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FOR WRITING PART 1 (and more): FOCUS FOR B1

1. Pasiva
- Cmo se forma? Pasiva -> <- Activa
SUJETO
VERBO TO BE
Lo que antes era
En el tiempo que
el complemento de estaba el verbo de
la activa
la oracin activa

Ejemplos:
Maria wrote the book (activa)
(past)

The book was written by Maria (pasiva)

PARTICIPIO
Del verbo
principal de la
activa

By
(se puede poner o no si es
muy evidente) People eat
rice en China Rice is
eaten in China

Agente
Sujeto inicial

The housekeeper will clean the room (activa)


(future)

The room will be cleaned by the housek(pasiva)

- Hay que tener en cuenta


1. El objeto de la oracin activa pasa a ser el sujeto de la pasiva
2. El verbo principal se sustituye por TO BE en su mismo tiempo + el verbo principal en PARTICIPIO.
3. Sujeto de la activa es el complemento agente de la pasiva.
- Usos

Cuando no sabemos quin ha realizado la accin (A civillian has been killed; the car was
stolen)
Para dar ms importancia a lo que pas, que quin lo hizo o no queremos decir quin fue
(The letther was delivered yesterday; a mistake was made)

- No se usa con VERBOS INTRANSITIVOS (die, arrive, go verbos que no llevan CD)

(pasiva)
gave him
lends

includes
(pasiva)
must wear

was

2. Comparatives. 3 tipos de grado de los adjetivos:


1) Grado POSITIVO: la cualidad del grado ms simple.
fast (rpido), hard (duro), smart (listo), pretty (bonito), clean
(limpio), large (grande), small (pequeo),old (viejo), easy (fcil)

Juan runs fast. (Juan corre rpido.); Angelas room is clean; I am tall. (Soy alto.)

2) Grado COMPARATIVO: podemos destacar la superioridad, inferioridad o igualdad de calidad.


a. SUPERIORIDAD: adjetivo + than. Juan runs faster than Mark; Angelas room is cleaner
than Sues.
b. INFERIORIDAD: not asas or lessthan (en ambos est el adjetivo en grado positivo)
Mark is not as fast as Juan; Sues room is less clean than Angelas.
c. IGUALDAD: adjetivo en grado postivo y utilizamos asas. Mark is as fast as Juan. Sues
room is as clean as Angelas
Nota:
Se puede modificar el comparativo con un cuantificador (much, a lot, a little, slightly (eslaili= un poco).
Juan is a lot faster than Mark; I am a little taller than Beth

3) Grado SUPERLATIVO: denota la cualidad en el grado ms alto.. the


Juan is the fastest (Juan es el ms rpido); New York is the biggest city in the United States.
Nota:
Si el adjetivo es posesivo o si comparamos algo consigo mismo no se usa the
His smartest student is Lisa (Su estudiante es ms listo que lisa); New York is coldest in January
- Reglas para formar comparativos y superlativos:
Comparativo
1. Adjetivos de una slaba:
aade: -er
faster
2. Adjetivos de una slaba que
aade: -r
terminan en -e:
nicer
3. Para adjetivos de una slaba
aade: consonante + -er
que terminan en consonante + hotter
vocal + consonante:
4. Para adjetivos de dos
sustituye y por: -ier
silabas que terminan en y:
funnier
5. Para adjetivos de dos o ms aade: more/less
silabas:
more beautiful

6. Adjetivos irregulares:
ADJETIVO
GOOD
BAD
FAR

Superlativo
aade: -est
fastest
aade: -st
nicest
aade: consonante + -est
hottest
sustituye y por: -iest
funniest
aade: the most/the least
the most beautiful

less beautiful

the least beautiful

Better
Worse
further

Best
Worst
furthest

Nota:
Algunas cualidades no pueden variar en intensidad o grado porque son extremos, absolutos o adjetivos
de clasificacin. Estas cualidades no tienen forma comparativa o superlativa.
Extremos: freezing (helado); excellent (excelente); Absolutos: dead (muerto); unique (nico);
Clasificacin: married (casado); domestic (domstico)
Lista de comparativos y superlativos
Adjetivo
angry
enfadado, enojado
bad
malo
beautiful
hermoso
big
grande
bitter
amargo, resentido

Comparativo

Superlativo

angrier

angriest

worse

worst

more beautiful

most beautiful

bigger
bitterer

biggest
bitterest

black
negro
bland
soso
bloody
sanguinolento
blue
azul, deprimido
bold
audaz, atrevido
bossy
mandn
brave
valiente
brief
breve
bright
brillante, luminoso
broad
ancho, amplio
busy
ocupado, ajetreado
calm
tranquilo
cheap
barato
chewy
correoso, gomoso
chubby
rechoncho
classy
elegante
clean
limpio, sano
clear
claro, despejado
clever
listo, ingenioso
close
cerca
cloudy
nublado
clumsy
torpe
coarse
spero, grosero
cold
fro
cool
fresco, calmado, guay
crazy
loco
creamy
cremoso
creepy
espeluznante, repugnante
crispy
crujiente
cruel
cruel
crunchy
crujiente
curly
rizado, crespo
curvy

more bitter

most bitter

blacker

blackest

blander

blandest

bloodier

bloodiest

bluer

bluest

bolder

boldest

bossier

bossiest

braver

bravest

briefer

briefest

brighter

brightest

broader

broadest

busier

busiest

calmer

calmest

cheaper

cheapest

chewier

chewiest

chubbier

chubbiest

classier

classiest

cleaner

cleanest

clearer
cleverer

clearest
cleverest

more clever

most clever

closer

closest

cloudier

cloudiest

clumsier

clumsiest

coarser

coarsest

colder

coldest

cooler

coolest

crazier

craziest

creamier

creamiest

creepier

creepiest

crispier

crispiest

crueler

cruelest

crunchier

crunchiest

curlier

curliest

curvilneo, con curvos


cute
mono
damp
hmedo
dark
oscuro, moreno
deadly
mortal, mortfero
deep
profundo
dense
denso
difficult
difcil
dirty
sucio
dry
seco
dull
aburrido, soso, tonto, romo
dumb
estpido
dusty
polvoriento
early
pronto, temprano
easy
fcil
expensive
caro
faint
leve, tenue, vago, ligero
fair
claro, sereno, recto, justo
fancy
lujoso
far
lejos, distante
fast
rpido
fat
gordo
few
pocos
fierce
fiero, encarnizado
filthy
asqueroso, obsceno
fine
fino
firm
firme, estricto
fit
apto, en forma
flaky
desconchado
flat
llano, liso, plano
fresh
fresco, nuevo, original
friendly
agradable, amable, amistoso
full
lleno, completo
funny

