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Okinawa and Its People--I

Author(s): Paul E. Steiner
Source: The Scientific Monthly, Vol. 64, No. 3 (Mar., 1947), pp. 233-241
Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science
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STEINER O M.volcanic and corallineorigins.however.the latter endoftheisland.thecombat predominating.the Chinen. on April1.600feetin the northern along independent andl originallines. and 1270 38' and 128?20' east longitude.ravines. Navy.defectivebecause they clad with had been isolatedfromthe main commer. the China coast.Loochoo. The actual invasionwas the southernmostlarge Japanese home precededby a prolongedbut intermittentisland.OKINAWA AND ITS PEOPLE-I* By PAUI.) Islands. As a large social sciences.etc.which hold the water near its point of fall. Shallow valleys. Despite a heavy rainfall. and 500 feet in the southern.particularlyin the heavilypopu.Katchinor Katsuren. Our possession A largepeninsula. thelargest 233 This content downloaded from 128. 8 Apr 2013 17:52:30 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . streamsarefoundbecauseofthenarrowness Okinawa is a tropicalisland about 60 oftheislandand theextensiveuse ofwatermiles long and 3 to 8 mniles wide.was invaded It is roughlyequidistant(350 miles) from by UnitedStatesnaval and militaryforces Formosa. small for into divided plots farming.thesouthern countrywas heavily damaged and the thirdis rollingand broken. The coast During reconstructionthe American line is protectedby reefs in nearly all influencehas been so greatthat life as it places. and slightlyfartherfromLuzon.the is rugged. Nansei. in many respects. and the minimumin winteris in the viewsset forthare thoseof thewriterand are not to forties.C. Naval Reserve Commander. U. The island shows defense. of Chicago) (On leaveofabsencefromtheDepartment ofPathology.fromthe southofislandsand to serveas a base forfurther eastern shore. flat-toppedpines and cycads characterize Because of theirisolatioin. cultural.Motobu. lying impounding and -utilization devices. Even before combat generallythere is an abrupt rise to the stopped markedchangeswere observable interiorplateau behind a narrowcoastal in thepeopleand theirlife. * This articlehas been releasedforpublicationby The climate is good. bombardmentby planes and ships which It lies in a northeastto southwestaxis.rocky. S. began in October 1944.The University between260 04' and 260 53' northlatitude in the Ryukyu(Luchu..111. Temperatures are the Bureau of Medicine and Surgeryand the SecurityReview Section of the Officeof Public In.but wherever and it contains population extensively dislocated. Ad.moderate:themaximum in summeris over formationof the U. and Kyushu.42 on Mon. the means range from 600 in be consideredas reflecting the policiesof the Navy Januaryto 830 in July.they mostofthe island. advances. There are no island KINAWA SmMA. (S). 1945.The northerntwo-thirds latedsouthern was on a largrescale. Because of the nature of the fromthe southernend. vance information on these islands was.possibleit is usedforfarming of most the inhabitants. E. The highestelevations sector had developedin certainculturalrespects are about 1. Severalbeaches withcoastal flats existed beforethe invasion is not being up to about a milein depthare found. and another. The opinions and 900. Someobserva.projectsabout side. a smaller of this island was necessaryto deprive 10 milesfromthe northwest theenemyofan important stepin hischain one.region.and coral outcroppings cial. Innumerablesmall springsand a tions on the old Okinawa might be of few large ones are scattered over the interestto workersin the biologicaland island.121.and forested. S.but reconstituted. and tourist currents.

