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without prior permission of Lecturer:Ahmednoor Hussein Mohamed

Spoken English Course Curriculum
Course Overview:
Learning to speak English well may be the best thing you can do to improve your life.English is
a universal language. The world has changed. If you want to learn the world you need to learn
theEnglish language.With IT, we can open ourselves to the world and the only way
we can connect to the world is through the English language.If you are a business man
you would have to learn English to expand your business to overseas.If you are a student you
would have to learn English for a brighter future.If you are a professional, you would have to
learn English for the benefit of your career.Even if you are just a street walker, still you
need to learn English to understand what's going on in theworld. No matter who you
are. Learning English is very important.The format of the class would include theory
classes on etiquette and manners, grammar & vocabulary. Conversation classes for
building fluency. Group discussion classes including debates, thought processing,language check
Course Goals:
The purpose of the course is to synchronize educational fineness with human
excellence, to promote self -development and creativity in a stress free atmosphere,
to emphasize on providing the most modern a ndsophisticated learning environment
co Moreover, it is to develop a more qualified and learned society.T h e G o a l i s t o
create a society where English speaking capability can be harnessed by
e a c h a n d e v e r y individual to increase his/her potential to succeed in their professional and
personal life. We seek to liberatethe person from his inability to communicate in the corporate
language of the whole worldwhich is English.
Course Objectives:

Frame grammatically correct sentences in English.

Fluently speak in English in any situation.

Express yourself in groups of people confidently.

Able to present your thoughts more effectively.

Participate at higher levels in Group Discussions and meetings.

Present yourself more confidently in personal interviews.

Speak in Neutral Accent and also pick-up UK/US Accent.


There are different ways to greet people:
Greeting means welcoming someone with particular words or a particular action.
When meeting people formally for the first time, we greet by shaking hands and
saying "How do you do?" or "Pleased to meet you."
"How do you do?" isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".
When young people meet informally they sometimes greet and say "Give me five!" and
slap their hands together (high five).
Generally we do not greet by shaking hands with people we know well. We greet by
just saying 'hi' or 'hello'
Here are some expressions you can use to greet people.



Good morning, good afternoon, good evening.
How are you?
How are you doing?
How do you do?

Responding to greeting

Hi, hello.
Good morning/Good afternoon/Good evening.
I'm fine thank you (thanks)/Okey! Thank you (thanks)/Can't
complain/Not bad.
How about you?/And you?
How do you do?

Things to remember about greeting:
When you greet someone and say:
"How do you do?"
this isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".

Related material

Saying goodbye
Saying hello (greeting)

Saying Goodbye
Parting phrases
There are different expressions or phrases to say goodbye. These parting phrases
depend on situations and the people involved, their social status and personal

Leaving and saying goodbye

All right, everyone, it's time to head off.

Anyway, guys I'm going to make a move.
Ok, everyone, it's time to leave you.
See you later / tomorrow / soon.
Talk to you later!

If you want to say goodbye in a hurry

I'm so sorry, I've got to rush off / run / hurry!
I'm afraid I'm going to have to rush off / run / hurry!

Saying goodbye politely after meeting someone

Nice to see you.
It's been lovely to see you.
It was great to see you.
Good to see you.
Have a lovely / nice evening.
Have a good day.

Saying goodbye to your hosts

Thanks very much for dinner/ lunch - it was lovely!
Thank you very much for having me.

Other ways to say goodbye

Take care
Bye Bye!
Later man / bro!
Have a good one!
It's time to be going!
So Long!

Slang Goodbyes

Catch you later
Peace! / Peace out
I'm out!
Smell you later

I'd like to introduce myself.. I'm . Useful responses when introducing yourself or other people:  Nice to meet you... Introducing others: Here are expressions to introduce others:      Jack. Leila. Introducing yourself: Here are expressions to introduce yourself:       My name is . I'd like to introduce you to Betty. Barbara this is Leila.. Jack. have you met Nicolas? I'd like you to meet Liza. I'm ..Final goodbye  Farewell (when you intend never to see your interlocutor again) Related material   Saying goodbye Saying hello (greeting) Introducing yourself and other people Introducing yourself and others There is a range of ways to introduce yourself and people. Let me introduce myself.. . this is Barbara. Nice to meet you. please meet Nicolas.. I'm .... Pleased to meet you.... I'm . I'm .

