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CONTENTS

1.

Energy Scenario in India

2.

Energy Potential of India

3.
Position of India in the world potential of renewable
resources
4.

Energy Map of India

5.

Sources of Energy in India

4.

Bioelectricity

5.

Hydro

6.

Solar

7.

Satellite Solar Power Systems

8.

Energy from Oceans

9.

Geothermal

10. Wind
11. Future Energy Requirements
12. Effective Electrical Energy Transmission And Distribution
13. Saving Energy at Personal Level
14. Conclusion
15. Bibliography

INTRODUCTION
Energy is a critical component in the development of any
country and more so in the context of the developing countries.
Rapid industrialization is very often hampered due to inadequate
energy availability. Communications, health, shelter and other
basic needs of the society are also very much restrained by
inadequate availability of energy at several phases and
sometimes it to such an extent that it even brings the whole
process of planning in that sector to a standstill.
Energy being an important element of the infrastructure
sector has to be ensured its availability on sustainable basis. On
the other hand, the demand for energy is growing manifold and
the energy sources are becoming scarce and costlier. Among the
various strategies to be evolved for meeting energy demand,
efficient use of energy and its conservation emerges out to be the
least cost option in any given strategies, apart from being
environmentally benign.
ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA
Energy is the prime mover of economic growth and is vital to
the sustenance of a modern economy. Future economic growth
crucially depends on the long-term availability of energy from
sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally
friendly.
India has made rapid strides towards economic self-reliance
over the last few years. Impressive progress has been made in
the fields of industry, agriculture, communication, transport and
other sectors necessitating growing consumption of energy for
developmental and economic activities. If India is to achieve the
targeted growth in GDP, it would need commensurate input of
energy, mainly commercial energy in the form of coal, oil, gas and
electricity. However, Indias fossil fuel reserves are limited. The
known reserves of oil and natural gas may last hardly for 18 and
26 years respectively at the current reserves to production ratio.
2

India has huge proven coal reserves (84 billion tonnes), which
may last for about 200 years but the increasing ash content in
Indian Coal as well as associated greenhouse gas emissions are
the major concern.

India ranks sixth in the world in total energy consumption


and needs to accelerate the development of the sector to meet its
growth aspirations. The country, though rich in coal and
abundantly endowed with renewable energy in the form of solar,
wind, hydro and bio-energy has very small hydrocarbon reserves
(0.4% of the worlds reserve). India, like many other developing
countries, is a net importer of energy, more than 25 percent of
primary energy needs being met through imports mainly in the
form of crude oil and natural gas. The rising oil import bill has
been the focus of serious concerns due to the pressure it has
placed on scarce foreign exchange resources and is also largely
responsible for energy supply shortages. The sub-optimal
consumption of commercial energy adversely affects the
productive sectors, which in turn hampers economic growth.
If we look at the pattern of energy production, coal and oil
account for 54 percent and 34 percent respectively with natural
gas, hydro and nuclear contributing to the balance. In the power
generation front, nearly 62 percent of power generation is from
coal fired thermal power plants and 70 percent of the coal
produced every year in India has been used for thermal
generation.
The distribution of primary commercial energy resources in
India is quite skewed. 70 percent of the total hydro potential is
located in the Northern and Northeastern regions, whereas the
Eastern region accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total coal
reserves in the country. The Southern region, which has only 6
percent of the total coal reserves and 10 percent of the total
hydro potential, has most of the lignite deposits occurring in the
country.
On the consumption front, the industrial sector in India is a
major energy user accounting for about 52 percent of commercial
energy consumption. Per capita energy consumption in India is
one of the lowest in the world as shown in Fig. But, energy
intensity, which is energy consumption per unit of GDP, is one of
the highest in comparison to other developed and developing
countries. For example, it is 3.7 times that of Japan, 1.55 times
that of the United States, 1.47 times that of Asia and 1.5 times

that of the world average. Thus, there is a huge scope for energy
conservation in the country.
By world standards, Indias current level of energy
consumption is very low. For the year 2004-05, the total annual
energy consumption for India is estimated at 572 Mtoe (million
tons oil equivalent) and the per capita consumption at 531 kgoe
(kilograms oil equivalent).

With a target GDP growth rate of 8-10percent and an


estimated energy elasticity of 0.80, the energy requirement is
expected to grow at 6.4-8percent. This would mean a five-fold
increase in Indias energy requirement over the next 25 years.
India is well-endowed with coal. However, 71 percent of its
oil needs are met by crude imports. Exhibit 2.2 reflects that the
only primary energy sources are commercially exploited. Rural
India is predominantly dependent on traditional
fuel sources like firewood, animal dung and biomass, estimated at
around 143 Mtoe per annum or approximately 44 percent of the
total primary energy use.
5

ENERGY TRENDS IN INDIA


To better understand the current situation in India and the
future of the renewable energies market, it is important to look at
the trends in energy consumption, growth of the current grid, and
the availability of transportation and equipment used there. Since
thermal generation is based on burning coal or oil, increases in
CO2 emissions, which damage the environment and affect global
warming, accompany this growth. As the graph below shows, it
also increases the dependence on imports, which will continue
into the future unless the policy changes.
a) Energy consumption and production:
Since the 1980s, and still currently, India has encountered a
negative balance in overall energy consumption and production.
This has resulted in the need to purchase energy from outside the
country to supply and fulfill the needs of the entire country. As we
will demonstrate later, the Government is more sensitive to
renewable energy potential and has started to put reforms and
projects, incentives and legislation in place to convince investors
and companies to make the shift.

b) The breakdown of energy sources for power production of


India

India relies heavily on coal energy to produce electricity. A


strong second is hydro power, followed by natural gas. The
consumption of all renewable energies represents fully one third
of the total consumption. This is a significant figure, and we will
see later that this sector has a great future.

