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without prior permission of Lecturer:Ahmednoor Hussein Mohamed

Spoken English Course Curriculum
Course Overview:
Learning to speak English well may be the best thing you can do to improve your life.English is
a universal language. The world has changed. If you want to learn the world you need to learn
theEnglish language.With IT, we can open ourselves to the world and the only way
we can connect to the world is through the English language.If you are a business man
you would have to learn English to expand your business to overseas.If you are a student you
would have to learn English for a brighter future.If you are a professional, you would have to
learn English for the benefit of your career.Even if you are just a street walker, still you
need to learn English to understand what's going on in theworld. No matter who you
are. Learning English is very important.The format of the class would include theory
classes on etiquette and manners, grammar & vocabulary. Conversation classes for
building fluency. Group discussion classes including debates, thought processing,language check
Course Goals:
The purpose of the course is to synchronize educational fineness with human
excellence, to promote self -development and creativity in a stress free atmosphere,
to emphasize on providing the most modern a ndsophisticated learning environment
co Moreover, it is to develop a more qualified and learned society.T h e G o a l i s t o
create a society where English speaking capability can be harnessed by
e a c h a n d e v e r y individual to increase his/her potential to succeed in their professional and
personal life. We seek to liberatethe person from his inability to communicate in the corporate
language of the whole worldwhich is English.
Course Objectives:

Frame grammatically correct sentences in English.

Fluently speak in English in any situation.

Express yourself in groups of people confidently.

Able to present your thoughts more effectively.

Participate at higher levels in Group Discussions and meetings.

Present yourself more confidently in personal interviews.

Speak in Neutral Accent and also pick-up UK/US Accent.


There are different ways to greet people:
Greeting means welcoming someone with particular words or a particular action.
When meeting people formally for the first time, we greet by shaking hands and
saying "How do you do?" or "Pleased to meet you."
"How do you do?" isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".
When young people meet informally they sometimes greet and say "Give me five!" and
slap their hands together (high five).
Generally we do not greet by shaking hands with people we know well. We greet by
just saying 'hi' or 'hello'
Here are some expressions you can use to greet people.



Good morning, good afternoon, good evening.
How are you?
How are you doing?
How do you do?

Responding to greeting

Hi, hello.
Good morning/Good afternoon/Good evening.
I'm fine thank you (thanks)/Okey! Thank you (thanks)/Can't
complain/Not bad.
How about you?/And you?
How do you do?

Things to remember about greeting:
When you greet someone and say:
"How do you do?"
this isn't really a question, it just means "Hello".

Related material

Saying goodbye
Saying hello (greeting)

Saying Goodbye
Parting phrases
There are different expressions or phrases to say goodbye. These parting phrases
depend on situations and the people involved, their social status and personal

Leaving and saying goodbye

All right, everyone, it's time to head off.

Anyway, guys I'm going to make a move.
Ok, everyone, it's time to leave you.
See you later / tomorrow / soon.
Talk to you later!

If you want to say goodbye in a hurry

I'm so sorry, I've got to rush off / run / hurry!
I'm afraid I'm going to have to rush off / run / hurry!

Saying goodbye politely after meeting someone

Nice to see you.
It's been lovely to see you.
It was great to see you.
Good to see you.
Have a lovely / nice evening.
Have a good day.

Saying goodbye to your hosts

Thanks very much for dinner/ lunch - it was lovely!
Thank you very much for having me.

Other ways to say goodbye

Take care
Bye Bye!
Later man / bro!
Have a good one!
It's time to be going!
So Long!

Slang Goodbyes

Catch you later
Peace! / Peace out
I'm out!
Smell you later

. Nice to meet you.. I'm .. Pleased to meet you... Introducing others: Here are expressions to introduce others:      Jack. please meet Nicolas... Introducing yourself: Here are expressions to introduce yourself:       My name is . I'm . Useful responses when introducing yourself or other people:  Nice to meet you... Let me introduce myself. Leila. Barbara this is Leila. .Final goodbye  Farewell (when you intend never to see your interlocutor again) Related material   Saying goodbye Saying hello (greeting) Introducing yourself and other people Introducing yourself and others There is a range of ways to introduce yourself and people.. I'd like to introduce you to Betty. I'm . have you met Nicolas? I'd like you to meet Liza. this is Barbara... I'm .. I'd like to introduce myself. I'm . Jack.