curvier

curviest

cuter

cutest

damper

dampest

darker

darkest

deadlier

deadliest

deeper

deepest

denser

densest

more difficult

most difficult

dirtier

dirtiest

drier

driest

duller

dullest

dumber

dumbest

dustier

dustiest

earlier

earliest

easier

easiest

more expensive

most expensive

fainter

faintest

fairer

fairest

fancier
further

fanciest
furthest

farther

farthest

faster

fastest

fatter

fattest

fewer

fewest

fiercer

fiercest

filthier

filthiest

finer

finest

firmer

firmest

fitter

fittest

flakier

flakiest

flatter

flattest

fresher

freshest

friendlier

friendliest

fuller

fullest

gracioso, curioso, raro


gentle
tierno, afectuoso, suave
gloomy
oscuro, abatido, decado
good
bueno
grand
grandioso, ambicioso, impotente
grave
grave
greasy
grasiento
great
grande, genial
greedy
goloso, codicioso, vido
gross
asqueroso, grosero, craso
guilty
culpable
hairy
velludo, peludo
handy
prctico, til, habilidoso, maoso
happy
feliz, contento, alegre
hard
duro, difcil
harsh
spero, duro
healthy
sano, saludable
heavy
pesado, grueso, fuerte, duro
high
alto, elevado, agudo
hip
moderno
hot
caliente, caluroso, picante
humble
humilde
hungry
hambriento
icy
helado, fro
interesting
interesante
itchy
que pica, irritado
juicy
jugoso, zumoso, suculento
kind
amable, benvolo, carioso
large
grande
late
tarde, retrasado, reciente
lazy
perezoso, vago
light
ligero, claro
likely

funnier

funniest

gentler

gentlest

gloomier

gloomiest

better

best

grander

grandest

graver

gravest

greasier

greasiest

greater

greatest

greedier

greediest

grosser

grossest

guiltier

guiltiest

hairier

hairiest

handier

handiest

happier

happiest

harder

hardest

harsher

harshest

healthier

healthiest

heavier

heaviest

higher

highest

hipper

hippest

hotter

hottest

humbler

humblest

hungrier

hungriest

icier

iciest

more interesting

most interesting

itchier

itchiest

juicier

juiciest

kinder

kindest

larger

largest

later

Latest

lazier

laziest

lighter

lightest

probable
little
pequeo, poco
lively
animado, vivo
lonely
solitario
long
largo
loud
fuerte, alto
lovely
precioso, bello, lindo
low
bajo
mad
enfadado, enojado, loco
mean
malo, mezquino, tacao
messy
sucio, desordenado, desastroso
mild
afable, suave, leve
modern
moderno
moist
hmedo
narrow
estrecho, escaso
nasty
asqueroso, desagradable
naughty
malo, travieso
near
cercano, prximo
neat
ordenado, aseado, pulcro
needy
necesitado
new
nuevo, fresco, reciente, moderno
nice
simpatico, agradable, bueno
noisy
ruidoso, clamoroso
odd
raro, extrao
oily
grasiento, aceitoso
old
viejo, anciano, antiguo
plain
claro, sencillo
polite
educado, corts
poor
pobre
popular
popular
pretty
bonito, lindo, hermoso
proud
orgulloso, soberbio, digno

likelier

likeliest

littler

littlest

livelier

liveliest

lonelier

loneliest

longer

longest

louder

loudest

lovelier

loveliest

lower

lowest

madder

maddest

meaner

meanest

messier

messiest

milder

mildest

more modern

most modern

moister

moistest

narrower

narrowest

nastier

nastiest

naughtier

naughtiest

nearer

nearest

neater

neatest

needier

neediest

newer

newest

nicer

nicest

noisier

Noisiest

odder

oddest

oilier
older

oiliest
oldest

elder

eldest

plainer
politer

plainest
politest

more polite

most polite

poorer

poorest

more popular

most popular

prettier

prettiest

prouder

proudest

pure
puro
quick
rpido
quiet
tranquilo, silencioso
rare
raro
raw
crudo, agrietado
rich
rico, abundante
ripe
maduro, curado
risky
arriesgado, peligroso
roomy
espacioso
rough
spero, tosco, bruto, ronco
rude
maleducado, grosero, tosco
rusty
oxidado
sad
triste, lamentable, penoso
safe
seguro
salty
salado
sane
cuerdo, sensato
scary
espantoso, asustadizo
shallow
superficial, poco profundo
sharp
afilado, cerrado, agudo
shiny
brillante, reluciente
short
corto, bajo, chaparro
shy
tmido
silly
tonto
simple
sencillo, simple, fcil
sincere
sincero, genuino
skinny
flaco, delgado
sleepy
adormilado, sooliento
slim
delgado, fino
slimy
viscoso, pegajoso, empalagoso
slow
lento
small
pequeo
smart
listo, inteligente, agudo
smelly