ENERGY POTENTIAL OF INDIA


India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources, and it
has one of the largest programs in the world for deploying
renewable energy products and systems. Indeed, it is the only
country in the world to have an exclusive ministry for renewable
energy development, the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy
Sources (MNES). Since its formation, the Ministry has launched
one of the worlds largest and most ambitious programs on
renewable energy. Based on various promotional efforts put in
place by MNES, significant progress is being made in power
generation from renewable energy sources.
In October, MNES was renamed the Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy. Specifically, 3,700 MW are currently powered
by renewable energy sources (3.5 percent of total installed
capacity). This is projected to be 10,000 MW from renewable
energy by 2012.
The

key drivers for renewable energy are the following:


The demand-supply gap, especially as population increases
A large untapped potential
Concern for the environment
The need to strengthen Indias energy security
Pressure on high-emission industry sectors from their
shareholders
A viable solution for rural electrification

Also, with a commitment to rural electrification, the Ministry of


Power has accelerated the Rural Electrification Program with a
target of 100,000 villages by 2012.
In recent years, India has emerged as one of the leading
destinations for investors from developed countries. This
attraction is partially due to the lower cost of manpower and good
quality production. The expansion of investments has brought
benefits of employment, development, and growth in the quality
of life, but only to the major cities. This sector only represents a
9

small portion of the total population. The remaining population


still lives in very poor conditions.

10

India is now the eleventh largest economy in the world,


fourth in terms of purchasing power. It is poised to make
tremendous economic strides over the next ten years, with
significant development already in the planning stages. This
report gives an overview of the renewable energies market in
India. We look at the current status of renewable markets in India,
the energy needs of the country, forecasts of consumption and
production, and we assess whether India can power its growth
and its society with renewable resources.
Following is a table of the actual plants and installations for
producing power based on renewable energies.
ACTUAL INSTALLED RENEWABLE - BASED PLANTS IN INDIA

Capacity exists to shift towards more renewable energy, since


only a fraction of the available renewable energy potential has
been tapped.

11

THE POSITION OF INDIA


RENEWABLE ENERGY

IN

12

THE

WORLD

POTENTIAL

ENERGY MAP OF INDIA

13

SOURCES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AVAILABLE IN INDIA:


We know where the non renewable energies coal, oil and
gas are located and how these fuels are transported,
combusted, and the power transmitted throughout the country
over the power grid. The oil crisis starting from 1973 had brought
to focus that renewable energy sources have a very important
role to play since the price of a non-renewable source could be
changed often adversely to the developmental interests of the
poorer countries. Often the technologies relating to the other
sources of energy are not so well developed and fine-tuned to
have a high degree of efficiency in utilization. However, if one was
to look at the economic cost and the way some of these can be
suitably priced it becomes apparent that many of the alternative
sources of energy are already in a position to compete with
conventional energy sources. Solar Energy and Wind Energy
appear as natural sources of such renewable energy options and
these have been used in many countries somewhat successfully.
On the other hand, there are many other sources of
alternative energy forms such as Biomass, solar, wind, Bio fuels,
Hydrogen Energy and the like which when developed could have
an importance role in meeting the energy needs.

BIOELECTRICITY / BIOMASS ENERGY


Electricity is the key to economic development for any
country. The conventional fossil fuel resources for power
generation are fast depleting and there is a growing concern over
the environmental degradation caused by conventional power
plants. Against such implications, power generation from nonconventional resources assumes greater significance. Among the
various renewable energy sources, biomass conversion
technologies appear to be one of the best suited for conversion to
shaft power/electricity.
Among the various renewable energy sources, bio-resources,
of which agro-residue forms a major component, hold special
promise as future fuel and feedstock. Biomass-based systems are
14

the only energy generating systems, which have the combined


benefits of renewability, decentralization, and availability on
demand without need for separate storage.

