Está en la página 1de 18

1

ADVENTIST UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

LEGALIZATION OF MARIJUANA:
A CONVERGENCE OF U.S. AND PHILIPPINES STAND

A Term Paper
Presented to Faculty of College of Science and Technology
Adventist University of the Philippines
Puting Kahoy, Silang, Cavite

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE

By
WILLAND ACE CARLO T. MANALO

2016

Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo

should be utilized on a case-by-case basis following strict regulations by the federal government. Positive medical uses of marijuana suggest that it could be useful. medical studies have been used to show that while medical marijuana is both addictive and can pose some risks to the immune system. Other authors. nausea. on the whole. ProCon (2009) offered evidence that numerous medical professionals support using medical marijuana in specific cases because it would be a more effective form of treatment. is at the forefront of both cultural and medical discourse.2 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Medical Marijuana. a highly controversial issue in today’s society. Despite restrictions against the use of the illicit drug. roughly many people have tried it at least once in their lives. albeit some states have been able to bypass this. there are also positive implications within regard to alternative forms of treatment. mainly Peter (2000) and Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . However. consider buying a sample research paper from us that would include in depth research and a strong argument. despite studies that support this. the case study of O’Brien et al (2002) epitomizes an anecdote where marijuana has been the only form of treatment to resolve psychotic behavior among youths. pain and other ailments. Medical marijuana has been shown to reduce psychotic behavior. We have talented writers who are well versed in the topic and know what to do. For instance. Moreover. Moreover. the government in different part of the world has been apprehensive in approving the drug for retail use. Medical marijuana. Before writing a paper on such a topic.

Therefore. Therefore. Because of the addictive and regulatory nature of marijuana.3 Peterson (1979) suggest that marijuana can be effective in certain cases. However. Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . Grinspoon (1997) argued that there were neurological bases for addiction to THC. it should nonetheless be closely monitored. there should be strict regulations and rules regarding the use of it. some evidence does suggest that medical marijuana may be an appropriate and effective form of treatment of illnesses and ailments that cannot be treated by other medicine. as Sydney (1997) pointed out. instead. These studies and others support the notion that medical marijuana should not be prescribed freely. misuse and abuse should be carefully monitored. On a broader level. users are susceptible to addiction. The only way this can take place is even further documentation and government regulation regarding restriction. Marijuana use may have unintended sociological consequences by promoting drug use. proper training of medical professionals and more empirical studies to determine which cases should be considered for treatment. Moreover. there may be some added risks to the development of cancer. However. Since the drug affected dopamine levels in certain areas of the brain. Shafer (1971) and Redda (2000) suggest that there may be other implications that are socially related as well. tight government regulation should exist. because this treatment is not appropriate for all patients.

attributing it with what he called the degenerate races. According to Guither (2012). They challenged him in court. Up until this point the medical community had been using marijuana for special treatments and were astonished by the bold claims being made by Anslinger. stating he was falsifying Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . Even the Chinese emperor Shen-Nung was known to prescribe it as medicine to many people almost 5 millennia ago (Bostwick. His initial role was to crack down on the use of opiates and cocaine but he feared that these two drugs were not enough to make his career.4 CHAPTER II DISCUSSION U. In 1937 the Marijuana Tax Act was proposed and called for taxes to be placed on any products that had traces of marijuana. At the time. Anslinger wanted to create a problem where there initially was none regardless of its medical value. marijuana has been a crucial influence on some modern day medical treatments.S. it wasn't until 1930 when a man named Harry J. and the Greeks who found a way to remedy earaches with the plants properties (Webley. Therefore. 2010). America was still heavily racist and Anslinger used this to his advantage tying jazz music and other forms of entertainment to the corruption of America's youth. 2012). Some of the more notable civilizations who used the plant include the Egyptians who used it to treat sore eyes.C. Anslinger was given the position of Director of Narcotics did marijuana become an issue in American society.A. He introduced marijuana into his campaign. it can be argued that historically. Many ancient civilizations have been unearthed and found to have used marijuana in medical practices dating all the way back to 8000 B. the Indians who mixed marijuana and milk to create a primitive anesthetic.