Nago.42 on Mon.700. Marshall. municationsthroughout This content downloaded from 128. Most of the older annual rainfallof about 80 inchesis dis. communitiesin more centuries.vations in Necropsies on Okinawans..6.about 400 questions to eight Okinawan non. historicalevents are legendary.D.000. 17. The earliest recorded event people commonto theseand the Japanese in Okinawanhistorydates from605 A.) Further of up to 200 miles per hour duringsuch informationon life in the islands was storms. with interpreters. land originatedlong ago fromchaos when Teda-Ko. 20.000. About five different dialects were day to day or fromnight to day.000.5. 8.Haenna.the people and the were said to be as follows:Naha.000.and thesun-god. Toguchi. tunityto perform a seriesof 150 necropsies may be expectedat any timefromJuneto on native Okinawans. 8 Apr 2013 17:52:30 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ofChinese.and Malayan triedto obtaininformation China of in about a few peoples. which tended to The prewarpopulationsofthelargerplaces preservesuch information. the wettest ago as part of theprogramof Japanization months.111.droppedfromheaven 13. Japanese.Filipino.theyinvariablyreply about the island. Itoman. Accordingto legend. although conditions. closelyconnectedwiththeirreligioustradifollowedby fishing. The them on Okinawa. The racial originof thesepeople problems. 65.D. Prior to that time verysmallamountsofPortuguese. Untilrecenttimescom. or Caroline Is. These two sourcesof informatheirfolkloregoes back several thousand tionweresupplemented by personalobseryears.Man and Woman. originsof the people and theirland are and the chiefoccupationwas agriculture.but some of them dealt with is obscure. Islands. The Okinawansweremainlyruralpeople.000.Shinireku).000. be feltabout oncea month. economic. Severaldozenvillages tionsinasmuchas the religionis a system and townsand a fewcitieshad grownup. They usuallycome pathologicaldata whichI have described fromthe southeast. Yonabaru. adapted to this violentnatural phenome.whichcan physiciansfromvarious towns and to a number of English-speakingresidents.but only one to threeof them vations were derived anatomical and each year are severe.and cultural is said to date from605 A." lands. When asked whether they are vations during travel. to 4 inches in December.and the and possiblyotherEuropeanstrains. Historicaland religious that theyare neitherbut Okinawans. The populationofOkinawawas givenas Most of the questionsconcernedmedical interviews. Living has been admirably obtained by submitting. Chineseor Japanese. theirearliestrecordedhistory social.threeof humidityis high at all seasons.the Ainu.arisingin the regionof in "Anatomicaland Pathological Obserthe wellas to earthquakes. white (Caucasoid) Okinawans.. It informationwas obtained from several is believedthat engraftedon the original other compilations and from native racial stock. Shireku (Shineko. Shuri. From these obserDecember. of ancestor worship. Thunderstorms During the campaignI had the opporTyphoons.people could not speak Japanese.religious.000.who gave originto the the Ryukyuswere firstmale. gusts of windmay reach velocities (In Press: Archives ofPathology. The foundin the Ryukyuianlanguage.234 THE SCIENTIFIC MONTHLY sudden variations in temperaturefrom poor. are uncommonand mild. History. Spanish.which tributedthroughoutthe year fromabout was introducedin the schoolssome years 10 inches in May and June.wereliberaladmixtures a tradingmissionsentby theEmperor when Korean. both withoutsuccess.up to two or threeper month.121. begunabout 1875and intensified after1900. To these were added and make a trade the recent Ryukyus agreement.

. dark. Shuri Castle was the last dominantcastle. They are survivors of the feudaldays.seems to have had officialsupportforits claimsbecause the formerkings of Okinawa visited the island for worship and prayer each February. Kadaka-shima. Thereafter a successionof kingsruled for 700 years. the ancestralhome of the last Okinawan kings. way to and fromJapan in 1853-54and he urged on the American Congress that coalingand observation postsbe established there. When Japan adopted the closed-door policyin 1638. culture. (This has been renamed Buckner Bay in memoryof Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner. It is a small island located in the entranceto NakagusukuWan offthe east coast.the people are consideredto be a mixtureof Ainu(Caucasoid). Jr.42 on Mon. culturally.Okinawancommerce. DuringpartofthistimeChina. Being unable to build a new ship.a king with Japanese ancestry. Since the dawn of recordedhistorythe Okinawans.wereinfluenced bybothChinaand Japan and at times paid allegiance and tributeto both. 1945. Buddhism was introduced fromChinainthefourteenth century.the island shows volcanicand corallineorigins. At what date the firstpeople cane is not known. was stifledand an agricultural economywas forcedon the island.they exhibit Chinese and Japanese influencesengraftedon an older.racially. Nakagusuku.) Modern ideas regardingoriginsare less romantic. the island.111. Accordingto an alternatemyth. The Okinawans are small. which was important.Kori-jima.and the Okinaweseprinceswere educated in China or by Chinese tutors. located at Shuri. or Nago. S. Yontan. who created the land and the people.Amamiko(Amanikye).ruggedhilltops whichcommandedwide views. 