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WASTE BATTERY AND ACCEPTANCE SOCIETY TOWARD

COLLECTING SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE WASTE BATTERY AT


BANDUNG CITY
SAMPAH BATERAI DAN PENERIMAAN MASYARAKAT TERHADAP
ALTERNATIF SISTEM PENGUMPULAN BATERAI BEKAS DI KOTA
BANDUNG
Novi Nuryani1 dan Benno Rahardyan2
Program Studi Teknik Lingkungan ITB, Jalan Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132
1
novi_076@yahoo.co.id , 2benno@tl.itb.ac.id
Abstract : Battery a lot of used in life everyday. Because of hazardous metal contents, battery classified
hazardous toxic material. Batteries represent a large volume of toxic and hazardous materials in common use,
and these materials must be managed to avoid or minimize dissipation into the environment. Total hazardous
toxic material household waste in Bandung City estimated is not more 2 %. Although the total is least, with
waste management at Indonesia in this time, that is open dumping system, make possible the happening of
hazardous toxic material accumulation. The accumulation at one time will achieve certain concentration level.
Negative impact may be happens are soil and ground water pollution in surrounding area. One of alternatives in
negative impact prevention towards environment is collecting waste batteries apart from another domestic waste
into certain places before treated by battery producers. This research uses questioner which then analyzed with
SPSS software aid. Sampling is conducted with random system. The respondent consists of university students,
senior and junior high school students and ordinary people. Waste batteries collection test was done at several
schools and supermarkets. Survey to some supermarkets detects battery consumption level of society. Around
90% respondents have positive opinion towards technical aspect of waste batteries management and alternative
that submitted. Positive responses were shown by society for a better management waste battery. It is found that
waste batteries collecting system can be done peculiarly.
Key words : acceptance society, collecting system, hazardous toxic material, waste batteries
Abstrak : Baterai merupakan barang yang banyak sekali digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Kandungan
logam berbahaya didalam baterai menyebabkannya tergolong ke dalam Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun (B3).
Diperkirakan jumlah sampah B3 RT dalam timbulan sampah kota tidak lebih dari 2 %. Walaupun jumlahnya
sangat kecil, dengan pola pembuangan akhir sampah saat ini di Indonesia, yaitu dengan metode pembuangan
akhir di suatu lahan, memungkinkan terjadinya akumulasi Bahan Berbahaya Beracun. Akumulasi tersebut pada
suatu saat akan mencapai tingkat konsentrasi tertentu. Dampak negatif yang mungkin terjadi yaitu pencemaran
tanah dan air tanah yang berada di sekitar lahan pembuangan akhir. Salah satu alternatif pencegahan dampak
negatif terhadap lingkungan tersebut adalah mengumpulkan sampah baterai terpisah dari sampah domestik
lainnya dan dikumpulkan ke alternatif tempat tertentu sebelum ke TPA/diolah oleh produsen baterai tersebut.
Penelitian ini menggunakan kuesioner yang kemudian dianalisis menggunakan analisis statistik dengan
menggunakan bantuan software SPSS. Teknik sampling dilakukan dengan sistem acak (random). Responden
terdiri dari mahasiswa, pelajar dan masyarakat umum. Dilakukan uji coba pengumpulan baterai bekas di
beberapa sekolah dan supermarket, serta survey ke sejumlah supermarket dan hypermarket untuk mengetahui
tingkat konsumsi baterai oleh masyarakat. Sekitar 90% responden memiliki pandangan yang positif terhadap
aspek pelaksanaan teknis pengelolaan sampah baterai dan alternatif yang diajukan. Hal ini mengindikasikan
respon yang positif dari masyarakat untuk pengelolaan sampah baterai yang lebih baik, dan ada peluang yang
cukup besar dari kecenderungan masyarakat bahwa pengelolaan sampah baterai untuk dikumpulkan ke tempat
tertentu dapat dilakukan secara khusus.
Kata kunci : bahan berbahaya beracun, penerimaan masyarakat, sampah baterai, sistem pengumpulan

