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2003-01-1647

A Study of a Dual Mode Muffler


Benzhu Liu, Masahiro Maeno, Shuichi Hase and Shigeki Wakamatsu
Technical Center, SANGO Co., Ltd.

Noise & Vibration Conference and Exhibition


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2003-01-1647

A Study of a Dual Mode Muffler


Benzhu Liu, Masahiro Maeno, Shuichi Hase and Shigeki Wakamatsu
Sango Co., Ltd.

Copyright 2003 SAE International

consumption will be adversely affected. However, low

ABSTRACT

fuel consumption is an important issue for the car maker


to maintain sales as fuel prices increase.

Dual mode mufflers are extensively used in Japan, the


construction involves a valve to control the exhaust gas

In order to reduce the back pressure and increase the

flow. The exhaust gas passes through a small pipe at

noise attenuation of the mufflers, the dual mode muffler

low engine speed, and a larger pipe at higher engine

was developed in 1989 in Sango Co. Ltd.

speed. This has the effect of a large noise reduction at

mode muffler uses a valve to control the gas flow

low engine speed, and lower back pressure at high

pathway. The exhaust gas passes through a small pipe

engine speed. This paper clarifies the resonator effect

at low engine speed and a larger pipe at high engine

of the dual mode muffler that depends on the valve

speed. This has the effect of a large noise reduction at

opening angle and rate of exhaust gas flow, and detailed

low engine speed and also lower back pressure at higher

relationship between the valve opening angle and noise

engine speeds.

The dual

reduction, how the exhaust gas flow is the major


influence for the noise reduction of the dual mode
muffler.

Initially, the valve and operation system was very


expensive. The dual mode mufflers were only used on
luxury cars. But the valve and operation structure has

INTRODUCTION

been improved continually, and today high performance


and lower cost valves are now available resulting in dual

In order to reduce emissions, a greater number of

mode mufflers being used from the lower cost car to the

catalytic converters are now used in exhaust systems,

luxury car, with an annual production of dual mode

therefore the back pressure of the total exhaust system is

mufflers of around 1 million currently.

increased. Further, the engine power, torque, and fuel

B&K PULSE

Generator

instruments, No.1732), and is amplified by a amplifier,


that drives the speaker. Swept sine signal from signal
generator is used. The same exhaust center pipe as for

P0

an engine bench test is used, and the sound pressure


P1

level P1 without the muffler and the sound pressure level


P2

Speaker

P2 with the muffler are measured.

The difference P1-

P2

noise

(IL)

is

expressed

as

the

attenuation

characteristic. P0 is the sound level at inside of the pipe.


Power Amp..

Rear muffler

Center muffler

amplifier is changed to hold the P0 at the same level.

Fig.1 Setup of acoustic test

The microphone (B&K4165), pre-amp. (B&K2639), the


B&K PULSE system are used to measure sound level.

HP PC

DYNO

Figure 2 shows the engine bench set-up. The V6/3L

Amp.

3L/V6

When the sound level P1 and P2 are measured, the

engine is connected to a Meidensha dynamometer


(FCDY300 kW).

P1

The exhaust system includes the

catalysts, a center muffler, and a dual mode rear muffler.


Front Assy

P2

Center Assy

The sound pressure level with and without rear muffler


are measured.

Rear muffler

The insertion loss (P1-P2) is used to

express the noise reduction of the muffler.


The microphone (B&K4165), pre-amp. (B&K2639), HP

Fig.2 Setup of Engine Bench


Even though dual mode mufflers have been in production

software are used to measure the sound pressure level.

for a long time, there are still many unknown noise

A flow meter (Shisouken MCS-2CX) is used to measure the

attenuation characteristics. This paper clarifies the

intake air flow mass. The engine is accelerated from

resonator effect of the muffler that depends on the valve

1000rpm to 5350rpm at full load (100% wide open

opening angle and rate of exhaust gas flow, and details

throttle), and max speed is held for several seconds, and

relationship between the valve opening angle and the

after closing the throttle valve, engine speed is

noise reduction. It also clarifies how the exhaust gas

decelerated from 5350rpm to 1000rpm.

flow is the major influencing factor for the noise reduction

acceleration and deceleration is the same.

of the dual mode muffler.