Mr Alex Litterman. How do you do? Dialogue: Alex is talking to the new manager and his assistant. Examples:     I can't help you. When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. Now I can't. I'm too old. Happy to meet you. please meet Mr Steve Lynch. ("I'm Alex Litterman. William: Hi! I'm William O'Brian. Notice how they introduce themselves: Alex: Hi! My name is Alex Litterman. Nice to meet you.") "How do you do?" isn't really a question. John: William. .   Pleased to meet you. my assistant Jack: How do you do? Nicolas: How do you do? Things to remember:   When introducing yourself or other people in a formal situation use full names. can and be able are used. I'm unable to help you. I can stand on my head for five minutes. the new manager. I could work hard. it just means "Hello" 669 Talking about ability How to express ability To express that someone has the power or skill to do something.I am busy.

The teacher can assist you after class if you have any questions. Things to remember:  Can is always followed by an infinitive without "to. In the past Express ability in the past as follows   I was unable to visit him.  Can you speak Arabic? Yes. but I can't drive a lorry." Examples: I can ride my bike and I can drive a car. . I'm too old. Expressing ability In the present: Express ability in the present as follows:   I can speak good English. I couldn't eat at all when I was ill. I couldn't hear what he was saying. Now I can't.  Can in the past is was able or could Examples: When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. I can't stand on my head. I can. In the future Express ability in the future as follows   I will be able to buy a house when I get a good job.

Sure. Refusing to give permission:    Dialogue: No. . No problem. but you can't. Can in the future is will be able. I'm afraid." Asking for Permission:         Can I go out. Sure. but that’s not possible. go ahead. Asking For And Giving Permission Asking for and giving permission: When you ask for permission to use something that belongs to someone else you have to do your best to be polite. It is desirable to use the word "please. please don’t. please? Please. may I taste that hot spicy couscous dish? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you mind if I asked you something? Is it okay if I sit here? Would it be all right if I borrowed your mobile Phone? Giving Permission:      Yes. I will be able to find a job. can I have a look at your photo album? Please. Please feel free. please do. Example: When I finish my studies. please? May I open the window. I’m sorry.

Liza. Leila: I like Robert de Nero most. And who's your favorite actor? Cathy: Tom Cruise. is asking her mother for permission to use the computer. May I read a story before I sleep? Sure! But try to sleep early." Study the dialogue: Leila is talking to her new friend Cathy: Leila: What kind of films do you like best? Cathy: Science fiction. It's time to go to bed. Thanks a lot mummy. Liza: Her mother: Liza: Her mother: Liza: Please mum.. And you? Leila: Comedy. eight years old. Asking about favorite things:      What's your favorite sport? What sport do you like best? What sport do you like most? What kind of sport do you like best? Who's your favorite football player? .. Talking About Favorite Things Talking about favorite things When you talk about your favorite things you talk about the best liked or most enjoyed things. dear you can't. can I use the computer? No. Examples:  "What's your favorite color?" "Green.

For 2:40 you can use one of these two ways. Asking about the time: What time is it? time do you make it? 's the time? Have you got the right time? Telling the time: . I like football best."twenty to three" Here are the different ways to ask for and tell the time. "Favorite" is American spelling. Things to remember:   "Favourite" is British spelling. Telling The Time How to tell the time in English? There are two common ways of telling the time in English.   Digital: the easier way . My favorite football player is Ronaldo."Two forty " Classical: you say the minutes first then the hour . I like football most.Responding:     My favorite sport is football.

30 half past two two thirty 2...06 six minutes past two two oh six 2. When they do so they use these expressions: .20 twenty past two two twenty 2.00 two o'clock two 2.35 twenty-five to three two thirty-five 2.50 ten to three two fifty 2.12 twelve past two two twelve 2.15 a quarter past two two fifteen 2. It's .Digital It's . Making Offers How to make offers in English? It is common that English speakers make offers in conversations in order to be polite and helpful. 2.09 nine minutes past two two oh nine 2.00 three o'clock three Example: Question: What's the time..25 twenty-five past two two twenty-five 2.45 a quarter to three two forty-five 2.55 five to three two fifty-five 2..57 three minutes to three two fifty-seven 2.40 twenty to three two forty 2.58 nearly three o'clock two fifty-eight 3. please? Answer: It's two o'clock.

