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without prior permission of Lecturer:Ahmednoor Hussein Mohamed

Spoken English Course Curriculum
Course Overview:
Learning to speak English well may be the best thing you can do to improve your life.English is
a universal language. The world has changed. If you want to learn the world you need to learn
theEnglish language.With IT, we can open ourselves to the world and the only way
we can connect to the world is through the English language.If you are a business man
you would have to learn English to expand your business to overseas.If you are a student you
would have to learn English for a brighter future.If you are a professional, you would have to
learn English for the benefit of your career.Even if you are just a street walker, still you
need to learn English to understand what's going on in theworld. No matter who you
are. Learning English is very important.The format of the class would include theory
classes on etiquette and manners, grammar & vocabulary. Conversation classes for
building fluency. Group discussion classes including debates, thought processing,language check
etc.
Course Goals:
The purpose of the course is to synchronize educational fineness with human
excellence, to promote self -development and creativity in a stress free atmosphere,
to emphasize on providing the most modern a ndsophisticated learning environment
co Moreover, it is to develop a more qualified and learned society.T h e G o a l i s t o
create a society where English speaking capability can be harnessed by
e a c h a n d e v e r y individual to increase his/her potential to succeed in their professional and
personal life. We seek to liberatethe person from his inability to communicate in the corporate
language of the whole worldwhich is English.
Course Objectives:

Frame grammatically correct sentences in English.

Fluently speak in English in any situation.

Express yourself in groups of people confidently.

Able to present your thoughts more effectively.

Participate at higher levels in Group Discussions and meetings.

Present yourself more confidently in personal interviews.

Speak in Neutral Accent and also pick-up UK/US Accent.

Greeting

There are different ways to greet people:
Greeting means welcoming someone with particular words or a particular action.
When meeting people formally for the first time, we greet by shaking hands and
saying "How do you do?" or "Pleased to meet you."
"How do you do?" isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".
When young people meet informally they sometimes greet and say "Give me five!" and
slap their hands together (high five).
Generally we do not greet by shaking hands with people we know well. We greet by
just saying 'hi' or 'hello'
Here are some expressions you can use to greet people.

`
Greeting

Hi,
hel
lo.




Good morning, good afternoon, good evening.
How are you?
How are you doing?
How do you do?

Responding to greeting




Hi, hello.
Good morning/Good afternoon/Good evening.
I'm fine thank you (thanks)/Okey! Thank you (thanks)/Can't
complain/Not bad.
How about you?/And you?
How do you do?

Things to remember about greeting:
When you greet someone and say:
"How do you do?"
this isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".

Related material

Saying goodbye
Saying hello (greeting)

Saying Goodbye
Parting phrases
There are different expressions or phrases to say goodbye. These parting phrases
depend on situations and the people involved, their social status and personal
relationship.

Leaving and saying goodbye

All right, everyone, it's time to head off.




Anyway, guys I'm going to make a move.
Ok, everyone, it's time to leave you.
See you later / tomorrow / soon.
Talk to you later!

If you want to say goodbye in a hurry

I'm so sorry, I've got to rush off / run / hurry!
I'm afraid I'm going to have to rush off / run / hurry!

Saying goodbye politely after meeting someone





Nice to see you.
It's been lovely to see you.
It was great to see you.
Good to see you.
Have a lovely / nice evening.
Have a good day.

Saying goodbye to your hosts

Thanks very much for dinner/ lunch - it was lovely!
Thank you very much for having me.

Other ways to say goodbye






Take care
Bye!
Bye Bye!
Later man / bro!
Have a good one!
It's time to be going!
So Long!

Slang Goodbyes



Catch you later
Peace! / Peace out
I'm out!
Smell you later

. I'm . I'm . Jack. Pleased to meet you.. I'd like to introduce myself.. have you met Nicolas? I'd like you to meet Liza. Introducing yourself: Here are expressions to introduce yourself:       My name is ... Introducing others: Here are expressions to introduce others:      Jack. Barbara this is Leila. Let me introduce myself. I'm ..Final goodbye  Farewell (when you intend never to see your interlocutor again) Related material   Saying goodbye Saying hello (greeting) Introducing yourself and other people Introducing yourself and others There is a range of ways to introduce yourself and people. this is Barbara.. I'd like to introduce you to Betty.. I'm . Nice to meet you. I'm . Useful responses when introducing yourself or other people:  Nice to meet you..... .. Leila. please meet Nicolas.

