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STANDARD SPECIFICATION

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UOP LLC 25 East Algonquin Road Des Plaines, Illinois 60017-5017 USA

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27DEC02

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EXTERNAL LOW TEMPERATURE INSULATION

1.

Page 1

GENERAL
1.1

Scope
a. This Standard Specification covers the general requirements for external insulation
applied to equipment and piping operating from -325F (-200C) to 70F (20C) and
subject to short term steamout conditions. Selection of the insulation system and its
attachment method shall be the responsibility of the Owner/Contractor consistent with
the requirements of UOP Project Specifications.
b. Insulation is used to perform the following tasks:
Personnel protection.
Heat gain control.
Control of surface condensation or frost built-up.
Noise reduction.
c. Exceptions or variations shown in the UOP Project Specifications take precedence over
the requirements shown herein.

1.2

References
Unless noted below, use the edition and addenda of each referenced document current on the
date of this Standard Specification.
a. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM):

Form QUA-03-3

(1)

A 240/ Standard Specification for Heat-Resisting Chromium and


A240M Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure
Vessels.

(2)

B 209/ Standard Specification for Aluminum and


B 209M Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate.

(3)

C 150

Standard Specification for Portland Cement

(4)

C 168

Standard Terminology Relating to Thermal Insulating Materials.

(5)

C 450

Standard Practice for Prefabrication and Field Fabrication of Thermal


Insulating Fitting Covers for NPS Piping, Vessel Lagging, and Dished
Head Segments.

(6)

C 552

Standard Specification for Cellular Glass Thermal Insulation.

(7)

C 553

Standard Specification for Mineral Fiber Blanket Thermal Insulation for


Commercial and Industrial Applications.

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STANDARD SPECIFICATION

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UOP LLC 25 East Algonquin Road Des Plaines, Illinois 60017-5017 USA

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(8)

C 585

Standard Practice for Inner and Outer Diameters of Rigid Thermal


Insulation for Nominal Sizes of Pipe and Tubing (NPS System).

(9)

C 647

Standard Guide to Properties and Tests of Mastics


and Coating Finishes for Thermal Insulation.

(10) C 795

Standard Specification for Thermal Insulation for use in Contact with


Austenitic Stainless Steel.

(11) C 921

Standard Practice for Determining the Properties of Jacketing Materials


for Thermal Insulation.

(12) C 929

Standard Practice for Handling, Transporting, Shipping, Storage,


Receiving, and Application of Thermal Insulation Materials for Use in
Contact with Austenitic Stainless Steel.

(13) C 930

Standard Classification of Potential Health and Safety Concerns


Associated with Thermal Insulation Materials and Accessories.

(14) C 1094

Standard Guide for Flexible Removable Insulation Covers.

(15) E 84

Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials.

b. National, state, and local laws and codes.


1.3

Definitions
Terms pertaining to insulation systems used in UOP Specifications shall be defined in
accordance with ASTM C 168.

2.

DESIGN
2.1

Personnel Protection
a. Personnel protection shall be provided on portions of equipment or piping 7 feet
(2100mm) or less above grade, platforms, or walkways and within 3 feet (900mm)
horizontally of handrails, platforms, or walkways adjacent to paths traveled by personnel.
b. Equipment and piping with a bare metal temperature below 32F (0C) and that do not
require insulation for heat gain control, surface condensation, or frost built-up, shall be
provided with personnel protection.
c. The outer surface temperature of insulation system(s) within the envelope defined in
Section 2.1 a, shall not be below 32F (0C).
d. Where personnel protection is required, but insulation is not permitted or provided,
protection shall consist of barriers, shields or open guards at least 3 inches (75 mm) from
the cold surface.

Form QUA-03-3

Revision
Indication

STANDARD SPECIFICATION

uop
UOP LLC 25 East Algonquin Road Des Plaines, Illinois 60017-5017 USA

EXTERNAL LOW TEMPERATURE INSULATION

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Heat Gain Control


Heat gain through insulation with weatherproofing shall be less than 10 BTU/ft2h
[(31W/m2) (26Kcal/m2 h)].