Example: "Would you like some tea ?" "Would you like to drink some coffee? Responding to offers .? English learner must be able to make offers as well as accept or reject them. The following are useful expressions to do so. or by the verb with to..Can I… ? Shall I… ? Would you like … ? How about .. Example: "Can I help you?" "Shall I bring you the mobile phone? Shall is more formal than can. can and will are followed by the verb without to. Would you like… is followed either by a noun. Making offers: Can I Shall help you? get you some juice? Would you like a glass of water ? How about some pizza? Examples:      "Can I help you?" "Shall I open the window for you?" "Would you like another cup of coffee?" "Would you like me to clean the board?" "How about a juice? " Remember:    Shall.

Examples:  "Can I help you?" "No thanks." "Thank you. Don't worry. I can do it myself." Or.Accepting Declining Yes please. I'll do it. It's OK.)  "Can I help you?" "Do you know where the post office is. I'd like to. No." "Don't worry." Shock and disbelief Expressing shock and disbelief . No. please. I'd love to. if you like. That would be very kind of you. I'm just having a look. that would be lovely. If you could."  "I'll do the washing. Thank you. that would be great. that would be nice . I'd love one. That would be very nice of you. that would be great." "It's OK."  "Would you like me to do the the ironing for you?" "If you wouldn't mind. I'll do it." "If you could. Yes please. thank you If you wouldn't mind." "Yes please. I can do it."  "Would you like a cup of tea?" "No thanks."  "Would you like another piece of cake?" "Yes please." (With a shop assistant. thanks Yes please."  "Shall I help you with your maths problem?" "Yes. "No thank you.

... I'm in Examples:       I was shocked to hear the news. Examples:    I just can't believe he won the race. especially when you feel sad.It is sometimes difficult to say how you feel in unexpected situations. I was stunned / taken aback by the news I was completely taken aback by his behavior. Expressing Indifference . We're all in complete shock.. taken aback by… I was . I was just stunned by her clothes. Shock: shocked to hear… stunned by. Disbelief: I (just) can't believe… can't imagine… It's unbelievable. incredible.. The news came as a complete shock.. It's unbelievable that they got married I just can't imagine they were able to get along with each other. such as natural disasters. came as a complete shock. bad news . Here's a list of some common expressions to help you express   shock and disbelief.

Here are some expressions you can use: Expressing indifference                So what? Who cares! I don’t care! It’s all the same to me. I suppose so. . respond to an appointment and cancel an appointment. I don’t mind. It doesn't matter to me Whatever (you want). Whatever you do? I don’t mind. You need to be able to:    make an appointment.How to express indifference? Sometimes you may have no particular interest or concern about something and you want to express indifference during a conversation. I have no preference. It’s your decision. Who knows! Why should I care? It makes no difference to me. Making an Appointment Making an appointment Being able to make and cancel an appointment is an important skill in English. Here are some expressions you can use to do this concisely and clearly.

.. would be fine..... Could we meet on Tuesday instead?" ... Examples:      "Yes.. ok? Examples:        "Are you available on the 17th?" "Can we meet on the 16th?" "How does the 3rd sound to you?" "Are you free next week?" "Would Friday suit you?" "Is next Tuesday convenient for you?" "What about sometime next week?" Responding to an appointment: Yes.. / next.. Monday is fine..." "Thursday would be perfect. I really don't think I can on .. suits me would be perfect.....? Can we meet on.. / next. on ." "Monday suits me... is fine . .? free on. I won't be able to. be ok? What about next .. ? Is next . I'm afraid I'm sorry I can't on .? would next .....Asking to meet: Are you available on.. What about the 6th?" "I'm sorry... ... / next .... I won't be able to make it on Monday.." "I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd.

