeing a dentist. It might be a good idea to brush your teeth on a regular basis.

but what do you think I should start with? Teacher: You'd better start with the lessons. Yes. try the exercises. Yes. Student: I've heard about it. Making and responding to suggestions Suggestions The following English phrases and expressions are all used to make suggestions and give advice to people. It's a fantastic website for beginners. Yes. I'd love to.Then. What about going to the cinema tonight? How about playing cards? Why don't we do our homework? Couldn't we invite your grandmother to our party? Shall we have a walk along the river? What would you say to a cup of coffee? Don't you think it is a good idea to watch TV? Does it matter if we use your car? Accepting suggestions:      Ok. let's.Study the dialogue: Student: I'm terrible at English and I think I should do something about it. Making suggestions:          Let’s revise our lessons. What do you advise me to do? Teacher: I think you should try this website. I'd like to. What a good idea! Why not? .

Alan: Yes. Expressing Thanks and Gratitude How to express thanks and gratitude . I'd love to."That" is optional:   "I suggest that we should visit Paris. why don't we go to the cinema to watch Titanic? Alan: No. Refusing suggestions:      No. I'd rather not. No. let's not. What an awful / bad idea! Things to remember about suggestions: 1. I dislike going for a walk.   Yes. But when we finish let's go to the cafè. I feel like taking a walk. What about going to the library? We have to finish our school project! Alice: That sounds like a good idea. a verb (in the subjunctive form)= I suggest (that) we go to the movies. with pleasure.The verb "suggest" can be followed by either:   should + verb = I suggest (that) we should go to the theater." "I suggest we should visit Paris. let's not. Yes. 2. That sounds like a good idea. I don't feel like it." Dialogue: Two friends talking about where to go this evening: Alice: You know Alan. We've seen the film many times before.

. .. .. As far as I'm concerned. I am indebted to you. it's you.. If anyone deserves thanks... I am grateful....      Expressing Your Opinion How to express your opinion Expressing opinion I think.. That was very kind of you... It seems to me that. What you've done means a lot to me. How can I ever thank you enough for all you've done? You have been extremely supportive through this difficult time. To my mind. I thank you from the bottom of my heart.. You've been very helpful. Thank you.This page will present different ways of expressing thanks and gratitude in English. Examples:                 Thanks. Sincere thanks. Expressing thanks and gratitude Here are different ways to say thank you and to show your appreciation for something done or given to you. Thank you for being there for me. As I see it. In my point of view / my opinion. I appreciate what you've done for me. I want to thank you for all the support and concern... You express thanks to tell someone that you are grateful for something that they have done or given to you.. According to me. Thanks for being thoughtful...

I can't agree with you. My personal view is that. .... I couldn't / can't agree more.. I take the view that... I disagree with you.. This idea is right. . I don't agree with you.. As far as I understand / can see/see it. This is absolutely right. I'm not sure I agree with you I think you're wrong      Complaining . . I am of the opinion that........ but.. but. In my experience. Suppose you want to complain about the pizza you have just ordered because it's too salty... Disagreeing with an opinion: I'm afraid. I completely agree with this view. what are the expressions needed to express and respond to complaints? Complaining: Here are expressions you can use when complaining:  I have a complaint to make.Talking about Complaints What are complaints? Complaints are expressions of "displeasure or annoyance" in response to an action that is seen by the speaker as unfavorable. Partial agreement: I agree with this point of view.From my point of view.. but..  Agreeing or disagreeing  Agreeing with an opinion: I agree with this opinion. I agree with you.

       Sorry to bother you but. I'm sorry to say this but. 3. 4.. I'm afraid there is a slight problem with the service in this hotel. we promise never to make the same mistake again... Negative response to complaints:    Sorry there is nothing we can do about it. 1. I want to complain about the noise you are making.. Responding to complaints Positive response to complaints:    I'm so sorry. I'm sorry to say this but Your pizza is just too salty.. but this will never occur / happen again. I'm angry about the way you treat me.. Things to remember about complaints: . I'm afraid there is a slight problem with.. Excuse me but there is a problem about. there isn't much we can do about it. Examples: I have a complaint to make. 2. I'm angry about..He's too noisy . I'm sorry. I want to complain about.. we'll do our utmost/best not to do the same mistake again. your food is inedible. I'm really sorry.Excuse me but you are standing on my foot. We are sorry but the food is just alright. 5... I'm afraid I've got a complaint about. I'm afraid I've got a complaint about your child. I'm afraid....