purer

purest

quicker

quickest

quieter

quietest

rarer

rarest

rawer

rawest

richer

richest

riper

ripest

riskier

riskiest

roomier

roomiest

rougher

roughest

ruder

rudest

rustier

rustiest

sadder

saddest

safer

safest

saltier

saltiest

saner

sanest

scarier

scariest

shallower

shallowest

sharper

sharpest

shinier

shiniest

shorter

shortest

shyer

shyest

sillier

silliest

simpler

simplest

sincerer

sincerest

skinnier

skinniest

sleepier

sleepiest

slimmer

slimmest

slimier

slimiest

slower

slowest

smaller

smallest

smarter

smartest

apestoso
smoky
humeante, ahumado
smooth
liso, suave, llano, fluido
soft
blando, suave
soon
pronto
sore
dolorido
sorry
lamentable
sour
agrio, cido
spicy
picante, especiado, sazonado
steep
empinado, pronunciado
stingy
tacao, rcano, raqutico
strange
raro, extrao, desconocido
strict
estricto, rgido
strong
fuerte, slido, intenso, marcado
sunny
soleado, radiante
sweaty
sudoroso
sweet
dulce
tall
alto
tan
bronceado, moreno
tasty
rico, sabroso, apetitoso
thick
grueso, denso, espeso, poblado
thin
delgado, fino
thirsty
sediento
tiny
diminuto, minsculo
tired
cansado
tough
fuerte, resistente, duro, difcil
true
cierto, verdadero, leal, fiel
ugly
feo
warm
caliente, templado, clido
weak
dbil, flojo
wealthy
rico, pudiente
weird
raro, extrao
wet
mojado, hmedo, lluvioso
wide

smellier

smelliest

smokier

smokiest

smoother

smoothest

softer

softest

sooner

soonest

sorer

sorest

sorrier

sorriest

sourer

sourest

spicier

spiciest

steeper

steepest

stingier

stingiest

stranger

strangest

stricter

strictest

stronger

strongest

sunnier

sunniest

sweatier

sweatiest

sweeter

sweetest

taller

tallest

tanner

tannest

tastier

tastiest

thicker

thickest

thinner

thinnest

thirstier

thirstiest

tinier

tiniest

more tired

most tired

tougher

toughest

truer

truest

uglier

ugliest

warmer

warmest

weaker

weakest

wealthier

wealthiest

weirder

weirdest

wetter

wettest

ancho, amplio, extenso


wild
salvaje, silvestre, descontrolado
windy
ventoso
wise
sabio, sensato, prudente
worldly
mundano, terrenal
worthy
virtuoso, digno
young
joven

wider

Widest

wilder

wildest

windier

windiest

wiser

wisest

worldlier

worldliest

worthier

worthiest

younger

youngest

3. Past simple, present perfect, never, first time


- Past perfect + never = Present perfect
(had been never)
(have been)
This is the first time I have been in Asturias
I had never been in Asturias before
- Sara has never had a BEFORE = is the first time

4. Quantifiers
Son palabras que indican la cantidad de un nombre (sean contables, incontables o ambos), pero sin
determinar las cantidades como los nmeros. Ejemplos:
Cuantificador
Contabl
Incontabl
e
e
many
X
muchos/as
Se combina con too (demasiado) o so (tanto) para expresar la idea de
cantidad excesiva o un punto de vista sobre una cantidad.
much
mucho/mucha
Tambin se puede combinar con too o so para expresar la idea de cantidad
excesiva o un punto de vista sobre una cantidad.
some
algunos/as
Se usa en frases afirmativas e interrogativas (para afirmar algo); se sustituye
any en frases negativas o interrogativas. Significa una cantidad indefinida,
pero limitada.
any
alguno/as, ninguno
En los mismos contextos que some, pero en frases negativas o
interrogativas.
no, none
no, ninguno/a
A diferencia de la partcula no, none se puede utilizar sin ir acompaado de
un nombre, contable o incontable. Por tanto acostumbra a ir al final de la frase
y como nica respuesta a una pregunta que haga referencia a cantidades.
a lot of/ lots of
muchos/as
Expresan idea de gran cantidad. Se puede usar con nombres o sustantivos
contables e incontables. A diferencia de many y much, no las usamos en
frases interrogativas. En general, lots of es ms informal.
little/a little
poco/un poco

Expresan una cantidad pequea y se usan slo con nombres incontables. La


opcin de usar little o a little refleja una opinin sobre la cantidad. Si usas a
little", significa una opinin positiva sobre la cantidad y si usas little implica
una opinin negativa.
few/a few
pocos/unos pocos

Expresan un nmero pequeo. A few puede indicar un nmero suficiente. Se


usan slo con nombres contables. Como hemos visto arriba, la opcin de usar
few o a few refleja la opinin sobre la cantidad expresada. Few describe la
cantidad de forma negativa y a few" la describe de forma positiva.

- En resumen:
Quantifiers para sustantivos contables

Quantifiers para sustantivos no


contables

Quantifiers valen para sustantivos


contables e incontables

many trees muchos rboles


a few trees unos rboles
few trees pocos rboles
several trees varios rboles
a couple of trees un par de rboles
none of the trees ningn rbol
not much water no mucha agua
a little water un poco de agua
little water poquita agua
a bit of water un poco de agua
a good deal of water bastante agua
a great deal of water mucha agua
all of the trees/water todos los rboles/ toda el agua
some trees/water algunos rboles/un poco de agua
most of the trees/water la mayora de
rboles/agua (en castellano no suena bien, pero en
ingls s)
enough trees/water suficientes rboles/suficiente
agua
a lot of trees/water muchos rboles/mucha agua
lots of trees/water muchos rboles/mucha agua
plenty of trees/water bastantes rboles/agua
a lack of trees/water una falta de rboles/agua

Nota:
Ojo! Entre few y a few parece que no haya mucha diferencia, pero no es el caso. Few significa
pocos pero a few significa varios o un par.
Y lo mismo va entre little y a little: little significa poco, pero a little se refiere a un poco. Dnde
est la diferencia? Si decimos Julia has little work experience es que no tiene suficiente, o tiene muy
poca experiencia laboral. Si digo Julia has a little work experience quiero decir que algo tiene ya. Es
una diferencia sutil, pero existe y hay que saberla.

