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Getting Started in Latin for Ecclesiastical Studies (SFXMS)

Unit 1
Verbs

A. Indicative Mood
Present Tense
Describing events that are happening at the present moment of writing.

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

Singular
Sum
(I am)
Es
(You are)
Est
(He/she/it is)

Plural
Sumus
(We are)
Estis
(You all are)
Sunt
(They are)

Past-Imperfect Tense
Describing events in the past that were still happening at the moment of writing. The Base here is Er,
while the Ending is nearly identical to the present tense case.

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

Singular
Er-am
(I was)
Er-as
(You were)
Er-at
(He/she/it was)

Plural
Er-amus
(We were)
Er-atis
(You all were)
Er-ant
(They were)

Perfect Tense
Describing events in the past that were completed at the moment of writing.

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

Singular
Fu-i
(I was/I have been)
Fu-is
(You have been)
Fu-it
(He/she/it has been)

Prepared by CYMY, 2014

Plural
Fu-imus
(We have been)
Fu-istis
(You all have been)
Fu-erunt
(They have been)

Rev 0

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Getting Started in Latin for Ecclesiastical Studies (SFXMS)


Past-Perfect Tense
Describing events that have chronological priority in the past that were completed at the moment of
writing. Here, the Base is Fu and the Ending is that used for the past-imperfect tense case.

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

Singular
Fu-eram
(I was/I have been)
Fu-eris
(You have been)
Fu-erit
(He/she/it has been)

Plural
Fu-eramus
(We have been)
Fu-eratis
(You all have been)
Fu-erant
(They have been)

Future Tense
Describing events in the future that have not completed at the moment of writing. Here, the Base is Er
and the Ending is almost identical to that used for the present tense case.

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

Singular
Er-o
(I shall/I will be)
Er-is
(You shall/will be)
Er-it
(He/she/it shall/will be)

Plural
Er-imus
(We shall/will be)
Er-itis
(You all shall/will be)
Er-unt
(They shall/will be)

Future-Perfect Tense
Describing events in the future that shall have been completed at the moment of writing. Here, the Base
is Fu and the Ending is almost identical to that used for the futrue tense case.

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

Singular
Fu-ero
(I shall/ will have been)
Fu-eris
(You shall/will have been)
Fu-erit
(He/she/it shall/will have been)

Prepared by CYMY, 2014

Rev 0

Plural
Fu-erimus
(We shall/will have been)
Fu-eritis
(You all shall/ will have been)
Fu-erint
(They shall/ will have been)

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Getting Started in Latin for Ecclesiastical Studies (SFXMS)


First Declension Nouns

Mostly feminine nouns, with some masculine


To decline first declension nouns, use the following method:
o Note that: Noun = Base + Ending
o Thus, isolate the Base from the singular genitive Ending
o Then, Required Noun = Base + Required Ending (as per table below)

Nominative (subject/predicate nominative)


Genitive (possession)
Dative (indirect object)
Accusative (direct object/object of preposition)
Ablative (many uses)

Singular
-a
-ae
-ae
-am
-a

Plural
-ae
-arum
-is
-as
-is

Ex 1: Decline the following noun, Nautae for the plural nominative case.
Using the above method: (Singular Genitive) Noun = Base + Ending, here we have:
Base = Naut,

Ending = ae

Prepositions
Preposition
Ad
Circum
Prope
In

Meaning
To / towards
Around
Near
In / on / into
Into

Prepared by CYMY, 2014

Case
Accusative
Accusative
Accusative
Ablative
Accusative

Rev 0

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Getting Started in Latin for Ecclesiastical Studies (SFXMS)


Review Exercise 1
Q1. You have learnt from this lesson that:

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

Singular
Sum
(I am)
Es
(You are)
Est
(He/she/it is)

Plural
Sumus
(We are)
Estis
(You all are)
Sunt
(They are)

The following chart for the word specto which means I am watching is given below:

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

Singular
Specto
(I am watching)
Spectas
(You are watching)
Spectat
(He/she/it is watching)

Plural
Spectamus
(We are watching)
Spectatis
(You all are watching)
Spectant
(They are watching)

Now, for the following words, complete the charts below and indicate what the Base is:
(a) ambulo, which means I am walking

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

Singular
Ambulo
(I am walking)
Ambulas
(You are walking)
Ambulat
(He/she/it is walking)

Plural
Ambulamus
(We are walking)
Ambulatis
(You all are walking)
Ambulant
(They are walking)

Base is Ambul-
(b) navigo, which means I am sailing, do sail

First Person
Second Person
Third Person

Singular
Navigo
(I am sailing)
Navigas
(You are sailing)
Navigat
(He/she/it is sailing)

Plural
Navigamus
(We are sailing)
Navigatis
(You all are sailing)
Navigant
(They are sailing)

Base is Navig-

Prepared by CYMY, 2014

Rev 0

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