the possibilities remain open. For future hopes. It's too salty" is one possible way of expressing a complaint. and I miss you. (but I didn't) Other ways to express hope You can also express hope in the following ways: . but for past hopes. (Unfortunately. you're not.(but you didn't) I had hoped to see you at the party on Saturday." How to use "hope"   Hope can also be used in expressions of goodwill.When expressing a complaint in English. (some time in the future) I hope (that) you had a nice Birthday. Examples: I hope you can come to the party on Saturday. Although "I'm angry about your pizza. it is considered too rude and you'd better use more polite expressions if you want to get what you want! Expressing Hope The difference between "wish" and "hope" How to use "wish"   Wish is most commonly used in hypothetical (or imagined/unreal) situations: Example: I wish (that) you were here.) Sometimes wish is used in greeting and expressions of goodwill: Example: We wish you a "Merry Christmas. but the grammar is slightly different: Examples: I hope (that) you have a Merry Christmas. it helps to be polite. the outcome has usually been determined already. (some time in the past) Hope can be used to specify a desired outcome.(future possibility) I was hoping that you would come to the party.

Conditional type 3 You can also express regret by using a conditional sentence type 3. I really want to have a car What I really want is to have a car. you may use many different structures. You didn't do the work (in the past) and I am annoyed because of that. Here are some of them.   I would like to have a car. I wouldn't have been sick. I f I hadn't eaten so much. If only I hadn't eaten so much. . Expressing Regret How to express regret Expressing regret means having a feeling of sadness about something that you did or did not do. If + past perfect + would + have + past participle Examples:   If I had worked hard. To express regret in English. Remember:  "I wish you had done the work" is a regret. wish / if only You can express regret by using wish or if only: I wish / if only + Past perfect Examples:   I wish I had worked harder. I would have passed the exam.

He should have done the work.. You can express regret by using: regret + Verb + ing OR regret + Noun Examples:   He doesn't regret leaving her. Apologizing Apologizing To apologize is to tell someone that you are sorry for having done something that has caused him inconvenience or unhappiness: Examples: I must apologize to Isabel for my late arrival. I regret the things I didn't do.. I regret.should have Regret may also be expressed by using a modal should: Should have + Past Participle Examples:   I should have sent him an invitation. I'd like to apologize for my trouble making. .

Please.. I'd like to apologize for...Trains may be subject to delay on the northern line..... Don't apologize.. Please.. I apologize for.. Remember: . Accepting apologies:             That's all right. Don't mention it. Forget about it. Pardon me for this... I'm terribly sorry for. Don't worry about it.. Please. I must apologize for. Don't worry about it. Here are some expressions you can use to make and respond to apologies Making apologies:               I do apologize for. Never mind. I'm ashamed of...... That's OK.... accept my apologies for.. I am so sorry for. Excuse me for . You couldn't help it... forgive me for. We apologize for any inconvenience caused. No harm done. forgive me for my. I shouldn't have... I quite understand. It doesn't matter.. It's all my fault.

She will take an umbrella as it could rain heavily there. Making and responding to a request .. it's impossible to repair that old Chevrolet. There's no chance my father repairs it tomorrow. Expressing impossibility     No. It's possible that someone will meet her at the airport." It is likely that it will happen. Even a good mechanic can't possibly fix it. but now it has become a real probability. There's a chance she'll like the city. We may not be able to travel by car. May be she will make the trip alone. the project was just a possibility. She might buy some presents for the family before she goes. Expressing Possibility          My grandmother may travel alone."I'd like to apologize" is the short form of "I would like to apologize" Expressing Possibility What is the difference between possibility and probability? Possibility is when there is a chance that something may happen or be true while probability is the likelihood of something happening or being true: Example: "Until yesterday. she will go by plane. Perhaps she will visit London. I suppose she might spend a lot of money on the presents. Possibly.

? Here are some examples of how to make a request.? could you .. Can you open the door for me. Things to remember about making a request: .. You can make a request by using:     can you ..? would you mind . please? Would you help me with this exercise. please? Responding to request:     Sure here you are.. please? Will you lend me your book. please? Will you Could you possibly would you mind opening the door for me ? Making Request:      Can you show me your photo album.. please? Could you possibly show me the way to the post office.. Okey. please? Would you mind lending me your pen.. No.? will you ... I'm sorry I need it I'm afraid I can't.Making and responding to a request It's important to be polite when you ask for something.

"(which is a positive response to the request. I don't mind. It means that I don't want to lend you my book... Could is more polite than can.. Questions:       How did you feel? How did you react? What was your reaction? were you afraid of. Talking about fear Talking about fear There are many words and expressions you can use to talk about fear....? Were you scared of. ." is followed by a gerund (verb+ing) Example:"Would you mind lending me your book? " 2.. The response to the following request: A: "Would you mind giving me your book? " is either   "No. frightened of ." (which is a negative response to the request... spooked. I was afraid of .) 3... It means that I accept to lend you my book) or "Yes.1. "Would you mind.? Responses: terrified... petrified .? Were you terrified of..