and synthetic compounds. However. The term is given to drugs that have a high risk for potential abuse and have no medical value associated with them. Phytocannabinoids. treat. or prevention of disease in man or other animals.and articles(other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or any other animal. mitigation. Endocannabinoids deal with the effects of the plant on neurotransmitters. Endocannabinoids. As a result. drugs are “articles intended for use in the diagnosis. In 1970 the Controlled Substances Act classified marijuana as a schedule I drug. To the FDA. However. Food and Drug Administration. there is definitive proof from before marijuana was illegal that the plant can hold many medical properties. or prevent diseases. This meant that marijuana was now being compared to drugs such as opiates and hallucinogens. Bostwick (2012) tacled very recently though there have been many states that have actually legalized medical marijuana. the most medically relevant form is the Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo .”(Cohen. and have seen first-hand the positive effects it can have on the community. While not all schedule I drugs adhere to this. the FDA is acknowledging that marijuana is a drug as it affects the function of man. 2009). the FDA. while synthetic compounds are laboratory made compounds that resemble the chemical structure of the plant and act very similarly to the natural. is actually the organization that regulates what is considered a drug for medical use. Therefore. The term medical marijuana can actually refer to three different forms the plant can be found. Anslinger was able to create anti-marijuana propaganda for the rest of his career as the Director of Narcotics. treatment. Unfortunately. and their definition of a drug is vastly different. cure. but they are also acknowledging that it has the potential to cure.5 information and that marijuana was safe to use medically. Anslinger had already won over most of the public with his racist ideals and ultimately won in court over the medical community.

Therefore. 2009).S. “all approved medications use in legitimate practice of medicine are associated with adverse effects. there are safer. Some of these effects when used medically have been known to help people who suffer from chronic pain in joints and bones. the plant would be taken in small doses and only as needed. relaxation. While the cannabidiol. Medicinally. but the route of administration. and the intensification of ordinary experiences. The most common form of administration is smoking the plant and inhaling the smoke into the lungs which is big cause of respiratory illnesses (Earleywin. While there is no definitive proof that marijuana smoke causes lung cancer. In some cases such as terminal cancers it can be justified. less Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . marijuana abuse is associated with daily usage more than once a day and more than is needed. As a result. Many people believe that the plant is not the problem. THC stands for Tetrahydrocannabinol and is directly linked with the psychoactive effects of the cannabis plant. and actually believes it can be of huge help in the treatment of many U. Thus. cigarette smoke is known to be a leading cause. but for use in chronic pain it just does not seem like a good tradeoff. perceptual alterations(time distortion).6 Phytocannabinoid.whereas. which contains THC and cannabidiol. 2010). You are essentially trading one ailment for another ailment.”(Cohen. many people don't see the sense in smoking a substance to treat a sickness as it is not really an efficient form of medical treatment. many people are under the assumption that smoking marijuana can cause lung cancer. the medical community is actually backing the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes. Common effects that can be observed from exposure to THC are mild euphoria. Luckily.there is no a priori reason why marijuana should be different. In order for the effects of the THC to be felt the plant needs to be heated up and exposed to the body. is linked to the sedative effects. The argument the medical community is stating is that. citizens thanks to its chemical properties. or CBD for short.

A medical problem that has long baffled scientists to this day is a disease known as cancer and the lack of options available when treating patients. scientists released an article detailing how marijuana can actually stop metastasis in aggressive cancers and actually return the cells back to their original states. Thus.7 controversial forms of administration. prevalent in many aggressive cancers. Recently however. scientists have been able to use marijuana to fight many aggressive cancers that show up in humans. The fact Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . 2012). a non-toxic and non-psychoactive chemical compound found in marijuana. It allows for more absorption of THC into the body as it is just pure THC being brought into the body. if a patient were to be administered marijuana via vaporization they would feel all the positive effects without the potential for respiratory problems to form as a result of the treatment. In September of 2012. The act of vaporization allows for the plant to be heated up to the desired temperature without its smoky bi-product. Scientists have found that CBD. it is much healthier for the body. Since it is a non-psychoactive component the patient does not experience the feelings associated with being high (Wilkey. The disease multiplies and multiplies until it essentially shuts down or blocks many vital parts of the body that are needed to survive. where vaporization is quickly becoming the preferred method of administration. If marijuana were to be legalized and administered via vaporization then many elderly people would be able to live out their lives in comfort without the negative drawbacks of respiratory problems. and as such. gene that promotes cancer growth. This is a safer and healthier form of administration because you are no longer being exposed to the harmful carcinogens associated with the act of smoking. Smoking was the easiest way to acquire THC absorption until recently. can actually turn off the ID-1 gene. In order for the effects of THC to be felt the substance must be heated up to a high enough temperature where the THC can be absorbed.