("I'm Alex Litterman. Examples:     I can't help you. I could work hard. Notice how they introduce themselves: Alex: Hi! My name is Alex Litterman.   Pleased to meet you. I can stand on my head for five minutes. Happy to meet you. Nice to meet you. I'm unable to help you. Now I can't. When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. the new manager.I am busy. I'm too old. can and be able are used. please meet Mr Steve Lynch.") "How do you do?" isn't really a question. William: Hi! I'm William O'Brian. it just means "Hello" 669 Talking about ability How to express ability To express that someone has the power or skill to do something. Mr Alex Litterman. John: William. my assistant Jack: How do you do? Nicolas: How do you do? Things to remember:   When introducing yourself or other people in a formal situation use full names. . How do you do? Dialogue: Alex is talking to the new manager and his assistant.

I can. but I can't drive a lorry. Now I can't. . In the future Express ability in the future as follows   I will be able to buy a house when I get a good job. The teacher can assist you after class if you have any questions.  Can in the past is was able or could Examples: When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. Things to remember:  Can is always followed by an infinitive without "to. I can't stand on my head." Examples: I can ride my bike and I can drive a car. Expressing ability In the present: Express ability in the present as follows:   I can speak good English. I couldn't eat at all when I was ill.  Can you speak Arabic? Yes. In the past Express ability in the past as follows   I was unable to visit him. I'm too old. I couldn't hear what he was saying.

Sure. Refusing to give permission:    Dialogue: No. but you can't. please don’t. I'm afraid. Example: When I finish my studies. . go ahead. may I taste that hot spicy couscous dish? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you mind if I asked you something? Is it okay if I sit here? Would it be all right if I borrowed your mobile Phone? Giving Permission:      Yes. Please feel free. please? Please. please do. Asking For And Giving Permission Asking for and giving permission: When you ask for permission to use something that belongs to someone else you have to do your best to be polite. but that’s not possible. I will be able to find a job. I’m sorry. It is desirable to use the word "please. please? May I open the window." Asking for Permission:         Can I go out. No problem. Sure. Can in the future is will be able. can I have a look at your photo album? Please.

is asking her mother for permission to use the computer. Leila: I like Robert de Nero most. Asking about favorite things:      What's your favorite sport? What sport do you like best? What sport do you like most? What kind of sport do you like best? Who's your favorite football player? .Liza. Thanks a lot mummy. Examples:  "What's your favorite color?" "Green. eight years old. May I read a story before I sleep? Sure! But try to sleep early. can I use the computer? No. Talking About Favorite Things Talking about favorite things When you talk about your favorite things you talk about the best liked or most enjoyed things. It's time to go to bed." Study the dialogue: Leila is talking to her new friend Cathy: Leila: What kind of films do you like best? Cathy: Science fiction. And you? Leila: Comedy. Liza: Her mother: Liza: Her mother: Liza: Please mum. And who's your favorite actor? Cathy: Tom Cruise.. dear you can't..

Things to remember:   "Favourite" is British spelling. For 2:40 you can use one of these two ways. "Favorite" is American spelling."Two forty " Classical: you say the minutes first then the hour ."twenty to three" Here are the different ways to ask for and tell the time. I like football most. Telling The Time How to tell the time in English? There are two common ways of telling the time in English.Responding:     My favorite sport is football.   Digital: the easier way . My favorite football player is Ronaldo. Asking about the time: What time is it? time do you make it? 's the time? Have you got the right time? Telling the time: . I like football best.

