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TI NHM

M hnh ha v m phng a truy nhp ng xung OFDMA


trong 4G-LTE
Mc ch:
Tng minh ha nguyn l hot ng v nh gi hiu nng ca k thut OFDMA
trong 4G-LTE trn c s m hnh ha v m phng trong cc kch bn knh truyn sng
v tuyn khc nhau.

Ni dung:
Kin trc h thng 4G-LTE
Lp vt l ca 4G-LTE (tp chung ng xung, (phn tch cc c t k
thut theo tiu chun)
K thut OFDMA v li ti nguyn ng xung ca 4G-LTE (phn tch
cc c t k thut theo tiu chun).
Xy dng m hnh v m phng k thut OFDMA trong 4G-LTE (my
pht/thu, knh v cc gi nh):
Nguyn l OFDMA
M hnh knh v tuyn.
M hnh m phng k thut OFDMA (khi nim, phn tch cng thc,
bi tp).
Lu gii thut
Matlab ha, chng trnh ha gii thut (phn tch cu trc chng trnh
m phng).
Kch bn m phng.
Chy chng trnh m phng v phn tch kt qu m phng.

I.

KIN TRC 4G-LTE/SAE

Kin trc mng 4G LTE/SAE c xy dng trn cc tiu ch chnh di y:


Ti u ha cc dch v chuyn mch gi khi khng cn h tr ch hot ng
chuyn mch knh
H tr ti u cho thng lng cao hn p ng yu cu tc bit ca ngi
s dng u cui cao hn
Ci thin thi gian p ng cho qu trnh thit lp knh mang v tch cc
Ci thin tr chuyn gi
n gin ha tng th h thng so vi cc h thng 3GPP v cc h thng t
ong khc hin c
Ti u ha tng tc vi cc mng truy nhp 3GPP khc
Ti u ha tng tc vi cc mng truy nhp khng dy khc.

1. Kin trc tng qut mng 4G LTE/SAE c s vi ch mng truy nhp EUTRAN
Kin trc tng quan mng bao gm cc phn t mng v cc giao din chun.
Ti mc cao, mng gm mng li CN (EPC: Evolved Packet Core: li gi) v
mng truy nhp (E-UTRAN: Evolved UTRAN). Trong khi CN gm nhiu nt logic
th mng truy nhp ch c mt kiu nt: eNodeB. Mi phn t mng c ni vi
nhau qua cc giao din chun m bo tng tc gia cc nh bn my
(A) Cc phn t ca mng li
Mng li (c gi l EPC trong SAE) chu trch nhim iu khin tng th UE v
thit lp cc knh mang. Cc nt logic chnh ca mng li l:

Thc th qun l di ng (MME)


Cng phc v (S-GW)
Cng mng s liu gi (P-GW)
MME:

Thc th qun l di ng (MME: Mobility Management Entity) l phn t

iu khin chnh trong EPC. Thng thng MME l mt server t ti mt v tr


an ton ngay ti hng khai thc. N ch hot ng trong mt phng iu khin
(CP) v khng tham gia vo ng truyn s liu ca UP
S-GW
Trong cu hnh kin trc c s, chc nng mc cao ca S-GW l qun l tunnel
UP v chuyn mch. S-GW l b phn ca h tng mng c qun l tp trung ti ni
khai thc.
Khi giao din S5/S6 c xy dng trn c s GTP, S-GW s c cc GTP tunnel trn
tt c cc giao din UP. Qu trnh sp xp cc lung dch v IP vo cc GTP tunnel c
thc hin trong P-GW v S-GW khng cn ni n PCRF. Tt c iu khin u lin
quan n cc GTP tunnel v n t MME hoc P-GW. Khi giao din S5/S6 s dng
PMIP, S-GW s thc hin sp xp cc lung dch v IP trong S5/S6 vo cc GTP tunnel
trong cc giao din S1-U v s ni n PCRF nhn thng tin v sp xp.