This source also went into great detail about the legal ramifications of going against federal restrictions and prescribing the drug as an alternative form of medicine. Clark first cited the historical background of medical marijuana from a legal perspective according to DEA compliance policies and the enforcement of it. This research and these guidelines will be helpful in determining the overall approach to doing medical research. 1981). Published by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Clark also analyzed the case-by-case basis of each state and how the voting progressed (and how it impacts its legality). book offered research guidelines and protocols when studying the use of medical marijuana. I can have another lens of critique when looking at other research studies regarding medical marijuana (Huba. cancer. Therefore. This study shows evidence to support the idea that marijuana may be able to medically treat one of the worst diseases known to man. open ended questions and fill in the blanks need to be used to get a full understanding of the consequences of using Marijuana. from a medical perspective if marijuana were legal it would be a lot easier and safer to treat many patients for many different ailments including the scourge of homosapiens. If marijuana were legalized for medical use it would allow scientists to more easily acquire samples to run tests on in order to find more inherit medical properties. Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . The author argued that a wide range of diverse studies such as surveys. By using it. Evidence surrounding the medical uses of the drug was cited from notable physicians who have undergone studies.8 that this property of the plant is just being discovered means that there is high hopes that marijuana actually posses many medical properties that have yet to be discovered. Clark (2000) takes a thorough look at the situation of the legalization of medical marijuana. In doing so.

this article shed light on scientific data. Curiously. was a severely disturbed child who had a history of psychotic and socially dysfunctional behavior. This article will be useful in providing more detailed background information regarding the use of medical marijuana. Since addiction and the notion that marijuana is a ‘gateway drug’ is a common argument against its legalization. JJ. This source gave an interesting anecdote for the support of medical Marijuana. This article will be extremely useful in analyzing the promoting the notion that empirical and scientific evidence should have priority over other forms. The author argued that since our brain does indeed have a reward center and there is a connection between this part of our brain and THC. his mother tried various form of treatment. The main subject. there is an addictive trait of marijuana. The article went into technical details about how dopamine specifically affects this reward center and the implications of it. Goode also noted that the empirical facts have been misused in defining the ‘reality’ of the legalization debate. Unfortunately. He argued that in making political and ideological claims against the use of the drug. Finally. In an effort to help him adjust to society. scientific evidence has been used anecdotally where it has been seen fit. he went over certain methods of discreditation that have been historically used against the legalization of marijuana. when his mother approved the use of medical marijuana. JJ’s behavior improved Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . Many of these included a variety of drugs that sought to reduce JJ’s violent tendencies.9 Goode’s (1969) article on medical marijuana reflects the political aspect in contrast to the medical evidence. all of these treatments either made his condition worse or did not help. Grinspoon (1997) took a neuroscience perspective with regards to the addictiveness of medical marijuana.

