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Prof. J. Srinivasan

Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

Lecture -01

Introduction

This course is on thermal radiation heat transfer and by thermal radiation, we mean

radiation emitted by surface or gas because its temperature is greater than 0 Kelvin. And

this is to depreciate it from nuclear radiation, which is radiation which occurs on a count

of reactivity and on a count of the change in mass of the substance. Now, a thermal

radiation has many applications.

And let us look at a few of them, the first application is in the area of furnaces, and

boilers. And this furnaces and boilers are a very high temperature and hence, radiation

transfer plays an important role in the design of these furnaces, this is also important in

satellite temperature control. In the case of satellite all heat transfer that is occurring

between satellite and the surroundings is by radiation.

So, if you want to control the temperature of a satellite, you can do it only by radiation

heat transfer and need to understand what kind of materials you must use in order to

reduce or increase absorption or to reduce increase reflection. Now, the third application

of radiatory transfer in engineering is in the way of design of insulation. We want to

insulate any object from either gaining or losing heat, you have to ensure that all parts of

heat transfer are reduced that is conduction, convection, and radiation. And once you

have cut down conduction, and convection, radiation is the most important heat transfer

mechanism and hence you have to find ways to get use that also.

Now, the fourth important area application which is getting more important details is a in

predicting earths climate. Earths climate is controlled by radiation primarily because

earth receives radiation from the sun, and it is partially absorbed, partially reflected and

then it emits radiation from the surfaces of the atmosphere to space. So, the balance

between the absorbed solar radiation, and the emitted solar radiation is what controls the

earths main temperature as most of you must have heard because of the increasing

carbon dioxide, in the earth atmosphere over the past hundred years, earths main

temperatures gone up by around 0.7 degree centigrades.

So, in order to understand exactly how this increase in carbon dioxide causes the

temperature arise, we need to model the radiation transfer in the earth very accurately

and in addition to all these examples, we have looked at here furnaces satellite and

insulational climate. There are of course, many other situations where radiation plays a

role one example is in design of solar collectors. Solar collectors are getting to be quite

familiar in many houses, solar water heaters and these are raises in which. So, it is

observed and temperature of the water increases to 80 and 90 degree centigrade. And in

order to design this collectors well, in order of high option see and low cost you need to

understand the radiated heat transfer process that occurs in these devises.

(Refer Slide Time: 05:36)

Now, let us get into the basic definitions that are used in the subject. So, in any subject

you need have a basic vocabulary to discuss various concepts. Now, the first thing we

need to know is that radiation heat transfer occurs, in what wavelength range. So we

have to define wave length of the radiation or you can talk about the frequency of

radiation, or you can talk about wave number which is nothing but one over wavelength.

So, radiation is define in terms of its wavelength it can be in meters, or in microns.

Frequency it can be per second or hertzs or wave number which is typically in the reach

of centimeters minus 1. Now, all these are used interchangeably in this field and

generally people would do theoretical work, in radiation than to prefer frequency because

all of you know that wave length, lambda times of frequency new is this speed of light in

the medium.

And as you go from one medium to another medium, all of you know that speed of light

is not a constant it changes. So, because of the change in speed a light of the medium, the

wavelength of the radiation will change, but not the frequency. So, frequency remains

invariant as you go from one medium to another medium suppose, you move from air to

glass or air to water, the frequency remain same, but wavelength will change.

So, from the point to view of analysis, and theory frequency is the preferred way of a

describing radiation because it is invariant on the other hand, when you want to make

observations of radiation wavelength is easier to measure so, more often used and in

some areas people prefer wave number. So, all these are used interchangeable so in this

course you will see figures, in which sometime wave length is used some times

frequencies used sometimes, wave numbers used. And you must be able to convert one

to another very easily. Now, radiation different wavelengths are characterized with

different names for convenience, for example.

(Refer Slide Time: 08:37)

The wave length range from 0.01 microns to 0.2 micron is called the far ultra violet,

where 1 micron is 10 to the power of minus 6 meters than the range from 0.2 micron to

0.4 micron is called the ultra violet, and 0.4 to 0.7 micron all of you have familiar with

that, that is the visible radiation. Then you go to 0.7 micron to 4 micron it is called the

near infrared. So, lot of radiation count the sun is in this region in the near infrared just

beyond the visible, than we go from 4 micron to 40 micron is called the middle infrared

and lot of radiation emitter by all the surfaces around us at room temperature, they are in

this region.