It was a terrifying ordeal.. .. sent shivers out of me. or going to followed by the verb What (do you think) will happen? is going to happen? (I think) .. Making Predictions Predictions: When making predictions (what we think will happen in the future) we can either use:   will followed by the verb without to. Short dialogue: Latifa is talking about her fear when she saw the criminal Nancy: How did you feel when you saw the criminal? Latifa: I jumped out of my skin. frightened the life out of me. I jumped out of my skin. will . won't .... isn't going to . is going to . shook with fear...... It scared the hell out of me..scared of . gave me goosebumps.

. I think. . Go past the restaurant/school.. . 317 Shopping . . ? Where is .Examples of making predictions:     "What do you think will happen next year?" "Next week is going to be very busy. ? Can you show me the way to. . The ... ? Giving directions To give directions use these expressions:      Go straight on Turn left/right Take the first (turning) to the left/right.. . ? What's the best way to get to ... is beside/in front of/next to.the. .." "There won't be a rise in house prices next year. . Asking about and giving directions Asking about direction To ask about directions use these questions:       How can I get to . ." "He isn't going to win the election." Things to remember about making predictions o "He won't do it" is the short form of " he will not do it. ..? Can you tell me how to get to .. from here? How can I get to ...

A: Here you are. goodbye. here's my credit card. Can I try it on? A: Certainly. B: Thank you. A: How does it fit? B: It's fantastic. B: Thank you. how would you like to pay? B: Do you take credit cards? B: Yes.Shopping expressions These are expressions used when you go shopping:          Can / may I help you? Can I try it / them on? What size do you wear? What size are you? What color would you like? Extra small. Have a nice day! A: Thank you. extra large How does it fit? Where is the changing room? How would you like to pay? Can I pay by credit card / in cash? Shopping for a T-shirt A: Can I help you? B: Yes. I'll buy it. small. the changing room is over there. A: Yes it looks nice on you. I like it. large. B: Thank you. A: What size are you? B: I'm a medium. I'm looking for a T-shirt. medium. A: OK. B: Thank you. A: What color would you like? B: A blue one. A: OK. . we do.

formulaic.... Please hold and I'll put you through. opinion. How can I help you? Can I speak to Mr/Mrs. Stereotype can be described as a conventional. Complaining . . Mr/Mrs. please? Who shall I say is calling? Who's calling. speaking.... It's Mr/Mrs. or image.. please? Who's speaking? It's Mr/Mrs.? Could I speak to . company/department.. Just a second..              You 've reached . speaking. Hang on for a moment..Conversations on the Phone Telephone conversations It is common that English speakers make phone calls either for business reasons or personal affairs...Talking about Complaints How to define concepts can be defined as can be described as X Y refers to means Examples   Citizenship can be defined as the status of being a with its rights and duties.. here... I'll see if s/he is in. These are expressions you can use in your conversations on the phone.. and oversimplified conception..

. Culture refers to the arts. kinds classes categories sorts varieties  We can classify X according to . The books in the library are classified by/according to subject..... on the basis of depending on Expressing lack of understanding and asking for clarification . comprises kinds : .. and habits that characterize a particular society or nation    Classifying Classifying  To classify is to divide things into groups according to their type. Biologists classify animals and plants into different groups  How to classify things in English?  These tables show how you can classify things in English:  There are two types of X: . These are . can be divided into classes categories sorts varieties  . and . customs. These are.. categories sorts varieties  X consists of two types .... kinds of X..  Illiteracy means the condition of being unable to read and write.. are types of X... classes The two are ...

I didn't get your point.? Could you give us an example? I wonder if you could say that in a different way. How to express lack of understanding When you fail to understand what has been said to you you can use these expressions:          I beg your pardon? I beg your pardon.. I don't quite see what you're getting at.? Do you mean. How yo ask for clarification When you don't understand what someone has said..? Could you say that again. I'm not quite sure I follow you.. Sorry. I don't quite see what you mean. I'm not quite sure I know what you mean. when you fail to understand what has been said to you) and seek clarification from the person you are talking to. I'm not sure I got your point... please? Could you repeat please? Could you clarify that.. please? Clarifying one's point or idea . please? Could you be more explicit? Could you explain what you mean by. please? Could you be more specific. but I don't quite understand. Sorry. please? Would you elaborate on that . you can ask for clarification using the following expressions:             What do you mean by. I didn't quite hear what you said.Here is a list of useful English phrases you can use to express lack of understanding (that is. Could you put it differently.

To say this differently....... To put it differently. Let me put it in another way... In other words..To clarify your idea you can use the following expressions:        Let me explain that.. Let me explain that in more detail. ... Sorry let me explain...

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