8 Apr 2013 17:52:30 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. The construction was of hewnlstonefittedinto 235 thick. and tributeto China ceased. and.the first people arrivedin a stormfromthe islands of the South Seas. In 1875 Japanesetroopsoccupied. sent to Tokyo. The king was reducedto viceregalrank. massive walls filled with rubble. The islandwas firstbroughtunder a singlerulein 1187 by one Shuntem-O. This deep pigmentation is no doubt due partly This content downloaded from 128. The skin is usually dark brown.Mongoloid. Since then effortsto Japanize the island have been intensified.but some villages claim that they have occupied their presentsites for 3. Geologically. CommandingGeneralof the U. The residenceof the firstpeople is variously describedas at Kadaka-shima. In support of this storytheypoint to similaritiesin the languagesand in the religiouscustom of prayingto ancestorsrepresented on the name plates in the familyshrine. well-proportioned. even so.the Okinawansin turngave riseto theMoro peoplesinhabiting Mindanao in the PhilippineIslands when a sailing vessel was wreckedin a storm.particularly under the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) administrativeand governmentalcenter.who lost his life fronm artilleryfire south of Naha on June 18.. At one time Okinawan sailingvessels carriedon widespreadcommercewith the Asiatic mainlandand the islands of the Westernand Southwestern Pacific. they were forcedto remain. and Okinawa was incorporatedinto the JapaneseEmpire.OKINAWA AND ITS PEOPLE and thefirstfemale. Anatomy. exertedthedominantinfluence. They were said to be about 500 yearsold but. CommodorePerry visited Naha on his.000 years.and Malayan strains. and on Katchin Hanto rnearHaebaru and built on strategically located. Tenth Army. to be the successorsto an older series of prehistoriccastles which have disappeared. more recently. In 1945 fourancientcastleswerefound. although nominally independent. Oriental people. Accordingto legend. in the last days of the campaign.

is graceful. a fairly healthful thebearing. The colon is on an adjacent island. The body adaptation to the prolongeduse of a vegetariandiet. Tubercuand loides stercoralis. analogous to that of Children are correspondinglysmall at herbivores.includedthestreptococcic tween two extremes:Some have a flat scarletfever)and theirrelative. The internal anatomy shows several they seemed to cause little trouble.with etiologicalfactorsmay be disclosed. theyare attributedby the curve. the great so in fact that the reasonsthereformerit toe standsapartand is trainedforgrasping. on the whole. most of the populationseemed to escape associatedwitha stockybody.thelegsare moderately indistinguishable short. The body fromthe Japanese. pedunculated and both sexes have on the averagemuch that this elongated colon representsan less body hair thanAmericans. 8 Apr 2013 17:52:30 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Okinawa appears to have placement of the femoralheads rather than bowing.Ascarislumnbricoides.7 percentshowed points of difference 34.and theyhabit. and an appearance of bowlegs sideredas a group.stockier.and a portion to body size. A few infectiousdiseases were less slight to moderate developmentof the medial epicanthicfoldsand a moderately commonthanin theUnitedStates.however.importantand the degenerativediseases performed ually carryburdenson theirheads. Taken as individuals. Mumps was said to be rare. In the hepatic exhibitsan S-shaped usual natives. in Okinawans persons are seen and rarely one who is the normal pancreas is about one-third very light-skinned. tapeworms.Okinawans are therefore appearquitemuscular. Pathology. pancreas largerthan would be expected trichiura.On dissection.witha straight.111. In Americansthe normalspleenis slight]y This content downloaded from 128. In fromAmericansancd the bodies examined44. The suggestion mixture. place. is made loop.the transversecolon lies very low. The appearance varies be. these people tissue. othershave whoopingcough. The organsare small in pro. The hair is straightand black. On the otherhand. natives to European ratherthan to Ainu and the sigmoid region forms a long. so that it Both children otherwiseresembled the has several extra coils.and it is nearlyas child on northernOkinawa and another large as that of Americans. Haenza Shima.5 predominantly inchesformenand 55.but obesityis not found because of the small amount of adipose at any age in either sex. and and a broad nose with sunken bridge. relativelygreatly elongated.and been. furtherinvestigationin the hope that The facialfeaturesare Mongoloid. infcctionswere very common. fever.theOkinawans sometimesseen is usuallybecause of wide are darker.8 inchesforwomen.121. a bulky residue.the excellent becomesconspicuous the differentages. The were considerablyless common. though and a slendererbody.236 THE SCIENTIFIC MONTHLY to the tropical sun.thinnose.shorter.I saw a fair-skinnedlargerthan the spleen.42 on Mon. The carriageis erect.especiallyinwomen.7percenthad hookEuropeans.and hairier. with two striking worms(chiefly with Trichuris infected were few of them exceptions:the spleen is smallerand th( Enterobius Strongyvermicularis. Necator americanus). Young women are musculardevelopment sometimesplump. intestinalhelminth a narrower face. In comparisonwith the United Heavy labor in the fields is regularly States the infectiousdiseases were more by the women.rheumatic or a concave broad face. a large mouth. whichhas lengthof adults in a small serieswas 60.conis slenderto stocky. I was toldthatsuchpeople flexureit frequently were not rare. These diseases(notably broad face. A few yellowish larger than the pancreas.bothsubcutaneousand much feet are broad across the toes.