And we go from 40 micron to 500 micron this is called the far infrared and usually

objects at very low temperature can emit lot of radiation, in this wave length range. Then

you go from 500 micron to 10 to power of 6 micron and this called the microwave. And

this radiation is emitted by objects at low temperatures, but it is also known today very

important in communication. So, all of you use mobile phones or microwave frequencies

are use in those, and once you go above 10 to the power of 6 micron become in the

domain of radio waves.

So, this is the whole range of possible wave lengths covered by terminal radiation, but

we will be primary focusing on the visible and the inferred radiation, in this course

because that is where most of the radiation is there, in when dealing with a mission by

temperature a mission by objects at room temperature, and radiation between by the sun.

And we next, move on to the basic comes concept of emissive power.

(Refer Slide Time: 11:39)

Emissive power is term use to characterize the energy density of the radiation. Now, any

quantity that we define radiation has to be define initially, in terms of a given direction

and a given wave length because when radiation emitted by any object, it is emitted in all

directions. So, suppose it take surface the d A in the normal in this direction. Now,

variation can go in any direction from the normal, let say is the angle theta and we also

characterize the ray by another angle is called phi. So, the ray is characterized by angle

theta and phi and so, we define every quantity in radiation to begin with in terms of these

angles and every wavelength.

So, let us use the symbol e for emissive power so, it defines for every angle and every

wave length. So, here prime denotes that is a quantity define in terms of basic angle

direction is going and lambda is a wave length, let us look at the definition of this

quantity is defined as the radiation emitted by object, in a given direction and a given

wave length divided by unit solid angle, which we will define area projected normal to

that ray and per d unit wave length. Now, what is the units of this quantity, this is Watts

is per meter square per micron per steradian. So, this is radiation emitted per unit area

per unit wave length and per unit solid angle, this is solid angle.

Solid angle is a new concept now, which you may not have come cross is your earlier

studies, all of you know about angle, angle geometry d theta is the ark length by radius.

So, this is not all of you now, we want to extend this idea from 2 dimensions to 3

dimensions. So, the 3 dimensional concept is these solid angle it is d omega it is nothing

but area by R square. So, this is similar 1 dimensional definition this is the 3 dimensional

definition it is 2 dimension, 3 dimension and this you can easily show from your early

geometry as d s and R is d theta, while in the case of solid angle you have to now draw 3

dimensional presentation this would be d A this will be R and so, d A by R square is d

omega.

So, we call angle by the units radian in geometry. Now, this is extension of this concept

so we call it steradian. So, that it differentiate between different angle we had earlier

used in 2 dimensions to 1. Now, we are talking about 3 dimensions it is very important

recognize that radiation is inherently as 3 dimensional phenomena. Whenever, radiation

is emitted any object is emitted in all directions it as no preference to given plain. So, we

cannot imagine radiation occurring only on one plain it occurs in all directions.

So, this nature of the radiation heat transfer must be remembered, it is somewhat

different from what you may have encountered in conduction, where one can think of 1

dimensional conduction and so, here the basic emission process is 3 dimensional nature

so, you need to recognize that part. Now, all the emissive power is a very useful

definition to have and it will play important role in our further analysis, plus there is one

more quantity define which comes in very handy, and this quantity is called intensity.

(Refer Slide Time: 16:31)

So, intensity is a concept somewhat different from emissive power and for intensity, we

use the symbol i. Now, if you recall we define emissive power directions spectral as d Q

prime lambda d omega, d A cos theta, d lambda, i prime lambda is defined as same thing,

but per unit surface area. So, only difference between the definition of intensity and I am

sorry I will change I am sorry as a error here. So, I am sorry in the case of emissive

power we use surface area, and in the case of intensive we use positive area so, only

different between these two is in one them, you define everything per unit surface area in

the other.

So, this is per unit surface area this is per unit projected area, and the need occurs to

define these two quantities, 1 per unit area, 1 per unit projected area because many, many

surfaces you will find that the emissive power in an direction, which is graving angle that

is when theta is close 90, it will be very small because if you look at any object and angle

very close to theta equals 90 it is a normal of the of the direction here, and we look at

angle close to 90 all of you realize that, most objects will emit hardly any variation in the

direction which is grazing with this surface.