Can we meet up on the 19th? Cancelling an appointment You can cancel an appointment as follows      Unfortunately. Would it be possible to arrange another time later in the week? I’m afraid that I have to cancel our meeting on Wednesday.. if that's alright with you. Is it possible to book an appointment Can I to see with May I Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department . I want to Preferences on Monday morning.." "I really don't think I can on the 17th. due to some unforeseen business. at 10 am.. You know we were going to meet next Friday? Well. I will be unable to keep our appointment for tomorrow afternoon.  "Ah. Can we fix another time?     Making Business Appointments How to make appointments in English These are expressions you'll probably need to make and change business appointments in English. today. I'm afraid that I'm not going to be able to meet you after all. as something unexpected has come up.. but something urgent has come up..  I wonder if I can I'd like to I need to book an appointment to see with Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department . . I'm very sorry.. I'd much prefer Friday. ... Wednesday is going to be a little difficult. on Monday morning? at 10 am? today? .

A cup of coffee would be suitable. I would eat a sandwich. "I'd prefer" + to + verb 2. Things to remember about preferences 1. "I'd rather" + verb Making invitations Making invitations Do you know how to invite someone to your house for dinner or to go to the movies? What do you say in English when someone invites you? Here are some common expressions you can use when making or responding to invitations .Talking about your preferences: Questions about preferences        Which do you prefer tea or coffee? Which do you prefer studying mathematics or physics? Which do you prefer to drink juice or mineral water? Which do you like better basketball or football? Do you prefer pizza or spaghetti? Would you prefer to eat a cake or an apple? Would you rather eat a cake or an apple? Replies      I prefer baseball. I'd prefer to drink juice I'd rather drink mineral water If I had a choice.

What time? I'd love to. I have an appointment. I'm really sorry. but would like to do so at a later time) Dialogue: Mike and Ann are in a wedding party: Mike: Ann: Do you want to dance? No thanks. Accepting invitations:       Sure. We'd be delighted to have you over for my birthday party. What a great idea. This evening is no good. When should I be there? Declining invitations:        I can't. I'm a bit tired right now . Can I take a rain check* on that? That's very kind of you. That sounds lovely.I'm supposed to be doing something else. I'd love to. but I'm already going out to the restaurant. That's very kind of you. but I've got something else on. Sure. I'm busy tomorrow. thank you. thanks. (*rain check: used to tell someone that you cannot accept invitations now. Well.Inviting:         Do you want to go to the movies tonight? Would you like to go to the theater tomorrow? Would you be interested in going to the the stadium next Sunday? How do you fancy going to the the restaurant for dinner? How about going to the movies? Care to come over for lunch? I was just wondering if you would like to come over for a drink. thank you. thanks. I have to work. I really don't think I can . but actually I'm doing something else this afternoon.

dark. young. long nose. fat. skinny. bushy eyebrows.. round face. thin. intelligent. tall. she's old. obese. .Mike: Ann: How about having a drink? Sure. She has got oval face.. curly hair. rosy cheeks.. black hair. Questions: What does Leila / the house look like? can you tell me about Leila / the house? is Leila / the house like? Tell me about Leila / the house! Responses: Well. beautiful. long. short. red-head. crooked teeth. thin. funny. well-built. blue eyes. slim. She's kind chubby. gorgeous . slim. regular teeth. I'd love to! Describing people and things Describing: What are some good ways to describe      people? things? feelings? yourself? personality? See the phrases below for examples of descriptions in English. really rich. straight hair. round face. fair skin . tall. overweight. square face. blonde.. middle aged. skinny. cute.

. I must see the doctor soon because I don't feel well. you express obligation. Expressing obligation Expressing obligation When it is necessary or obligatory to do something. Obligation in the future:  I'll have to borrow money.. . I'm late. It has got three bedrooms. small... Obligation in the past:  I had to work extra hours to pay my bills. a comfortable living room. Obligation in the present:      I have to finish my work before this evening. I have got to learn English if I want to live in the USA. naughty. and Liza: a spacious kitchen. It is necessary that I take a taxi. She's got long hair and a round face. clean . Liza: Martha wants Liza to describe the new apartment: Martha: Tell me about your new apartment! It's big. It is obligatory that I stop when the traffic light turn red.of silly. Short dialogues: Martha wants Liza to describe the new secretary: Martha: What's the new secretary like? She's cute. nice. It's big. comfortable.