40 twenty to three two forty 2.12 twelve past two two twelve 2.50 ten to three two fifty 2..25 twenty-five past two two twenty-five 2.55 five to three two fifty-five 2..20 twenty past two two twenty 2. It's ..09 nine minutes past two two oh nine 2.35 twenty-five to three two thirty-five 2. Making Offers How to make offers in English? It is common that English speakers make offers in conversations in order to be polite and helpful.15 a quarter past two two fifteen 2.58 nearly three o'clock two fifty-eight 3.. please? Answer: It's two o'clock.57 three minutes to three two fifty-seven 2.00 three o'clock three Example: Question: What's the time.30 half past two two thirty 2. 2.00 two o'clock two 2.06 six minutes past two two oh six 2.45 a quarter to three two forty-five 2. When they do so they use these expressions: .Digital It's .

or by the verb with to..? English learner must be able to make offers as well as accept or reject them. Would you like… is followed either by a noun.. Example: "Would you like some tea ?" "Would you like to drink some coffee? Responding to offers .Can I… ? Shall I… ? Would you like … ? How about . Example: "Can I help you?" "Shall I bring you the mobile phone? Shall is more formal than can. The following are useful expressions to do so. can and will are followed by the verb without to. Making offers: Can I Shall help you? get you some juice? Would you like a glass of water ? How about some pizza? Examples:      "Can I help you?" "Shall I open the window for you?" "Would you like another cup of coffee?" "Would you like me to clean the board?" "How about a juice? " Remember:    Shall.

that would be great. I'd love to."  "Would you like a cup of tea?" "No thanks. Don't worry.)  "Can I help you?" "Do you know where the post office is. that would be great. if you like. please. I'll do it. If you could." Or. That would be very kind of you. It's OK. I can do it. No. that would be nice ."  "Would you like me to do the the ironing for you?" "If you wouldn't mind. I'd love one." (With a shop assistant." "It's OK. No."  "Shall I help you with your maths problem?" "Yes. I can do it myself. thanks Yes please."  "Would you like another piece of cake?" "Yes please. thank you If you wouldn't mind. Examples:  "Can I help you?" "No thanks. "No thank you. I'm just having a look." "Thank you.Accepting Declining Yes please."  "I'll do the washing. that would be lovely. That would be very nice of you. Yes please." "Yes please." Shock and disbelief Expressing shock and disbelief ." "If you could. I'll do it. I'd like to." "Don't worry. Thank you.

I'm in Examples:       I was shocked to hear the news.. came as a complete shock. I was stunned / taken aback by the news I was completely taken aback by his behavior. bad news .It is sometimes difficult to say how you feel in unexpected situations. The news came as a complete shock. Here's a list of some common expressions to help you express   shock and disbelief.... such as natural disasters. It's unbelievable that they got married I just can't imagine they were able to get along with each other.. Examples:    I just can't believe he won the race.. especially when you feel sad. taken aback by… I was . I was just stunned by her clothes. Expressing Indifference . Disbelief: I (just) can't believe… can't imagine… It's unbelievable. We're all in complete shock. incredible. Shock: shocked to hear… stunned by.

Here are some expressions you can use to do this concisely and clearly. Making an Appointment Making an appointment Being able to make and cancel an appointment is an important skill in English. respond to an appointment and cancel an appointment. I don’t mind. You need to be able to:    make an appointment. . Whatever you do? I don’t mind. Here are some expressions you can use: Expressing indifference                So what? Who cares! I don’t care! It’s all the same to me. It doesn't matter to me Whatever (you want). I have no preference.How to express indifference? Sometimes you may have no particular interest or concern about something and you want to express indifference during a conversation. It’s your decision. I suppose so. Who knows! Why should I care? It makes no difference to me.

. is fine .? free on... / next. / next. I really don't think I can on .. I won't be able to.. / next ." "Monday suits me. suits me would be perfect. I won't be able to make it on Monday.......... What about the 6th?" "I'm sorry. Monday is fine.... would be fine.. on .." "I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd...? would next ..? Can we meet on.. Could we meet on Tuesday instead?" ....... ok? Examples:        "Are you available on the 17th?" "Can we meet on the 16th?" "How does the 3rd sound to you?" "Are you free next week?" "Would Friday suit you?" "Is next Tuesday convenient for you?" "What about sometime next week?" Responding to an appointment: Yes. ? Is next . I'm afraid I'm sorry I can't on .... Examples:      "Yes." "Thursday would be perfect.Asking to meet: Are you available on. be ok? What about next ... ...