Taking into account the energy requirements of collection,


processing and conversion to convert forms of that, biomass still
assures a bright future from energy point of view.
Worldwide, biomass is the fourth largest energy resource
after coal, oil, and natural gas. It is used for heating (such as
wood stoves in homes and for process heat in bio-processing
industries), cooking (especially in many parts of the developing
world), transportation (fuels such as ethanol) and, increasingly,
for electric power production.
Biomass includes solid biomass (organic, non-fossil material
of biological origins), biogas (principally methane and carbon
dioxide produced by anaerobic digestion of biomass and
combusted to produce heat and/or power), liquid biofuels (biobased liquid fuel from biomass transformation, mainly used in
transportation applications), and municipal waste (wastes
produced by the residential, commercial and public services
sectors and incinerated in specific installations to produce heat
and/or power).
The most successful forms of biomass are sugar cane
bagasse in agriculture, pulp and paper residues in forestry and
manure in livestock residues. It is argued that biomass can
directly substitute fossil fuels, as more effective in decreasing
atmospheric CO2 than carbon sequestration in trees. The Kyoto
Protocol encourages further use of biomass energy.
Biomass may be used in a number of ways to produce
energy. The most common methods are:
Combustion
Gasification
Fermentation
Anaerobic digestion
India is very rich in biomass. It has a potential of 19,500 MW
(3,500 MW from bagasse based cogeneration and 16,000 MW
from surplus biomass). Currently, India has 537 MW
15

commissioned and 536 MW under construction. The facts


reinforce the idea of a commitment by India to develop these
resources of power production.

16

Following is a list of some States with most potential for biomass


production:
Andhra Pradesh (200 MW)
Bihar (200 MW)
Gujarat (200 MW)
Karnataka (300 MW)
Maharashtra (1,000 MW)
Punjab (150 MW)
Tamil Nadu (350 MW)
Uttar Pradesh (1,000 MW)
The potential available and the installed capacities for Biomass
and Bagasse

Advantages
1. Biomass is available all round the year. It is cheap, widely
available, easy to transport,store, and has no environmental
hazards.
2. Biomass-based power generation systems, linked to plantations
on wasteland, simultaneously address the vital issues of
wastelands development, environmental restoration, rural
employment generation and generation of power with no
distribution losses.
3. As a renewable fuel, biomass is used in nearly every corner of
the developing world as a source of heat, particularly in the
domestic sector.
4. Biomass is a versatile source of energy, which can be
converted to modern forms such as liquid and gaseous fuels,
electricity and process heat.
5. Bioenergy also permits operation at varying scales. For
example, small-scale (5 10 kW), medium-scale (110 MW) and
large-scale (about 50 MW) electricity generation systems or
biogas plants of a few cubic meters (Indian and Chinese family
17

plants for cooking) to several thousand cubic meters (Danish


systems for heat and electricity). This variety of scales is useful
for power generation for decentralized applications at the village
level as well as for supply to the national grids.
6. Modern biomass energy systems could be set up in virtually
any location where plants can be grown or domestic animals
reared.
HYDRO POWER
The hydroelectric power refers to the energy produced from
water (rainfall flowing into rivers, etc). Consequently, rainfall can
be a good indicator to investors looking for a location to
implement or build a new hydroelectric power plant in India.
Hydropower plants are situated in regions of the major rainfall.
The dominant annual rainfall is located on the north/eastern part
of India: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur and
Mizoram, and also on the west coast between Mumbai (Bombay)
and Mahe.
India utilizes twelve primary hydroelectric power plants: Bihar (3),
Punjab, Uttaranchal, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, Jammu &
Kashmir, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh (2).
If we consider the annual rainfall of Bangalore (central
south), we see that most of the rainfall occurs from May to
November. Consequently, we can predict that hydro energy could
be harnessed during the rainy season. Good water management
and storage allows for continuous electrical generation
throughout the year.
Advantages of Hydro power
1.
In India, small hydro is the most utilized renewable energy
source for energy production.
2.
Some key figures concerning small hydro in India:
a) Less than 25 MW is in the small hydro designation
b) There is a potential of 15,000 MW
c) Installed is 1,520 MW to date
d) 4,096 potential sites have been identified
e) Technology is mature and reliable
3.
Two types of technology are used:
18

4.

High-head systems
Low-head systems
Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources is focused on:
a) nation-wide resource assessment
b) setting up of commercial projects
c) renovation and modernization
d) development and up-gradation of water mills
e) industry based research and development

SOLAR ENERGY
It is radiation from the Sun capable of producing heat,
causing chemical reactions or generating electricity. The Sun is an
extremely powerful energy source and solar radiation is by far the
largest source of energy received by the Earth, but its intensity at
the Earth's surface is actually quite low. This is partly because the
Earth's atmosphere and its clouds absorb or scatter as much as
54 percent of all incoming sunlight.
Despite this, in the 20th century solar energy became
increasingly attractive as an energy source owing to its
inexhaustible supply and its nonpolluting character, which are in
stark contrast to such fossil-fuel sources as coal, oil, and natural
gas.
The sunlight that reaches the ground consists of nearly 50
percent visible light, 45 percent infrared radiation and smaller
amounts of ultraviolet light and other forms of electromagnetic
radiation. This radiation can be converted either into thermal
energy (heat) or into electrical energy, though the former is easier
to accomplish. Two main types of devices are used to capture
solar energy and convert it to thermal energy: flat-plate collectors
and concentrating collectors. Because the intensity of solar
radiation at the Earth's surface is so low, both types of collectors
must be large in area. Even in sunny parts of the world's
temperate regions, for instance, a collector must have a surface
area of about 430 square feet (40 square m) to gather enough
energy to serve one person for one day.
The most widely used flat-plate collectors consist of a
blackened metal plate, covered with one or two sheets of glass
19

that is heated by the sunlight falling on it. This heat is then


transferred to air or to water, called carrier fluids, that flows past
the back of the plate. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used for
hot-water heating and house heating. Flat-plate collectors
typically heat carrier fluids to temperatures ranging from 66 to
93 C (150 to 200 F). The efficiency of such collectors ranges
from 20 to 80 percent, depending on the design of the collector.