examples of group practice had sprung It was the onlydiseasefoundwhichis not up about small hospitals.tered.121. Malaria was not a big problem. Childbirth indicatedby the historyof numerouscases by relatives.OKINAWA AND ITS PEOPLE 237 losis. Filarial theprostate.on the whole.heartdis.less commonlyby midwives.had a fairassortment diseases did not occur. islandappearsto be heavilycontaminated servingtime in a hospital. may be a thousand lepers.42 on Mon.was uncommon.groups. as infection despitle is said to be WVuchereria bancrofti.but dietaryand practice.chieflyin the northern They were. sariumlocatedon Yagachi Shima. collected from the important. The causes microfilaria werenot obvious. The practitioners. local physicians.thyroid. The oldest inhabitantswere said dengue-likedisease was said to cause to be about a hundredyears of age. and epidemicsat intervals of a few years. island off Okinawa. lowthefactthattheorganism tension but physicallyvigorous life.but not bladderstone). had a high in.leishmaniasis. more rarely.a few cases formerly educated in Japanese medical schools. Whethersingleor in hypertension. Several physiciansto be an almost annual event.Infantmortalitywas fairly whichfollowedwar injuries. manylivedpast seventy.111.than in the United States.mostoftheirremedies epidemicsalmostannually. and drained infections. and strengtheners. This disease was of sons well-to-dofamileswho had been stated to be decreasing.disordersof theendocrine was not of the best quality for farming This content downloaded from 128.althoughits foundin thelargercities. mnalignant tumors.the diarrheas.were also in was attendedusually by a virulentformof-tetanusbacteria. werecatharticsor so-calledblood purifiers tsutsugamushi.major surgery believed to be Japanese B encephalitis.thiswas said by the native who specialized in this work. plague. The sickweretreatedbyhomemedication Ryukyus. indicatinga benign hereditaryfactors and a placid.rabies.and systemsuch as diabetesmellitusand hyperand nodular enlargementsof pneumoniawere commonand constituted thyroidism. was generallyreferredto a few doctors also occurred. 8 Apr 2013 17:52:30 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Most of them did only minor crowdingan epidemicensued among the surgeryexceptthat theytreatedfractures natives.where. located anthrax.elephantiasis. Licensednative who had been trained by near relativesare entrenchedhere. schistosomiasis. in thepast following childbirth and trauma and by physiciansonly aftertroublewas and by thelargenumberofcases in natives encountered. Yaws. and mammaryglands thechiefseriousmedicalproblems.curi. located eitheron the farmsor clustered Arteriosclerosis. The Home. which were presentin the UnitedStates.Pharmacies.About well as the equable climate. were diseases appeared to be relativelyrare.however.wereundertreatment in a leproand bydoctorswhowereinprivatepractice.typhus.after recognizeand treat the diseases encounthe invasionwithits disruptionand over.and some other in the largertowns. The homes. accordingto the of some of the moderndrugs. revealedby the presenceof appeared to be relativelyless common in the blood. An outbreak of encephalitis.a small Most of them were native Okinawans.therefor ously.theyusually occupiedland which ease ofall types. and renallithiasis.smallpox. the dysenteries.well trainedto part of the island.each a compact The degenerative and retrogressiveunit enclosed by a wall or hedge.cities. cholera. infection. The people possessed a great lore of Measles and conjunctivitisappeared in herbsand medicines.but its sequel.lithiasis (cholelithiasis togetherto formvillages and towns or. Dengue or a high.

