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# Marisol Anzaldo Navarro, 29845

Electric charge
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when
placed in an electromagnetic field. A charge can be either positive or negative, caused by the
excess or lack of electrons within a body. Electric charge can be neither created nor destroyed,
thus any change in its distribution within space must involve the motion of charged particles. It is
the presence of, and the motion of, electric charge that is the source and cause of the
interaction between charged particles that is summarized by the concept of an electromagnetic
field.
Applications: Electric motor.
Electric current
It is defined as the rate at which an electric charge flows through a conductor. The magnitude of
a current is given by the amount of charge flow-ing per unit time. The SI base unit of electric
current is the ampere.
The rate of flow of electrons through a conductor from a negatively charged area to one that has
a positive charge is called direct current. Thus,

Where
I = current (A)
Q = charge (C)
t = time (s)
Application: Electronic devices such as Tvs.
Voltage
It is the change in energy per unit charge. The unit of measure is the volt. Voltage can increase
or decrease as current flows through circuit elements. Some sources, such as batteries, can
increase voltage. Resistors and other loads decrease voltage as current flows through them.
Voltage is analogous to pressure in a fluid system.
Application: In cars batteries, it is used to start the car.
Resistance
The ratio of applied electromotive force to the resulting current in a circuit; measured in ohms
and following Ohms law. Resistance opposes the flow of current, generates heat, controls
electron flow, and helps supply the correct voltage to a device.
Is the feature of a material that determines the flow of electric charge:

## Marisol Anzaldo Navarro, 29845

where
R = resistance
A = cross-section area
p = resistivity, a constant, which depends on the type of material

The current flow resistance, R, in a plate-shaped sample in a direct voltage field is defined by
Ohms law as

or by

where is known as the conductivity and d and A are the samples thickness and surface area,
respectively. The resistance is often described as the inverse of the conductance,

## Application: Plastic injection machines.

Capacitor
An electric circuit element used to store an electric charge temporarily, consisting in general of
two metallic plates separated and insulated from each other by a dielectric. The effect of a
capacitor on a circuit is inversely proportional to frequency and is measured as capacitive
reactance, which is given by

where
Xc = capacitive reactance ( Q )
f = frequency (Hz)
C = capacitance (F)
The simplest capacitor comprises two metal plates separated by a small air gap so that no
current can pass between them. When a voltage is applied across it the plates become statically
charged and this charge can later be released by creating a short circuit between the plates.
Application: Radio and TV circuit filters.
Inductor

## Marisol Anzaldo Navarro, 29845

An inductor is a circuit element used to store magnetic energy. Typically, an inductor is created
from several loops of wire stacked together to form a solenoid. The stacking of several loops
serves to concentrate a large magnetic field in a small volume. The magnitude of an inductor is
measured by its inductance, which depends on the size and shape of the coil of wires.
Application: They are used in current transforms.
Diode
The diode is the simplest power device. A diode may be considered as an electronics witch with
a conduction state depending on the polarity of an externally applied voltage. When a
sufficiently high positive voltage is applied to the anode with respect to the cathode, current will
flow in a forward direction, the device acting as a closed switch. During conduction a voltage
drop of the order of 0.71 V applies across the device. Conversely, when a negative voltage is
applied, current flow is prevented and the diode is able to block voltages up to a certain level.
The ideal diode characteristic obeys an exponential law

Where
Isat is the saturation current,q is the electron charge (1.602x10-19 C),
Vd the voltage across the diode ,k the Boltzmanns constant (1.380x10 -23 J K -1)
T is the temperature given in kelvin.
Application: Diodes are used where rectification take place. It is used in Christmas lights (LED
S)
Transistor
A semiconductor device capable of amplification in addition to rectification. It is composed
of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external
circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current
through another pair of terminals.
Application: It is the basic unit in radio, television, and computer circuits, having almost
completely replaced the thermionic valve

## Marisol Anzaldo Navarro, 29845

Part II
1. What is a system and what elements does it have?
It is a set of elements that interact between each other to accomplish a goal.
Its elements are:
Environment: everything that surrounds the system
Limits or boundaries: what separates the system from the environment.
Inputs: Impulse received by the environment
Outputs: Response to the input
Process: The series of activities realized to transform an input into a specific output.
2. What does "control of a system" implies?
Accomplishing that the output of the system behave according to established
parameters using control elements of the system.
3. What is automation of process and what technologies does it include?
It is a set of technologies applied to mechanic, electronic and computational systems in
order to operate and control of the system.
It include technologies such as:
Automatic assembly machines
Industrial robots
Automatic systems for handling and storage of materials
systems with feedback control and computer control
Numerical control
Programmable controllers
4. What are the benefits of Automation process?
Speed and accuracy of the operations in the process
Handling of large volumes
Flexibility to changes
It frees man from risky tasks
Quality control
5. What are the types of automation process existing and what are their characteristics?
Fixed automation
The assembly is fixed and it depends directly from the equipment configuration
Simple operations with no modifications
There is no flexibility as to changes
Programmable automation
General purpose
Moderate flexibility as to changes
A set up time is required
Flexible automation
High initial investment
Continuous production of a variety of products
Flexibility as to changes and variations in the product
Information systems in communication with the process

## Marisol Anzaldo Navarro, 29845

6. What is a sensor? What is an actuator?
A sensor is a control element in the process that give us information about the process
itself, it takes readings to be interpreted. An actuator is a control element in the process
that realize and action in order to modify the process behavior.
7. What is a controller and how does it interacts with the process?
It continuously receive information from the sensors to define what actions must be
taken by the actuators.
8. What is the difference between a circuital solution and a programmed solution for an
automation process problem?
Circuital solutions are used in simple processes. It follows a circuit where it takes
measure, compares and adjust. It is not flexible to changes. In the other hand, in a
programmed solution, the process has a system based in a microprocessor that is
constantly in communication with the sensors and the actuators what allows this type of
solution to have more flexibility as to changes in the process.

## Marisol Anzaldo Navarro, 29845

References
Parini C., Gregson S., McCornick J., Van Rensburg D.. (2015). Theory and Practice of Modern
Antenna Range Measurements. IET.
Dictionary of Science (6th Edition) (2010)
Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2012)
Masujima M.. (2016). Applied Mathematical and Physical Formulas (2nd Edition) (2016)
Singh D.. (2013). Fundamentals of Manufacturing (3rd Edition)
Osswald T., Menges G.. (2012). Material Science of Polymers for Engineers (3rd Edition)
Sosa J. (2006). La automatizacin y el control de procesos