20

SATELLITE SOLAR-POWER SYSTEMS


The earth satellite solar-power system (SSPS) is based on
technological advances stemming from the space program. The
concept involves the placement of earth satellites that would
function as solar energy collecting stations in geostationary or
synchronous orbits around the earth. Such orbits would be at an
altitude of about 22,300mi (36,000 km) and would be equational,
i.e., parallel to earths equational plane. The satellites would have
large collectors of photo voltaic arrays. They would also have
conversion systems that would convert the electric power
generated by the arrays into power at microwave frequencies. A
large transmitting antenna on each satellite would beam the
microwave energy from its fixed position relative to the earth to a
receiving station on the surface of the earth. That station would
have a large receiving antenna that would reconvert the
microwave power into ac electric power and feed into a
conventional power transmission grid. The satellites, being so
high above the earth, would be in sunlight most of the day, and
no electric energy storage would be needed.

The attitude controls of an SSPS, possible through use of


laser technology, must see to it that the collector areas are
constantly facing the sun and the transmitting antenna is
constantly facing the receiving antenna on the earth. Still, the
SSPS would have to pass through the earths shadow once a day,
so that a complete cutoff of power from any one satellite is
experienced about 5 percent of the time. A possible solution to
this would consist of two geostationary satellites separated by
21

about 7900mi(12,700 km) and thus about 20o out of phase, both
having a direct line of sight to the same receiving antenna on
earth. Such a system would ensure that one would be illuminated
during the time the other is in the earths shadow. This would
mean a 50 percent power cutoff during roughly 10 percent of the
time, instead of a 100 percent cutoff during 5 percent of the time,
and a possibly better match to loads demands. Additional
satellites would even the power output further.
India being at a location between the Tropic of Cancer and
the Equator, has an average annual temperature that ranges from
25C 27.5 C. This means that India has huge solar potential.
The sunniest parts are situated in the south/east coast, from
Calcutta to Madras.
Solar energy has several applications: photovoltaic (PV) cells are
placed on the roof top of houses or commercial buildings, and
collectors such as mirrors or parabolic dishes that can move and
track the sun throughout the day are also used. This mechanism
is being used for concentrated lighting in buildings. Photovoltaic
(PV) cells have a low efficiency factor, yet power generation
systems using photovoltaic materials have the advantage of
having no moving parts. PV cells find applications in individual
home rooftop systems, community street lights, community water
pumping, and areas where the terrain makes it difficult to access
the power grid. The efficiency of solar photovoltaic cells with
single crystal silicon is about 13 % - 17%. High efficiency cells
with concentrators are being manufactured which can operate
with low sunlight intensities.
India has an expanding solar energy sector: 9 solar cell
manufactures, 22 PV module manufactures, and 50 PV systems
manufacturers. Therefore, technology resources exist in country
and a growing market would lead to job growth in country.
ENERGY FROM THE OCEANS
Solar energy which may be used directly creates other forms
of energy that can also be harnessed to generate power. One, the
22

wind, is caused by the uneven solar heating and cooling of the


earths crust combined with the rotation of the earth. Another is
the result of the absorption of the seas and oceans of solar
radiation, which causes, like the wind, ocean currents and
moderate temperature gradients from the water surface
downward, especially in tropical waters. The oceans and seas
constitute some 70 percent of the earths surface area, so they
represent a rather large storage reservoir of the solar input.
The temperature gradient can be utilized in a heat engine to
generate power. This is called ocean temperature energy
conversion (OTEC). OTEC may be considered solar energy once
removed. Because the temperature difference is small, even in
the tropics, OTEC systems have very low efficiencies and
consequently have very high capital costs.
Another source of energy in the oceans that can be exploited
for power generation is the tides. Tides are primarily caused by
lunar and only secondarily by solar, gravitational forces acting
together with those of the earth on the ocean waters to create
tidal flows. These manifest themselves in the rise and fall of
waters with ranges (height differences) that vary daily and
seasonally and come at different times from day to day. They also
vary widely from place to place, being as low as few centimeters
but may exceed 8 to 10 m (25 to 30ft) in some parts of the world.
The potential energy of the tides can be trapped to generate
power, but at extremely high capital costs. As the seas and
oceans of the earth constitute about 70 percent of its surface
area, the total terrestrial solar energy incidence on them is
immense, being equal to the total extra terrestrial solar energy
received by the earth, which is about 1.516 E +18 Kwh/year or
about 5.457 E+18 MJ/year, times an average clearness index of
0.5 times the fraction of area 0.7 or about 0.53 E+18 kWh/year,
or 1.9 E+18 MJ/year. This corresponds to an average terrestrial
incidence on the waters of the solar constant S= 1353 W/sq.m x
0.5 = 676 W/sq.m. This energy is not totally absorbed by the
water because some of it is reflected back to the sky. At an
average water surface temperature of 20o C (680 F), the latent
heat of vaporization is 2454kJ/kg and the sea water density is a
little over 1000kg/m3. The annual energy absorbed would
therefore be 1.20 x 1000 x 2454, or about 3 x 106 kJ/m2 per year,
23