Happy to meet you. How do you do? Dialogue: Alex is talking to the new manager and his assistant. John: William. ("I'm Alex Litterman. I can stand on my head for five minutes. . Nice to meet you. please meet Mr Steve Lynch. it just means "Hello" 669 Talking about ability How to express ability To express that someone has the power or skill to do something.") "How do you do?" isn't really a question. my assistant Jack: How do you do? Nicolas: How do you do? Things to remember:   When introducing yourself or other people in a formal situation use full names. Mr Alex Litterman. I'm unable to help you. the new manager. Examples:     I can't help you. When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. can and be able are used. Notice how they introduce themselves: Alex: Hi! My name is Alex Litterman. I could work hard.   Pleased to meet you. I'm too old. William: Hi! I'm William O'Brian. Now I can't.I am busy.

Expressing ability In the present: Express ability in the present as follows:   I can speak good English. I couldn't hear what he was saying. In the past Express ability in the past as follows   I was unable to visit him.  Can in the past is was able or could Examples: When I was young I was able to earn my living pretty well. . Now I can't. In the future Express ability in the future as follows   I will be able to buy a house when I get a good job.  Can you speak Arabic? Yes. I can't stand on my head. Things to remember:  Can is always followed by an infinitive without "to. The teacher can assist you after class if you have any questions. I'm too old. I can. I couldn't eat at all when I was ill." Examples: I can ride my bike and I can drive a car. but I can't drive a lorry.

Asking For And Giving Permission Asking for and giving permission: When you ask for permission to use something that belongs to someone else you have to do your best to be polite. Sure. may I taste that hot spicy couscous dish? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you mind if I asked you something? Is it okay if I sit here? Would it be all right if I borrowed your mobile Phone? Giving Permission:      Yes. . I will be able to find a job. please do. Sure. please don’t. I'm afraid. please? May I open the window." Asking for Permission:         Can I go out. but that’s not possible. Please feel free. Refusing to give permission:    Dialogue: No. Can in the future is will be able. go ahead. can I have a look at your photo album? Please. but you can't. I’m sorry. Example: When I finish my studies. It is desirable to use the word "please. No problem. please? Please.

Leila: I like Robert de Nero most. It's time to go to bed. May I read a story before I sleep? Sure! But try to sleep early. Examples:  "What's your favorite color?" "Green. And who's your favorite actor? Cathy: Tom Cruise.Liza. And you? Leila: Comedy.. Liza: Her mother: Liza: Her mother: Liza: Please mum. is asking her mother for permission to use the computer. Talking About Favorite Things Talking about favorite things When you talk about your favorite things you talk about the best liked or most enjoyed things.." Study the dialogue: Leila is talking to her new friend Cathy: Leila: What kind of films do you like best? Cathy: Science fiction. eight years old. dear you can't. Asking about favorite things:      What's your favorite sport? What sport do you like best? What sport do you like most? What kind of sport do you like best? Who's your favorite football player? . can I use the computer? No. Thanks a lot mummy.

  Digital: the easier way .Responding:     My favorite sport is football. I like football best. For 2:40 you can use one of these two ways. My favorite football player is Ronaldo. "Favorite" is American spelling. Things to remember:   "Favourite" is British spelling. Telling The Time How to tell the time in English? There are two common ways of telling the time in English. Asking about the time: What time is it? time do you make it? 's the time? Have you got the right time? Telling the time: ."twenty to three" Here are the different ways to ask for and tell the time. I like football most."Two forty " Classical: you say the minutes first then the hour .

55 five to three two fifty-five 2..40 twenty to three two forty 2.Digital It's . Making Offers How to make offers in English? It is common that English speakers make offers in conversations in order to be polite and helpful... It's .06 six minutes past two two oh six 2.57 three minutes to three two fifty-seven 2.00 two o'clock two 2.12 twelve past two two twelve 2..20 twenty past two two twenty 2.50 ten to three two fifty 2.45 a quarter to three two forty-five 2. 2.35 twenty-five to three two thirty-five 2.00 three o'clock three Example: Question: What's the time.25 twenty-five past two two twenty-five 2. When they do so they use these expressions: .15 a quarter past two two fifteen 2. please? Answer: It's two o'clock.30 half past two two thirty 2.58 nearly three o'clock two fifty-eight 3.09 nine minutes past two two oh nine 2.

