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Tng quan v MPLS

1) S lc lch s
Khi mng Internet pht trin v m rng, lu lng Internet bng n. Cc ISP x l bng cch tng dung
lng cc kt ni v nng cp b nh tuyn (router) nhng vn khng trnh khi nghn mch. L do l cc
giao thc nh tuyn thng hng lu lng vo cng mt s cc kt ni nht nh dn n kt ni ny b
qu ti trong khi mt s ti nguyn khc khng c s dng. y l tnh trng phn b ti khng ng u
v s dng lng ph ti nguyn mng Internet
Vo thp nin 90, cc ISP pht trin mng ca h theo m hnh chng lp (overlay) bng cch a ra giao
thc IP ng dng trong ATM (IP over ATM).
ATM l cng ngh nh hng kt ni (connection-oriented), thit lp cc knh o (Virtual Circuit), tuyn o
(Virtual Path) to thnh mt mng logic nm trn mng vt l gip nh tuyn, phn b ti ng u trn
ton mng.
Tuy nhin, IP v ATM l hai cng ngh hon ton khc nhau, c thit k cho nhng mi trng mng
khc nhau, khc nhau v giao thc, cch nh a ch, nh tuyn, bo hiu, phn b ti nguyn. Khi cc ISP
cng m rng mng theo hng IP over ATM, h cng nhn r nhc im ca m hnh ny, l s phc
tp ca mng li do phi duy tr hot ng ca hai h thng thit b.
S bng n ca mng Internet dn ti xu hng hi t cc mng vin thng khc nh mng thoi, truyn
hnh da trn Internet, giao thc IP tr thnh giao thc ch o trong lnh vc mng.
Xu hng ca cc ISP l thit k v s dng cc b nh tuyn chuyn dng, dung lng chuyn ti ln, h
tr cc gii php tch hp, chuyn mch a lp cho mng trc Internet. Nhu cu cp thit trong bi cnh ny
l phi ra i mt cng ngh c kh nng kt hp nhng c im tt ca chuyn mch knh ATM v
chuyn mch gi IP .
Cng ngh MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) ra i trong bi cnh ny p ng c nhu cu ca th
trng ng theo tiu ch pht trin ca Internet mang li nhng li ch thit thc, nh du mt bc
pht trin mi ca mng Internet trc xu th tch hp cng ngh thng tin v vin thng (ICT - Information
Communication Technology) trong thi k mi.
2) MPLS v m hnh tham chiu OSI

Hnh 1.1
MPLS c xem nh l mt cng ngh lp m (shim layer), n nm trn lp 2 nhng di lp 3, v vy i
khi ngi ta cn gi n l lp 2,5.
Hnh 1.2
Nguyn l ca MPLS c th hin hnh 1.2. Tt c cc gi IP s c gn nhn (label) v chuyn tip
theo mt ng dn LSP (Label Switched Path). Cc b nh tuyn (router) trn ng dn ch cn c vo
ni dung ca nhn thc hin quyt nh chuyn tip gi m khng cn phi kim tra phn u (header)
ca IP.

3) Cc khi nim trong MPLS


LDP (Label Distribution Protocol): Giao thc phn b nhn.
LSP (Label Switched Path): ng dn chuyn mch nhn.
FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class): Lp chuyn tip tng ng.
LSR (Label Switching Router) B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn.
LER (Label Edge Router): B nh tuyn nhn bin.
NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry): Mc chuyn tip chng tip theo.
FTN (FEC to NHLFE): Anh x FEC sang NHLFE.
LIB (Label Information Base): C s thng tin nhn.

Min MPLS (MPLS Domain)


Min MPLS c chia thnh hai phn: phn mng li (core) v phn mng bin (edge). Cc nt thuc min
MPLS c gi l b nh tuyn (router) chuyn mch nhn LSR (Label Switch Router). Cc nt phn
mng li c gi l LSR chuyn tip (transit-LSR) hay LSR li (core-LSR) (thng c gi tt l LSR).
Cc nt bin c gi l b nh tuyn nhn bin LER (Label Edge Router). Nu mt LER l nt u tin
trn ng i ca mt gi xuyn qua min MPLS th n c gi l LER li vo (ingress-LER), cn nu l
nt cui cng th n c gi l LER li ra (egress-LER). Lu l cc thut ng ny c p dng tu theo
chiu ca lung lu lng trong mng, do vy mt LER c th l LER li vo va l LER li ra tu theo cc
lung lu lng ang xt.

Hnh 1.3
Lp chuyn tip tng ng FEC
Lp chuyn tip tng ng FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class) l mt tp hp cc gi c i x nh
nhau bi mt LSR. Nh vy, FEC l mt nhm cc gi IP c chuyn tip trn cng mt ng chuyn
mch nhn LSP, c i x theo cng mt cch thc v c th nh x vo mt nhn bi mt LSR cho d
chng c th khc nhau v thng tin u (header) lp mng. Hnh 1.4 cho thy cch x l ny.

Hon i nhn (Label Swapping)


Hon i nhn l cch dng cc th tc chuyn tip gi. chuyn tip gi c nhn, LSR kim tra nhn
trn nh ngn xp v dng nh x ILM (Incoming Label Map) nh x nhn ny ti mt mc chuyn tip
nhn NHLFE (Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry). S dng thng tin trong NHLFE, LSR xc nh ra ni
chuyn tip gi v thc hin mt tc v trn ngn xp nhn. Ri n m ho ngn xp nhn mi vo gi v
chuyn gi i.
Chuyn tip gi cha c nhn cng tng t nhng xy ra LER li vo (ingress-LER). LER phi phn tch
u (header) lp mng xc nh FEC ri s dng nh x FTN (FEC-to-NHLFE) nh x FEC vo mt
NHLFE.

ng chuyn mch nhn LSP (Label Switched Path)

ng chuyn mch nhn LSP l mt ng ni gia b nh tuyn ng vo v b nh tuyn ng ra, c


thit lp bi cc nt MPLS chuyn cc gi i xuyn qua mng. ng dn ca mt LSP qua mng c
nh ngha bi s chuyn i cc gi tr nhn cc LSR dc theo LSP bng cch dng th tc hon i
nhn.
4) Hot ng ca MPLS
Chuyn gi qua min MPLS
Hnh di y l mt v d n gin minh ho qu trnh truyn gi IP i qua min MPLS. Gi tin IP khi i
t ngoi mng vo trong min MPLS c b nh tuyn (router) A ng vai tr l mt LER ng vo s gn
nhn c gi tr l 6 cho gi IP ri chuyn tip n b nh tuyn B. B nh tuyn B da vo bng hon i
nhn kim tra nhn ca gi tin. N thay gi tr nhn mi l 3 v chuyn tip n router C. Ti C, vic
kim tra cng tng t nh B v s hon i nhn, gn cho gi tin mt nhn mi l 9 v tip tc c a
n b nh tuyn D.

B nh tuyn D ng vai tr LER ng ra s kim tra trong bng hon i nhn v g b nhn 9 ra khi gi
tin ri nh tuyn gi IP mt cch bnh thng i ra khi min MPLS. Vi kiu lm vic ny th cc LSR
trung gian nh b nh tuyn B v C s khng phi thc hin kim tra ton b phn u (header) IP ca gi
tin m n ch vic kim tra cc gi tr ca nhn, so snh trong bng v chuyn tip. V vy tc x l trong
min MPLS s nhanh hn nhiu so vi nh tuyn IP truyn thng. ng i t b nh tuyn A n b nh
tuyn D c gi l ng chuyn mch nhn LSP (Label Switched Path).