So, emissive power will show as strong angular dependence, the highest value will be

here when that is a 0 and as a angle increases, the emissive power will decrease and

approach 0 as it reaches 90. Now, it was felt the was a need to define other quantity

which one not be so sensitive to the angle theta. So, it was decided to define a quantity

per unit projected area so, that this quantity at least for ideal surface can be independent

on angle. So, intensity was defined in a such a way that for an ideal surface, this quantity

for a ideal surface this i prime lambda will not be a function of angle theta and phi.

Real surfaces we show some dependence, but ideal surfaces which we can conceptualize

in our mind can be, but even that ideal surface will have a some dependence of emissive

power with angle. So, intensity is define not assisted to called be that definition of ideal

surface, whose emissive power independent of whose intensive.

(Refer Slide Time: 20:40)

Now, let me just define the connection between i prime lambda and e prime lambda. And

we see that even if i prime lambda was not a function of angle theta and phi e prime

lambda will be a function of angle, and it will depend on as cos theta. Remember this

relationship is valid always it is nothing to do with any assumption, it follows from the

basic definition of emissive power and intensity.

Now, all though we have define this quantities in terms of per unit wave length, we can

also define quantities per unit frequency. For example, can define that directional

spectral emissive per unit terms of per unit frequency. So, here you will define as d Q

prime mu d omega d A d mu. So, only difference of this will be this will be Watts per

meter square per unit frequency per unit solid angle.

So, e prime mu as a units different from e prime lambda because e prime lambda is

define per unit wave length, while this is divine per unit frequency. So, they are different

units so they will have different numerical values, but all of you must realize that this

product, has be equal to this product that is e prime lambda d lambda has be equal to e

prime mu d mu with the minus sign, minus sign is because when wave length increases

the frequency as to go down. Now, you might like to wonder why both in the case of

emissive power and in the case of intensity. Why is a concept of solid angle introduced

then? Now, to understand that you must recognize a fact, that if you look at the quantity.

(Refer Slide Time: 23:04)

D Q prime lambda, d A which we can call as energy density of power or density that is

energy of power per unit area, you realize a fact as you move away from a surface this

will go down as 1 over r square or r is the distance from the surface, this always

recognize from you are basic physics bag ground in school, which is that as radiation

radiates a way from an object, they energy density has to go down as you know r square

because you can imagine that your causing this hemisphere and another hemisphere

energy remain constant. So, the energy density will go down.

Now, for future use we would like to have a quantity, which does not vary as you move

from the surface to long distance, that is as this emission from surface is moving through

a medium, which is non observing or non scattering you would like something remain

constant for a convenience. Now, this will not remain constant because energy will go

down so, it will be useful to be able to multiply this by R square so, that it remains in

variant. Now, what is than really is you imagine and area d A interceding the d is not a

different this d A. So, this d A is what area of through which this radian going and we are

using that let us call this as di, d A, i depend with this d A this, d A is this one. So, this

quantity is really d omega.

So, the understanding that you must have is that, the concept of solid angle has been

introduce in order come with define a quantity like intensity, which will be in variant in

space if there is no absorption or scattering of the proton remitted by the surface. So, this

will we useful as later, when we talk about gas radiation. So, in gas radiation when gases

are there in the medium, which observe or scatter radiation than you will find this

quantity will start decline, but if this only vacuum between one surface another surface

there is no medium between this two services, then radiation intensely being one surface

will remain in variant until reaches the other surfaces.

So, that is the advantage of the definition intensity that it remains in variant space, if the

protons are not observed as scattered in the intervening medium. So, this facilitated by

the introduction of the concept of solid angle. Now, before we go further we need to

know understand, what are the various applications we are going to this go to this course,

and what are the very after side, the first topic will discuss big detail is what it call.

need to know the properties of the surface, quite accurately. So, we need to characterize

the radiative property services by variant definitions that will be the first topic, we will

called the scores. And once you understood how to characterize the radiative property by

the surface, then we look at radiation exchange between many surfaces. So, we would

like to know how radiation leading a surface, what fraction reaches another surface and

how to calculate that fraction. This is purely a problem in 3 D geometry solid state

forward, but there are various ways of doing this calculation, and one must we were of

how it is done.

Now, once you have understood how to calculate the radiation emitted by real surface

and then you have understood how radiation exchange occurs good in surfaces, we are

now ready introduce the role of gases in observing, and emitting radiation. Now, we look

at a situation, where there are surfaces and there is a gas in between the surfaces. So, we

will we able to first estimate how much radiate living a surface, than we try to calculate

how the gas which is now observing as scattering will modify this radiation and finally,

understand how much radiations reach the other surface.