P-GW
Cng mng s liu gi (P-GW l vit tt ca PDN-GW) l mt router bin gia
EPS v cc mng s liu bn ngoi. N l mt im neo di ng mc cao nht trong h
thng v thng hot ng nh mt im nhp mng IP i vi UE. N thc hin cc
chc nng m cng lu lng v lc theo yu cu ca dch v. Tng t nh S-GW,
cc P-GW c th c khai thc ngay ti v tr trung tm ca nh khai thc.

PCRF
Chc nng cc chnh sch v tnh cc ti nguyn (PCRF: Policy and Charging
Rules Function) l mt phn t mng chu trch nhim cho vic iu khin chnh sch
v tnh cc (PCC: Plolicy and Charging Control). N quyt nh cch x l cc dch
v theo QoS v cung cp thng tin cho PCEF (Policy Control Enforcement Function:
chc nng iu khin thc thi chin lc v tnh cc) trong P-GW v nu p dng n
cng cung cp thng tin cho BBERF (Bearer binding and event reporting function: chc
nng thit lp rng buc knh mang v bo co s kin) c th thit lp cc knh

mang v chnh sch tng ng. PCRF l mt b phn ca chng trnh khung PCC
trong tiu chun. PCRF l mt server thng c t cng vi cc phn t ca mng
li ti cc trung tm chuyn mch ca nh khai thc.

HSS
Server thu bao nh (HSS: Home Subscriber Server ) l mt b lu gi s liu
thu bao cho tt c s liu c nh ca ngi s dng (h s ca ngi s dng). N
cng ghi li v tr ca ngi s dng mc nt iu khin mng ni m ngi s dng
ang lm khch, chng hn MME. y l mt c s d liu c bo tr ti v tr nh
khai thc

II.Lp vt l ca 4G-LTE
Kin trc min thi gian ton phn:

Hnh 4.1 minh ha v kin trc min thi gian bc cao trong truyn dn LTE
vi mi khung (v tuyn) c chiu di T(frame)=10ms bao gm 10 khung
ph c kch thc bng nhau.

Trong cng mt sng mang ,nhng khung ph khc nhau ca 1 khung c th


c s dng cho truyn dn ng xung hoc truyn dn ng ln.
Nhng g minh ha trong hnh 4.1 c xem nh cu trc khugn tng qut hay
cu trc khung dng 1 LTE c p dung cho FDD v TDD.

Ti nguyn vt l ng xung :

Truyn ti ng xung da trn vic ghp knh phn cha tn s trc giao.Ti
nguyn vt l ng xung LTE c th c xem nh mt mng li ti nguyn
thi gian- tn s,ni m mi phn t ti nguyn tng ng vi mt sng mang
OFDM trong sut mt khong k t OFDM.
i vi ng xung LTE, khong cch sng mang OFDM c chn vi f = 15
kHz. Gi thit mt thc thi u pht/u thu da trn FFT (an FFTbased
transmitter/receiver implementation), iu ny tng ng vi mt tn s ly mu fs
= 15000 . NFFT, vi NFFT l kch thc FFT. n v thi gian Ts c nh ngha
trong phn trc v vy c th c xem nh thi gian ly mu ca mt thc thi
u pht/u thu da trn FFT (an FFT-based transmitter/receiver implementation)
vi NFFT = 2048. iu quan trng cn phi hiu l mc d n v thi gian Ts
c gii thiu trong c tnh truy nhp v tuyn LTE ch nh mt cng c xc
nh nhng khong thi gian khc nhau v n khng p t bt c mt rng buc
v thc thi u pht/u thu c th no, chng hn mt tn s ly mu xc nh.
Trong thc t, mt thc thi u pht/u thu da trn FFT vi NFFT = 2048 v
mt tn s ly mu tng ng fs = 30.72 MHz l thch hp cho nhng bng thng
truyn dn LTE rng hn, chng hn nhng bng thng khong 15MHz v cao
hn. Tuy nhin, i vi nhng bng thng truyn dn nh hn, mt kch thc
FFT nh hn v mt tn s ly mu nh hn tng ng cng c th c s dng
rt tt. V d, i vi cc bng thng truyn dn trong khong 5 MHz, mt kch
thc NFFT = 512 v mt tn s ly mu tng ng fs=7.68 MHz c th s .