The rate of

OPERATION PRINCIPLE OF DUAL MODE

EXPERIMENT SET UP

MUFFLER

Two types of experimental methods are used. One is

HISTORY OF DUAL MODE MUFFLER DEVELOPMENT

the acoustic experiment system using a speaker, and the


other one is engine bench.

The setups are shown in

Figure 1 and Figure 2 respectively.

Figure 3 shows the basic dual mode muffler structure.


The muffler includes Inlet pipe(54.6mmdia.), Small
inner pipe(16mmdia.), Larger inner pipe(54.6mmdia.),

Figure 1 shows the acoustic test set-up. The signal is

Outlet pipe(54.6mmdia.), Valve, , Baffles, ,

generated

End caps, Shell, and Left expansion chamber as A,

by

signal

generator

(NF

electronic

pipe. The good noise attenuation performance can be


8

10

L2

obtained. At medium and high engine speeds, exhaust


gas passes the Larger inner pipe, so the back
pressure is reduced.
Table1 History of valve development
Stage

Mechanism

1st
Generation
2nd
Generation
L3

L1
1

H1

H2

3rd
Generation

(1) Motor Type


( Use an electric-motor to
open/close the valve )
(2) Diaphragm-actuator Type
( Use a diaphragm-actuator
which is operated by muffler back
pressure to open/close the valve )
Use exhaust-gas pressure and
spring to open/close the valve.
(3) Outer spring type
(4) Inner spring type

Low engine speed


Middle, high engine speed
The dual mode muffler has been used for around 13
L1=300mm, L2=220mm, L3=198mm,
Chamber C volume: 8.6L

years, and its fundamental structure has remained


almost the same. However, in order to reduce the cost,
many types of valves and operations have been

Fig.3 Basic dual mode muffler structure

developed as shown in table 1.

Middle expansion chamber as B, Right chamber as C.


The diameter refers to the I.D.( inner diameter) of the
pipe.

A
Gap

A-A

The short pass holes on the inlet pipe are

expressed as H1 and H2.


At low engine speed, the valve is closed, the exhaust gas
flows through short pass holes H2 to chamber B, and
passes through the Small inner pipe, and then enters
to the Outlet pipe.

At the medium engine speed, the

pressure of chamber C becomes higher, so the valve

Housing
Spring

opens gradually. The exhaust gas flows to chamber C,

passes through the valve, and enters the Outlet pipe.


At the low engine speed, chamber C becomes a

Cushion
Axle

Butterfly plate

resonance chamber as will be explained in the next


section. The resonator can effectively reduce the low
frequency noise, and gas flows through the smaller inner

Fig.4 Valve structure

With Valve

Without Valve

3rd. order dB-A

This temperature varies

with engine speed. The valve of the muffler is closed

90

when engine rpm is lower than 2500rpm, it is gradually

80

opened when engine rpm is above 2500rpm.

70

Figure 5

shows tailpipe noise level of mufflers with a valve and

60

without a valve. The results of engine acceleration and

50 50
40
1000

100

150

200

250 Hz

engine deceleration are shown in Fig.5(a) and (b). The


X axis shows the engine speed and frequency, and the Y

2000 3000 4000 5000


Engine speed rpm
(a) Acceleration
With Valve

80
3rd. order dB-A

accelerated from 1000rpm.

6000

(vertical axis) shows the 3rd order component of tailpipe


noise, A-weight is used to express the noise level.
It can be concluded from the graph that the noise

Without Valve

attenuation is much greater between 2,000rpm to

70

4,000rpm if a valve is used, and this result seems to be

60

due to some resonance effects. The IL difference with

50

valve and without valve under engine acceleration and


deceleration

40
50
30
1000

100

2000

150

200

different.

Max

IL

difference

for

acceleration and deceleration are about 20dB and 10dB

250 Hz

3000 4000 5000


Engine speed rpm

is

6000

respectively.

The flow rate is the major reason causing

this difference, as the flow rate of the exhaust gas is


absolutely different when the engine is accelerated and

(b) Deceleration

decelerated.