So, this can a calculation in a enclosure containing surfaces, and gases is very relevant to

design of furnaces in boilers because you can think of furnaces and boiler as a enclosure

conceding of very surfaces at various temperature, and a gas insight which observes and

scattered radiation. So, these are the three topics will covered and the following order the

first topic is of course, radiate heat transfer from surfaces to do that we need a first

characterize an ideal surfaces.

(Refer Slide Time: 29:26)

Before I start talking about property of a real surface, it will be convenient to define an

ideal surface. Now, this ideal surface need not exist in the real word, it is in our mind is a

conceptual idea and you can compare this with the concept of the Carnot cycle in thermo

dynamics, all of you know that Carnot cycle is an ideal cycle, consisting of reverse root

processes.

We can now build Carnot cycle in the real word because we can now, where really

construct processes which are completely reversible, but still the concept of an ideal

cycle is very useful thermo dynamics because we are able to compare, all real cycles and

that performance with an ideal cycle. So, we need an ideal cycle as reference to compare

the performance of real cycle. Similarly, in radiation heat transfer we want to compare

the properties of real surfaces with that of an ideal surfaces.

This ideal surface is called a black body, I want to recognize that the word black bodies

single word it is not two words in English which is black body. This is we say black

body as two words than you mean a body which is black in color, but we are talking

about a single word blackbody and this is an ideal surface, in your conceptualize was

whose main property is us observes all radiation at any wave length, and any angle. So,

this ideal surface is one in which use send radiation at any wave length in any angle, it

observes totally, no real surface can really match this particular requirement, but they can

approaches it.

Example you take typical black color object, it observes most of the radiation in the

visible that instance on it, but still will see that the black color object is some on shining

which means, it reflects small amount of radiation it is not a perfect ah black surfaces.

So, this concept our black body is really a theatrical concept in our mind, and we can try

to construct in the laboratory such as an object, but that object will not be a perfect black

body well, we approach it is ideal black body in some ways, but outbound really be as

good as body see because this body observes all radiation that instant on it, at all angles

and all wave length it is also perfect emitter. So, what you mean by a perfect emitter?

(Refer Slide Time: 33:09)

By perfect emitter we mean, that you will take emissive power of this blackbody at a

given wave length, and given direction and a given temperature. This will be always be

greater than or equal to emission by a any real surface at the same temperature, the same

marble and angle. So, you compare the emissive power of a black body at a given wave

length and angle, with that of a real body at the same wave length and a angle and both

are same temperature, we will find blackbody always emits more or is equal to the

emissive by real surface that is the main property. Now, it is able to achieve that because

it is perfect observe so it is since, observe everything based on it also emits much better

than any other object.

Now, this property of the blackbody that it always emits more than in a real body, will

come in useful to us very soon, when we want it to find the radiating properties of a real

body. Now, this concept of black body will be useful, if and only here was a simple

expression for the emissive power of a blackbody, we do not have it than it won be that

useful. Fortunately firstly, at more than hundred years ago people work very hard to try

to measure, the variation of emissive power with wave length our blackbody and try to

develop, and analytic expression for the radiation emitted by a blackbody.

And all of you are aware of this famous derivation Planck. So, Planck derived theoretical

expression was the emissive power of blackbody, and this as many of you properly know

was the first concept in quantum mechanics, there is a quantum nature matter. So, Planck

a obtain expression for the emissive power of black body. Now, here we are defined the

directions spectral quantity, but Planck was interested more in the hemispherical, the

hemispherical quantity is nothing but averaging of the spectral directional quantity

overall solid angle, to integrate the directions spectral emissive power of a surface over

all angles, then you get the emissive spectral quantity.

Now, from the definition of this quantity you know that this quantity, we can also be

return as i prime lambda cos theta d mega. And if the quantity directional spectral

intensity independent angle theta and phi then of course, this quantity will come outside

the integral and will be easy to integration.

Now, since a blackbody observes and emits equally well in all direction, the directional

spectral intensity of a blackbody is not a function of theta or phi so, that is the basic

property of the blackbody than it intensity independent of direction theta and phi. Now,

real surface approaches this convenient property, and blackbody by definition has this

ability to have an intensis independent of an angle because of that per blackbody, you

can easily calculate e lambda be as i prime lambda be and now all we are do is integrate

cost theta d omega. Now, d omega is the solid angle and you can work on the R theta

coordinate on a hemisphere.