Would you like… is followed either by a noun. Example: "Can I help you?" "Shall I bring you the mobile phone? Shall is more formal than can. The following are useful expressions to do so.? English learner must be able to make offers as well as accept or reject them.. Making offers: Can I Shall help you? get you some juice? Would you like a glass of water ? How about some pizza? Examples:      "Can I help you?" "Shall I open the window for you?" "Would you like another cup of coffee?" "Would you like me to clean the board?" "How about a juice? " Remember:    Shall.. can and will are followed by the verb without to.Can I… ? Shall I… ? Would you like … ? How about . Example: "Would you like some tea ?" "Would you like to drink some coffee? Responding to offers . or by the verb with to.

" "Yes please. I'll do it. Yes please. I'd like to. Don't worry."  "Shall I help you with your maths problem?" "Yes."  "I'll do the washing. thanks Yes please." Shock and disbelief Expressing shock and disbelief ." "It's OK. That would be very kind of you. "No thank you. if you like. please. that would be lovely. that would be great.)  "Can I help you?" "Do you know where the post office is. thank you If you wouldn't mind. I'm just having a look." (With a shop assistant.Accepting Declining Yes please." "Don't worry. It's OK."  "Would you like me to do the the ironing for you?" "If you wouldn't mind. I'll do it."  "Would you like another piece of cake?" "Yes please." "If you could. No. If you could. Examples:  "Can I help you?" "No thanks. I can do it. that would be great." "Thank you. I'd love to." Or."  "Would you like a cup of tea?" "No thanks. That would be very nice of you. that would be nice . I can do it myself. I'd love one. No. Thank you.

bad news . We're all in complete shock. Examples:    I just can't believe he won the race. It's unbelievable that they got married I just can't imagine they were able to get along with each other. Disbelief: I (just) can't believe… can't imagine… It's unbelievable. I was just stunned by her clothes.. Here's a list of some common expressions to help you express   shock and disbelief. I was stunned / taken aback by the news I was completely taken aback by his behavior.. especially when you feel sad.. Shock: shocked to hear… stunned by. I'm in Examples:       I was shocked to hear the news.. taken aback by… I was . Expressing Indifference . incredible.. The news came as a complete shock. came as a complete shock.It is sometimes difficult to say how you feel in unexpected situations. such as natural disasters..

Making an Appointment Making an appointment Being able to make and cancel an appointment is an important skill in English. You need to be able to:    make an appointment. I don’t mind. . It doesn't matter to me Whatever (you want). Here are some expressions you can use: Expressing indifference                So what? Who cares! I don’t care! It’s all the same to me. Whatever you do? I don’t mind. I have no preference. respond to an appointment and cancel an appointment.How to express indifference? Sometimes you may have no particular interest or concern about something and you want to express indifference during a conversation. I suppose so. Here are some expressions you can use to do this concisely and clearly. Who knows! Why should I care? It makes no difference to me. It’s your decision.

.. I really don't think I can on . I'm afraid I'm sorry I can't on .... What about the 6th?" "I'm sorry. on ..? free on..... / next. I won't be able to.? Can we meet on... suits me would be perfect.... ...." "I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd. Could we meet on Tuesday instead?" . Monday is fine. / next .." "Thursday would be perfect... is fine ..... would be fine.Asking to meet: Are you available on.... I won't be able to make it on Monday.... be ok? What about next .? would next .. ." "Monday suits me. ok? Examples:        "Are you available on the 17th?" "Can we meet on the 16th?" "How does the 3rd sound to you?" "Are you free next week?" "Would Friday suit you?" "Is next Tuesday convenient for you?" "What about sometime next week?" Responding to an appointment: Yes. Examples:      "Yes.. ? Is next ... / next.