5. Have/has /(there is/ there are)


- Have/ has: no hay forma corta para have -> I have (yo tengo); have si precisa en su forma negativa e
interrogativa el verbo auxiliar DO -> I dont have/ Do I have?
Tiene significados para acciones y experiencias. Se puede utilizar en la forma continua.
- to have breakfast/ lunch/ dinner/ a snack/ a drink
- to have a bath/ a shower/ a swin/ a break/ a party/ a holiday
- to have an experience/ an accident/ a dream
- to have a conversation/ discussion/ argument
- to have trouble/ fun/ a good time
- to have a baby
- There is/ are: hay (puede expresarse en todos los tiempos verbales, pero solo se conjuga si el nombre
que va despus esta en plural o singular, es contable o incontable)
THERE IS
CONTABLES E INCONTABLES/ SINGULAR
- Contable:
There is a pencil (Hay un lpiz)
There is one car (hay un coche)
- Incontable:
There is milk (hay leche)
Is there sugar? (Hay azcar?)
THERE ARE
SLO CONTABLES Y PLURAL
The are five pencils (Hay 5 lpices)
There are not two cars (No hay dos coches)
Are there many people? (hay mucha gente?)
Nota
There vs. It: THERE -> cuando hablamos por primera vez de algo, para indicar que existe; IT para
hablar de una cosa especfica. There is a pen on the table. It is my pen (Hay un bolgrafo en la mesa. Es
mi bolgrafo); There is milk. It is in the refrigerator (hay leche. Est en la nevera).

- Has got (yo tengo): se utiliza a menudo en lenguaje coloquial y con frecuencia en su forma abreviada: I
have got, she has got slo se utiliza en el presente simple, NO PODEMOS USAR HAVE GOT PARA
EL PASADO, en el pasado slo podemos usar HAVE (conjugado -> HAD).
En negativa e interrogativa no utilizamos DO -> Ive not got, she has not got (shes hasnt got)
? Have I got?

Have vs. Have got

6. So do I/ So does she
Maria y yo vamos a
Maria va a SO DO I (yo tambin)
La manera ms facil de decir "Yo tambin" es "Me too," y la manera ms facil de decir "Yo tampoco" es
"Me neither." Sin embargo, tambin se usan expresiones con las palabras so y neither para expresar eso.
1. To be - Con el verbo to be se usa so o neither, luego el verbo to be (am), y luego el sujeto (I). Ve los
ejemplos siguientes.
ORACIN
RESPUESTA
I'm tired. (Estoy cansado.)
So am I. (Yo tambin.)
I'm not tired. (No estoy cansado.)
Neither am I. (Yo tampoco.)
2. Presente - Con verbos en el tiempo presente, se usa so o neither, luego do, y el sujeto (I). Ve los
ejemplos siguientes.
ORACIN
RESPUESTA
I swim. Yo nado.
So do I. Yo tambin.
I don't swim. Yo no nado.
Neither do I. Yo tampoco.
3. Presente Perfecto - Con verbos en el presente perfecto, se usa so o neither, luego have, y finalmente
el sujeto (I). Ve los ejemplos siguientes.
ORACIN
RESPUESTA
I've finished. He terminado.
So have I. Yo tambin.
I haven't finished. No he terminado.
Neither have I. Yo tampoco.
4. Futuro - Con verbos en el futuro, se usa so o neither, luego will y finalmente el sujeto (I).Ve los
ejemplos siguientes.
ORACIN
RESPUESTA
I will study. Estudiar.
So will I. Yo tambin.
I won't study. No estudiar.
Neither will I. Yo tampoco.
5. Pasado - Con verbos en el pasado se usa so o neither, luego did y finalmente el sujeto (I). Ve los
ejemplos siguientes.
ORACIN
RESPUESTA
I finished. Termin.
So did I. Yo tambin.
I didn't finish. No termin.
Neither did I. Yo tampoco.

7. Close/ far from/ near to


- Near: cerca, se suele utilizar con mayor frecuencia en un sentido fsico-espacial.
- Close to: cerca de, aunque tambin se puede utilizar como un adverbio de lugar, tambin es usado para
expresar cercana emocional.
- Far from, es lo contrario.. significa lejos de its no far (from here, there) no est lejos de (aqu, all)
Nota:
Near NUNCA va acompaado de la preposicin of o to (near of, near to)

8. Report speech
Podemos contar en presente lo que alguien acaba de decir, cambiando los pronombres y el tiempo
verbal. I attend the music lesons She says that she attends mussic lessons
Pero lo normal es contarlo en pasado, DAR UN SALTO ATRS EN LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES
(ESTILO INDIRECTO), se suprimen comillas, se cambian pronombres, modales (si los hay), y
las expresiones de tiempo y lugar.
La oracin subordinada se introduce por that (pero hablando se suele omitir)
CUIDADO: cuando se habla de una verdad general NO SE CAMBIAN LOS TIEMPOS
VERBALES: English is spoken in Australia She said that English is spoken in Australia
Cuando no es una verdad general, s: My students ask me many questions He said (that) his
students asked him many questions.
Verbos ms frecuentes para introducir el report speech: Say (con CD o no y sino lleva se procede
de TO) y Tell (siempre CI sin TO)
EJEMPLOS:
Amy is studing for the exam
-Tell: He told us that Amy was studiying for the exam
- Say (said): He said that Amy was studiying for the exam; or
He said to us that Amy was studiying for the exam
Para las YES/NO questions: ASK y las conjunciones if/ whether. En EI la frase ya no es una
pregunta as que no se invierte el orden sujeto-verbo.
Ej. Does the lesson start at 11:00? SHE ASKED She asked if/ whether the lesson started at 11
Is Paul Irish? HE ASKED ME He asked me if/ whether Paul was Irish
Wh- questions (what, who, which, where, when, why, how): al transformala en EI se mantiene la
partcula + sujeto + verbo y emitimos el signo de interrogacin y las comillas
Where is the gym? The girl asked The girl asked where the gym was
rdenes: cambiamos el imperativo por el infitivo, pero antes va el verbo que indica la orden:
TELL/ ORDER + CI. Ej: Keep quite The teacher told us to keep quiet
- Cambios en los tiempos verbales
ED
EI
Present
Past simple

simple
Past simple
Future

Past perfect
Conditional

simple
Present
continuous
Past
continuos
Present
perfect
simple
Present
perfect
continuos
Past Perfect
simple