Fig.5 Performance of dual mode muffler


In the views of resonance principle, the measured
resonance frequency shows that the effect may come
Figure 4 shows a drawing of the 3rd-generation inner

from pipe length L1, pipe length L2, and the chamber C,

spring type valve. The valve consists of a butterfly plate,

the resonance frequency can be calculated by Eq.3.

a housing, a axle, a cushion, and a spring. There is a


1mm gap between the housing and the butterfly plate.

f1 =

C
2

S1
( L 1 + 0 . 8 D 1)V

(1)

f2 =

C
2

S2
( L 2 + 0 . 8 D 2 )V

(2)

This gap is very important for noise attenuation


characteristics.

The shape of the valve is not circle, but

rectangular. The shape of the Larger inner pipe end


is shaped following the valve, and connected to the

f =

f 12 + f 2 2

(3)

valve.
MECHANISM OF DUAL MODE MUFFLER

f: resonance frequency

S1 and S2: Section area of

Inlet pipe and Larger inner pipe .

In order to evaluate the performance of the dual mode

D1 and D2: Dia. of Inlet pipe and Larger inner pipe

muffler, mufflers with valve and without the valve were

C: Acoustic speed

tested with an engine bench.

L1 and L2: Pipe lengths

The tail pipe exit gas

temperature is at 350 degree C initially when engine is

V: Chamber C volume

In order to confirm this hypothesis, an acoustic test is

it is necessary to clarify the relationship between valve

used to check the following items.

opening angle and noise reduction.

If this hypothesis is

correct, there should be no large change of the noise


attenuation if the short pass holes H2 of the Inlet pipe
and Small inner pipe are removed.
shown in figure 6(a) by acoustic test.

Base
Without H2 holes
Without small pipe

The result is

From the graph,

40

no large difference in performance of noise attenuation


can be seen, and the calculated frequency is 74Hz by
calculate the resonance frequency), it is close to
measured frequency 85Hz.

30
IL dB

Eq.3 (the room temperature 20 degree C is used to

20
10

In order to evaluate the valve gap influence on noise

attenuation, the gap of valve is sealed, and the result is

shown in Fig.6(b). In this case, chamber C is a normal


resonator, and its resonance frequency is determined by
volume of chamber C and Inlet pipe diameter and the

100
200
300
Engine speed rpm
(a) Influence of small pipe and H2
holes

pipe length L3(refer Fig.3), the resonance frequency will


shift to the lower frequency.

The calculated frequency

Base

40

is 58Hz (the room temperature is 20 degree C), it is close

Valve gap sealed

to measured frequency 65Hz.


The dual mode muffler has a good noise attenuation
effect. It is due to an effective resonator chamber which

IL dB

30
20

consists of chamber C, Inlet pipe, and Larger inner


pipe. In this case, resonance frequency depends on the

10

Larger inner pipe, because the valve has a small gap.


However if the Small inner pipe s diameter is the
same as the diameter of the Inlet pipe and Larger
inner pipe, the resonance frequency will be influenced by
the Small pipe, this has been confirmed from our
tuning test.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VALVE OPENING ANGLE


AND IL OF MUFFLER

0
0

50

100 150 200 250


Engine speed rpm
(b) Influence of valve gap

300

Fig.6 Resonance principle of dual mode


muffler

For this reason, the valve spring is removed, and an


external device is used which can continuously vary the
valve opening angle. When the engine is accelerated

Fig.5 shows that the influence of the valve greatly affects

from low speed to high speed at a constant opening

the performance of the muffler. Because the opening

angle. The IL of the muffler when the valve opening

angle of the valve depends on the engine speed and load,

angle is changed from 0 degrees to 90 degrees (0

degrees being valve closed) is shown in Fig.7. Fig.7(a)

1,000rpm between Fig.5 and Fig.7 is different, 350

shows

degree C and 60 degree C respectively.

acceleration

results,

and

Fig.7(b)

shows

In acceleration,

deceleration results. When engine is accelerated from

if the opening angle is less than 10 degrees, IL does not

1,000rpm, the temperature at 1,000rpm at tail pipe exit is

change much, because the valve butterfly plate is not

found at 60 degree C. In order to compare the engine

separated completely from the housing of valve with this

bench and speaker test which is performed at room

type valve (refer to Fig.4). If the opening angle is larger

temperature, it is necessary to reduce the temperature

than 30 degrees, the noise attenuation effect becomes

difference between engine beach and speaker test.

worse. There is no large difference above 200Hz.