SW5 - 1

INTRODUCTION
The use of toxic materials has long been a concern, and dissipative uses of toxic
materials, where human and environmental health may be affected, are especially significant.
In many areas of materials use, toxic materials have been regulated and decreased, and
substitute materials have often replaced toxic materials where possible. The battery industry
represents one important and growing sector where the use of non-toxic and non-hazardous
substitute materials has not rapidly developed. As regulations increase and concern for the
environment and human health becomes more prevalent, the fate of toxic and hazardous
materials in the environment should be more carefully considered. In the environment the
dissipation of toxic metals can harm fish, wildlife, and invertebrates through exposure by
inhalation or ingestion of airborne contaminants, or by accumulation of toxins from ground
and surface water (Lankey, 1999). Currently, batteries represent a large volume of toxic and
hazardous materials in common use, and these materials must be managed throughout their
life cycle to avoid harm to the environment and human health.
Batteries are a part from modern life. Many tools need battery to can be operated. One
of the examples is watch. Almost nothing house there is no watch in there. Camera, flashlight,
radio, calculator, child toy, are a part tool which also need batteries. There are many kind of
battery, wet battery and dry battery (dry cell) begins from little size as big as medicine pill to
big size. Battery sale is big in supermarket, that is shows that total battery which adsorbed in
society is big. In the developed countries, waste battery is collected particular to then
cultivated furthermore, that is be caused the battery contain metal that can leacheated.
The heavy metal content of battery is variing depending on the quality/ the producer of
the batteries. Heavy Metal Content of battery shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Heavy Metal Content in battery (Janz, 2008)

GPA76

27

10

CR123A BATTERIE
LiMnO2 CR 2025 BATT (KNOPF)
CR 2032 LI BATT (KNOPF)

0,7
0,7

3
3
3
3
3
3

18
18
18
18
18
18
20
20
20
20
40
30

9
10
9
10
9
10
9
10
9
10
9
10
9
80
9
80
9
80
9
80
15 20.000
10
80

40

15

32
32

3
3

40
40

20
20

32

40

20

SW5 - 2

Quecksilber
(Hg)

Elektrolyt

23
23
23
23
23
23
17
17
17
17
10
17

Nickel (Ni)

Zink (Zn)

Lithium (Li)

Mangandiox
id (MnO2)

28
28
28
28
28
28
36
36
36
36
27
35

Eisen (Fe)

Al-Mn

R14
R20
R3
R6
9V BLOCK 6 F 22
FLACHBATT
LR14
LR20
LR3
LR6
LR44 (KNOPF)
9V BLOCK (6 LR61)

ppm
Kobalt (Co)

ZnC

Blei (Pb)

Tipe Baterai

Cadmium
(Cd)

Mass%

Waste battery not threw away to any place. Generally, waste battery is potential as
pollutant. Any kind battery likes lithium or nickel-cadmium not be threw away to regular
garbage, but returned to producers as part of waste management system.
One of the producers battery in Indonesia that produce the biggest lithium batteries
from Japan, also produce manganese battery. Total productions at 2004 achieve 11 billion,
consist of 10 manganese battery milliards and 1 milliard lithium battery. Around 85 percents
product is exported to many country at Europe and Mid-East, also in Indonesia, not mention
many kind batteries with other brand many used in Indonesia (Usman, 2006)
To in this time collecting system waste battery is not yet found. A large amount of
battery has been predicted brought up to landfill or castaway not control in environment.
Waste battery founded in landfill, thats proposed by waste management city, while In
Indonesia domestic waste is dominated by organic which in biodegradation process can
produce high acidity level which can be dissolve existing metal contains (rahardyan, 2000)
that leacheat can be potential to ground water pollution.
A secondary (rechargeable) battery is considered to be more environmentally friendly
than a primary (nonrechargeable) battery because the primary battery is thrown away after
only one use. This result in a significant amount of waste materials generated and energy used
to manufacture the number of alkaline batteries that would be equivalent to one rechargeable
battery over the course of its useful life. In addition, alkaline batteries are typically not
collected and recycled, resulting in the use of more virgin materials. For these reasons
primary batteries are not considered to be environmentally friendly (Lankey, 1999).
Hazardous and toxicity household waste is defined as waste that come from
household activities, contain material and/or former package a hazardous or toxic material,
battery belongs into it, because of the contain characteristic that can be damage to
environment. Hazardous and toxicity waste in household waste is belongs to relative very
little compared with another kind of waste. End of 1999, public works department estimate
the total hazardous waste in domestic waste at the most 2 %. Although the total is very little
with existing condition waste management in Indonesia that is with open dumping method,
make possible to accumulation hazardous and toxicity contain. Thats accumulation at one
time will achieve certain concentration level. The negative impact may be happens that is soil
pollution and ground water that reside in around landfill area.
Hazardous household waste management in Bandung City till end 1998 have not to
done. Hazardous household waste at this time mixed with another domestik waste and
aacumulated in landfill. The pollution caused of that till this time has not controled. However,
anticipation need to be done for prevent negative impact which can be damage the society.
Spent batteries will need some kind of collection system whether or not the batteries
are recycled. If spent consumer batteries are not recycled, then they are expected to be
primarily collected along with municipal household wastes. For consumer batteries to be
recycled, special collection programs must be implemented. To encourage the return of
batteries by consumers, possible options includes deposit system, return incentive fees, buyback of batteries, and rebate or mail-back programs (Lankey, 1999).