. " You look tired. The simple future of "must" is "will have to".. I was so absent-minded that I didn't pay attention to the traffic Driver: lights.. The simple past of "must" is "had to".The difference between "Have to" and "must" is that "have to"indicates that someone else has imposed conditions on us. You mustn’t .." Dialogue: Policeman: Don't you know that you must stop when the traffic lights are red? Sorry sir. 3.Things to remember: 1.. You aren’t allowed to . "When the traffic light turn red. You aren’t permitted to . . Should also expresses obligation. 4.. To express prohibition you can use:      It is prohibited to . you'll have to pay a fine! Expressing Prohibition Expressing prohibition To express prohibition the following expressions are used." should = 50% obligation... Policeman: Well sir. It is forbidden to .. you must stop. you should have a rest. 2.. But there is a difference between must / have to and should:   must / have to = 100% obligation. It's more an advice than an obligation.

Asking for and Giving advice Expressions Asking for advice:      I've got a bad toothache. Mr O'Brian: Here you are. Mr O'Brian: Sorry. Students aren't allowed to come too late to school.That sounds OK. Drivers mustn't park their cars here. What are you doing here? You aren't allowed to enter this building. The security agent: Well. you. Dr Leila O'Brian is in the 3rd floor. You can take the lift sir.. sir. but I have an appointment with Dr Leila O'Biran. It is forbidden to walk on grass. Dialogue: Notice how prohibition is expressed in this dialogue The security agent: Hey.Examples:       Parking is strictly prohibited between these gates.. The security agent: Show me your ID card please. What do you suggest? What do you advise me to do? What should I do? What ought I to do? What's your advice? . She's my daughter. Smoking isn't permitted in hospitals. People aren't permitted to throw rubbish here.

Declining to give advice     I don't know what to advise. I wish I could help. Things to remember about asking for and giving advice: 1. I'm afraid I can't really help you. Example: "My father gave me this piece of advice when I was young: never give up" 3." "You should stop smoking. Example: "I advise you to learn English. Example: "You ought to stop smoking. You ought to/should avoid eating sweets. "You'd better" is the short form of "you had better" Example: "You'd better see a doctor!" = "You had better see the doctor" . Why don't you go to the dentist? You'd better brush your teeth regularly. If you were me what would you do? Giving advice         If I were you. but I can't. It might be a good idea to brush your teeth on a regular basis. You will undoubtedly need it in your higher studies" 2. "Advise" is a verb. "Advice" is a noun. I wish I could suggest something. If you take my advice. you'll go to the dentist. I'm afraid. I advise you to brush your teeth on a regular basis. The only difference is that "ought to " refers to a moral or external obligation but should is more of an advice. Have you thought about seeing a dentist." 4. "Ought to" has nearly the same meaning as "should". I would go to the dentist.

Making suggestions:          Let’s revise our lessons.Then. Student: I've heard about it.Study the dialogue: Student: I'm terrible at English and I think I should do something about it. let's. Yes. try the exercises. What about going to the cinema tonight? How about playing cards? Why don't we do our homework? Couldn't we invite your grandmother to our party? Shall we have a walk along the river? What would you say to a cup of coffee? Don't you think it is a good idea to watch TV? Does it matter if we use your car? Accepting suggestions:      Ok. but what do you think I should start with? Teacher: You'd better start with the lessons. Yes. What do you advise me to do? Teacher: I think you should try this website. It's a fantastic website for beginners. What a good idea! Why not? . Making and responding to suggestions Suggestions The following English phrases and expressions are all used to make suggestions and give advice to people. Yes. I'd like to. I'd love to.

I feel like taking a walk. Yes. with pleasure. That sounds like a good idea. What an awful / bad idea! Things to remember about suggestions: 1. I'd love to. We've seen the film many times before. I dislike going for a walk.The verb "suggest" can be followed by either:   should + verb = I suggest (that) we should go to the theater. a verb (in the subjunctive form)= I suggest (that) we go to the movies. What about going to the library? We have to finish our school project! Alice: That sounds like a good idea. 2."That" is optional:   "I suggest that we should visit Paris. No." "I suggest we should visit Paris.   Yes. why don't we go to the cinema to watch Titanic? Alan: No. Expressing Thanks and Gratitude How to express thanks and gratitude . I'd rather not." Dialogue: Two friends talking about where to go this evening: Alice: You know Alan. let's not. But when we finish let's go to the cafè. I don't feel like it. let's not. Alan: Yes. Refusing suggestions:      No.