2.3

Control of Surface Condensation or Frost Build-Up


a. Equipment and piping with an operating temperature less than or equal to 32F (0C),
which does not require insulation for heat gain control or personnel protection, may
require insulation where condensation and frost built-up may contribute to weight gain,
dripping, or corrosion.
b. Equipment and piping with an operating temperature greater than 32F (0C), which
does not require insulation for heat gain control or personnel protection, may require
insulation where condensed moisture may contribute to corrosion, equipment damage, or
create a hazard.

2.4

Insulating Temperature
a. Equipment
(1)

Equipment shall be insulated for the lowest operating temperature listed in the
UOP Project Specifications. For compressors and exchangers, use the lower of the
inlet or outlet temperature.

(2)

Equipment which becomes cold only intermittently, such as during start-up or


pump out, need not be insulated.

b. Piping
(1)

Piping shall be insulated for the lowest operating temperature of equipment, which
it serves. The temperatures are listed in the UOP Project Specifications.

(2)

Piping which becomes cold only intermittently, such as pump-out, drain, or start-up
lines, need not be insulated.

c. Steamout Condition

The design of thermal insulation system(s) subjected to steamout shall take into
account the greater of the steamout temperature or 250F (120C) for a period of
24 hours.
2.5

Form QUA-03-3

Extent of Insulation
a.

Equipment and piping requiring insulation for process reasons is indicated on the UOP
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs).

b.

Systems shall be fully insulated, including all piping, valves, fittings, flanges, nozzles,
equipment external stiffening rings, direct connected instruments, etc.

Revision
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EXTERNAL LOW TEMPERATURE INSULATION

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c.

Metal attachments protruding through the insulation, including vessel supports, branch
connections, instrument and thermowell connections, pipe supports, and hangers shall
be insulated for a distance of at least four times the adjacent insulation thickness.

d.

Manways and exchanger heads shall be insulated with easily removable and reusable
system(s).

e.

Piping and equipment insulation shall be continuous at all penetrations.

f.

Expansion joint bellows, ball joints, strainers, and valve packing glands shall be
insulated with mineral fiber insulation.

g.

Insulation shall be applied so that there is no interference with either the operation or
function of instruments, equipment, or valves. Gauges, dials, sightglasses, etc. shall
remain unobstructed and in clear view.

h.

External stiffening rings on vessels and piping shall be insulated with the same
thickness as required for vessels or piping. The entire stiffening ring shall be
maintained at the same temperature as the shell or piping.

i.

Insulation shall be applied behind the nameplate mounting bracket(s) but insulation
shall not cover the nameplate.

Insulation of Flanges
a. Flanges with spectacle blinds shall be provided with a flexible type removable and
reusable insulation system.
b. Provide adequate space for removal of flange bolting without damage to the surrounding
insulation. Void spaces are to be packed with mineral fiber insulation.
c. The design shall permit removal of the insulation system and flange bolting without
damage to the insulation.
d. Bolting materials shall be suitable for the insulated flange minimum operating
temperature, considering stress, strain, and creep.
e. For hydrocarbon and other hazardous services, a flange leak detection system shall be
provided. The use of sniffers shall be determined on a case by case basis consistent with
local laws and codes.
f. Insulation systems around flanged joints shall be provided with 1/2 inch (13 mm) drain
and vent tubes ("telltales"). The drains and vents shall be piped to a safe location.

2.7

Noise Reduction
Where noise reduction is needed, a composite system of a sound absorber and sound barrier
shall be utilized. For more effective treatment, multi-layers of the composite system shall be
used, resulting in a decoupled barrier system. Securement shall be by glass reinforcement
adhesive tap.

Form QUA-03-3

Revision
Indication

STANDARD SPECIFICATION

uop
UOP LLC 25 East Algonquin Road Des Plaines, Illinois 60017-5017 USA

EXTERNAL LOW TEMPERATURE INSULATION

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Weatherproofing
Weatherproofing shall cover all insulation.

3.

MATERIALS
3.1

Insulation
a. Insulation materials shall conform to the following:
(1)

Cellular glass thermal insulation in accordance with ASTM C 552.