" "I really don't think I can on the 17th. I'd much prefer Friday.. but something urgent has come up. Would it be possible to arrange another time later in the week? I’m afraid that I have to cancel our meeting on Wednesday. You know we were going to meet next Friday? Well. Can we fix another time?     Making Business Appointments How to make appointments in English These are expressions you'll probably need to make and change business appointments in English. . .. at 10 am.. today. Wednesday is going to be a little difficult. I will be unable to keep our appointment for tomorrow afternoon. as something unexpected has come up.. on Monday morning? at 10 am? today? .. I'm very sorry. due to some unforeseen business. I want to Preferences on Monday morning. I'm afraid that I'm not going to be able to meet you after all. if that's alright with you. Can we meet up on the 19th? Cancelling an appointment You can cancel an appointment as follows      Unfortunately.  I wonder if I can I'd like to I need to book an appointment to see with Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department .  "Ah... Is it possible to book an appointment Can I to see with May I Mr Jackson the lawyer the doctor the head of the department ..

I'd prefer to drink juice I'd rather drink mineral water If I had a choice. "I'd rather" + verb Making invitations Making invitations Do you know how to invite someone to your house for dinner or to go to the movies? What do you say in English when someone invites you? Here are some common expressions you can use when making or responding to invitations . Things to remember about preferences 1.Talking about your preferences: Questions about preferences        Which do you prefer tea or coffee? Which do you prefer studying mathematics or physics? Which do you prefer to drink juice or mineral water? Which do you like better basketball or football? Do you prefer pizza or spaghetti? Would you prefer to eat a cake or an apple? Would you rather eat a cake or an apple? Replies      I prefer baseball. I would eat a sandwich. A cup of coffee would be suitable. "I'd prefer" + to + verb 2.

What time? I'd love to. Well. I'm really sorry. What a great idea. thank you. When should I be there? Declining invitations:        I can't. I'm busy tomorrow. Can I take a rain check* on that? That's very kind of you.I'm supposed to be doing something else. Accepting invitations:       Sure. I really don't think I can . (*rain check: used to tell someone that you cannot accept invitations now. but actually I'm doing something else this afternoon. That sounds lovely. but would like to do so at a later time) Dialogue: Mike and Ann are in a wedding party: Mike: Ann: Do you want to dance? No thanks. Sure. but I've got something else on. but I'm already going out to the restaurant. thank you. This evening is no good. We'd be delighted to have you over for my birthday party. thanks. thanks. I have to work. I'm a bit tired right now . I'd love to. I have an appointment. That's very kind of you.Inviting:         Do you want to go to the movies tonight? Would you like to go to the theater tomorrow? Would you be interested in going to the the stadium next Sunday? How do you fancy going to the the restaurant for dinner? How about going to the movies? Care to come over for lunch? I was just wondering if you would like to come over for a drink.

tall.. thin. really rich.. She's kind chubby.. tall. well-built. long. straight hair. red-head. beautiful. curly hair. skinny. blue eyes. rosy cheeks. she's old. black hair. I'd love to! Describing people and things Describing: What are some good ways to describe      people? things? feelings? yourself? personality? See the phrases below for examples of descriptions in English. skinny. funny. round face. fat. gorgeous . middle aged. thin. overweight. bushy eyebrows. square face. round face. dark. short. . crooked teeth.. Questions: What does Leila / the house look like? can you tell me about Leila / the house? is Leila / the house like? Tell me about Leila / the house! Responses: Well.Mike: Ann: How about having a drink? Sure. young. slim. fair skin . long nose. regular teeth. She has got oval face. obese. intelligent. cute. blonde. slim.

She's got long hair and a round face. Expressing obligation Expressing obligation When it is necessary or obligatory to do something. Liza: Martha wants Liza to describe the new apartment: Martha: Tell me about your new apartment! It's big. Obligation in the past:  I had to work extra hours to pay my bills. small. comfortable. It's big. nice. you express obligation. clean . a comfortable living room. Obligation in the future:  I'll have to borrow money.of silly. naughty. Short dialogues: Martha wants Liza to describe the new secretary: Martha: What's the new secretary like? She's cute. It has got three bedrooms.. and Liza: a spacious kitchen.. . It is necessary that I take a taxi. I must see the doctor soon because I don't feel well. I'm late.. Obligation in the present:      I have to finish my work before this evening. It is obligatory that I stop when the traffic light turn red.. I have got to learn English if I want to live in the USA.