So, here angle theta angle phi and I can show thus this d omega can be return as R d theta

R sin theta d phi. So, this is just usually surface on hemisphere one part is R d theta other

part is R sin theta d phi and then, this integral you have to do to get e lambda b will be

you integrate theta from 0 pi by 2, and integrate phi azimuth angle from 0 to 2 pi. So,

you put all those in cos theta R d theta divided by R square here R d theta, R sin theta d

phi by R square, R we will cancel out here. So, ultimately you will get an expression

which says e lambda b is equal to pi times i pram lambda b. So, this is hemispherical

spectral emissive power.

Now, what plan did was he derived an expression for in the frequency plan e mu b. So,

this is hemispherical spectral, emissive power of a blackbody per unit frequency, and this

derivation of Planck showed that this quantity is 2 pi h u cube by c square e h mu by kT

minus 1. So, this is well known expression, you may a seen it is somewhere in your

earlier courses. Now, we will not be able to do this variation the way it was done by

Planck because that demands some basic bag ground in statistical mechanics, and

quantum mechanics and since, many of you may not have this bag ground, we will not

arrive this the way Planck did it, but we will take an approach that was adopted by

Einstein, but before a do that let me give you some idea of the behavioral this function

this blackbody function, under limiting conditions.

Suppose, this quantity h nu by k T now, all of you know that h is a Planck constant

defined by Planck and k is a Boltzmanns constant which was known earlier. So, if you

are dealing with frequency reason such that this quantity is much less than 1. In such a

case that expression for blackbody (( )) will be can be approximated in a way simple

way. So, this is done by approximating this as 1 plus h mu by k T for small value h mu

by k T we can use this approximation, to get this result.

Now, note that in this result h is playing no role, because in this limit you approach what

is known as a classical limit, where quantum nature of mater is not manifest, and this is

and most text book called Rayleigh-Jeans limit. So, this is the Rayleigh-Jeans limit

which was derived earlier, Rayleigh-Jeans based on classical electromagnetic theory, but

we will see later that this particular expression is not accurate at high frequencies, this

good for low frequency, but high frequency this expression does not agree with

observations.

Now, we look at high frequencies and h mu is much greater than 1, we can derive

another approximation in which this will become by neglecting becomes 1 in the

denominator, we can get this expression. Now, this is call the Wiens approximation

because this expression was derived by Wien in before Planck obtained is result, and

interestingly this Wiens approximation are grease with the approximation, given by with

the deviation a Planck by closely.

So, let us not compare the Plancks formula with the Plancks formula, with Wiens

formula all were done neglected 1 in the in this expression to get this. Now, both are very

close to each other accept when this quantity goes to 0 then of course here the

denominator becomes very close 0. So, this goes to infinity while here, when this

quantity goes to 0 this reach as a finite value, 0 value, but what Planck recognize was

Planck insisted that when temperature goes infinity in e mu b should go to infinity, this

logical because as a temperature observe goes on increasing, it is a missive power must

go on increasing.

Now, that particular requirement is not made by this formula. So, only Plancks formula

could meet this requirement and that is the major contribution that Planck made in his

proposal for quantum nature mater he recognize, this system 1 has to be there in order to

ensure that as temperature goes to infinity the hemispherical spectral emissive blackbody

also goes to infinity, this was a requirement not made by beams expression although

beams expression is quite accurate in most conditions, but in the condition as T going

infinity the beams approximation does not walk to well, when we compare with

observation.

So, Plancks major contribution what recognize the importance of the limit T tends to

infinity, but we still do not have a physical understanding of where this is one comes

from, this is quantity one is you see their in the case of Plancks derivation, it comes

from his assumption about the quantum nature of the it is a mission, but still this thing is

not very clear. So, in order to although here not going derive this expression the way

Planck derived it we will now attempt an alternate derivation, which is physically more

meaningful and provides more insight about the role of that minus 1 there. So, this

derivation was made by Einstein later.

(Refer Slide Time: 47:08)

So, Einsteins derivation of the blackbody formula is very interesting, it provides more

insight into the nature of a emission. So, the simple idea of Einstein was he looked at a

two layer system with an upper level and a lower level, we can think of these as two

energy levels of a molecule and he did essentially, what is known as population balance.