which is equivalent to about 95W/m2 or about 14 percent of the


incidence. This figure varies, being a little higher than 100 W/m2
in the tropics to much less in arctic waters.
Solar-energy absorption by the water takes place according
to Lamberts law of absorption, which states that each layer of
equal thickness absorbs the same fraction of light that goes
through it. Considering deep waters in general, the high
temperatures are at the surface, whereas deep water remains
cool. In the tropics, the ocean surface temperature often exceeds
25C (77F), while 1 km below the temperature is usually no
higher than 10C (50F). Water density decreases with an increase
in temperature (above 3.98o C, where pure waters density is
maximum, decreasing again below this temperature, the reason
ice floats). Thus there will be no thermal convection currents
between the warmer, lighter water at the top and the deep cooler,
heavier water.
It is said, therefore, that in tropical waters there are two
essentially infinite heat reservoirs, a heat source at the surface at
about 27o C(81o F ) and a heat sink, some 1 km directly below, at
about 4oC( 39o F); both reservoirs are maintained annually by
solar incidence.
The concept of ocean temperature energy conversion (OTEC)
is based on the utilization of this temperature difference in a heat
engine to generate power, a concept first recognized by the
Frenchman dArsonval in 1881. The maximum temperature
difference on the earth is in the tropics and is about 15C (59F).
Ocean currents carry the 27 to 28C warm tropical waters on a
journey to the arctic circles during which they are gradually
cooled to 4o C and maximum density.
The claims for OTEC systems are just as grandiose as those
for most other renewable energy systems. Within 800-km (500mi) of that path, the temperature differences between surface
and deep waters varies between 22o C (40o F) and 15o C (27o F).
Assuming a practical conversion efficiency of 2 percent (below),
the Gulf Stream represents an annual power potential of 700 x
1012 kWh. An array of conversion plants moored on 1-mi (1.6-km)
spacing along the length and breadth of that path would be
capable of an annual 26 x 1012 kWh. Such are the claims for
24

OTEC, but practical and financial problems effectively preclude


such dreams.
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
It is the power obtained by using heat from the Earth's
interior. Most geothermal resources are in regions of active
volcanism. Hot springs, geysers, pools of boiling mud, and
fumaroles (vents of volcanic gases and heated groundwater) are
the most easily exploited sources of such energy. The greatest
potential for geothermal energy, however, lies in the generation
of electricity. Geothermal energy was first used to produce
electric power at Larderello, Italy, in 1904. By the late 20th
century, geothermal power plants were in operation in Italy, New
Zealand, Japan, Iceland, Mexico, the United States, and
elsewhere, and many others were under construction in other
countries.
The most useful geothermal resources are hot water and
steam trapped in subsurface formations or reservoirs and having
temperatures ranging from 176 to 662 F (80 to 350 C).
Water and steam hotter than 356 F (180 C) are the most
easily exploited for electric-power generation and are utilized by
most existing geothermal power plants. In these plants the hot
water is flashed to steam, which is then used to drive a turbine
whose mechanical energy is then converted to electricity by a
generator. Hot, dry subsurface rocks may also become more
widely used as a source of geothermal energy once the technical
problems of circulating water through them for heating and
conversion to steam are completely resolved. The development of
geothermal resources has become increasingly attractive owing
to the rising cost of petroleum and the non polluting character of
geothermal energy production.
WIND ENERGY
India is surpassed only by Germany as one of the world's
fastest growing markets for wind energy. By the mid 1990s, the
subcontinent was installing more wind generating capacity than
25

North America, Denmark, Britain, and the Netherlands. The ten


machines near Okha in the province of Gujarat were some of the
first wind turbines installed in India. These 15-meter Vestas wind
turbines overlook the Arabian Sea. Now, in 2006, there is an
installed capacity of 4,430 MW. However, ten times that potential,
or 46,092 MW, exists.
Advantages of Wind Power:
It is one of the most environment friendly, clean and safe
energy resources.
It has the lowest gestation period as compared to conventional
energy.
Equipment erection and commissioning involve only a few
months.
There is no fuel consumption, hence low operating costs.
Maintenance costs are low.
The capital cost is comparable with conventional power plants.
For a wind farm, the capital cost ranges between 4.5 crores to 5.5
crores, depending on the site and the wind electric generator
(WEG) selected for installation.