many doctors testified that medical marijuana was an effective use of an alternative treatment strategy. This source will be beneficial in applying professional testimony in determining whether medical marijuana should or should not be used (ProCon. Moreover. Moreover. However. This source will be useful in applying emotional and anecdotal evidence in promoting the use of medical marijuana (O’brien et al. His violent and psychotic behavior not only ceased completely. JJ was taken from his mother’s custody via accusations of negligence. 2002) Peterson (1979) offers a critical analysis of how marijuana transformed from a cultural fad into a serious form of alternative therapy to common disorders. impairment of motor skills. He then analyzed the effects of marijuana on specific traits: demographics. this drug worked very well when compared to other more conventional drugs. Peterson acknowledged the general complexity of even taking this medication seriously as so much cultural backlash has been presented against it. sex. but he began to excel in the classroom and even helped other classmates. despite its individual and societal benefits. This source analyzed both the pros and cons of using medical marijuana based on the testimony of various physicians across diverse disciplines within the medical field. Peterson also remarked about the effects on learning.org. doctors on the other end of the spectrum claim that the same treatment may be beneficial for the long term. the heart and other vital bodily organs. In promoting the use of the drug..10 dramatically. Firstly. This research article will prove useful in providing another medical perspective in the positive and adverse effects of medical marijuana. it is nonetheless bad for the overall health of humans. health and use of other drugs in addition to marijuana. 2009) Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo .

Moreover. she offered a historical analysis of how the DEA and FDA analyzed what kind of drug and under what circumstances it would be acceptable to use. This source will be useful in going over the background information and literature review for my research paper. I will compare how the research and findings of the 1970’s differ from today. It will give my research paper more scientific support for my evidence because it will be supported by these skilled researchers. First. The authors go in detail about how marijuana affects the brain. Shohov (2003) offers a very thorough background on the historical events regarding the use of medical marijuana. Finally. Shohov offered relevant background information about how much US citizens use it and the federal perspective of this fact. While Shohov didn’t offer a direct opinion of whether it should be legal. vital bodily organs. reproductive organs and affects overall behavior. the book argues largely that marijuana is extremely bad for your health and that its addictive nature will only make the user have negative behavior. Second. Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . she did offer a thorough analysis about the relevant facts and opinions. She referenced other medical professionals and their relevant studies.11 Redda (2000) had a comprehensive research looks at the overall picture of marijuana use and the effects from a pharmacological standpoint. They also described what goes in the brain during marijuana use. Shohov described the general implications of using the drug both recreationally and medically. This article will be useful because it gives an older comprehensive analysis of marijuana. Finally. there are health repercussions from inhaling smoke and such. This article will be very useful in analyzing marijuana from a pharmacological point of view. marijuana is said to cause intense social problems because it deters our youth from working and going to school. Shafer (1972) argue that this early government publication is a comprehensive study about a wide range of marijuana based information.

He noted that debating on a topic is a healthy method of testing ideas and proposal. Melgar also stressed the Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . However. Junice L. recognized the need for public discussions on the legalization of marijuana. The study that they used was of almost 65. a medical and law expert. marijuana is the most potent. Other factors like smoking and alcohol use were also taken into account. PHILIPPINES Ambassador Manuel Teehankee (2014). This article will be useful in analyzing some health related studies regarding the use of medical marijuana.D." Dr.000 California residents who have cancer and have used marijuana regularly.12 This article of Sydney (1997) studied the relationship between marijuana use and cases of cancer. She also mentioned that marijuana has side effects like the alteration of moods. It can also treat loss of appetite after chemotherapy or following treatment for HIV or AIDS. heroin. The doctor said that there are no reports of any deaths caused by toxicity or the intake of cannabis. and "a good way by which the legislative process can be vetted with various ideas being exchanged. Melgar (2014). and methamphetamine. Melgar added. In fact. among psychotropic drugs such as cocaine. agreed with Teehankee and explained that marijuana has several medical uses. According to Melgar. marijuana can stop epileptic seizures and can help treat neuropathic diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. the research did suggest that use of marijuana may be associated with exposure to higher levels of risk with those who do not have cancer yet. executive director of the Likhaan Center for Women's Health. The results showed that using medical marijuana did not increase the likelihood of cancer getting worse.