Trong min tn s, cc sng mang ph ng xung c tp hp li vo


trong nhng khi ti nguyn (resource blocks), ni m mi khi ti nguyn bao
gm 12 sng mang ph lin tip nhau tng ng vi mt bng thng khi ti
nguyn danh nh rng 180 kHz. Ngoi ra, cn c mt sng mang ph DC khng
s dng nm gia ph tn ng xung. Nguyn nhn ti sao sng mang ph
DC khng c s dng cho bt c truyn dn no l v n c th trng vi tn s
b to dao ng ni (local oscillator frequency) ti u pht trm gc hoc u thu
ca thit b u cui di ng. H qu l n c th phi chu nhiu cao khng t l
(it may be subject to unproportionally high interference), v d, do b dao ng ni
b r in.
Tng s sng mang ph trn mt sng mang ng xung, bao gm sng mang
ph DC, v vy bng Nsc = 12. NRB + 1, vi NRB l s lng cc khi ti nguyn.
c im k thut lp vt l LTE tht ra cho php mt sng mang ng xung c
th bao gm bt c s lng khi ti nguyn no, trong khong t 6 khi ln ti
trn 100 khi ti nguyn. iu ny tng ng vi mt bng thng truyn dn
ng xung danh nh t khong 1 MHz ln ti t nht khong 20 MHz vi mt
chi tit rt nhuyn
Hnh 4.5 s phc tho chi tit hn cu trc min thi gian-tn s cho truyn dn
ng xung LTE. Mi khung ph 1ms bao gm hai khe vi kch thc bng nhau
c di Tslot=0.5ms (15360.Ts). Mi khe li bao gm mt s lng cc k hiu
OFDM (OFDM symbols) km theo tin t chu trnh (cyclic prefix)

III. K thut OFDMA v li ti nguyn ng xung ca 4G-LTE


3.1 Nguyn tc a truy nhp ng xung OFDMA
3.1.1 OFDMA
K hoch truyn dn ng xung cho E-UTRAN cht d FFD v TDD l d
trn OFDMA truyn thng. OFDMA c mt s li ch nh bn ca n vi
phading a ng v kin trc thu nhn hiu qu ca n ngoi ra OFDMA cn c
mt s li ch:

OFDMA d dng h tr cho vic phn b bng thong mt cch linh hot
H tr truyn dn broadcast/multicast
Mt s c im c bn ca OFDMA
S dungj1 lng tng i ln song mang con bng thng hp
Dng xong n gin
Nhng song mang con uun sp xp cht ch trn min tn s
3.1.2 Cc tham s ca OFDMA
Cu trc khung: c 2 loi cu trc khung casu trc loaij1 cho FDD cu trc
loi 2 cho TDD
i vi khung loi 1, khung v tuyn 10ms chia thnh 20 khe kishc thng
nh nhau 0,5 ms. Mt khung con bao gm 2 khe lin tip nn 1 khung v
tuyn c 10 khung con
i vi khung loi 2, khung v tuyn 10ms bao gm 2 na khung ni na
5ms mi na khung chia thnh 5 khung con mi khung con 1ms
Cu trc li ti nguyn

Cc sng mang con trong LTE c mt khong cch c nh f=15kHz trong


min tn s, 12 sng mang com hnh thnh 1 khi ti nguyn. Kch thc khi ti

nguyn l nh nhau vi tt c cc bng thong. S ln cc khi ti nguyn ng vi


bng thong nh trong bng

Tin t vng CP
Vi mi k hiu OFDMA mt tin t vng CP c ni them nh l khong
thi gian bo v. Mt khe ng xung hoc 7 k hiu OFDMA, iu ny
ph thuc vo tin t vng c cu hnh l m rng hay bnh thng