(would)
Past
continuous
Past perfect
continuous
Past perfect
simple

Past perfect
continuous

Past perfect
continuous

Past perfect
continuos

- Cambios en modales
ED
CAN
MAY
MUST
WILL

Past perfect
simple

- Cambios en otras palabras y expresiones


ED
EI

EI
COULD
MIGHT
MUST/HAD TO
WOULD

Now
Today
Yesterday
Last week
A month ago
Tomorrow
Next week
Here (aqu)
This/ these
(este/estos)

Then (luego)
That day
The previous day/ the day before
The previous week/ the week
before
The previous month / the month
before
The following day/ the day after/
the next day
The following week/ the week after
There (all)
That/ those (aquel/ aquellos)

9. Antonyms (oposites) & synonyms


- Antonyms list
Words
Opposites
A
about
exactly
above
below
absence
presence

Words
cold (adj)
cold (noun)
to come
comedy

abundance
to accept
accidental
active
to add

lack
to refuse
intentional
lazy
to subtract

complicated
compliment
compulsory
to connect
consonant

to admit
adult
advanced
affirmative
afraid
after
against
alike

to deny
child
elementary
negative
brave
before
for
different

constant
construction
to continue
cool
correct
courage
courageous
cowardly

alive
all

dead
none

to create
cruel

always
ancient
to agree

to cry
to cry
curly

to allow
already
always

never
modern
to refuse, to
argue
to forbid
not yet
never

amateur
to amuse
angel
animal
to annoy

professional
to bore
devil
human
to satisfy

dangerous
dark
daughter
dawn
day

to repair
security,
safety
safe
light
son
dusk
night

to answer
answer
antonym

to ask
question
synonym

deep
defeat
delicious

shallow
victory
awful

D
to damage
danger

Opposites
hot
heat
to go
drama,
tragedy
simple
insult
voluntary
to separate
vowel

Words
to find
to finish
finish
first

Opposites
to lose
to begin
start
final, last

to fix
flat
floor
to follow
to forbid

changeable
destruction
to interrupt
warm
false, wrong
fear
cowardly
brave,
courageous
to destroy
human, kind
humane
to whisper
to laugh
straight

for
foreground
foreign
foreigner
to forget
to form
fortune
forward

to break
hilly
ceiling
to lead
to allow, to let, to
permit
against
background
domestic
native
to remember
to destroy
bad luck
backward

to free
to freeze

to arrest
to melt

frequently
friend
front

occasionally
enemy
rear

in front of
full
funny

back, behind
empty
serious

future
G
general
generous
gentle

past, present

gentleman
girl
to give

particular, special
mean
violent, rough,
strict
lady
boy
to take

apart
approximatel
y
to argue
to arrest
arrival

to arrive
artificial
to ask
asleep
to attack
attack
attic
autumn
awake
awful

B
back
background
backward
bad
bad luck
beauty
before
to begin
beginning
behind
below
best
better
beautiful
big
birth
bitter
black
blunt
body
to bore

boring
to borrow

together
exactly

to deny
to depart

to admit
to arrive

to go
good

to come, to stop
bad

to agree
to free, to set
free
departure

departure
desperate

arrival
hopeful

godfather
grown-up

godmother
child

to destroy

guest

host

to depart, to
leave
natural
to answer
awake
to defend

destruction

to build, to
create, to
form
construction

guilty

innocent

H
happiness
happy
handsome

sadness
sad
ugly

defense,
protection
cellar
spring

difficult

angel
democracy
to live
alike, equal,
the same
easy

hard

easy, soft

dirty
disease

clean
health

to harvest
to hate

asleep
delicious,
nice,
pleasant

distant
to divide

near
to unite

health
healthy

to plant
to enjoy, to like, to
love
disease, illness
ill, sick

division
to divorce
divorce

heat
heaven
heavy

cold
hell
light

hell
here
high

heaven
there
deep

devil
dictatorship
to die
different

forward
good
fortune, good
luck
ugliness
after
to end, to
finish
end, ending

divorced
domestic
down

unity
to marry
marriage,
wedding
married
foreign
up

downstairs
drama
dry

upstairs
comedy
humid, wet

high
hilly
to hit

low
flat
to miss

dull

interesting

hopeful

in front of
above
worst
worse
ugly
small
death
sweet
white
sharp
soul
to amuse, to
be interested
in
exciting,
interesting
to lend

dusk
E
early
east
easy
elementary
to emigrate
emigration
empty
to end
end
ending

dawn
late
west
difficult, hard
advanced
to immigrate
immigration
full
to begin
beginning
beginning

hopeless
horizontal
host
hot
huge
human
humane
humid
hungry
husband
I
in front of

desperate,
hopeless
hopeful
vertical
guest, visitor
cold
tiny
animal
cruel
dry
thirsty
wife

enemy

friend

to ignore

to notice

to enjoy

to hate

ill

healthy, well

in front of
foreground

back, behind

bottom
boy
brave
to break
broad
brother
to build
busy
to buy
C
calm
careful
careless
to catch
ceiling
cellar
center
certainly
changeable
cheap
child
children
clean
clever
to close
closed
cloudy