The simple future of "must" is "will have to". you should have a rest. . To express prohibition you can use:      It is prohibited to .... It's more an advice than an obligation.. The simple past of "must" is "had to".Things to remember: 1. You aren’t permitted to . "When the traffic light turn red.. " You look tired. 4.. Should also expresses obligation.." should = 50% obligation. you'll have to pay a fine! Expressing Prohibition Expressing prohibition To express prohibition the following expressions are used. It is forbidden to . you must stop." Dialogue: Policeman: Don't you know that you must stop when the traffic lights are red? Sorry sir. You aren’t allowed to . But there is a difference between must / have to and should:   must / have to = 100% obligation. Policeman: Well sir.The difference between "Have to" and "must" is that "have to"indicates that someone else has imposed conditions on us. You mustn’t .. I was so absent-minded that I didn't pay attention to the traffic Driver: lights... 3. 2.

Dr Leila O'Brian is in the 3rd floor. Mr O'Brian: Sorry.Examples:       Parking is strictly prohibited between these gates. Mr O'Brian: Here you are. It is forbidden to walk on grass. Smoking isn't permitted in hospitals. The security agent: Show me your ID card please. Dialogue: Notice how prohibition is expressed in this dialogue The security agent: Hey. You can take the lift sir.That sounds OK. What do you suggest? What do you advise me to do? What should I do? What ought I to do? What's your advice? . People aren't permitted to throw rubbish here.. you.. sir. What are you doing here? You aren't allowed to enter this building. She's my daughter. but I have an appointment with Dr Leila O'Biran. Asking for and Giving advice Expressions Asking for advice:      I've got a bad toothache. Drivers mustn't park their cars here. The security agent: Well. Students aren't allowed to come too late to school.

Why don't you go to the dentist? You'd better brush your teeth regularly. "Advise" is a verb. "Advice" is a noun. If you were me what would you do? Giving advice         If I were you. "You'd better" is the short form of "you had better" Example: "You'd better see a doctor!" = "You had better see the doctor" . If you take my advice." "You should stop smoking. I'm afraid I can't really help you. I'm afraid. It might be a good idea to brush your teeth on a regular basis. Things to remember about asking for and giving advice: 1. You will undoubtedly need it in your higher studies" 2. "Ought to" has nearly the same meaning as "should". You ought to/should avoid eating sweets. Example: "My father gave me this piece of advice when I was young: never give up" 3. you'll go to the dentist. The only difference is that "ought to " refers to a moral or external obligation but should is more of an advice. Example: "You ought to stop smoking. Declining to give advice     I don't know what to advise. I wish I could suggest something." 4. Example: "I advise you to learn English. I advise you to brush your teeth on a regular basis. but I can't. I would go to the dentist. Have you thought about seeing a dentist. I wish I could help.

Making suggestions:          Let’s revise our lessons. Yes. Yes. but what do you think I should start with? Teacher: You'd better start with the lessons. Yes. What do you advise me to do? Teacher: I think you should try this website.Study the dialogue: Student: I'm terrible at English and I think I should do something about it. What a good idea! Why not? . try the exercises. Student: I've heard about it. Making and responding to suggestions Suggestions The following English phrases and expressions are all used to make suggestions and give advice to people. What about going to the cinema tonight? How about playing cards? Why don't we do our homework? Couldn't we invite your grandmother to our party? Shall we have a walk along the river? What would you say to a cup of coffee? Don't you think it is a good idea to watch TV? Does it matter if we use your car? Accepting suggestions:      Ok. let's.Then. I'd like to. I'd love to. It's a fantastic website for beginners.

" Dialogue: Two friends talking about where to go this evening: Alice: You know Alan. We've seen the film many times before. a verb (in the subjunctive form)= I suggest (that) we go to the movies. I dislike going for a walk. I'd rather not. I don't feel like it. Alan: Yes. let's not. let's not. I feel like taking a walk.   Yes. But when we finish let's go to the cafè. That sounds like a good idea. with pleasure.The verb "suggest" can be followed by either:   should + verb = I suggest (that) we should go to the theater. No. Yes. I'd love to. What about going to the library? We have to finish our school project! Alice: That sounds like a good idea. 2." "I suggest we should visit Paris. why don't we go to the cinema to watch Titanic? Alan: No. Refusing suggestions:      No. Expressing Thanks and Gratitude How to express thanks and gratitude . What an awful / bad idea! Things to remember about suggestions: 1."That" is optional:   "I suggest that we should visit Paris.