SW5 - 3

METHODOLOGY
This research starts by study material flow battery then determination location test,
sample and survey location. This research uses questioner which then analyzed with SPSS
software aid. Sampling is conducted with random system. The respondents consist of
university students, senior and junior high school students and common people. Waste
batteries collection test was done at several schools and supermarkets. Survey some
supermarkets done by interview with management or uses the questioner to detect battery
consumption level of society. Step in this research, explained by Figure 1.

Figure 1 Research Flow Chart


Sample of research
In this research, society reviewed analysis based on economy and education level. There are 3
respondent targets, student, university student and common people.
Student
Student respondent done in Senior High School or SMA and Government Junior High
School (SMP Negeri) and private (SMP Swasta) at Bandung.
Student University
SW5 - 4

Student University respondents in this research are from University around in Bandung. This
sample is discriminated based on college, there are student of Environmental Engineering
ITB, other ITB students, student from other University like UNISBA, POLBAN, and UPI.
Common People
Using batteries is general need at society. Research to this general society discriminated based
on economy level to then be compared with acceptance and consumption other element of
battery use and the management.
Collecting Waste Battery Test
Society willingness for acceptance alternative collecting system waste batteries temporary
before go to the landfill is done at certain place. One of the alternative collecting that at
schools, there are SMP Negeri 2 Margahayu, SMP Negeri 3 Bandung, and SMP Nusantara
Bandung. Collecting test is planed one month, but caused of technical factor effective
schedule school so collecting time is just two week.
Survey Batteries In to Seller and Battery Dealer
Survey some supermarket and battery dealers at Bandung City to observe level and
consumption pattern on society.
Collecting Data
In this research collecting data is done by using aid questioner. Questions composed
systematically and has closed form to make respondent easy to answer. Respondent is one
who gave conception (response) on question that submitted. Sample in this research can be
called as respondent. Distributing questioner done with the surveyor aid. Besides that,
collecting data from test alternative collecting system is got with count waste battery quantity
based on each size kind of battery former existing.
Laboratory Test
Toxicity test using method TCLP (Toxicity Concentration Leaching Procedure). This test is
done at Solid Waste Laboratory and Hazardous Toxic Material Faculty of Civil Engineering
and Environmental ITB.
Analysis
Analysis factor is done to cluster data that aim to be more simplified variable that research.
Analysis use aid software SPSS 12.0 (Statistic Package for Social Sciences), that is a software
commonly use in also social research.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION


In Figure 2 shown the comparison data
between samples in this research. 54.35%
students very aware to environment, 43.48%
aware. For students university, 23.94% very
aware and 68.54% aware, then for common
society 40.91% very aware, 44.32% aware.
Generally, students and students university has
more education and awareness toward
surrounding environmental rather than common
society.
Figure 2 Opinion towards environment
SW5 - 5

Knowledge society of current information


about environment will subsidize society
opinion of knowledge the important save
environmental. This matter can according
because many sources that makes society
easy to gets current environmental
information. Figure 3 shown that Television
is the most dominant information source
and influence to society. Furthermore from
media prints, friend/other person, involved
in environment activity, mass organization
and from government. This matter can be
input towards government or other party in
socialize information relate environment to
society.

Figure 3 Source information about


environmental

Knowledge society about environment will correlation with knowledge society about battery,
which it includes by hazardous and toxicity material.
From Figure 4 that show 79% respondents
declare know the dangerous contents
battery, and 21% declare doesn't know.
While for knowledge battery to be potential
for environment pollution, 95% respondent
declare that waste battery can be pollution
to environment and 5% declare can not
pollut. This matter can prove that waste
battery potential hazardous for environment
has been known enough vast.
In Other question shown that waste battery
management system is very important. 48%
declare very important, 46% declare
Figure 4 Knowledge about battery
important, 6% declare not too important.
To know how much estimated potential waste battery every period, can be show by
consumption battery of society in table 2.
Table 2 Battery Consumption
Type
9V
D
C
AA
AAA
Button Cell

Total
162
360
293
904
546
327

Respondents
95
131
108
250
185
200

Average/person
2
3
3
4
3
2

Basically purchasing battery by consumer every period ranges distance 2-4


battery/persons. Time period people to buy the battery are dominant every 4 month or more
than 3 month. But some kind of battery like AA type is every 3-6 month. It can be estimated
that the battery is be the waste battery is every 3-6 month. Even the total waste/persons is lest
but remember it hazardous material, the accumulation of waste is be danger to environment.
SW5 - 6