Words
L
lack
lady
to land
land
large
last
late
to laugh
lazy
to lead
to learn
to leave
left
to lend
less
to let

top
girl
cowardly,
afraid
to mend, to
fix
narrow
sister
to destroy
lazy

to enter
entrance
equal

to leave
exit
different

to immigrate
immigration
import

to emigrate
emigration
export

even

odd

in

out

evening
everybody
everything
exactly

to include
to increase
innocent
inside

to exclude
to reduce
guilty
outside

to sell

excited
exciting
to exclude
exit
expensive
export

morning
nobody
nothing
approximatel
y
calm
boring
to include
entrance
cheap
import

insult
intelligent
intentional
interested
interesting
to interrupt

compliment
silly, stupid
accidental
bored
boring, dull
to continue

exposure
extreme
F

shelter
moderate

J
to jeopardize
jolly

to secure
unhappy

to fail

junior

senior

failure
false
far

to succeed,
to pass
success
correct, true
near

K
keen
kind

uninterested
cruel, nasty

fast
fat
fear
female
few
final

slow
slim, thin
courage
male
many
first

excited
careless
careful
to miss, to
throw
floor
attic
outskirts,
suburb
probably
constant
expensive
adult, grownup
parents
dirty
stupid
to open
open
clear, sunny,
bright
Opposites
abundance,
plenty
gentleman
to take off
water
small
first
early
to cry
active, busy
to follow
to teach
to arrive, to
enter
right
to borrow
more
to forbid

Words
outside
outskirts

Opposites
inside
center

Words
south
special

Opposites
north
general, ordinary

over
P
parents
part
partial
particular
to pass
past

under

spring
to stand
to start
start
to stop
to stand
strange
strict

autumn
to sit
to stop
finish, end, stop
to start, to go
to lie
normal
tolerant, indulgent

strong
student
stupid

weak
teacher
clever, intelligent

suburb
to succeed
success
to subtract

center
to fail
failure
to add

peace
to permit
to plant

children
whole
total
general
to fail
future,
present
war
to forbid
to harvest

plenty
pleasant
polite
poor

lack
awful
rude, impolite
rich, wealthy

to lie
life
light
to like
liquid
little
little
to live
long
to lose
loser
loud
to love
lovely
low
to lower
M
major
male
man
many
marriage
married

to stand
death
dark, heavy
to hate
solid
big, large
much
to die
short
to find, to win
winner
quiet
to hate
terrible
high
to raise

poverty
powerful
presence
present
pretty
private
probably
professional
to protect
protection
public
to pull
pupil
to push
Q
question
quick
quiet
R
to raise
rainy
rear
to receive

wealth
weak
absence
past, future
ugly
public
certainly
amateur
to attack
attack
private
to push
teacher
to pull

to reduce
to refuse

answer
slow
loud, noisy

sugar
summer
sun
sunny
supporter
to suspect
sweet
synonym
T
to take
to take off
tall
to teach
teacher
thankful
terrible
there
then
thin
to throw
tight
tiny
together

salt
winter
moon
cloudy, rainy
opponent
to trust
bitter, sour
antonym

tomorrow
top

yesterday
bottom

total
town
tragedy
trivial
true
to trust

partial
village
comedy
important
false
to suspect

to give
to land
small, short
to learn
pupil, student
thankless
lovely
here
now
thick, fat
to catch
loose
huge
apart

to marry
master

minor
female
woman
few, some
divorce
divorced,
single
to divorce
servant

maximum
mean
to melt
men
to mend
mess

minimum
generous
to freeze
women
to break
order

regret
to remember
to repair
to reply
reply
republic

midnight
minimum
minor

noon
maximum
major

to rest
rich
right

to increase
to agree, to
accept
satisfaction
to forget
to damage
to ask
question
dictatorship,
monarchy
to work
poor
left, wrong

to miss

to rise

to sink

under

moderate

to hit, to
catch
extreme

rough

to unite

modern
monarchy
moon

ancient, old
republic
sun

rude
rural
S

gentle,
smooth, soft
polite
urban

more
morning
mountain
much
N
narrow

less
evening
valley
little

sad
sadness
safe
safety
same, similar
satisfaction

urban
urgent
useless
V
vacant
valley

rural
leisurely
useful

nasty

nice,
pleasant
foreigner,
stranger

happy
happiness
dangerous
danger
different
dissatisfactio
n
to dissatisfy

vertical

horizontal

to spend, to
waste

victory

defeat

native

broad, wide

to satisfy
to save

to lower
sunny
front
to send

U
ugliness
ugly

unity
up
upstairs

beauty
beautiful,
handsome, pretty
over
to divide, to
separate
division
down
downstairs

occupied
mountain

natural
near
negative
nephew
never
new
nice
niece

artificial
distant, far
affirmative
niece
always
ancient, old
awful, nasty
nephew

to scream
security
seldom
to sell
to send
to sit
senior
to separate

village
violent
visitor
voluntary
vowel
W
war
warm

town
gentle
host
compulsory
consonant

serious
servant
to set free
shallow
sharp
shelter
short
to shout
to shut
sick
silent
silly, stupid
simple
to sink
single
sister
slim
slow

to whisper
danger
often
to buy
to receive
to stand
junior
to connect, to
unite
funny
master
to arrest
deep
blunt
exposure
long, tall
to whisper
to open
healthy
noisy
intelligent
complicated
to rise
married
brother
fat
fast, quick

night
no
nobody
noisy
noon
none of
normal
north
not yet
nothing
to notice
now
O
occasionally
occupied
odd
off
often

day
yes
everybody
quiet, silent
midnight
all of
strange
south
already
everything
to ignore
then

to waste
water
weak
wealth
wealthy
wedding
well
west
wet
to whisper
white
whole
wide
wife
to win
winner
winter
to work

to save
land
powerful, strong
poverty
poor
divorce
ill
east
dry
to scream, to shout
black
part
narrow
husband
to lose
loser
summer
to rest

small

big, large, tall

woman

man

smooth
soft

rough
hard, rough

women
worse

men
better

solid
somber

worst
wrong

best
correct, right

yes
yesterday
young

open
opponent

frequently
vacant
even
on
seldom,
sometimes
modern, new,
young
off
to close, to
shut
closed, shut
supporter

order

mess

some

liquid
colorful,
cheerful
many

ordinary
other
out

special
same
in

son
soul
sour

daughter
body
sweet

old
on
to open

- Antonyms of adjetives
Adjectives
alive
beautiful
big
bitter
cheap
clean
curly
difficult
good
early
fat
full
hot