I am indebted to you. That was very kind of you. Expressing thanks and gratitude Here are different ways to say thank you and to show your appreciation for something done or given to you.This page will present different ways of expressing thanks and gratitude in English... Thank you.. Examples:                 Thanks. . If anyone deserves thanks.      Expressing Your Opinion How to express your opinion Expressing opinion I think.. What you've done means a lot to me.. How can I ever thank you enough for all you've done? You have been extremely supportive through this difficult time..... You express thanks to tell someone that you are grateful for something that they have done or given to you. In my point of view / my opinion. Thank you for being there for me.... To my mind. I thank you from the bottom of my heart. As I see it. Thanks for being thoughtful.. I want to thank you for all the support and concern.. According to me.. You've been very helpful.. it's you.. I appreciate what you've done for me. As far as I'm concerned. I am grateful. It seems to me that. Sincere thanks. ..

but.. I'm not sure I agree with you I think you're wrong      Complaining .. Partial agreement: I agree with this point of view... I take the view that. what are the expressions needed to express and respond to complaints? Complaining: Here are expressions you can use when complaining:  I have a complaint to make... As far as I understand / can see/see it.. I disagree with you.. I completely agree with this view. Disagreeing with an opinion: I'm afraid.. Suppose you want to complain about the pizza you have just ordered because it's too salty. .From my point of view.. My personal view is that... This is absolutely right. I can't agree with you..Talking about Complaints What are complaints? Complaints are expressions of "displeasure or annoyance" in response to an action that is seen by the speaker as unfavorable.. This idea is right. but..  Agreeing or disagreeing  Agreeing with an opinion: I agree with this opinion. I couldn't / can't agree more. but.. I am of the opinion that.. . In my experience. I don't agree with you. I agree with you.. ...

I want to complain about.. 1. I'm sorry to say this but. I'm sorry. I'm afraid I've got a complaint about your child. 5.Excuse me but you are standing on my foot. I'm afraid I've got a complaint about... Negative response to complaints:    Sorry there is nothing we can do about it. but this will never occur / happen again. I'm really sorry. I'm afraid there is a slight problem with.. we'll do our utmost/best not to do the same mistake again.. 3. I'm afraid. we promise never to make the same mistake again. Excuse me but there is a problem about.... I'm sorry to say this but Your pizza is just too salty. Responding to complaints Positive response to complaints:    I'm so sorry..       Sorry to bother you but.He's too noisy . We are sorry but the food is just alright. 4.. I want to complain about the noise you are making.. Things to remember about complaints: .. there isn't much we can do about it. your food is inedible.. I'm angry about. I'm angry about the way you treat me. I'm afraid there is a slight problem with the service in this hotel. 2. Examples: I have a complaint to make..

but the grammar is slightly different: Examples: I hope (that) you have a Merry Christmas. you're not. (some time in the future) I hope (that) you had a nice Birthday. Examples: I hope you can come to the party on Saturday.(but you didn't) I had hoped to see you at the party on Saturday. It's too salty" is one possible way of expressing a complaint. the possibilities remain open." How to use "hope"   Hope can also be used in expressions of goodwill.) Sometimes wish is used in greeting and expressions of goodwill: Example: We wish you a "Merry Christmas. and I miss you. it is considered too rude and you'd better use more polite expressions if you want to get what you want! Expressing Hope The difference between "wish" and "hope" How to use "wish"   Wish is most commonly used in hypothetical (or imagined/unreal) situations: Example: I wish (that) you were here.When expressing a complaint in English. it helps to be polite. Although "I'm angry about your pizza. For future hopes. the outcome has usually been determined already.(future possibility) I was hoping that you would come to the party. but for past hopes. (Unfortunately. (some time in the past) Hope can be used to specify a desired outcome. (but I didn't) Other ways to express hope You can also express hope in the following ways: .