Director General Arturo Cacdac (2014). PDEA chief. President Duterte earlier said he was not opposed to the legalization of marijuana Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . acknowledged Cacdac's concern — saying that there really is a need to ensure that the country is capable of regulating marijuana production and distribution. if we don’t give them space for public discussion — for people to be enlightened about it — we will forever be ignorant. on the other hand. Ubial said the Department of Health (DOH) could not make a stand on medical marijuana at this point because the panel. Ubial in an interview quoted that “I’m not a clinician so I don’t have an idea on medical marijuana. meanwhile. Ubial also noted that the DOH does not want medical marijuana to be abused.”. composed of experts from the UP National Institute of Health. Sen. But I already heard from some groups that it has medicinal benefits so we will see." The Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA).13 importance of being informed about marijuana and its uses. "Even for small part. chair of the Committee on Public Order and Dangerous Drugs. will still be studying it. said that there is a need to first resolve the issue of how the government would be able to regulate marijuana plantations to ensure that it would not be abused. Grace Poe (2014). Marijuana or cannabis is included in the list of prohibited drugs under the Dangerous Drugs Act. has continued to oppose the legalization of marijuana. Philippine Star (2016) in their recent column about Marijuana published that Health Secretary Paulyn Ubial has created a panel of experts from the University of the Philippines who will study the medicinal value of marijuana amid a pending bill in Congress that seeks to legalize its use in the country.

The Philippines. India. marijuana is legal for medical purposes such as for the alleviation of pain. 2016) Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . Malaysia. known for his all-consuming hatred of drugs. the House committee on health created a technical working group that would formulate the final version of the bill. and seizure disorders. Marijuana can also be prescribed by doctors to treat muscle spasms. If it's certified by the government and it's good fine. France." he said. Isabela Rep. activity. nausea from cancer chemotherapy. The proposed measure is intended to provide easy access to safe and affordable medical marijuana prescribed by registered physicians. have the least restrictive cannabis laws (Ranada. like some states in the United States. Last year.14 provided that it is for medical use and not for recreational purposes. Philippine Compassionate Medical Cannabis Act. where it is being used to find out if it's really medicinal or it can do something good for the body. Countries like Germany. in his interview said he is open to the legalization of medical marijuana if deemed beneficial by the proper authorities. have some of the stricted laws against marijuana or cannabis. and Singapore. along with countries like Indonesia. "It must have this qualifying you know. Duterte said FDA regulations mean such a proposal will have to go through studies. He also acknowledged that marijuana is now an ingredient in some medicine. meanwhile. President Rodrigo Duterte (2016). It’s the Food and Drug Administration. which is expected to benefit those who suffer from serious illnesses. In some places. "I'm not the authority for that. Rodito Albano re-filed his bill. no problem." he said during an interview with Al Jazeera made online on Saturday. and Canada. Last month. China. Netherlands. October 15.

15 Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo .

After all. However. Although the debate about the legalization of marijuana in our country goes on and on. it still has many uses in the field of medicine and it is still beneficial to most people. I believe that legalizing marijuana is absolutely fine as long as it is regulated. While abuse of the substance shows clear definitive issues. marijuana has damaging effects but regulating the use of the drug would minimize the chance of it being harmful and destructive. I think that even though the drug has side effects. Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . the question of whether it should be legalized recreationally is an entirely different issue altogether. The society just has to learn how to balance. Giving new things a try is one step closer to the improvement and progress of our nation. the drug cannot cause much damage when used in moderation. control and use the drug justly. Therefore.16 CHAPTER III CONCLUSION Medical marijuana is quickly becoming a hotly debated topic in society as it presents clear medical value with little to no drawbacks if used in the correct way. Do we really want to become a society that tells a terminally ill person that they can't enjoy their last moments on earth in a pain free environment? Not to mention the advances in cancer studies that we have acquired thanks to marijuana. which is why I think that legalizing the drug isn’t a bad thing at all. medicinally it is a good idea to legalize the plant. Yes. if regulated properly at the federal level there is really no reason why marijuana should not be legalized since it presents so many opportunistic ideas and answers to many people who suffer from chronic and terminal diseases. the same can be said about any substance including alcohol. Thus.