as something unexpected has come up. Is it possible to book an appointment Can I to see with May I Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department . at 10 am.. I'm very sorry.  I wonder if I can I'd like to I need to book an appointment to see with Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department . I'm afraid that I'm not going to be able to meet you after all. but something urgent has come up. due to some unforeseen business. on Monday morning? at 10 am? today? . I will be unable to keep our appointment for tomorrow afternoon. Can we meet up on the 19th? Cancelling an appointment You can cancel an appointment as follows      Unfortunately. today. I want to Preferences on Monday morning. Would it be possible to arrange another time later in the week? I’m afraid that I have to cancel our meeting on Wednesday. You know we were going to meet next Friday? Well. ." "I really don't think I can on the 17th... .  "Ah.. if that's alright with you. Can we fix another time?     Making Business Appointments How to make appointments in English These are expressions you'll probably need to make and change business appointments in English. I'd much prefer Friday.. Wednesday is going to be a little difficult....

Talking about your preferences: Questions about preferences        Which do you prefer tea or coffee? Which do you prefer studying mathematics or physics? Which do you prefer to drink juice or mineral water? Which do you like better basketball or football? Do you prefer pizza or spaghetti? Would you prefer to eat a cake or an apple? Would you rather eat a cake or an apple? Replies      I prefer baseball. "I'd rather" + verb Making invitations Making invitations Do you know how to invite someone to your house for dinner or to go to the movies? What do you say in English when someone invites you? Here are some common expressions you can use when making or responding to invitations . I'd prefer to drink juice I'd rather drink mineral water If I had a choice. I would eat a sandwich. "I'd prefer" + to + verb 2. Things to remember about preferences 1. A cup of coffee would be suitable.

When should I be there? Declining invitations:        I can't. I really don't think I can . I have to work. (*rain check: used to tell someone that you cannot accept invitations now. but I've got something else on. Accepting invitations:       Sure. but actually I'm doing something else this afternoon. That's very kind of you.Inviting:         Do you want to go to the movies tonight? Would you like to go to the theater tomorrow? Would you be interested in going to the the stadium next Sunday? How do you fancy going to the the restaurant for dinner? How about going to the movies? Care to come over for lunch? I was just wondering if you would like to come over for a drink. I'm a bit tired right now . but would like to do so at a later time) Dialogue: Mike and Ann are in a wedding party: Mike: Ann: Do you want to dance? No thanks. That sounds lovely. thanks. Can I take a rain check* on that? That's very kind of you.I'm supposed to be doing something else. I'm really sorry. What a great idea. I'd love to. What time? I'd love to. thanks. Sure. thank you. We'd be delighted to have you over for my birthday party. but I'm already going out to the restaurant. I'm busy tomorrow. thank you. Well. I have an appointment. This evening is no good.

. Questions: What does Leila / the house look like? can you tell me about Leila / the house? is Leila / the house like? Tell me about Leila / the house! Responses: Well.Mike: Ann: How about having a drink? Sure. thin.. crooked teeth. obese... well-built. bushy eyebrows. cute. I'd love to! Describing people and things Describing: What are some good ways to describe      people? things? feelings? yourself? personality? See the phrases below for examples of descriptions in English.. young. curly hair. skinny. thin. slim. red-head. long. funny. She has got oval face. regular teeth. beautiful. fat. tall. She's kind chubby. black hair. really rich. blue eyes. straight hair. fair skin . round face. round face. square face. intelligent. overweight. blonde. middle aged. skinny. gorgeous . she's old. slim. tall. long nose. rosy cheeks. short. dark.

Obligation in the present:      I have to finish my work before this evening. It is necessary that I take a taxi. and Liza: a spacious kitchen. It's big. Liza: Martha wants Liza to describe the new apartment: Martha: Tell me about your new apartment! It's big. Short dialogues: Martha wants Liza to describe the new secretary: Martha: What's the new secretary like? She's cute. comfortable.. Expressing obligation Expressing obligation When it is necessary or obligatory to do something. a comfortable living room. small.. clean . you express obligation. It has got three bedrooms. Obligation in the past:  I had to work extra hours to pay my bills. She's got long hair and a round face. It is obligatory that I stop when the traffic light turn red. .. nice. naughty. Obligation in the future:  I'll have to borrow money.of silly. I must see the doctor soon because I don't feel well. I have got to learn English if I want to live in the USA. I'm late..

