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ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

DEFINITIONS
Algebraic Expressions
- any finite combination of symbols and numbers related by the
fundamental operation of algebra
Examples:
a. 5 + 6

b. 2 3

c. 6 + 5 2

DEFINITIONS
Algebraic Sum
- any algebraic expression consisting of distinct parts connected by
the plus and minus signs

DEFINITIONS
Term of the expression
- each distinct part together with its sign
- Illustration:

In the algebraic sum 2 2 3 2 5, the terms are:


2 2 , 3 2 and 5

DEFINITIONS
Degree of a polynomial
-the highest exponent of a variable considering all the terms
-If a polynomial has 2 or more variable, then the degree is the greatest
sum of all the exponents of a term.

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION


OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION


OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS
Combine like-terms
Parentheses preceded by a plus sign simply remove parentheses without
changing the expression inside the parentheses
Parentheses preceded by a minus sign remove parentheses after changing
the sign of each term within the parentheses

EXERCISES
Vances book
1. Page 37 numbers: 4, 6. 8, 10, 12, 14

2. Page 38 numbers: 16, 18, 20, 2234, 36, 40

MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION


OF ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

DEFINITIONS
1. If n is a positive integer, the symbol , the nth power of , is the product
of factors each equal to .
Thus, = , where we have factors of
Note: is called the base while is the exponent

DEFINITIONS
2. For any nonzero real number ,

0 = 1

3. For any nonzero real number and any positive integer ,

LAWS OF EXPONENTS
Theorem 3-1 If and are integers and is a real number, = +
Theorem 3-2 If and are integers and is a real number,
Theorem 3-3 If is an integer, and and are real numbers,

LAWS OF EXPONENTS
Theorem 3-4: If is a nonzero real number and and are positive integers,

; >
= 1 ; =
1
; <

Theorem 3-5: If is an integer, and and are real numbers,

EXERCISES
Vances book
1. Page 40 numbers: 2, , 6, 8, 12, 14, 16, 21, 22, 24

2. Page 41 numbers: 28, 30, 34, 36, 39, 40, 42, 45


3. Page 44 numbers: 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 17, 18, 20

SOME NOTATIONS
() read as of ; frequently used for a polynomial in
(, ) a polynomial in and

SOME NOTATIONS
If () is the dividend, () the divisor, () the quotient and () is
the remainder,
()
()
= +
()
()
or
= + ()

Similarly for division of polynomials in and :


, = , , + (, )

EXERCISES
Vances book
Page 44 numbers: 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20
Use Long Division for this exercise.

SYNTHETIC DIVISION
Synthetic division a process of division for polynomials in
(or any letter) where the divisor is in the form or can be expressed
in the form

- only the coefficients of the independent variable are used

SYNTHETIC DIVISION
Example: Using synthetic division, solve:
1. ( 2 7 + 10) ( 5)

V p44 no. 7

2. (3 2 +13 4) ( + 4)
3. (2 2 5 6) (2 1)

V p44 no. 8

4. 2 3 11 2 + 13 2 4 3 ( 4)

V p44 no. 14

EXERCISES
Vances book
Page 44 numbers: 11, 13, 15, 20
Use Synthetic Division for this exercise.