Figure 5 treatment toward waste battery

Figure 6 Technical aspect waste management


system

Around 40% respondent keeps waste battery in their house, 55% respondent throws
away waste battery with other waste to ash can, 2% respondent throws away waste battery to
house yard, and around 3% respondent buries waste battery into soil. For respondent that
keep waste battery in their house known around 57% respondent keep it in place opened, 43%
in place closed, and 42% respondent keeps waste battery in opened container, 58% respondent
keep it in closed container.
Society willingness to do technical waste battery management is correlation with
willingness in separate waste based organic and inorganic. Figure 6 shown that almost
average 90% society in general ready to separate waste, doesn't throw away battery with other
waste and collecting waste battery to certain place. The alternative location to collecting
waste battery based on result from first is producer, supermarket or any big store, government
office, school, and hospital. The recommendation alternative place will be suggestion to
government or other side when running the execution. The producer place or factory is not the
available place to collect the waste, because usually factory has far away from residence. Its
can description thats necessary producer responsibility toward waste products which they
yield as responsibility to watch over environment.
For recommendation distance to alternative collecting place is shown by Figure 7. It
shown that not found far distance difference between distance choices that recommended
because all present unders 50%. This matter is indicate not too problem distance to collecting
place provided still to near and at one area.

Figure 7 Recommendation distance to alternative collecting place


The Collecting battery test is done at three school, the result is effective during two week
but that big enough student participation. Do different treatment every school, in SMP 2
Margahayu and SMP Nusantara given reward for student who collecting a lot of waste
battery. In SMP Negeri 3 there is no reward for student, the student is voluntary bring and
collect the batteries to their school. The recapitulation result collecting test is shown by table
3.

SW5 - 7

Table 3 Recapitulation result collecting battery test at school


BATERAI TYPE
9V
D
C
AA
AAA
Button cell
6V
TOTAL
Total Students

SMP NEGERI 2
MARGAHAYU BANDUNG
17
77

SMP NUSANTARA
BANDUNG
2
12

327
121
23

201
65
2

565
987

282
130

SMP NEGERI 3
BANDUNG
1
10
4
95
20
2
132
800

Total

Percentage

20
99
4
623
206
25
2
979

2.04%
10.11%
0.41%
63.64%
21.04%
2.55%
0.20%
100%

That result in school where not gift system reward relative very little only 16.5% that
is at SMP Negeri 3 Bandung. While in SMP 2 Margahayu and SMP Nusantara battery had
collect relative big enough. If the socialization added more and longer time the participation
may be increased.
Survey to several Supermarket and Hypermarket at Bandung
100%
90%
80%

EL 123A P

70%

12V

60%

6V

50%

AAA

40%

AA
C

30%
D
20%
9V
10%
0%
1

J umlah

Figure 9 Comparison sale/month from some supermarket and hypermarket at Bandung


Based on result survey to several supermarkets about selling out battery to society per
month shown thats consumption battery very high. Although will not represent battery
according to comprehensive in Bandung but from existing sample can be seen thats waste
battery potential at society is big enough. The data got not maximal, happen difficulty in gets
data because basically to detect battery total that sold is the internal data companies, where
data a kind of this is secret and all effort areas in the case of retail cant given data to outside
party.

CONCLUSION
Common society aware toward environment and know thats important to protections.
A large part of society also knows the contents hazardous of battery and potential the
pollution towards environment. The height consumption level battery per month shows high
potential waste battery every period. 40% society treatment towards waste battery is kept in
their house, 55% threw away with other waste and the rest is being buried and threw away at
yard. Almost average 90% society in general ready to separate waste, doesn't throw away
battery with other waste and collecting waste battery to certain place. Collecting hazardous
household waste execution at Bandung city that carried out at 16 locations not yet achieve
good result.
SW5 - 8

Society will throw away waste battery when be provided special places as in market,
minimarket, school, security post, or also strategic other place close to society. Necessary
producers responsibility toward their waste products which they yield as responsibility to
watch over the environment. Acceptance society towards alternative collecting battery in
school is good potential, but necessary better agreement with school and more continue
socialization. Enable society and socialization need increased and involve stakeholder very
help in society will to participate collecting waste battery.

REFERENCE
Rahardyan, Benno. Pengaruh Pencampuran Sampah Kota dengan Lumpur Tangki Septik
Pada Produksi Biogas . Bandung. 2000.
Janz,
Alexander. 2008. Accessed from personal communication by email.
Usman,
Syakur. Industri Diminta Kumpulkan Sampah Baterai Bekas Sunday, 21 Mei
2006. Accessed from
http://www.tempointeraktif.com/hg/ekbis/2006/05/21/brk,2006052177793,id.html accessed on 31 March 2008.
Lankey, Rebecca and Francis McMichael. Rechargeable Battery Management and Recycling:
A Green Design Educational Module. Green Design Initiative Technical Report
Carnegie Mellon University. February 1999. Accessed from
http://gdi.ce.cmu.edu/gd/education/Battery.pdf accessed on 21 July 2008.

SW5 - 9