From Fig.7, large noise reduction effect can be found at

From Fig.7(b), it is concluded that the attenuation

125Hz, the property is similar to Fig.5.

The peak

difference in the deceleration when valve opening angle

frequency is different, because the gas temperature at

increases from 0 to 90 degree is not large. Even if the


valve opening angle is 90 degree, the resonator effect
can be found at around 130Hz. The attenuation result

Lp B

40

IL dB

is different from acceleration result, why? The largest

0degree
10degree
30degree
50degree
70degree
90degree

50

30

difference between acceleration and deceleration is


exhaust gas flow rate.

Throttle is closed under engine

deceleration, and throttle is opened 100% at engine


acceleration in these tests.

So, the flow rate has a large

influence on the noise reduction of the muffler.

20
Acceleration

10

The resonance frequencies are predicted by Eq.3, the


tailpipe exit gas temperature at engine speed 2500rpm is

0
50

100

150
200
Frequency Hz

250

300

frequency for acceleration is 83Hz (the temperature is


condition is 99Hz (the temperature is 250 degree C), the

50

0degree
10degree
30degree
50degree
70degree
90degree

40
IL dB

The predicted

100 degree C, and predicted frequency for deceleration

(a) Acceleration

Att B

used to predict the resonance frequency.

30
20

predicted frequency is different from the measured


frequency. The influence of the exhaust gas flow and
temperature can be considered as one contribution.
Another contribution comes from a know factor, the effect
of the number of the H1 holes on inlet pipe.

But the real

reason has not been completely identified yet, a further

10

research is required.

Deceleration

0
50

100

150
200
Frequency Hz

250

300

(b) deceleration

In order to evaluate how the flow influences the noise


reduction of a muffler, an acoustic test without flow is
used.

The relationship between valve opening angle

and IL of muffler which is obtained from the acoustic test


is shown in Fig.8. When valve opening angle is varied

Fig.7 Performance with different valve opening

from 0 to 90 degree, the IL of the muffler has similar

property, the difference of max peak is only 5dB between


valve opening angle 0 and 90 degree.

0degree
50degree

This result is

similar as the result from the deceleration of engine

35

has no gas flow, and this is similar to deceleration

30

valve is closed. This further confirms that the gas flow

25

reduction of muffler.

IL dB

condition on the engine bench while the intake throttle

section will discuss how the flow influences the noise

30degree
90degree

40

bench at Fig.7(b). This is because that the acoustic test

has a large influence on the noise attenuation. The next

10degree
70degree

20
15
10
5
0

FLOW INFLUENCE ON NOISE REDUCTION

50

PROPERTY OF DUAL MODE MUFFLER


Past research about flow influence on noise attenuation

100

150
200
Frequency Hz

250

300

Fig.8 IL vs valve opening angle by


acoustic system

It is understood that flow influences the noise reduction


of dual mode muffler.

The flow influence on the

resonator type muffler and expansion type muffler were


reported by Hirata in 1970, 1971.

In order to reduce the

0%

influence from flow induced noise, the test flow rate is


attenuation effect is decreased when the flow rate is
increased. For example, in the case of a resonator, the
peak level of noise attenuation at resonance frequency is
about 35dB without flow, and is about 20 dB at 20 m/s of
flow rate. In the expansion type muffler, the result is
almost the same.

The peak level is 17dB without flow,

and is 10dB at 30m/s flow rate.

50%

100%

200
Intake air flow mass
g/s

less than 50m/s. The conclusion is that the noise

30%

150
100
50
0
1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Engine speed rpm


Fig.9 Intake air flow mass Vs engine
speed

Relationship between throttle valve angle and intake air


flow mass
In order to research the flow influence on the noise

The relationship between intake throttle valve angle and

reduction of dual mode mufflers, a dynamometer is used

intake air flow mass is shown in Fig.9. When the intake

to operate the engine without combustion.