I would have passed the exam. If + past perfect + would + have + past participle Examples:   If I had worked hard.   I would like to have a car. I f I hadn't eaten so much. Expressing Regret How to express regret Expressing regret means having a feeling of sadness about something that you did or did not do. Here are some of them. I wouldn't have been sick. . wish / if only You can express regret by using wish or if only: I wish / if only + Past perfect Examples:   I wish I had worked harder. If only I hadn't eaten so much. Remember:  "I wish you had done the work" is a regret. Conditional type 3 You can also express regret by using a conditional sentence type 3. you may use many different structures. To express regret in English. I really want to have a car What I really want is to have a car. You didn't do the work (in the past) and I am annoyed because of that.

.. I regret the things I didn't do. He should have done the work. I regret.should have Regret may also be expressed by using a modal should: Should have + Past Participle Examples:   I should have sent him an invitation. . You can express regret by using: regret + Verb + ing OR regret + Noun Examples:   He doesn't regret leaving her. Apologizing Apologizing To apologize is to tell someone that you are sorry for having done something that has caused him inconvenience or unhappiness: Examples: I must apologize to Isabel for my late arrival. I'd like to apologize for my trouble making.

You couldn't help it... We apologize for any inconvenience caused. accept my apologies for.. I'm ashamed of. I quite understand. Here are some expressions you can use to make and respond to apologies Making apologies:               I do apologize for.. Please..... Accepting apologies:             That's all right. I apologize for.. I'm terribly sorry for.. Don't mention it. Don't worry about it. Please. Please... I'd like to apologize for.. It's all my fault. Forget about it. Never mind. Don't apologize.. forgive me for my... Don't worry about it.. No harm done. That's OK. Pardon me for this. I must apologize for.. forgive me for..Trains may be subject to delay on the northern line..... I am so sorry for. Remember: ... I shouldn't have.. It doesn't matter.. Excuse me for .

Possibly."I'd like to apologize" is the short form of "I would like to apologize" Expressing Possibility What is the difference between possibility and probability? Possibility is when there is a chance that something may happen or be true while probability is the likelihood of something happening or being true: Example: "Until yesterday. We may not be able to travel by car.. Perhaps she will visit London. but now it has become a real probability. It's possible that someone will meet her at the airport. There's a chance she'll like the city. She might buy some presents for the family before she goes. I suppose she might spend a lot of money on the presents. she will go by plane. the project was just a possibility." It is likely that it will happen. May be she will make the trip alone. it's impossible to repair that old Chevrolet. There's no chance my father repairs it tomorrow. Even a good mechanic can't possibly fix it. Expressing impossibility     No. She will take an umbrella as it could rain heavily there. Expressing Possibility          My grandmother may travel alone. Making and responding to a request .

? could you . No..? will you ..Making and responding to a request It's important to be polite when you ask for something.? Here are some examples of how to make a request.. please? Would you help me with this exercise. please? Will you Could you possibly would you mind opening the door for me ? Making Request:      Can you show me your photo album.. please? Would you mind lending me your pen.. Okey. You can make a request by using:     can you .. please? Will you lend me your book..? would you mind .. Can you open the door for me. I'm sorry I need it I'm afraid I can't. please? Responding to request:     Sure here you are. please? Could you possibly show me the way to the post office. Things to remember about making a request: ..

It means that I accept to lend you my book) or "Yes." (which is a negative response to the request. frightened of .. Talking about fear Talking about fear There are many words and expressions you can use to talk about fear. ..? Were you terrified of. spooked. Could is more polite than can. The response to the following request: A: "Would you mind giving me your book? " is either   "No........ petrified ." is followed by a gerund (verb+ing) Example:"Would you mind lending me your book? " 2."(which is a positive response to the request.? Were you scared of.? Responses: terrified.. I was afraid of ..) 3..1. It means that I don't want to lend you my book... I don't mind. Questions:       How did you feel? How did you react? What was your reaction? were you afraid of. "Would you mind.

... Making Predictions Predictions: When making predictions (what we think will happen in the future) we can either use:   will followed by the verb without to.... gave me goosebumps. It scared the hell out of me. won't .. . or going to followed by the verb What (do you think) will happen? is going to happen? (I think) . shook with fear.. is going to ..scared of . I jumped out of my skin.. will . isn't going to . sent shivers out of me. frightened the life out of me. Short dialogue: Latifa is talking about her fear when she saw the criminal Nancy: How did you feel when you saw the criminal? Latifa: I jumped out of my skin. It was a terrifying ordeal...