(2)

Mineral fiber blanket thermal insulation in accordance with ASTM C 553.

b. Insulating materials, coatings, fabrics, sealants, flashing compounds, etc., shall be


asbestos-free, non-corrosive whether wet or dry, and suitable for application to the
substrate surface.
c. Thermal insulation and accessories to be used in contact with austenitic stainless steel
shall be in accordance with ASTM C 795.
d. Inner and outer diameters of rigid insulation for piping and tubing shall be in accordance
with ASTM C 585.
e. Insulation materials and vapor barriers for weatherproofing shall have a maximum flame
spread of 25 in accordance with ASTM E 84.
f. Mineral fiber insulation shall be used for expansion/contraction joints, inner filling
material for void spaces in the insulation system, e.g., at valves, flanged connections,
instrument connections, and confined spaces.
g. Joint sealers and flashing compounds shall be non-shrinking and permanently flexible.
h. Removable insulation covers shall be in accordance with ASTM C 1094.
i.
3.2

Jacket Weatherproofing
a.

Form QUA-03-3

Anti-abrasion compound shall be non-shrinking and quick drying.

General
(1)

Jacketing material shall be stainless steel or aluminum in accordance with ASTM


C 921.

(2)

Stainless steel jackets are required in areas subject to severe mechanical damage.

(3)

Jacketing shall be provided with a heat laminated factory-installed moisture


barrier.

Revision
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STANDARD SPECIFICATION

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UOP LLC 25 East Algonquin Road Des Plaines, Illinois 60017-5017 USA

EXTERNAL LOW TEMPERATURE INSULATION

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(4)

Jacketing for exposed heads of vessels and tanks shall be multi-segmented or single
piece tapered type installation fabricated from stucco embossed sheet. Edges shall
be overlapped with a bead of flexible joint sealant applied on the lap.

(5)

3/16 inch (5mm) pitch corrugated or crimped jacketing shall be used on piping
over 24 inches in diameter and horizontal vessels, exchangers, and equipment. Flat
or smooth jacketing may be used on piping through 24 inches in diameter, and on
equipment heads.

(6)

1- inch (32mm) pitch corrugated or crimped jacketing shall be used on vertical


vessels and storage tanks.

(7)

Circumferential corrugations shall be used for services subject to severe


mechanical damage.

(8)

Metal weatherproofing subject to corrosive environments shall be coated with a


material which resists the environment.

b. Jacketing materials shall conform to the following:

3.3

(1)

Stainless steel jacketing materials shall be in accordance with ASTM A 240/


A 240M, Type 304 or 316.

(2)

Aluminum jacketing materials shall be in accordance with


ASTM B209/B 209M, Type 3003-H14 or 5005-H14.

Mastics and Coating Finish Weatherproofing


a. Mastic and coating finish materials shall be in accordance with ASTM C 647.
b. Weatherproofing shall be a vapor-permeable type.
c. Weatherproofing shall be asbestos-free, non-corrosive whether wet or dry, and suitable
for application to the substrate surface.
d. Weatherproofing shall have a maximum flame spread of 25 in accordance with ASTM E
84.
e. Portland Cement shall be in accordance with ASTM C 150.
f. Reinforcement shall be plain open mesh glass or polyester fiber.

Form QUA-03-3

Revision
Indication

STANDARD SPECIFICATION

uop
UOP LLC 25 East Algonquin Road Des Plaines, Illinois 60017-5017 USA

EXTERNAL LOW TEMPERATURE INSULATION

4.

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APPLICATION
4.1

General
a. The insulation contractor shall have previous experience with the materials, insulation
systems, and installation procedures to be used.
b. Insulation and weatherproofing shall only be applied on dry and clean surfaces.
c. Weld seams, flanged and threaded connections, and telltale holes shall not be insulated
until pressure and leak testing, non-destructive examination, and heat treatment are
completed.
d. Valves, gauges, etc. shall be inspected, tested, and repaired prior to application of
insulation.
e. Prior to application of mastics, the instruments, gauges, metal weatherproofing, noninsulated items, etc. shall be protected from splatter, rebound, and overspray.
f. Working parts of valves and other mechanical equipment shall be protected when
insulation is applied.
g. Insulation systems for equipment and piping shall permit access to parts requiring
maintenance without damaging the insulation system.
h. In a multi-layer insulation system, a layer of anti-abrasion compound shall be applied on
the sliding surfaces between the layers of the insulation within the expansion/contraction
joints prior to installation of insulation. The compound shall be applied as a layer 2-3
mils thick on the contact faces of the insulation and permitted to dry before insulation
installation.
i.