.. .. But there is a difference between must / have to and should:   must / have to = 100% obligation. you should have a rest. Policeman: Well sir. It's more an advice than an obligation.Things to remember: 1. 4. You aren’t allowed to ." Dialogue: Policeman: Don't you know that you must stop when the traffic lights are red? Sorry sir.." should = 50% obligation. I was so absent-minded that I didn't pay attention to the traffic Driver: lights. The simple past of "must" is "had to". The simple future of "must" is "will have to".The difference between "Have to" and "must" is that "have to"indicates that someone else has imposed conditions on us... You mustn’t . 3.. To express prohibition you can use:      It is prohibited to .. You aren’t permitted to . " You look tired... you must stop. 2. you'll have to pay a fine! Expressing Prohibition Expressing prohibition To express prohibition the following expressions are used. It is forbidden to . "When the traffic light turn red. Should also expresses obligation.

. People aren't permitted to throw rubbish here. It is forbidden to walk on grass. What do you suggest? What do you advise me to do? What should I do? What ought I to do? What's your advice? . The security agent: Well. She's my daughter. you. sir.Examples:       Parking is strictly prohibited between these gates. You can take the lift sir.That sounds OK. but I have an appointment with Dr Leila O'Biran. What are you doing here? You aren't allowed to enter this building. Drivers mustn't park their cars here. The security agent: Show me your ID card please. Students aren't allowed to come too late to school. Dialogue: Notice how prohibition is expressed in this dialogue The security agent: Hey.. Mr O'Brian: Here you are. Smoking isn't permitted in hospitals. Dr Leila O'Brian is in the 3rd floor. Mr O'Brian: Sorry. Asking for and Giving advice Expressions Asking for advice:      I've got a bad toothache.

"Advice" is a noun. You will undoubtedly need it in your higher studies" 2. You ought to/should avoid eating sweets. "Ought to" has nearly the same meaning as "should". Why don't you go to the dentist? You'd better brush your teeth regularly. Example: "You ought to stop smoking. but I can't. If you take my advice. I wish I could help. It might be a good idea to brush your teeth on a regular basis. I'm afraid I can't really help you." 4. I'm afraid. Things to remember about asking for and giving advice: 1. "Advise" is a verb. Example: "I advise you to learn English. Example: "My father gave me this piece of advice when I was young: never give up" 3. I wish I could suggest something. you'll go to the dentist." "You should stop smoking. The only difference is that "ought to " refers to a moral or external obligation but should is more of an advice. "You'd better" is the short form of "you had better" Example: "You'd better see a doctor!" = "You had better see the doctor" . Declining to give advice     I don't know what to advise. Have you thought about seeing a dentist. If you were me what would you do? Giving advice         If I were you. I would go to the dentist. I advise you to brush your teeth on a regular basis.

Yes. let's. What about going to the cinema tonight? How about playing cards? Why don't we do our homework? Couldn't we invite your grandmother to our party? Shall we have a walk along the river? What would you say to a cup of coffee? Don't you think it is a good idea to watch TV? Does it matter if we use your car? Accepting suggestions:      Ok. try the exercises. Yes. Yes. It's a fantastic website for beginners. What do you advise me to do? Teacher: I think you should try this website. What a good idea! Why not? . but what do you think I should start with? Teacher: You'd better start with the lessons. Student: I've heard about it. Making and responding to suggestions Suggestions The following English phrases and expressions are all used to make suggestions and give advice to people. Making suggestions:          Let’s revise our lessons.Then. I'd love to. I'd like to.Study the dialogue: Student: I'm terrible at English and I think I should do something about it.

What an awful / bad idea! Things to remember about suggestions: 1. a verb (in the subjunctive form)= I suggest (that) we go to the movies. Expressing Thanks and Gratitude How to express thanks and gratitude ." "I suggest we should visit Paris. let's not.The verb "suggest" can be followed by either:   should + verb = I suggest (that) we should go to the theater. I'd love to. That sounds like a good idea. with pleasure. Yes. let's not. What about going to the library? We have to finish our school project! Alice: That sounds like a good idea. Refusing suggestions:      No. We've seen the film many times before. 2.   Yes. No. But when we finish let's go to the cafè. I don't feel like it."That" is optional:   "I suggest that we should visit Paris. I'd rather not. why don't we go to the cinema to watch Titanic? Alan: No. I feel like taking a walk." Dialogue: Two friends talking about where to go this evening: Alice: You know Alan. Alan: Yes. I dislike going for a walk.