The intake

throttle angle is 0% (means the intake throttle valve is

throttle angle of the engine can be controlled to vary the

closed), the intake air flow mass is almost same even

flow rate inside the exhaust pipe.

though the engine speed is higher. But the intake air


flow mass depends on engine speed when the throttle

valve angle is at 30%, 50%, and 90%. The average

When the valve opening angle is 0 degree , even though

flow rate in the exhaust pipe can be calculated by the

the flow rate is changed, there is a large peak of noise

intake air flow mass.

attenuation performance.

The average velocities in the

tail pipe at 3000rpm are 2.2m/s, 26.2m/s, 32.2m/s,

0%

50

30%

50%

100%

0%,30%,50%,100%.

40
IL dB

33.3m/s when intake throttle opening angles are


rate is larger.

30

The peak level at a higher flow

This result is different with previous

research, and requires further investigation.

20

When the valve opening angle is 90 degrees, if the flow

10

rate is lower, the peak of the noise reduction exists at


around 2200rpm, muffler has a resonator effect.

0
1000

2000 3000 4000 5000 6000


Engine speed rpm
(a) Valve opning angle is 0 degree

0%

30%

50%

100%

But if

the flow rate is higher, the peak of noise reduction


around 2200rpm can not be found, the resonator effect
does not exist. In this case, the average velocities in
the tail pipe at 3000rpm are 2.2m/s, 26.0m/s, 32.3m/s,
and 33.2m/s when intake throttle opening angles are

50

0%,30%,50%, and 100% respectively.

IL dB

40
This phenomenon can be explained by using acoustic

30

model shown in Fig.11.

20

Acoustic wave propagation

direction is influenced by flow rate.

10

Fig.11(a) shows

acoustic wave propagation direction at low flow rate,

0
1000

and Fig.11(b) shows acoustic wave propagation direction

2000 3000 4000 5000


Engine speed rpm

6000

(b ) Valve opning angle is 90 degree


Fig.10 Flow influence on dual mode
muffler

at higher flow rate. Right chamber C changes from a


resonator to expansion chamber when the flow rate is
increased. Again this needs further research.

CONCLUSION
The noise attenuation performance and characteristics of
a dual mode muffler has been experimentally studied by

Flow influence on dual mode muffler

using the V6/3L engine bench and the acoustic test.

When the valve opening angle is fixed, and the engine

The operational behavior of a dual mode muffler is

throttle angle is changed, the result is as shown in the

discussed. It can be concluded as follows.

Fig.10, Fig.10(a) shows the result with a valve opening


angle of 0 degree, Fig.10(b) shows the result when the
valve opening angle is 90 degree.

(1) The superior noise attenuation effect of a dual mode


muffler is due to the resonance effect.

Both valve

opening angle and exhaust gas flow rate influence the

V=2.2m/s

noise attenuation of the resonance effect.


(2) The effect of the valve opening angle on the noise

Resonator

attenuation was investigated, and the effect is obvious.


The data are used to tune the valve spring force in
muffler design, to achieve the most effective design with

(a) Acoustic model at low flow rate

the maximum noise attenuation

Expansion room
V=26.0m/s

(3) Higher gas flow rate gives better noise attenuation of


a dual mode muffler.
previous

research.

This conclusion is different from


It

is

necessary

for

further

investigation.
(4) Acoustic test using speaker and engine bench test for
measuring IL of dual mode muffler were compared.

The

(b) Acoustic model at high flow rate

experimental results of IL by acoustic test is similar to


that of engine bench test for deceleration.

But it is

different from engine bench test under acceleration, as


the flow rate is much higher in engine bench acceleration
condition.

REFERENCE
(1)Y. Hirata, T.Itow, The Journal of the Acoustic Society
of Japan, Vol.26, No.1, P16-24,1970
(2) Y. Hirata, The Journal of the Acoustic Society of
Japan, Vol.27, No.10, P501-507,1971

Fig.11 Acoustic model