.. I want to thank you for all the support and concern... Thank you for being there for me. .. it's you. It seems to me that.... Thank you.. I thank you from the bottom of my heart. As I see it. In my point of view / my opinion.... As far as I'm concerned. I am grateful.. You express thanks to tell someone that you are grateful for something that they have done or given to you.This page will present different ways of expressing thanks and gratitude in English. How can I ever thank you enough for all you've done? You have been extremely supportive through this difficult time. That was very kind of you. What you've done means a lot to me. To my mind.. I am indebted to you. Sincere thanks.. . Expressing thanks and gratitude Here are different ways to say thank you and to show your appreciation for something done or given to you. Thanks for being thoughtful.. According to me. If anyone deserves thanks. Examples:                 Thanks.      Expressing Your Opinion How to express your opinion Expressing opinion I think.. I appreciate what you've done for me. You've been very helpful..

. This is absolutely right. I disagree with you. but.. In my experience......  Agreeing or disagreeing  Agreeing with an opinion: I agree with this opinion.Talking about Complaints What are complaints? Complaints are expressions of "displeasure or annoyance" in response to an action that is seen by the speaker as unfavorable. Partial agreement: I agree with this point of view... I don't agree with you. My personal view is that. I am of the opinion that.. I can't agree with you. but... I'm not sure I agree with you I think you're wrong      Complaining . . I completely agree with this view. Suppose you want to complain about the pizza you have just ordered because it's too salty. I couldn't / can't agree more. Disagreeing with an opinion: I'm afraid.. . but..From my point of view.... As far as I understand / can see/see it. what are the expressions needed to express and respond to complaints? Complaining: Here are expressions you can use when complaining:  I have a complaint to make. I agree with you.. This idea is right.. I take the view that...

. Examples: I have a complaint to make... Negative response to complaints:    Sorry there is nothing we can do about it. your food is inedible. there isn't much we can do about it.. I'm really sorry. Responding to complaints Positive response to complaints:    I'm so sorry. 3...He's too noisy .... I'm angry about the way you treat me.. I'm afraid I've got a complaint about.       Sorry to bother you but. I'm afraid there is a slight problem with.. 5. Things to remember about complaints: . we'll do our utmost/best not to do the same mistake again. 2. I'm afraid I've got a complaint about your child. I'm sorry to say this but. but this will never occur / happen again. I'm angry about. Excuse me but there is a problem about. We are sorry but the food is just alright. I want to complain about the noise you are making.. I'm sorry. we promise never to make the same mistake again.. I'm afraid there is a slight problem with the service in this hotel. I'm sorry to say this but Your pizza is just too salty.. 4. I'm afraid. I want to complain about. 1.Excuse me but you are standing on my foot.

Although "I'm angry about your pizza. and I miss you.(but you didn't) I had hoped to see you at the party on Saturday. the possibilities remain open. It's too salty" is one possible way of expressing a complaint. Examples: I hope you can come to the party on Saturday. it is considered too rude and you'd better use more polite expressions if you want to get what you want! Expressing Hope The difference between "wish" and "hope" How to use "wish"   Wish is most commonly used in hypothetical (or imagined/unreal) situations: Example: I wish (that) you were here. the outcome has usually been determined already. but the grammar is slightly different: Examples: I hope (that) you have a Merry Christmas." How to use "hope"   Hope can also be used in expressions of goodwill. (some time in the past) Hope can be used to specify a desired outcome. For future hopes. (but I didn't) Other ways to express hope You can also express hope in the following ways: . you're not. (Unfortunately.(future possibility) I was hoping that you would come to the party.When expressing a complaint in English. but for past hopes. it helps to be polite.) Sometimes wish is used in greeting and expressions of goodwill: Example: We wish you a "Merry Christmas. (some time in the future) I hope (that) you had a nice Birthday.