. How can I ever thank you enough for all you've done? You have been extremely supportive through this difficult time. It seems to me that.. You express thanks to tell someone that you are grateful for something that they have done or given to you. As far as I'm concerned.... . Sincere thanks.. If anyone deserves thanks.. You've been very helpful. As I see it.. That was very kind of you. I want to thank you for all the support and concern.. I thank you from the bottom of my heart.. Thanks for being thoughtful.. Thank you for being there for me... According to me.. To my mind. In my point of view / my opinion. Thank you. Examples:                 Thanks. I am indebted to you. Expressing thanks and gratitude Here are different ways to say thank you and to show your appreciation for something done or given to you.      Expressing Your Opinion How to express your opinion Expressing opinion I think. . I appreciate what you've done for me...This page will present different ways of expressing thanks and gratitude in English.. it's you. What you've done means a lot to me. I am grateful..

.. I couldn't / can't agree more. Suppose you want to complain about the pizza you have just ordered because it's too salty. In my experience.... I disagree with you..  Agreeing or disagreeing  Agreeing with an opinion: I agree with this opinion.. I can't agree with you.... I'm not sure I agree with you I think you're wrong      Complaining .. but. This is absolutely right... Disagreeing with an opinion: I'm afraid. This idea is right.. but.Talking about Complaints What are complaints? Complaints are expressions of "displeasure or annoyance" in response to an action that is seen by the speaker as unfavorable.. but. .. I agree with you.From my point of view. As far as I understand / can see/see it. what are the expressions needed to express and respond to complaints? Complaining: Here are expressions you can use when complaining:  I have a complaint to make.. I am of the opinion that.... Partial agreement: I agree with this point of view. . . I completely agree with this view. I don't agree with you. My personal view is that. I take the view that.

I want to complain about the noise you are making. I'm afraid I've got a complaint about your child.. Examples: I have a complaint to make. I'm angry about. Excuse me but there is a problem about. we'll do our utmost/best not to do the same mistake again.He's too noisy . I want to complain about. I'm sorry. 2.. 3. Negative response to complaints:    Sorry there is nothing we can do about it... I'm afraid there is a slight problem with the service in this hotel.Excuse me but you are standing on my foot.       Sorry to bother you but.. I'm afraid I've got a complaint about... I'm afraid there is a slight problem with. Responding to complaints Positive response to complaints:    I'm so sorry. I'm really sorry.. there isn't much we can do about it. Things to remember about complaints: . but this will never occur / happen again. 1.... your food is inedible. We are sorry but the food is just alright. I'm afraid.. we promise never to make the same mistake again. 4... I'm angry about the way you treat me. I'm sorry to say this but. I'm sorry to say this but Your pizza is just too salty. 5.

(future possibility) I was hoping that you would come to the party. (Unfortunately. it is considered too rude and you'd better use more polite expressions if you want to get what you want! Expressing Hope The difference between "wish" and "hope" How to use "wish"   Wish is most commonly used in hypothetical (or imagined/unreal) situations: Example: I wish (that) you were here. (some time in the future) I hope (that) you had a nice Birthday." How to use "hope"   Hope can also be used in expressions of goodwill. (some time in the past) Hope can be used to specify a desired outcome. the outcome has usually been determined already. but the grammar is slightly different: Examples: I hope (that) you have a Merry Christmas. (but I didn't) Other ways to express hope You can also express hope in the following ways: . It's too salty" is one possible way of expressing a complaint. but for past hopes.When expressing a complaint in English.) Sometimes wish is used in greeting and expressions of goodwill: Example: We wish you a "Merry Christmas. it helps to be polite.(but you didn't) I had hoped to see you at the party on Saturday. the possibilities remain open. you're not. Examples: I hope you can come to the party on Saturday. For future hopes. and I miss you. Although "I'm angry about your pizza.