The positionof the hand-hewncoral blocks. the to a attached on thatched bamboo in usually take open being to advantage. It was necessaryto turn flexibleframeand thin board a mortised. pigsty.A well fromwhich water was was fairlyuniform.theywere storage barn to the right.cylindrical to keep out pryingeyes and to lessenthe times forceof typhoons. was notuncommonly ceremonial occasions or for for to look used directly Thus it was impossible housing guests. and the plan of theirarrangement fertilizer. of the sun whilekeepingout theprevailing between which were walls composed of breezeduringthe wintermonths.they were barn and storage The stable. although red tile thatch.They were enclosed drawnwith rope and bucketwas located space by a in any part of the compound. This was not guarded by gate between the In towns from the roof of each.about 30 inches stood had one entrancelocated in the center in diameterand 6 feettall sometimes rain house and stable. wereconnectedwiththefarmsby footpaths thatchedpit constructed or by narrowdirt or cobblestoneroads fittedcoral blocks. or fromn at the edges of the area if it fruit trees or floweringshrubs. The hedge or housewas constant. roofs were that as its purpose gives original Legend the roof on head or lion tiger concrete of the home out evil since.111.A fewsmall ground. home against guarded to unable were negotiate supposedly.nearbywas in a level square or rectangular dense hedge of giant grasses.of thecoolingbreezewhichprevailed rough timber frame. of the end the around left or to the right and out.121. grass usually wall. Part of the trees which grew directlyfromthe level compoundwas paved with coral blocks the in the homesof the affluent.shrubs. The home compound stone or concretecistern. 8 Apr 2013 17:52:30 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . rubble.or froma dirt wall. Wealthy hibiscus. on the intothehomeor to enter compound The housewas usuallybuiltofwoodwith a straightline. At best. The roof was inside function paneling whose shortinnerguardingwall. At its typhoonsby embankments. northern At worst.The homes left end stood a small. whose carts. This structurewas a just wide enough to permit passage of combinationpigsty and latrine. Most thatched from that directionin the hot summer buildingshad heavy uprightcornerpillars monthsand to admit the low-anglerays of hewncoralsecurelyfixedin the ground. usually embankment was cut back into a slope. all built of hewn coral or wood with red This content downloaded from 128. collecting a front.and a small outdoor pool. partly sunken. This was the house. ofkeeping spirits evil the spirits.or pigsty-toilet wall. faced house The always nearly turns. of hand-surfaced.and a larger. sides and thatchroof. rectangularbuilding of better quality because of outcropping The homesiteswere frequentlycut back extendingnearlyacross the back of the into a slope to give protectionagainst compound. An reversed.stable. was the same as that of the main A brick or not uncommon. regardlessof its composition. south front.42 on Mon. or water hedge but by a shortsegmentof wall severalfeet longerthan the widthof the the storagebarn in the rightfrontcorner replacedby a building entranceand set a fewfeetinteriorto it. importantfunctionwas the conservation small two-wheeled the homewere of human and animal excretafor use as The buildingscomprising small. along the wall completed the people had a stonewall of fittedrubbleor typicalarrangement. upright.238 THE SCIENTIFIC MONTHLY rocksor steepness.all the buildingswere made couldbe seen arrangement The following from the entrance of the typical rural entirelyof thatchor withmud and rubble compound:a small stable to the left.but thatofthestorage was someserved building.