Expressing Regret How to express regret Expressing regret means having a feeling of sadness about something that you did or did not do. Conditional type 3 You can also express regret by using a conditional sentence type 3. Remember:  "I wish you had done the work" is a regret. I f I hadn't eaten so much. I would have passed the exam. wish / if only You can express regret by using wish or if only: I wish / if only + Past perfect Examples:   I wish I had worked harder. I really want to have a car What I really want is to have a car. you may use many different structures. . You didn't do the work (in the past) and I am annoyed because of that. If + past perfect + would + have + past participle Examples:   If I had worked hard.   I would like to have a car. I wouldn't have been sick. Here are some of them. If only I hadn't eaten so much. To express regret in English.

I regret. I regret the things I didn't do.should have Regret may also be expressed by using a modal should: Should have + Past Participle Examples:   I should have sent him an invitation. . Apologizing Apologizing To apologize is to tell someone that you are sorry for having done something that has caused him inconvenience or unhappiness: Examples: I must apologize to Isabel for my late arrival. You can express regret by using: regret + Verb + ing OR regret + Noun Examples:   He doesn't regret leaving her. I'd like to apologize for my trouble making. He should have done the work...

Accepting apologies:             That's all right. Please.. Never mind. I'm terribly sorry for.. forgive me for my. Here are some expressions you can use to make and respond to apologies Making apologies:               I do apologize for.... Please. I apologize for. Don't worry about it.. Remember: ..... I shouldn't have. Pardon me for this. No harm done.Trains may be subject to delay on the northern line.. forgive me for.... Excuse me for .. We apologize for any inconvenience caused. I must apologize for.. Don't mention it. I quite understand. Forget about it. It doesn't matter. I'd like to apologize for.. I am so sorry for. I'm ashamed of. Please... You couldn't help it.. Don't worry about it. Don't apologize. That's OK. It's all my fault.. accept my apologies for.......

She will take an umbrella as it could rain heavily there. but now it has become a real probability. There's no chance my father repairs it tomorrow. it's impossible to repair that old Chevrolet. We may not be able to travel by car. I suppose she might spend a lot of money on the presents. It's possible that someone will meet her at the airport. Expressing impossibility     No." It is likely that it will happen. Making and responding to a request . Expressing Possibility          My grandmother may travel alone. the project was just a possibility."I'd like to apologize" is the short form of "I would like to apologize" Expressing Possibility What is the difference between possibility and probability? Possibility is when there is a chance that something may happen or be true while probability is the likelihood of something happening or being true: Example: "Until yesterday. There's a chance she'll like the city. Even a good mechanic can't possibly fix it. May be she will make the trip alone. She might buy some presents for the family before she goes.. Perhaps she will visit London. Possibly. she will go by plane.

? could you .? will you . please? Responding to request:     Sure here you are. Okey. Things to remember about making a request: ..? would you mind . Can you open the door for me..? Here are some examples of how to make a request.... please? Would you help me with this exercise. please? Will you Could you possibly would you mind opening the door for me ? Making Request:      Can you show me your photo album. You can make a request by using:     can you . please? Would you mind lending me your pen. please? Will you lend me your book. No... please? Could you possibly show me the way to the post office.Making and responding to a request It's important to be polite when you ask for something. I'm sorry I need it I'm afraid I can't...

" is followed by a gerund (verb+ing) Example:"Would you mind lending me your book? " 2.? Were you terrified of.) 3. I was afraid of . It means that I don't want to lend you my book.? Were you scared of. frightened of ... petrified ." (which is a negative response to the request.. The response to the following request: A: "Would you mind giving me your book? " is either   "No.1... ... "Would you mind.? Responses: terrified... I don't mind. Could is more polite than can.."(which is a positive response to the request. Questions:       How did you feel? How did you react? What was your reaction? were you afraid of.... spooked.. It means that I accept to lend you my book) or "Yes. Talking about fear Talking about fear There are many words and expressions you can use to talk about fear.

won't . gave me goosebumps.... It was a terrifying ordeal.. will .. is going to .scared of .. isn't going to .. frightened the life out of me. . I jumped out of my skin.. Short dialogue: Latifa is talking about her fear when she saw the criminal Nancy: How did you feel when you saw the criminal? Latifa: I jumped out of my skin. sent shivers out of me. shook with fear.. Making Predictions Predictions: When making predictions (what we think will happen in the future) we can either use:   will followed by the verb without to. or going to followed by the verb What (do you think) will happen? is going to happen? (I think) . It scared the hell out of me....