Vol.jstor." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 10. Medical Necessity. Addiction Research and Theory.7p. 9 Apr. "Case Study: Mother and Son: The Case of Medical Marijuana.1 (2000): 40-60. 2011. Vol. Feb 2012. CNN Philippines.jstor. http://www.2 (1969): 83-94. 2009. http://www. 22p." Journal of Public Health Policy 21. Medical Marijuana: The Conflict Between Scientific Evidence and Political Ideology. 10 Apr. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy. 23 Issue 1. Joyce. June 9.Part One of Two. Why is Marijuana Illegal.jstor. Print. Lester.drugwarrant.org/stable/2948355 Grinspoon. Web. 2011. Earleywine. Peter. Assessing Marijuana Consequences: Selected Questionnaire Items.html O'Brien. “Should medical marijuana be legalized in PH?”Updated 19:17 PM PHT Tue. http://cnnphilippines." Science. 2011. Rockville: Public Health Service. 243-249. JSTOR. p4-25. Web.. Web. Junice L. New Series 277. 87 Issue 2. "The Ethics of Medical Marijuana: Government Restrictions vs. Blurred Boundaries: The Therapeutics and Politics of Medical Marijuana.5327 (1997): 749752. George. J. 1981.html Bostwick.com/news/2015/06/09/Philippines-medical-marijuana-pending-cannabisbill-House-of-Representatives. 2015 Melgar. Vol." The Hastings Center Report 32. http://www. 28 Mar.com/articles/whyis-marijuana-illegal/ Huba. Goode. Mitch et al.17 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ambassador Teehankee. 9 Apr. http://www. and Peter Clark. June 2010. p 172-186. 2011 http://www. "Marijuana Addiction. Mayo Clark. JSTOR.org/stable/3343473 Clinic Proceedings. "Marijuana and the Politics of Reality. Manuel (2014). JSTOR.com/news/2015/06/09/Philippines-medical-marijuana-pending-cannabisbill-House-of-Representatives. (2014) CNN Interview. Case Studies in Cannabis Vaporization. Peter J.5 (2002): 11-13.org/stable/2893088 Guither. Ilas. Michael. 4 Charts.jstor.org/stable/3528708 Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . Cohen. 15p. 2012. Web. Pete. http://cnnphilippines. CNN Interview.D. Kevin. Erich. 18 Issue 3.

2000.answers.com/news/2015/06/09/Philippinesmedical-marijuana-pending-cannabis-bill-House-of-Representatives. p22-22. “Duterte open to legalization of medical marijuana” @piaranada Published 4:30 PM. United States)." Cancer Causes & Control 8. http://www. 175 Issue 24. N. Brief History: Medical Marijuana. 2016.12:00am Webley.com/2012/09/19/marijuana-and-cancer_n_1898208.huffingtonpost.p. Boca Raton: CRC Press. “Medical marijuana use being studied” Updated July 10. http://medicalmarijuana. Rappler. 2016. 1972.procon. 2011. October 16. 10 Apr. 31 Aug.org/stable/4446747 Poe.. October 15. Updated 4:30 PM. and Legal Issues. and Behavior. Stephen. Sep 2012. Gary Friedman. Print. JSTOR. Vol. Web. By Sheila Crisostomo. Time. Pharmacology.18 Peterson. Shohov. Government. Shafer. 2011. Cocaine. Designer Drugs: Chemistry. Raymond.org. Sydney.jstor. 1989. Web.com Redda. October 16. JSTOR.United States Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse. http://cnnphilippines. Tatiana. 2011.php?questionID=001325 Ranada.org.html President Duterte. 10 Apr. Robin. Kayla.org/view. Marijuana . Web. June 2010. Regulatory. Pia.html Legalization of Marijuana…wactmanalo . Robert. Reprint." The American Biology Teacher 41. Print. "Health Implications of Marijuana Use: A Review. New York City: Nova Science Publishing. and Irene Tekawa. "Marijuana Use and Cancer Incidence (California. Marijuana. Rodrigo. 11 Apr. Print. 2016 .org/stable/3552780 The Philippine Star.S. http://www. Charles Quesenberry.9 (1979): 526-529. Medical Use of Marijuana: Policy. Wilkey.jstor. 2016 ProCon. http://www. Washington DC: U. 3/4p. Kinfe. "Should Marijuana be a Medical Option?" ProCon. Interview by Al Jazeera. 2009. Interview by CNN. 2003. Marijuana And Cancer: Scientists Find Cannabis Compound Stops Metastasis In Aggressive Cancers.5 (1997): 722-728. Grace.