in addition to several small twenty-five years old and the brideabout roomsacross the rear used for storageof twenty.the house. has inrear wall was the familyshrine. was placed to the rightof The marriagewas formerlyarrangedby the shrinerooin. constructedof to subdividethe space intosleepingrooms.and unusedfurni. tilated. 8 Apr 2013 17:52:30 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Dried The Family.111. or both had main rooms except the kitchencould be convertedinto a single. The large houses had exclusivelyfor the withmud.whichordinarily A second set of panels.42 on Mon.tile. concerned. and various rarevisitsof royalty.itwas interposed people to choose their own marriage betweenthe shrineroomand the kitchen partners-so-calledlove marriages. There were no modernplumbingand There was usually no chimney. This The open frontand rightside of the slidingback thedisappearing house could be closed by slidingwooden was done duringthe day and for cerewereout of sight. If the creased.securebase. The main living room was called respectively. the extremeswere eighteen to food.the day. mostly of home manufacture.sometimesthrougha porch room because it was open on two middleman. row of roundpoles. It had a dirtfloorand was equipped AbrahamLincoln. frontand right.whichgave a char.Napoleon. monials.and sugar-canestalks were marriage ceremony. owing to more years spent in house was fortunateenough to have a schooland in compulsory militarytraining. At nightthesepanels wereused panels. over. latticedwood coveredby rice paper.ThomasEdison.but in recentyears therehas sides. a special seat re-served pottery jars for storage. in bybothfamilies secularand participated Small homes had one living room. The groom was usually about the front. large room by two stories. or stable.twigs.The averageage at marriage. the shrineroom because recessedinto its formerly youngerfor both sexes. several low table.OKINAWA AND ITS PEOPLE tile or even molded concretetile roofs. consistedof the shrine.beingpartlyopen. was and the familyslept on thickstrawmats sometimesplaced about 2 feetinteriorto laid on the wooden floor. Additionalprotectionfrom gear was storedin a built-inclosetduring sun and rain was given by wide.cupboards.121.weavingmaterials.was thought of the habitsof the people. ture.and house. in framework of the the possible The kitchenwas in the leftend of the thefamily. cut fromthe trunkof of the furniture Most small and trays. If the house was been an increasingtendencyfor young favoredwitha thirdroom.being of framed found or all of the pictures used any whenever resistantto termites.a The furniture hangingeaves.or stonehearths. A familywas begunby a straw. and was used mainlytor eating. The sleeping the the sewage systems. This smoking. Mar- This content downloaded from 128.which was usually used forfuel. secondroom.but uncomfortThe smokewas conductedunderthe roof ably cool during three winter months throughthe garretover all parts of the because of lack of heating facilities.thirty-two and sixteento twenty-five years. utensils. were usually damp wide. membersof house.Artificial lightingwas not needed because acteristicodor to the houses. the spreadingrootsat the buttprovideda the wall On climate. to preservethewoodfromtermites. whichweresupportedby a small straightchairs. house. small eucalyptustreesin such a way that a finish was suitable to the lacquered.was following: Emperor Hirohito. All the Rarely. This was knownas the the two families. Eucalyptuswood. It lasted from one to three largeroneshad twoor threein a rowacross days. Houses were well venwalls and roofwere blackenedwith soot.

The custom of of children. the paternalgrandparents. tomatoes. The oldestmalein thefamily.dried. said to be fiveor six. and his family.buttherewas oneexception the propertyexplains how such large to this custom. directed mainly against foreignerswho by greenvegetablesofmany supplemented This mi0ht wish to molest the wife. cleaned.and varioustypesof husband. and planted and harvested the sweet ruled with the potatoes and other produce. The men controlledthe financesand share withhis brothersif he wishedor if the fatherrequired. Diet. over in women and in 1945 was seen only asparagus. At his death the burdenson theirheads in baskets which rule descendedto the oldestson.and any the groom'sparentsif he was a firstson.meat.121. The oldest son farmerswere engaged in part-timework but he could awayfromhome. This failureto divide keptthemoney. patrilinear. fifty This content downloaded from 128. along. The women did all the work in the The completetypicalfamilyconsistedof the oldest son compoundand muchof that in the fields.collected. fed the animals. inheritednearlyeverything. Here' wealth and productiveenergy of many it was even possible for an unmarried daughterto earn and retainmoneyto be generations. and millet barley. wove cloth.240 THE SCIENTIFIC MONTHLY i ne marriedcoupie soon naci