You didn't do the work (in the past) and I am annoyed because of that. Here are some of them. Conditional type 3 You can also express regret by using a conditional sentence type 3. I wouldn't have been sick. I f I hadn't eaten so much. If + past perfect + would + have + past participle Examples:   If I had worked hard. Remember:  "I wish you had done the work" is a regret. wish / if only You can express regret by using wish or if only: I wish / if only + Past perfect Examples:   I wish I had worked harder. I would have passed the exam. you may use many different structures. If only I hadn't eaten so much. . Expressing Regret How to express regret Expressing regret means having a feeling of sadness about something that you did or did not do. I really want to have a car What I really want is to have a car.   I would like to have a car. To express regret in English.

. I regret the things I didn't do. I regret.should have Regret may also be expressed by using a modal should: Should have + Past Participle Examples:   I should have sent him an invitation. You can express regret by using: regret + Verb + ing OR regret + Noun Examples:   He doesn't regret leaving her. Apologizing Apologizing To apologize is to tell someone that you are sorry for having done something that has caused him inconvenience or unhappiness: Examples: I must apologize to Isabel for my late arrival. I'd like to apologize for my trouble making... He should have done the work.

. Don't apologize.... No harm done..Trains may be subject to delay on the northern line. That's OK. I'm ashamed of... Please. I'd like to apologize for. We apologize for any inconvenience caused. I must apologize for.. Don't worry about it. You couldn't help it.. forgive me for my.. Pardon me for this.. Please. Forget about it. accept my apologies for. forgive me for.. I apologize for. I'm terribly sorry for... Never mind.. It doesn't matter.. Accepting apologies:             That's all right.. I am so sorry for. Here are some expressions you can use to make and respond to apologies Making apologies:               I do apologize for. Remember: . Don't worry about it.. Please.. Don't mention it.... I quite understand... I shouldn't have... Excuse me for .. It's all my fault.

We may not be able to travel by car." It is likely that it will happen. it's impossible to repair that old Chevrolet. she will go by plane. Possibly. but now it has become a real probability. Expressing impossibility     No. There's a chance she'll like the city.. She might buy some presents for the family before she goes. Even a good mechanic can't possibly fix it. I suppose she might spend a lot of money on the presents. There's no chance my father repairs it tomorrow. Making and responding to a request . the project was just a possibility. She will take an umbrella as it could rain heavily there."I'd like to apologize" is the short form of "I would like to apologize" Expressing Possibility What is the difference between possibility and probability? Possibility is when there is a chance that something may happen or be true while probability is the likelihood of something happening or being true: Example: "Until yesterday. Perhaps she will visit London. Expressing Possibility          My grandmother may travel alone. It's possible that someone will meet her at the airport. May be she will make the trip alone.

please? Will you lend me your book. No..? could you .. Okey. please? Would you mind lending me your pen. Things to remember about making a request: . please? Responding to request:     Sure here you are.? would you mind ..Making and responding to a request It's important to be polite when you ask for something. You can make a request by using:     can you ..? Here are some examples of how to make a request.. please? Will you Could you possibly would you mind opening the door for me ? Making Request:      Can you show me your photo album. please? Would you help me with this exercise. please? Could you possibly show me the way to the post office....? will you .. Can you open the door for me. I'm sorry I need it I'm afraid I can't.

" (which is a negative response to the request....) 3.. The response to the following request: A: "Would you mind giving me your book? " is either   "No..1.? Responses: terrified. Talking about fear Talking about fear There are many words and expressions you can use to talk about fear." is followed by a gerund (verb+ing) Example:"Would you mind lending me your book? " 2. . spooked...? Were you scared of... I was afraid of .. petrified .. Could is more polite than can."(which is a positive response to the request. "Would you mind. It means that I don't want to lend you my book...? Were you terrified of. It means that I accept to lend you my book) or "Yes. Questions:       How did you feel? How did you react? What was your reaction? were you afraid of.. frightened of . I don't mind.

won't .. sent shivers out of me. is going to . gave me goosebumps.. It scared the hell out of me. I jumped out of my skin.. shook with fear. or going to followed by the verb What (do you think) will happen? is going to happen? (I think) .scared of .... will . isn't going to .. Making Predictions Predictions: When making predictions (what we think will happen in the future) we can either use:   will followed by the verb without to. frightened the life out of me. It was a terrifying ordeal. Short dialogue: Latifa is talking about her fear when she saw the criminal Nancy: How did you feel when you saw the criminal? Latifa: I jumped out of my skin...... .