26

Estimated Wind Power Potential in India:

The wind power potential on a national level, base data collected


from 10 states considering only 1% of land availability, is around
46,092 MW.
The essential requirements for a Wind farm
An area where a number of wind electric generators are installed
is known as a wind farm. The essential requirements for
establishment of a wind farm for optimal exploitation of the wind
are the following:
High wind resource at particular site.
Adequate land availability
Suitable terrain and good soil condition
Maintenance access to site
Suitable power grid nearby
Techno-economic selection of specific turbines
Scientifically prepared layout
27

Wind energy generation has limitations which will influence the


extent and type of role it will ultimately play in overall generation
of electricity in India.
Limitation of a Wind farm
Wind machines must be located where strong, dependable
winds are available most of the time.
Because winds do not blow strongly enough to produce power
all the time. Energy from wind machines is considered
"intermittent," that is, it comes and goes. Therefore, electricity
from wind farms must have a back-up supply from another
source.
As wind power is "intermittent," utility companies can use it for
only part of their total energy needs.
Wind towers and turbine blades are subject to damage from
high winds and lighting. Rotating parts, which are located high off
the ground can be difficult and expensive to repair.
Electricity produced by wind power sometimes fluctuates in
voltage and power factor, which can cause difficulties in linking its
power to a utility system.
The noise made by rotating wind machine blades can be
annoying to nearby neighbors.
Some environmental groups have complained about aesthetics
and avian mortality from wind machines

28

FUTURE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS AND SUPPLY OPTIONS


The electricity consumption and generation forecast of India
is a part of the emerging economies. Growth in net electricity
consumption is expected to be most rapid among the emerging
economies of the world, including India. According to the EIA, the
annual average increase will be about 4.0 percent from 2002 to
2025. Emerging economies are projected to more than double
their net electricity consumption, from 4,645 billion kilowatt hours
in 2002 to 11,554 billion in 2025. The projected growth in net
electricity consumption for emerging market economies is driven
in large part by gross domestic product (GDP) and population
growth assumption.
Because of the links between reliable electricity supply, GDP
growth, and living standards, many of the nations with emerging
economies are attempting to increase access to reliable electricity
supply.
Given the present growth rate of 5 percent in coal
production, Indias extractable reserves would be exhausted in 45
years, and hence there is a greater need to look at sustainable
and cleaner fuels. Recent discoveries hold promise for Indias gas
reserves and coal bed methane. On the nuclear front, advanced
technology needs to be infused before being put for commercial
use. Renewable energy, especially as wind and solar power is
expected to grow rapidly and supplement the short term
requirements. Over the longer term, it is expected to gain
strategic importance as a sustainable fuel that would help build
self-reliance in energy sources. The following figure details the
estimated energy reserves in the country.
Coal Extractable- Mto 13,489
Oil- Mto 786
Gas including coal bed methane-Mto 1,866
Uranium metal Tonnes 61,000
Thorium metal Tonnes 225,000
Hydro-MW 150,000
Energy supply projected for year 2100
The model predictions for the year 2100, are a population of
~ 1.65 billion people, an economy with a GNP of ~ US$ 22000
29

billion dollars and an electric power generation capacity of ~


1000 GW. The primary fuels are coal at 50 %, natural gas at 25 %
and nuclear and renewable energies sharing the last 25 per cent.
The critical energy technologies for India therefore are clean coal
technology, exploration and exploitation of natural gas / gas
hydrate resources, nuclear technologies (especially those
involving utilization of thorium), replacement of petroleum
products in the transport sector by fuel cells, hydrogen, electricity
etc and the development of improved solar photovoltaic and
thermal systems .
Projected energy consumption of India for 2030
Currently, 45 percent of households in India do not have access to
electricity. New
legislation has set a target of electrifying all households by 2010.
As in the past, the ongoing challenge in providing electricity is the
ability of the poor to pay. India announced plans in March, 2005,
to continue subsidizing electricity consumption for rural and poor
households that use less than 30 kilowatt hours per month.

Estimates of Potential Capacities from Renewable Energy


Sources (in MWs)

The sum of these renewable resource potentials, 152,000 MW, is


greater than the current total installed energy generating
capacity of India.
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31

EFFECTIVE ELECTRICAL
DISTRIBUTION

ENERGY

TRANSMISSION

AND

High efficiency transformers and high temperature


superconductors are technologies that promise much in terms of
electrical energy efficiency.
High Efficiency Transformers
According to the Leonardo ENERGY website, which is the
global community for sustainable energy professionals: The
worldwide electricity savings potential of switching to high
efficiency transformer is estimated to be 200 TWh? This savings
potential is not only technically advantageous, but also brings
economic and environmental benefits. Taking the full life cycle
cost into account, selecting such transformers is often an
economically sound investment decision despite their higher
purchase price.
Superconducting transformers
When a transformer is under a loaded condition, Joule heating of
the copper coil adds considerably to the amount of lost energy.
Although todays utility power transformers lose less than 1 % of
their total rating in wasted energy, any energy saved within this 1
% represents tremendous potential savings over the expected
lifetime of the transformer as they can be in service for decades.
We are all used to seeing copper and aluminum electrical wires
and cables, which conduct electricity at ambient temperatures
but lose energy due to the Joule effect. With superconductors,
losses due to the Joule effect become essentially zero, thereby
creating the potential for dramatic reduction in overall losses.
Even with the added cost of making them cold enough for
superconducting, transformers in the 10 MW and higher range are
projected to be substantially more efficient and less expensive
than their conventional counterparts.
High temperature superconducting cables
Superconducting cables offer the advantage of lower loss, lighter
weight, and more compact dimensions, as compared to
conventional cables. In addition to better energy efficiency of the
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utility grid, this can lead to easier and faster installation of the
cable system, fewer linking parts, and reduced use of land. The
high performance of superconducting materials leads to reduced
materials use and lighter and more compact cable technology. In
this way, energy and cost are saved in the whole chain of
manufacturing, transport, installation, use and end-of life
disposal.