a series riage enforced because of pregnancy was said to be rare.which sometimestook brides were extensivelytattooed with the formof a new fishingboat for the blue-blackpigments.generally made Japanese cotton cloth made local nursinga child until the next one came cotton raising and weaving obDsolete. cabbage. and made clothes. The average number was betrothal by presentationof the tisaji. woman. onions. Childlesscouples adopteda child. A man rarely sometimes indicatedshe could remedy.rice. it was includingsoybeans. suchwerekept secretand apart fromthe otherwisesome otherhome was arranged.themother about 30 years ago when cheap machine. Sterilitywas blamed on the male realizedthatalone he was incomplete. Formerlythe backs of the hands of used as a dowry. customwas abandonedabout 30 yearsago radishes. These were beans. it was said so low. carrying usually the grandfather.and stored fromall generations. yearsofage. The newly marriedcouple lived with had a secondwifeor concubine.and any unmarriedsisters They cooked. fruit. At Itoman. milled the grain. eggplant. otherwiseit fell and helped in the fields. Many and irrigation. Propertywas inheritedin struction. The men supervised he was twentyyears old. Squash. was abandoned childrenwere common. Okinawan culturewas patriarchaland Food. the extremeswere wovenfromcottonin the formof a towel none to twenty. they representthe accumulated the womenkept a separatepurse. This was a formof bridegroom.111. 8 Apr 2013 17:52:30 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and familieswith ten by the girl for the boy. provided they had woven.42 on Mon. the same way as power. The babies were borntwoyearsapart. chard.conto the grandmother andfished. fish. [amilyhome. power of a dictator.carrots.and it was the main cause for a defectwhichthe girlby makingthe gift divorceon the island. According to rumor.and kinds.did the skilled untilher son reached work in connectionwith building. a fishing homesteadshave beenbuiltup in a country villagewherea fewPortugueseare believed where earningpower and resourcesare to have settledcenturiesago. his majority. which was sometimesas long as Acceptanceof this giftindicatedthat the threeyears. The main articles of diet were brandingto announceto all thatshe had a sweet potatoes.

They wereeaten eitherraw or cooked. most infectiousdiseases except dysentery The porknoteatenfreshwas preserved with and pneumonia.111.121. Fish was eaten judged by seems that it must have been such or made into confections.and evidence able to sell sugarand buy rice. The natives preferred theirfood to ill and by babies whose mothershad ours. Milk fromgoats tion of normal living conditionsby the or cows was used onlyby thosewho were war. refrigeration not being available. Black or brownsugarmade fromthe cane balanced by carbohydratesand to have grownon nearlyeveryfarmwas eaten as had an excessivelybulkyresidue. chickens and ducks used in judging diets in Americauntil added a little variety. a veryrare.criteriacommonly by most families. were many types of green leafy plants. Fruits were not island.and a fewpeaches. to the Okinawans. Cheese was repellent theywerejudgingmainlyby ourK rations. at home and soybean oil importedfrom notverysuccessful. conducive to a rapid rate of growthor goats were also raised and used formeat ultimatelarge stature.OKINAWA AND ITS PEOPLE 241 Dietary fats were chieflylard rendered and othervegetableswere foundin some gardensbut by no means on everyfarm. 8 Apr 2013 17:52:30 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .when it custom.and coconuts.were varieties were a small sour orange.42 on Mon. used to sweetea food as is theJapanese deficientin proteins.Cycas revoluta. It certainly was not salt. Attempts.incidence of disordersof metabolism.whichareso important used in large amounts. Priorto thewar it protectedagainst hogs annually. again without great after treatmentto reduce its inherent success. Some cases of war edema were several times a month in most homes. of deficiencydiseases. However.papayas. it stands up very Most families slaughteredone or twc well. were made to make beef tallow more Taro. the commonest elsewherein theislandsofthePacific.but thisis grosslyunfairto us because insufficient milk. The diet appears to have been Manchuria. The nativesconsideredit profit. and sago were produced usableby mixingit withsoybeanand other for home consumption. [To be concluded] This content downloaded from 128. from various types of nuts and seeds. longevity. whichwas used forfood in severalforms including cycads.usuallyat the New Year. Small amountsof oil were obtained fromthe ubiquitouscycad. Olives were not grown on the primary toxic factor.Sago was made oils. The chiefsourceofproteinswas soybeans. tapioca. Superit was not ficially. seen but onlyaftera longperiodof inadeBeef and horsemeat wererarelyavailable quate foodintakeconsequentto thedisrupto the average family.