The .." "There won't be a rise in house prices next year. .. . . .. . from here? How can I get to . . . is beside/in front of/next to." Things to remember about making predictions o "He won't do it" is the short form of " he will not do it... 317 Shopping ... Go past the restaurant/school.the.Examples of making predictions:     "What do you think will happen next year?" "Next week is going to be very busy.. ? Can you show me the way to. . ? Where is . ." "He isn't going to win the election... ? Giving directions To give directions use these expressions:      Go straight on Turn left/right Take the first (turning) to the left/right.. . I think. ? What's the best way to get to . Asking about and giving directions Asking about direction To ask about directions use these questions:       How can I get to .? Can you tell me how to get to .

A: Here you are. B: Thank you. large. small. I'll buy it. here's my credit card. extra large How does it fit? Where is the changing room? How would you like to pay? Can I pay by credit card / in cash? Shopping for a T-shirt A: Can I help you? B: Yes. I like it. we do. B: Thank you. I'm looking for a T-shirt. A: OK. B: Thank you. Can I try it on? A: Certainly. Have a nice day! A: Thank you. goodbye. medium. B: Thank you. A: What color would you like? B: A blue one. A: How does it fit? B: It's fantastic. the changing room is over there. how would you like to pay? B: Do you take credit cards? B: Yes.Shopping expressions These are expressions used when you go shopping:          Can / may I help you? Can I try it / them on? What size do you wear? What size are you? What color would you like? Extra small. A: What size are you? B: I'm a medium. A: OK. A: Yes it looks nice on you. .

Conversations on the Phone Telephone conversations It is common that English speakers make phone calls either for business reasons or personal affairs. It's Mr/Mrs. speaking.... Just a second.. Mr/Mrs.. please? Who shall I say is calling? Who's calling.. I'll see if s/he is in.              You 've reached ...? Could I speak to . Stereotype can be described as a conventional. Please hold and I'll put you through.... Complaining .. please? Who's speaking? It's Mr/Mrs. or image. formulaic. . speaking.Talking about Complaints How to define concepts can be defined as can be described as X Y refers to means Examples   Citizenship can be defined as the status of being a with its rights and duties.. opinion. How can I help you? Can I speak to Mr/Mrs. Hang on for a moment. here. company/department. These are expressions you can use in your conversations on the phone. and oversimplified conception.....

. are types of X.... The books in the library are classified by/according to subject. kinds of X.. Biologists classify animals and plants into different groups  How to classify things in English?  These tables show how you can classify things in English:  There are two types of X: . categories sorts varieties  X consists of two types . and ... comprises kinds : ... customs. Culture refers to the arts. and habits that characterize a particular society or nation    Classifying Classifying  To classify is to divide things into groups according to their type. These are .... These are. on the basis of depending on Expressing lack of understanding and asking for clarification .. can be divided into classes categories sorts varieties  .. kinds classes categories sorts varieties  We can classify X according to ... classes The two are .  Illiteracy means the condition of being unable to read and write.

Sorry. I'm not quite sure I know what you mean. I don't quite see what you're getting at. please? Clarifying one's point or idea . please? Could you repeat please? Could you clarify that. Could you put it differently. Sorry. please? Could you be more specific.. I'm not quite sure I follow you.? Could you give us an example? I wonder if you could say that in a different way. please? Could you be more explicit? Could you explain what you mean by. How yo ask for clarification When you don't understand what someone has said.Here is a list of useful English phrases you can use to express lack of understanding (that is.? Could you say that again. I'm not sure I got your point. I don't quite see what you mean. you can ask for clarification using the following expressions:             What do you mean by. when you fail to understand what has been said to you) and seek clarification from the person you are talking to.... I didn't quite hear what you said. I didn't get your point... How to express lack of understanding When you fail to understand what has been said to you you can use these expressions:          I beg your pardon? I beg your pardon. please? Would you elaborate on that .? Do you mean. but I don't quite understand.

.. .... To put it differently... Let me explain that in more detail... To say this differently. In other words...To clarify your idea you can use the following expressions:        Let me explain that. Let me put it in another way... Sorry let me explain..

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