Opposites
dead
ugly
small
sweet
expensive
dirty
straight
easy
bad
late
thin
empty
cold

peace
cool

Y
no
tomorrow
old

happy
hardworkin
g
modern
new
nice
intelligent
interesting
light
polite
poor
quiet
right
safe
short
small
soft
single
true
well
white

sad/unhapp
y
lazy
traditional
old
nasty
stupid
boring
heavy
rude/impolit
e
rich
noisy
wrong
dangerous
long
big
hard
married
false
ill/unwell
black

- Synonyms
Adjective
s
big
blank
broad
center
cunning
dangerous
eatable
false
fertile
gay
glad
hard
high
huge
intelligent
lazy
little
loving
loyal
mad
new
nice
noisy
old
oral
polite
poor
quick
rare
ready

Synonyms
large
empty
wide
middle
clever
risky
edible
untrue
fruitful
cheerful
happy
difficult
tall
enormous
clever
indolent
small
fond
faithful
crazy
modern
kind
rowdy
ancient
verbal
courteous
destitute
rapid/fast
scarce
alert

real
rich
rude
sad
safe
sleepy
slim
thin
usual
vacant
weak
well-known

genuine
wealthy
impolite
unhappy
secure
drowsy
slender
lean
normal
empty
feeble
famous

10. Infinitive of purpose (infinitivo de finalidad)


Ejemplo: Hes going to Italy to study Italian.
Se usa el infinitivo para expresar el propsito de la primera accin en espaol, estas frases se traducen
con la preposicin para: Se va a Italia para aprender italiano, etc. Muchas veces, para se traduce por
for pero en este caso no. Bsicamente, aprender italiano es la finalidad del viaje, as que usamos to +
infinitivo.

11. Indefinitive pronouns


No se refieren a cosas, lugares, ni a cantidad, por eso se llaman indefinidos.
En singular siempre llevan el verbo en singular: Somebody is at the door. (Alguien est en la
puerta); Everybody loves chocolate. (A todo el mundo le encanta el chocolate).
Pronombres indefinidos compuestos con some, any, y no en frases afirmativas,
negativas y interrogativas son los mismos de los usos de some y any. Some para
frases afirmativas e interrogativas; any y sus compuestos con frases negativas e
interrogativas; y no y sus compuestos se usan solo con frases negativas. There is
something on the floor. (Hay algo en el suelo); There isnt anybody home. (No hay nadie en casa.);
Is there anything I can do to help? (Hay algo que pueda hacer para ayudarte?)
Cuando nos referimos a un pronombre indefinido, normalmente utilizamos un pronombre
plural: Everyone is here already. They have been waiting for you (Todo el mundo ya est aqu .
Han estado esperando por ti.); Somebody left their jacket. Its so cold outside,Im sure they will be
beack for it son (alguien ha dejado su chaqueta. Hace bastante fro, estoy seguro que regresar
pronto))
Podemos utilizar el genitivo sajn con pronombres indefinidos de personas y cosas para
indicar posesin: Is this anyones seat? (Hay alguien sentado en este asiento?)
All (sing/plural)
Another (singular)
Any (sing/plural)
Anybody/ anyone
(singular)
Anything (singular)
Anywhere (singular)
Both (plural)
Each (singular)
Either (singular)

Todo
Otro
Algn, ningn,
cualquier
Alguien, nadie,
cualquiera
Algo, nada,
cualquier
Cualquier lugar
Ambos/ los dos

Every (singular)

Cada, cada uno


Cualquiera (de
2)
Bastante,
suficiente
Cada, todos

Everybody/
everyone (singular)
Everything (singular)

Todos, todo el
mundo
Todo

Everywhere
(singular)
Few (plural)
Fewer (plural)

Todas partes

Less (singular)
Little (singular)
Many (plural)

Menos
Poco
Muchos

More (sing/plural)
Most (sing/plural)
Much (singular)
Neither (singular)

Ms
La mayora
Mucho
Ninguno de los
dos

Enough (singular)

Pocos, unos
Menos

You ate all the cokies (te has comido todas las galletas)
Another glass of wine please (otra copa de vino por favor)
Is there any milk? (Hay leche?
Is there anybody/ anyone home? (Hay alguien en casa?)
Its so dark, i cant see anything (Est muy oscuro no puedo
ver nada)
We can go anywhere you want (Podemos ir donde quieras)
Both of my children speak French (Mis 2 hijos hablan
francs)
Each of them is different (Cada cual es diferente)
Im happy to see either movie (me da igual ver cualquier
pelcula)
There is never enought time (nunca hay tiempo suficiente)
Every student failed the exam (todos los estudiantes
suspendieron el examen)
Is everybody/everyone here? (Est todo el mundo aqu)
Hows everything? Everything is fine (Qu tal va todo?
Everything is fine)
The wter spilled everywhere (El agua se derram por todas
partes)
He has few Friends (el tiene pocos amigos)
There are fewer students this year (hay menos alumnos este
ao)
There is less work this year (hay menos trabajo este ao)
There is Little to do here (hay poco que hacer aqu)
She has many books to read (ella tiene muchos libros para
leer)
There is more work this year (Hay ms trabajo este ao)
It rains most of time here (llueve la mayora del tiempo aqu)
We dont have much money (no tenemos mucho dinero)
Neither of us speaks spanish (cualquiera de nosotros habla
espaol)

Nobody/ no one
(singular)
None (sing/plural)

Nadie

Nobody/ no one was is class today (nadie fue a clase hoy)

Ningn, nada

Nothing (singular)
Nowhere (singular)
One (singular)

