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GEOPHYSICAL ENGINEERING ITS

Task 1: Critical Thinking!


First week tasks of Geodynamics class B
Natassa Adi Putri-3712100020
9/10/2015
Lecturer : I Putu Khrisna W. B.Eng

Task 1: Critical Thinking! 2015


Critical Thinking!
1. What happens to a mid-plate shield volcano as it moves away from a hotplate?
Hotspots are volcanic regions that have experienced active volcanism for a long time
period. The tectonic plate will always move and if the shield volcano moves away from its
hotplate, then it will form volcanic island that chain continuously. The hotspot is caused by a
narrow steam of hot mantle convecting up from the mantle -core boundary called mantle plume.
Earth crusts will be uplifted because the force of the steam and make mountainous topographic.
The actual case can be studied in the Hawaii Hotspot regions. This Hawaii spot region is the
largest crustal plates on earth.
Over million years, the plate move across the hotspot and the original volcano become
extinct but a new volcano will begin to form in the area of the hotspot.

Figure 1 Illustration of hotspots movement


(source: wikipedia)

Diagram above showing a cross section through earths lithosphere indicated by yellow
with magma rising from the mantle indicated by red. The plate tectonic will moves but the
hotspot stand stills formed a new shield of volcano.

Figure 2 Illustration in Hawaii Hotspot Region

2. Explain the differences and similarities in the internal structures of these types of volcanoes .
Differences

Shield Volcanoes

StratoVolcano

Task 1: Critical Thinking! 2015


magma chamber

near surface made the


eruption is not explosive also
have minimum amounts of
gas
non-explosive

deep down the surface made


the eruption explisive and
destructive

eruption materials

basaltic, small amount of


pyroclastic in shield, but
easily founded near the
eruptive vents

Andesitic to rhyolitic

slopes (tilt)

sloping (about 5-10o)

Steep. More steep near the


summit due partly to thick
short viscous lava

magma type

low viscosity basaltic magma


that flows easily

High viscosity, high in magma


silica and gas.

eruption type

explosive-destructive

Figure 3 Illustration about the differences in Shieldvolcano and Stratovolcano

Task 1: Critical Thinking! 2015


The similarity
a. Basic Process (Tectonic plate)
The tectonic plate move around and slide against one another. Magma made molten rock and
gases, exist between Earths crust and mantle.
b. Volcanic Hazard
All these volcanoes release gases, tephra (material fragments) and heat. Methane and
other harmful gases may extend up to 10 km from the volcano and create acid rain,
burned vegetation and contaminated water. This eruption may generate earthquake
which can create damaging debris avalanches, landslide, or even tsunamis.
c. Internal structure
Every volcanoes have internal structure like pictures below.

Figure 4 Internal structure of volcanoes.

3. You are asked to study a new volcano. What criteria would you use to assess the danger it poses
to local communities?
The first step is identifying the kind of volcanoes. The parameters that should be noted
is the shapes of the volcano is it stratovolcanoes or shield. After that, we identifying the
materials and mapping the safe zone. If the volcano have a crater, than we should identify the

Task 1: Critical Thinking! 2015


type of crater and its compositions. We also study about the historical eruption about that
mountain and identify the effects after the eruptions.
Before presenting to local communities, it should be an acquired data. So its better to
have an observation and make a mitigation management for planning mitigation. The mitigation
itself can be observed by the satellite and micro tremors activity. Its a good way too, to have a
monitoring post near the volcano.
After identify all the characteristics, the easy way to tell local communities is have a
discussion and counseling about volcanic hazards. We train them to have a simulation if the
volcano is erupting and also teach them about the characteristic of the volcano.
After that, the final stage is installing signs for the evacuation track and makes an
assembly point. Also we make a map for the local communities so they know where are the safe
place when eruption happens and how large is the hazard range.
The observation is important too of there are many civilians around the volcanoes. The
purpose is to make it more intensive and know the volcanoes much better. In Indonesia, we
already have an observation institution for observing the activity of volcanoes which called
PVMBG.

The picture above is showing an activity of geophysical engineering department in Bromo


Mountain observation center, PVMBG in Bromo. This activity conducted to study about Bromo
Mountain and its hazards.