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SAVING ENERGY AT PERSONAL LEVEL


By exercising even a few of the following steps, we can cut our
annual emissions by thousands of pounds and our energy bills by
a significant amount. There is now an energy efficient alternative
for almost every kind of appliance or light fixture. That means
that consumers have a real choice and the power to change their
energy use on a revolutionary scale.
Home appliances
1.

Turn your refrigerator down. Refrigerators account for


about 20% of Household electricity use. Use a thermometer to set
your refrigerator temperature as close to 37 degrees and your
freezer as close to 3 degrees as possible. Make sure that its
energy saver switch is turned on. Also, check the gaskets around
your refrigerator/freezer doors to make sure they are clean and
sealed tightly.

2.

Set your clothes washer to the warm or cold water setting,


not hot. Switching from hot to warm for two loads per week can
save nearly 500 pounds of CO2 per year if you have an electric
water heater, or 150 pounds for a gas heater.

3.

Make sure your dishwasher is full when you run it and use
the energy saving setting, if available, to allow the dishes to air
dry. You can also turn off the drying cycle manually. Not using
heat in the drying cycle can save 20 percent of your dishwasher's
total electricity use.

4.

Turn down your water heater thermostat. Thermostats are


often set to 140 degrees F when 120 are usually fine. Each 10
degree reduction saves 600 pounds of CO2 per year for an
electric water heater, or 440 pounds for a gas heater. If every
household turned its water heater thermostat down 20 degrees,
we could prevent more than 45 million tons of annual CO2
emissions - the same amount emitted by the entire nations of
Kuwait or Libya.

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5.

Select the most energy-efficient models when you replace


your old appliances. Look for the Energy Star Label - your
assurance that the product saves energy and prevents pollution.
Buy the product that is sized to your typical needs - not the
biggest one available. Front loading washing machines will usually
cut hot water use by 60 to 70% compared to typical machines.
Replacing a typical 1973 refrigerator with a new energy-efficient
model saves 1.4 tons of CO2 per year. Investing in a solar water
heater can save 4.9 tons of CO2 annually.
Home Heating and Cooling

6.

Be careful not to overheat or overcool rooms. In the winter,


set your thermostat at 68 degrees in daytime, and 55 degrees
at night. In the summer, keep it at 78. Lowering your thermostat
just two degrees during winter saves 6 percent of heating-related
CO2 emissions. That's a reduction of 420 pounds of CO2 per year
for a typical home.

7.

Clean or replace air filters as recommended. Energy is lost


when air conditioners and hot-air furnaces have to work harder to
draw air through dirty filters. Cleaning a dirty air conditioner filter
can save 5 percent of the energy used. That could save 175
pounds of CO2 per year.
Small investments that pay of

8.

Buy energy-efficient compact fluorescent bulbs for your


most-used lights. Although they cost more initially, they save
money in the long run by using only 1/4 the energy of an ordinary
incandescent bulb and lasting 8-12 times longer. They provide an
equivalent amount of bright, attractive light. Only 10% of the
energy consumed by a normal light bulb generates light. The rest
just makes the bulb hot. If every American household replaced
one of its standard light bulbs with an energy efficient compact
fluorescent bulb, we would save the same amount of energy as a
large nuclear power plant produces in one year. In a typical home,
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one compact fluorescent bulb can save 260 pounds of CO 2 per


year.
9.

Wrap your water heater in an insulating jacket. It can save


1100 lbs. of CO2 per year for an electric water heater, or 220
pounds for a gas heater.

10.
Use less hot water by installing low-flow shower heads.
They deliver an invigorating shower, and save 300 pounds of CO 2
per year for electrically heated water, or 80 pounds for gasheated water.
11.
Weatherize your home or apartment, using caulk and
weather stripping to plug air leaks around doors and windows.
These steps can save up to 1100 pounds of CO2 per year for a
typical home. Ask your utility company for a home energy audit to
find out where your home is poorly insulated or energy inefficient.
This service may be provided free or at low cost. Make sure it
includes a check of your furnace and air conditioning.
Getting around
12.
Whenever possible, walk, bike, car pool, or use mass
transit. Every gallon of gasoline you save avoids 22 pounds of
CO2 emissions. If your car gets 25 miles per gallon, for example,
and you reduce your annual driving from 12,000 to 10,000 miles,
you'll save 1800 pounds of CO2.
13.
When you next buy a car, choose one that gets good
mileage. If your new car gets 40 miles per gallon instead of 25,
and you drive 10,000 miles per year, you'll reduce your annual
CO2 emissions by 3,300 pounds.
Reduce, reuse, recycle
14.
Reduce the amount of waste you produce by buying
minimally packaged goods, choosing reusable products over
disposable ones, and recycling. For every pound of waste you
36