Longitudinal butt joints in each layer of insulation shall be staggered.

j.

When applying multi-layer insulation, each succeeding layer shall be staggered relative
to the longitudinal and circumferential joints of the preceding layer.

k. The inner layers of multiple-layer insulation and insulation on irregular equipment


surfaces ( where use of bands and seals is impractical) shall be secured using stainless
steel wire. The wire shall be taut and embedded in the insulation. The ends shall be bent
over and embedded into the insulation.
l.

Insulation systems shall accommodate expansion and contraction of equipment and


piping.

m. The insulation system design shall account for the effect of freeze-thaw cycles.
4.2

Insulation
a. Materials shall be kept dry. Insulation showing any evidence of moisture exposure shall
not be used.

Form QUA-03-3

Revision
Indication

STANDARD SPECIFICATION

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UOP LLC 25 East Algonquin Road Des Plaines, Illinois 60017-5017 USA

EXTERNAL LOW TEMPERATURE INSULATION

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b. Exposed insulation shall be protected against moisture until the weatherproofing is


installed. Insulation shall be covered with the weatherproofing on the same day the
insulation is installed. At the end of the days work exposed ends shall be temporarily
protected with mastic weatherproofing.
c. Insulation shall conform to the contour of the item to be insulated. Before applying
weatherproofing, insulation shall be inspected for open joints, voids, cracks, and
defacing. Open joints, voids, and cracks require insulation removal, replacement, and
resealing. Defaced insulation shall be filled with sealing compound.
d. A single layer of insulation shall be used up to 3 inches (75mm) thick. Over 3 inches
(75mm), the insulation may be applied in single or multiple layers. Minimum insulation
thickness shall be 1 1/2 inch (40 mm).
e. The upper 2 feet (600mm) of skirts, lugs, and legs supporting vertical vessels shall be
insulated.
f.
4.3

Saddle supports shall be insulated for a distance of at least 2 feet (600mm) from the
bottom of the shell.

Metal Weatherproofing
a. Jacketing shall be installed weather-tight, exposed edges of insulation shall not be
permitted. Insulation openings such as for tracers, instrument connections, hangers,
valve glands, etc. shall be flashed weather-tight. Lap joints of jacketing shall be arranged
so that the overlaps shed water. On horizontal installations, the longitudinal lap shall be
approximately 45 from the bottom.
b. Jacketing shall be installed with a minimum lap of 3 inches (75mm) for circumferential
joints and the greater of 3 inches (75mm) or two corrugations for longitudinal joints.
Jacketing shall overlap mastic weatherproofing coatings by a minimum of 3 inches
(75mm). Each layer shall be filled with a sealer.
c. Jacketing for vertical piping and equipment shall be installed starting at the bottom and
working upward. Corrugated sheets shall be applied with the corrugations positioned
vertically and supported at the horizontal joints by components fabricated from stainless
steel. Vertical joints shall be staggered between courses.
d. Jacketing shall be secured with stainless steel bands. Bands shall cover seams between
sections of jacketing. Breather springs shall be used where required for expansion and
contraction.

4.4

Mastic Weatherproofing
a. For valves, fittings, and other irregular surfaces, mastic coating with reinforcing fabric
may serve as the weatherproofing. In abused areas metal jacket weatherproofing shall be
provided.
b. Spheres, tanks, pumps, and compressors shall be weatherproofed with reinforcing fabric
and mastic weatherproofing.

Form QUA-03-3

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STANDARD SPECIFICATION

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UOP LLC 25 East Algonquin Road Des Plaines, Illinois 60017-5017 USA

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c. Mastic weatherproofing shall be used as flashing at all possible sources of moisture


penetration. Mastic shall be applied to all corners and crevices where water is likely to
collect.
d. Mastic weatherproofing shall contain reinforcing material.
4.5

Handling, Transporting, Cutting, and Fitting of Insulation


a. Health and safety concerns associated with thermal insulation materials, accessories, and
their application shall be evaluated in accordance with ASTM C 930.
b. Handling, transporting, and application of thermal insulation materials and accessories
for use in contact with austenitic stainless steel shall be in accordance with ASTM C 929.
c. Cutting and fitting of insulation shall be in accordance with ASTM C 450.

Form QUA-03-3