Nada
Ningn lugar
Un, uno

Other (singular)

Otro

Others (plural)

Otros

Several (plural)

Varios

Some (sing/plural)

Algn, algo de

Somebody/
someone (singular)
Something (singular)
Somewhere
(singular)
Such (sing/plural)
They (plural)
You (singular)

Alguien

None of the children wanted to answer the cuestin (ninguno


de los nios quiso responder a las preguntas)
There is nothing in the fridge (no hay nada en el nevera)
He hasnt nowhere to stay (No tiene donde quedarse)
One never knows what the future will bring (Uno nunca sabe
lo que el futuro le traera)
The other class has more students (la otra clase tiene ms
estudiantes)
The others are going to the concert tonight (Los otros van al
concierto esta noche)
The are several movies playing (estn poniendo varias
pelculas)
The are some dogs in the park (Hay algunos perros en el
parque)
Somebody/someone is in the bathroom (Alguien est en el
bao)
I have something in my eye (tengo algo en el ojo)
Right now it is raining somewhere (Ahora mismo est
lloviendo en algn lugar)
He is such a nice man (Es un hombre tan amable)

Algo
Algn lugar
Tal, tan
Ellos
Tu

You never know (nunca se sabe)

12. Unless/ if/ CONDITIONALS


En el condicional una accin depende de otra. If (si) /unless (a menos que, si no= if not). Hay 4 tipos:
ZERO
La condicin y el resultado siempre son verdad (ej. Hechos cientficos)
CONDITIONAL
if (when) + CONDITION (present simple) + RESULT (present simple)
(Tipo 0)
If you heat water to 100C, it boils

I play the piano poorly if I dont practise every day (if I dont pracise every day,
I play the piano poorly
FIRST
CONDITIONAL
(Tipo 1)

Se utiliza para el futuro y en los casos en los que es muy probable que pasar
if + CONDITION (present simple) + RESULT (future simple (will))
If Bill studie, he will pass the exam; Bill pass the exam if he studies
Tambin se puede hacer con algunos verbos modales:
If it doesnt rain, we may go to the beach (puede que s, puede que no)
If it doesnt rain, we should go to the beach (deberamos, expreso opinin)
If it doesnt rain, we can go to the beach (es posible, no indica probabilidad)
Unless = if not (You will be sick if you dont stop eating youll be sick unless
you stop eating

SECOND
CONDITIONAL
(Tipo 2)

Posibilidad irreal en el presente, como deseo o sueo, una accin en el


futuro
if + CONDITION (past simple) + RESULT (would + infinitive)
I won the lotery, I would travel around the world
Would you be happy if you were to get married?
Tambin se puede hacer con algunos verbos modales.
Unless = if not (If he wasnt very ill, he would be at work Unless he was very
ill, he would be at work)

THIRD
CONDITIONAL
(Tipo 3)

Condicin en el pasado que no ha sucedido (tambin con modales)


if + CONDITION (past simple) + RESULT (would have + participle)
I had known then I what I know now, I would have done things differently
(Si hubiese sabido lo q s ahora, hubiera hecho las cosas de manera diferente)
Tambin se puede hacer con algunos verbos modales.
Unless = if not (I wouldnt have planed him if you hadnt suggested it I wouldn
t have phoned him unless youd suggest it

13. What about + -ing / Shall we/I + infinitive? (ambas son similares en significado, e indican sugerencia)
1) WHAT ABOUT/HOW ABOUT ...+ Base form + -ING
What about going to the cinema tonight?- Qu tal si vamos al cine hoy?
What about watching a film? (Vemos una peli?)
*Recuerda que despus de 'how about' o 'what about' debe ir un verbo en -ing.

2) WHY + NEGACIN + sujeto + verbo (forma base) expresin 'why (not)' que significa 'Por qu
no...?'
Why don't we go to the swimming pool tomorrow?(Por qu no vamos a la piscina maana?)
Why dont we go to the cinema tonight? (Por qu no vamos al cine esta noche? )
3) IMPERATIVE: Let's + verbo (forma base)
Let's go to the restaurant now! (Vamos al restaurante ahora)
Let's go to the cinema tonight.- (Vamos al cine esta noche.)
4) COULD + verbo (forma base/infinitivo)
We could visit Paris next week.(Podriamos visitar Paris la prxima semana)
We could go to the cinema tonight- (Podramos ir al cine esta noche)
Otras formas de expresar sugerencias:
-'suggest'(sugerir), 'recommend'(recomendar), etc.
I suggest/ recommend we go to the cinema tonight. Sugiero que vayamos al cine esta noche.
Oracin interrogativa con "Shall" + SUJETO + VERBO EN INFINITIVO:
Shall we go to the cinema?(Vamos al cine?)
Shall we go to the park?(Vamos al parque?)

14. During/ while


- During (durante): es una preposicin y SIEMPRE va seguida de un nombre. Indica el momento durante
el cual se desarrolla una accin y no la duraccin de sta.

- While (mientras): es un conector y siempre va seguido de una oracin subordinada. Indica,


1) Que dos o ms acciones ocurren al mismo tiempo:
- Set the table while I prepare lunch. - Pon la mesa mientras yo preparo la comida.
2) Expresa oposicin entre dos acciones:
- I have cleaned all the house alone, while yo have done nothing. - Yo he limpiado toda la
casa, mientras que t no has hecho nada.

15. Negative infinitives


La forma negativa del infinitivo se construye aadiendo la partcula "not" delante del infinitivo, con o sin
"to".
Not (to) + verb. Ej.: I decided not to go to London

16. Other types of transformation


- To take x time to / to spend x time ing
It took Leonardo 5 years to paint the Mona Lisa (le llev 5 aos pintar la Monalisa)
Leonardo spend 5 years painting the Mona Lisa (Emple 5 aos pintando)

- You should/ if I were you (to advice)


I think you should go to the doctor
If I were you, I would go to the doctor