? Can you tell me how to get to . ? What's the best way to get to . . ? Can you show me the way to. . . ...the.. ? Giving directions To give directions use these expressions:      Go straight on Turn left/right Take the first (turning) to the left/right. .. . from here? How can I get to . 317 Shopping .. I think. . .." Things to remember about making predictions o "He won't do it" is the short form of " he will not do it. The . is beside/in front of/next to.Examples of making predictions:     "What do you think will happen next year?" "Next week is going to be very busy.... . Go past the restaurant/school." "There won't be a rise in house prices next year." "He isn't going to win the election.. Asking about and giving directions Asking about direction To ask about directions use these questions:       How can I get to . . ? Where is ..

A: What color would you like? B: A blue one. we do. I'll buy it. A: OK. extra large How does it fit? Where is the changing room? How would you like to pay? Can I pay by credit card / in cash? Shopping for a T-shirt A: Can I help you? B: Yes. large. A: OK. goodbye. here's my credit card. B: Thank you. B: Thank you. Have a nice day! A: Thank you.Shopping expressions These are expressions used when you go shopping:          Can / may I help you? Can I try it / them on? What size do you wear? What size are you? What color would you like? Extra small. B: Thank you. how would you like to pay? B: Do you take credit cards? B: Yes. medium. B: Thank you. A: How does it fit? B: It's fantastic. A: What size are you? B: I'm a medium. A: Yes it looks nice on you. I'm looking for a T-shirt. A: Here you are. small. I like it. . the changing room is over there. Can I try it on? A: Certainly.

How can I help you? Can I speak to Mr/Mrs. or image...Conversations on the Phone Telephone conversations It is common that English speakers make phone calls either for business reasons or personal affairs. company/department. Complaining .. Please hold and I'll put you through... I'll see if s/he is in. formulaic.. These are expressions you can use in your conversations on the phone.. speaking.Talking about Complaints How to define concepts can be defined as can be described as X Y refers to means Examples   Citizenship can be defined as the status of being a with its rights and duties. Stereotype can be described as a conventional. and oversimplified conception..? Could I speak to . please? Who shall I say is calling? Who's calling.. Just a second. speaking. here... opinion.. Hang on for a moment. please? Who's speaking? It's Mr/Mrs....              You 've reached .. Mr/Mrs.. It's Mr/Mrs. .

kinds of X. Biologists classify animals and plants into different groups  How to classify things in English?  These tables show how you can classify things in English:  There are two types of X: .. The books in the library are classified by/according to subject... categories sorts varieties  X consists of two types . can be divided into classes categories sorts varieties  . on the basis of depending on Expressing lack of understanding and asking for clarification .... These are . classes The two are ..  Illiteracy means the condition of being unable to read and write. are types of X.. and habits that characterize a particular society or nation    Classifying Classifying  To classify is to divide things into groups according to their type... Culture refers to the arts.... comprises kinds : .. customs. These are. kinds classes categories sorts varieties  We can classify X according to ... and .

Could you put it differently. I'm not sure I got your point.? Do you mean. please? Could you be more explicit? Could you explain what you mean by. Sorry... I don't quite see what you mean.Here is a list of useful English phrases you can use to express lack of understanding (that is. please? Clarifying one's point or idea . I'm not quite sure I follow you. when you fail to understand what has been said to you) and seek clarification from the person you are talking to. I don't quite see what you're getting at. please? Could you be more specific. I didn't get your point. please? Would you elaborate on that ..? Could you give us an example? I wonder if you could say that in a different way... I didn't quite hear what you said. How yo ask for clarification When you don't understand what someone has said.? Could you say that again. please? Could you repeat please? Could you clarify that. I'm not quite sure I know what you mean.. you can ask for clarification using the following expressions:             What do you mean by. Sorry. How to express lack of understanding When you fail to understand what has been said to you you can use these expressions:          I beg your pardon? I beg your pardon. but I don't quite understand.

. .... To say this differently.. Let me put it in another way...... Sorry let me explain.... Let me explain that in more detail. In other words.. To put it differently.To clarify your idea you can use the following expressions:        Let me explain that.

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