eliminate or recycle, you save energy and reduce emissions of


CO2 by at least 1 pound. Cutting down your garbage by half of
one large trash bag per week saves at least 1100 pounds of CO2
per year. Making products with recycled materials, instead of from
scratch with raw materials, uses 30 to 55% less for paper
products, 33% less for glass, and a whopping 90% less for
aluminum.
15.
If your car has an air conditioner, make sure its coolant is
recovered and recycled whenever you have it serviced. In the
United States, leakage from auto air conditioners is the largest
single source of emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which
damage the ozone layer as well as add to global warming. The
CFCs from one auto air conditioner can add the equivalent of
4800 pounds of CO2 emissions per year.
Home Improvement
When you plan major home improvements, consider some of
these energy saving investments. They save money in the long
run, and their CO2 savings can often be measured in tons per
year.
16.
Insulate your walls and ceilings. This can save 20 to 30
percent of home heating bills and reduce CO2 emissions by 140
to 2100 pounds per year. If you live in a colder climate, consider
super insulating. That can save 5.5 tons of CO2 per year for gasheated homes, 8.8 tons per year for oil heat, or 23 tons per year
for electric heat. (If you have electric heat, you might also
consider switching to more efficient gas or oil.)
17.
Modernize your windows. Replacing all your ordinary
windows with argon filled, double-glazed windows save 2.4 tons of
CO2 per year for homes with gas heat, 3.9 tons of oil heat, and
9.8 tons for electric heat.
18.
Plant shade trees and paint your house a light color if you
live in a warm climate or a dark color if you live in a cold climate.
Reductions in energy use resulting from shade trees and
appropriate painting can save up to 2.4 tons of CO2 emissions per
37

year. (Each tree also directly absorbs about 25 pounds of CO2


from the air annually.)
Business and community
19.
Work with your employer to implement these and other
energy-efficiency and waste-reduction measures in your office or
workplace. Form or join local citizens' groups and work with local
government officials to see that these measures are taken in
schools and public buildings.
20.
Keep track of the environmental voting records of candidates
for office. Stay abreast of environmental issues on both local and
national levels, and write or call your elected officials to express
your concerns about energy efficiency and global warming.

38

Conclusion:
India is a nation in transition. Considered an "emerging
economy," increasing GDP is driving the demand for additional
electrical energy, as well as transportation fuels. India is a nation
of extremes. Poverty remains in areas with no energy services,
while wealth grows in the new business hubs.
Coal fired generation currently provides two thirds of the
generation capacity, and hydropower supplies the other third. Yet,
India is blessed with vast resources of renewable energy in solar,
wind, biomass and small hydro. In fact, the technical potential of
these renewable resources exceeds the present installed
generation capacity.
Unique in the world, India has the only Ministry that is
dedicated to the development of renewable energies: the Ministry
of New and Renewable Energy. This bodes well for the
acceleration of renewable development throughout the nation -both to meet the underserved needs of millions of rural residents
and the growing demand of an energy hungry economy.
The development and deployment of renewable energy,
products, and services in India is driven by the need to
decrease dependence on energy imports
sustain accelerated deployment of renewable energy system
and devices
expand cost-effective energy supply
augment energy supply to remote and deficient areas to provide
normative consumption levels to all section of the population
across the country
And finally, switch fuels through new and renewable energy
system/ device deployment.
In a report on the Indian economy by Deutsche Bank, in
which countries were ranked by attractiveness for outsourcing
and off-shoring, India came in #1, well ahead of China.
India is currently experiencing strong economic growth,
while at the same time attempting to extend modern power
services to millions still in poverty. Expanding electrical capacity is
essential. Renewable energy remains a small fraction of installed
capacity, yet India is blessed with over 150,000MW of exploitable
renewable resources.

39

Tapping India's wind, solar, biomass, and hydro and


implementation of power saving techniques can make us self
sufficient in energy. Also extending the electric grid between all
states, and ultimately between neighbor nations will expand
international trade and co-operation on the subcontinent.

40

BIBLIOGRAPHY

India Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES)


http://mnes.nic.in/
The President of India www.presidentofindia.nic.in
The
Energy
&
Resources
Institute
(TERI)
http://www.teriin.org/
Trade Team Canada Environment (TTC Environment)
http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/inenva.nsf/en/h_eg0226
8e.html
Maps of India http://www.mapsofindia.com
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
http://mospi.nic.in/mospi_energy_stat.htm
Global Energy Network Institute (GENI) www.geni.org
Canada India Business
http://canadaindiabusiness.ca/gol/cib/cib.nsf/en/ci00109.html
ZenithEnergy http://www.zenithenergy.com/index.HTM
Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)
http://www.greenbusinesscentre.com/renenegy.asp
Non conventional energy resoures g.d.rai : khanna
publishers
Renewable energy resources - john twidell & toney
Biomass energy in asean member countries
www.wec.com

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