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Media and Information Literacy

Reviewer
Session 2
Understanding Communication Models and Overview of the Definitions of Media, Information,
and Digital Literacy
i. Understanding COMMUNICATION MODELS
1. Shannon-Weaver Transmission Model: Who says what to whom, through what
medium, and what effect?
2. Ritual or Expressive Model: Communication happens due to the need to share
understanding and emotions; done to build social relationships
3. Publicity Model: Audiences are spectators rather participants; information
receivers; i.e. advertising & marketing
4. Reception Model: Messages sent and received are open to various
interpretation based on context and culture of sender and receiver
ii. Defining MEDIA LITERACY
MIL is defined as a set of competencies that empowers citizens to access,
retrieve, understand, evaluate and use, create, as well as share information and
media content in all formats, using various tools, in a critical, ethical and
effective way, in order to participate and engage in personal, professional and
societal activities.
This involves understanding and using mass media in either an assertive or nonassertive way, including an informed and critical understanding of media, what
techniques they employ and their effects.
The ability to read, analyze, evaluate, and produce communication in a variety
of media forms (TV, radio, print, computers, etc)
Another understanding of the term is the ability to decode, analyze, evaluate
and produce communication in a variety of forms.

Session 3-4
Media Literacy Foundational Principles and Skills: The Framework for Critical Thinking
i. Media Literacy Skills
1. An Understanding of the Commercial Forces Behind Media Materials
2. An Awareness of Political Influences That Shape Media Materials
3. An Ability to Examine Media Content Systematically for Broadly Cultural as well
as Specifically Commercial and Political Meanings
4. An Ability to Think Through the Ethical Implications of Media Firms Activities
5. An Understanding of Research on the Mass Medias Implications for the
Individual and Society
6. An Awareness of Ways the Public Can Influence the Production and Distribution
of Mass Media Materials
ii. Overview of the 6 Foundational Principles of Media Literacy

(Items i and ii reference: Turow, J. (2009). Media today An introduction to Mass Communication (3rd ed.). New York,
New York: Taylor & Francis.)

i. CMLs Questions/TIPS Framework (Q/TIPS)


http://www.medialit.org/reading-room/unesco-international-conference-media-andinformation-literacy
Now that you have learned the 6Ps (Media Principles), apply the following FRAMEWORK
on CRITICAL READING OF MEDIA. Focus on DECONSTRUCTION.

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1

KEYWORDS

Format

Authorship

DECONSTRUCTION
(Consumer)
CMLs 5 KEY QUESTIONS
CMLs 5 CORE CONCEPTS
Who created this message?
What creative techniques are used to
attract my attention?

All media messages are


constructed
Media messages are
constructed using a creative
language with its own rules.

CONSTRUCTION
(Producer)
CMLs 5 KEY QUESTIONS
What am I authoring?
Does my message reflect
understanding in
format, creativity,
and technology?

Audience

How might different people understand this


message differently?

Different people experience


the same media differently.

Content

What values, lifestyles, and points of view are


represented in or omitted from this
message?

Media have embedded values


and points of view

Purpose

Why is this message being sent?

Most media messages are


organized to gain profit and/or
power.

Is my message engaging
and compelling for my
target audience?
Have I clearly and
consistently framed
values, lifestyles
and points of view
in my content?
Have I communicated my
purpose effectively?

Media Effects: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qvgURfZMGoQ&t=100s (important)

Session 5:
Information Literacy Standards, Process, and Sources Handout
i. Definition of Information Literacy
Refers to the abilities to recognize when information
is needed and to locate, evaluate, effectively use, and
communicate information in its various formats.

Information literacy is a set of abilities requiring


individuals to "recognize when information is needed
and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use
effectively the needed information.

SOURCE: UNESCO MIL Curriculum for Teachers


SOURCE: Information Literacy Competency Standards
for Higher Education, 2015
ii. Characteristics & Qualities of an Information Literate Individual
An information literate individual is able to:
DETERMINE the ACCESS
the EVALUATE
extent
of needed
information and
information
information
its
sources
needed
effectively and critically
efficiently

INCORPORATE
selected
information into
ones knowledge
base

USE
information
effectively to
accomplish a
specific
purpose

UNDERSTAND
the
economic,
legal, and social
issues
surrounding the
use
of
information, and
access and use
information
ethically
and
legally

SOURCE: Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, 2015

i. INFORMATION PROCESS:
Information Need Refining the Research Question Knowing Where to Look

ii. INFORMATION SOURCES: Quality = Categories + Format + Type


SCOPE
Broad
Covers lots of topics

Narrow
Covers only one specific aspect of the topic
DEPTH

Deep
A lot of information
CATEGORIES
PRIMARY vs SECONDARY
Primary
Secondary
Firsthand account of Journalists
an event
report about an
event
Results of a research Research based
project published by on
another
researcher
research
(i.e.
summary)
Diaries,
autobiographies
Biographies

Shallow
Brief entry
SCHOLARLY vs POPULAR
Scholarly
Popular
Intended
for Intended
for
academia
general audience
Cited
and
Verified
& Peer-reviewed

Have tables & Have pictures &


graphs
videos
FORMATS

Print
Physical, tangible
TYPES
References
or
Background Sources

Books

May be verified
but not peerreviewed

CURRENT vs HISTORICAL
Current
Historical
New, up to date, About the past
present state of
affairs Scientific How
ideas
discoveries
developed

Electronic
Needs some kind of device to read information
News

Magazines

Journals

Indexes

Also refer to MIL Book: Factual Vs. Analytical and Subjective vs. Objective (pg. 31-33)
5 Components of media literacy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ronp6Iue9w&t=126s
Steps In Seeking Information

Sessions 6-7
Technology in Communication
iii. Digital Literacy Definition

1.
2.
3.

4.

The ability to use digital technology, communication tools or networks to


locate, evaluate, use and create information.
The ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide
range of sources when it is presented via computers.
A persons ability to perform tasks effectively in a digital environment...
Literacy includes the ability to read and interpret media, to reproduce data and
images through digital manipulation, and to evaluate and apply new knowledge
gained from digital environments.
An Awareness of Ways the Public Can Influence the Production and Distribution
of Mass Media Materials
http://www.library.illinois.edu/diglit/definition.html

iv. ISTE STANDARDS


https://www.iste.org/docs/pdfs/20-14_ISTE_Standards-S_PDF.pdf

v. IDENTIFYING Digital Natives, Immigrants, Fugitive or Aliens, etc

What is Digital Citizenship?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oCkTmZ0bF5Q&t=5s