. I think. ? Can you show me the way to. ... ." Things to remember about making predictions o "He won't do it" is the short form of " he will not do it.. Go past the restaurant/school.? Can you tell me how to get to .Examples of making predictions:     "What do you think will happen next year?" "Next week is going to be very busy.. . ? Where is . The . . . Asking about and giving directions Asking about direction To ask about directions use these questions:       How can I get to . .." "There won't be a rise in house prices next year... is beside/in front of/next to." "He isn't going to win the election. .. . ? What's the best way to get to .. 317 Shopping .. ? Giving directions To give directions use these expressions:      Go straight on Turn left/right Take the first (turning) to the left/right.the.. . from here? How can I get to .

A: OK. A: What color would you like? B: A blue one. I'm looking for a T-shirt. A: Here you are. B: Thank you. how would you like to pay? B: Do you take credit cards? B: Yes. Can I try it on? A: Certainly. the changing room is over there. A: How does it fit? B: It's fantastic. A: OK. B: Thank you. small. . goodbye. A: Yes it looks nice on you. we do. B: Thank you. large. I like it. A: What size are you? B: I'm a medium. Have a nice day! A: Thank you.Shopping expressions These are expressions used when you go shopping:          Can / may I help you? Can I try it / them on? What size do you wear? What size are you? What color would you like? Extra small. medium. B: Thank you. I'll buy it. extra large How does it fit? Where is the changing room? How would you like to pay? Can I pay by credit card / in cash? Shopping for a T-shirt A: Can I help you? B: Yes. here's my credit card.

please? Who's speaking? It's Mr/Mrs. It's Mr/Mrs..... These are expressions you can use in your conversations on the phone.... here.. speaking. Hang on for a moment. Complaining .              You 've reached . Just a second.. speaking. Stereotype can be described as a conventional.? Could I speak to . Please hold and I'll put you through... I'll see if s/he is in. please? Who shall I say is calling? Who's calling. Mr/Mrs. opinion.. How can I help you? Can I speak to Mr/Mrs.Conversations on the Phone Telephone conversations It is common that English speakers make phone calls either for business reasons or personal affairs. or image..Talking about Complaints How to define concepts can be defined as can be described as X Y refers to means Examples   Citizenship can be defined as the status of being a with its rights and duties. . and oversimplified conception. formulaic.. company/department....

kinds classes categories sorts varieties  We can classify X according to . Biologists classify animals and plants into different groups  How to classify things in English?  These tables show how you can classify things in English:  There are two types of X: .. Culture refers to the arts. and . These are ... These are. comprises kinds : ... classes The two are . categories sorts varieties  X consists of two types .... customs. and habits that characterize a particular society or nation    Classifying Classifying  To classify is to divide things into groups according to their type. are types of X......  Illiteracy means the condition of being unable to read and write.... kinds of X. on the basis of depending on Expressing lack of understanding and asking for clarification . can be divided into classes categories sorts varieties  . The books in the library are classified by/according to subject.

? Could you say that again.? Do you mean. please? Would you elaborate on that . I didn't get your point. when you fail to understand what has been said to you) and seek clarification from the person you are talking to.. please? Clarifying one's point or idea .Here is a list of useful English phrases you can use to express lack of understanding (that is. you can ask for clarification using the following expressions:             What do you mean by. Sorry. I'm not quite sure I follow you. I'm not quite sure I know what you mean. I don't quite see what you're getting at. Sorry. How to express lack of understanding When you fail to understand what has been said to you you can use these expressions:          I beg your pardon? I beg your pardon. please? Could you repeat please? Could you clarify that. but I don't quite understand. I'm not sure I got your point. I don't quite see what you mean. Could you put it differently. I didn't quite hear what you said. please? Could you be more explicit? Could you explain what you mean by....? Could you give us an example? I wonder if you could say that in a different way. How yo ask for clarification When you don't understand what someone has said... please? Could you be more specific.

...... Let me explain that in more detail. To say this differently. . Sorry let me explain. In other words.. To put it differently........To clarify your idea you can use the following expressions:        Let me explain that. Let me put it in another way.

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