All of you realize that lots of molecules will remain at the lower level, and a few

molecules will remain the upper level.

And the energy gap between these two is a delta E. Now, we know from that under

equilibrium a number of molecules at the upper level, n i to the number of molecules at

the lower level n j has to be of the form, this was known earlier this is a fact that the

radiation the number of molecules that is than as you go from lower, to upper level of

any substance must go down, and must go down explanation. Remember that this kind of

distribution of molecules at variation (( )) occurs at equilibrium.

That is if that is sufficient number of collations between molecules to transfer energy

between molecules than this kind of state will be attain, but there can be special

situations where, if there are insufficient collations or insufficient time the distribution

made depart from this if that happens, than we cannot derive simple expressions for

radiation. So, whatever is being whose presented in this course as thermal radiation

assumes that this kind of balance is already there equilibrium is there, and that the

number of molecules are upper level is always lesser than that a lower level, and follows

this particular expression that was known for long time.

Now, let us ask a question what controls the number of molecules at the upper level. The

first thing all of you realize that left itself, the molecule will come down and

spontaneously emit radiation, as a molecule comes down. So, first thing is less think of

emission which occurs, when a molecule at the exited upper level comes under lower

level by emission of the photon. So, if that happens the number of molecules at the upper

level will go down so, it will be minus depending on how many molecules is there upper

level. So, due to the emission the number of molecule upper level will go down, and go

down proportional to the number of molecules as the upper level.

And the proportionally constant is called A ij this is the two level system. So, the

molecule going from upper level i lower level j, will reduce the number of molecules

upper level certain rate and that rate determined by the constant A ij, these are call

Einsteins co-efficient because Einstein proposed it first, these are Einsteins co efficient.

And this process is call spontaneous emission, spontaneous emission is the emission of

proton by a molecule because one other molecule in the upper exited state, comes down

to lower state and realizes a photon, this occurs spontaneously without any trigger or any

other stimulation, they also be another form of emission which is called induced

emission.

A concept individual emission was not known when Einstein proposal it, there is no

observation available to show that individual emission can occur, but Einstein intuition

was so good that he recognize that it must exist. So, Einstein concept was that a proton

comes a long and it stimulates, the system to drop one of the molecules upper level to

lower level, and allows to protons to go out. Here one proton strikes the substance and

triggers the molecule to come down, and emit another proton. So, remember that this is

different from the previous expression we had, which is potent, potent emission there is

no trigger, the molecules comes down on its own due to certain stabilities and did not

require next another protons retrigger.

Now, this is the one where there is a proton coming in we triggers, this molecule emit

another proton and what Einstein hypothesis was there, there will be decrease in the

number of molecules the upper level due to individual emission, in proportional to

number of molecules are the upper level it has proportional to the protons coming in,

which is recommend by the directions spectral intensity, integrates all solid angle. So, all

the protons coming now, all the directions and strike this options they will induce

protons to be emitted and that will proportion to both the number of protons coming in

and the number of protons present at the upper level.

And of course there will be minus sign because the number is going down and the

constant of proportionality is another Einsteins constant called B ij. So, we have now

define two kinds of emissions, the spontaneous emission which occurs on its own with

no trigger from any proton, and the induced emission which occurs because of protons

strikes object and triggers another proton to be emitted by the object.

So, main difference between the induced emission and this, spontaneous emission is in

the case of induced emission the number of molecules coming down, depends on the

number of protons striking the object and the number of molecules are the upper level. In

the case of spontaneous emission the second term here was not there, this i prime mu d

omega, which is a number of protons that are there that was not there.

(Refer Slide Time: 55:30)

is upper level goes up, because of proton as observed by the observe proportion to

number of molecule at the lower level n j, number of protons tracking the object. And it

will posted because the number of molecule upper level is going up, and the constant of

proportionality is called B ji.

So, now the thy expressions for d n i, d t 1 related to spontaneous emission, other related

to induced emission, the last one related to absorption. Now in the next class, we will

look at a balance between these three phenomena, and arrive at a equilibrium situation

where all the three are imbalanced. So, in this lecture, we have covered the basics of

radiate transfer, defined quantities like intensity, emissive power, and how they related

and then we looked at the Plancks blackbody radiation law, which is a basic law. And

now, we are in the middle of a derivation of this Planck blackbody radiation formula

through a method propose by Einstein will complete this in a next lecture, and then we

will move on.

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