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Hoisting equipment are usually powered

equipment used for lifting and lowering unit


and varying loads intermittently.
In certain equipment while lifting and
lowering, shifting of the load can also be
accomplished, within an area known as the
reach of the equipment.

The component parts and units of hoisting equipment


include:
o Flexible hoisting appliances;
o Pulleys and pulley systems;
o Sprockets and drums;
o Load handling attachments;
o Stopping and braking devices;
o Drivers (motors), Transmission components (axles,
shafts, bearings, clutches, etc.);
o Rails and travelling wheels;
o Machine structures (crane frames) and Control devices.

There are three groups of hoisting equipment having


the following main distinctive features.
i. Hoisting machines: designed as self-lifting gear
and for hoisting and moving.
ii. Cranes: a combination of separate hoisting
mechanism with a frame for lifting and/or moving
loads.
iii. Elevators: a group of periodic action machine
intended for raising loads with guide- ways.

The main technical parameters are:


o Lifting capacity: the maximum safe load the
machine is designed to handle;
o Dead weight of the machine: the total weight of
the machine with out the load;
o Speed of various movements: hoisting speed, the
bridge travel speed and the trolley travel speed;
o Lifting height: the height to which the load is
intended to be raised;
o Geometrical dimension of the machine.

Hoisting machines are periodic-action machines and


their hourly capacity can be determined from:

Qhr n Q
Where n = number of machine cycles per hour
Q = weight of live load [tons]
Qhr = hourly capacity [tons/h]

When handling bulk material, the weight of live loads is:

Q = V
Where V = capacity of bucket, grab etc [m3]
= filling factor
= specific weight [t/m3]

The total load lifting capacity of the machine will be:

Qtot Q G
Where: Q = live load [tons]
G = weight of bucket, grab, etc. [tons]

The number of cycle per hour is:


n

Where:

3600
t

t t op t idle
t op t st t cs t r

tst = starting time


tcs = constant speed time
tr = retardation time
t = cycle time

Factors acting on the operating conditions are:


1. Load on the machine
2. Its annual and daily utilization
3. Relative duty factory (DF)
4. Ambient temperature
Mean lifting capacity utilization:
Where:

Qm
K load
Qn
Qm = mean value of load [tons]
Qn = nominal load [tons]

Yearly utilization factor:


K year

Days in operations per year


365

Daily utilization factor:


K day

Hours in operations per day


24

Hourly utilization factor:


K hr

Time - on in an operational hour(min)


60

Mean utilization of the machine per working cycle:


DF

top
top tidle

100%

The total time-on, T, of a mechanism throughout its


life, h (in years)
DF
T 365 K year 24 K day K hr
h
100

Duties of Hoisting Machinery


Duty
K load

Light L
Medium M
Heavy H
Very Heavy VH

0.5
0.5
0.75
1.0

Mean Utilization of Mechanism


Duty Factor
Temperature
By Time
(DF)
C
K day
K year
%
0

0.25
0.5
0.75
1.0

0.33
0.67
0.67
1.0

15
25
40
40

25
25
25
45

Hoisting machineries use different flexible hoisting


appliances for handling materials some of which are:
o
o
o
o

Hemp ropes
Welded load chains
Roller chains
Steel wire ropes

Hemp ropes have poor mechanical


properties (rapid abrasion, inadequate
strength, rapid damage from sharp
materials and atmospheric effects).
They can be recommended only for
hand-operated hoisting machinery (rope
pulleys with diameters at least 10d).

Cross-sections of Hemp Ropes


Load on the rope [kgf]
2

d
F =
br

For white rope br 100 kgf/cm2 and


For tarred rope br 90 kgf/cm2.

They are widely used in hoisting installations


as pliable members.

Where t - pitch
d - diameter
B - chain outside width

A chain is no stronger than its weakest link

Depending on the ratio between the pitch


and the diameter
i. Short-link chains with t 3 d
ii. Long-link chains with t > 3 d
Depending on manufacturing accuracy
i. Calibrated - t 0.03d and B 0.05d
ii. Un-calibrated - t 0.1d and B 0.1d

Welded chains are formed from oval steel links by


a number of methods.
i. Hammer (forge) welding: the chain bar is
formed by forging to chain shape, then the ends
are forge welded.
ii. Electric resistance welding: the link is made
of two butt-welded half links.

Sequence in the Manufacturing of Welded Chains

Disadvantages
- Heavy weight
-

Susceptibility to jerks and overload


Sudden failure
Intensive wear at the link joints and
Low safe speed of movement

Advantages
Good flexibility in all directions

Use small diameter pulleys & drums


Simple design and manufacture

Selection
Where ,

Fbr
Fs
K
Fbr = breaking load [kgf]

Fs

= factor of safety (3 to 8)
= Safe load [kgf]

Chains

Drive

Factor of
Safety, K

Ratio
(D/d)

Minimum
Number
of Teeth on
Sprocket

Welded calibrated and uncalibrated

Hand
Power

3
6

20
30

5
5

Welded calibrated on sprocket


sheaves

Hand
Power

4.5
8

20
30

Welded uncalibrated (sling)


passing around the load

Welded uncalibrated (sling) not


passing around the load

Roller

They are composed of plates hinge-jointed by pins and


rollers. For light loads, two plates are used; for very
heavy loads, the number of plates can be increased up
to 12

Simple Roller Chain with Two Plates

The plates can be secured on the pins by


several methods like retainer rings, pins, etc

Roller chains are used for hand-operated hoists and


power-driven winches and hoisting mechanisms of high
load lifting capacity.
They are superior to welded chains
The reliability of operation is higher since the plates are solid.
Roller chains have good flexibility and therefore they can be
used on small diameter sprockets.
The friction in the joints is considerably less.

However, they should not be allowed:

To carry weight at an angle


To be used in dusty premises
To wind on a drum
To a speed greater than 0.25m/s

They are extensively used in hoisting


machinery as flexible lifting appliances.
Comparing to chains they have the following
advantages.

Lighter weight
Less susceptibility to damage from jerks
Silent operation even at high speeds
Greater reliability in operation

(a)

(b)

(c)

Steel Wire Rope Construction


Wire ropes are manufactured first
by twisting separate wires, cold
drawn and given heat treatment
between drawing stages, into
strands and then into a "round"
rope.
Wire ropes consist of 6 or 8
strands and a core. Each strand
consists of 19 or 37 wires.

The lays of the rope classifies the wire ropes into:


i. Cross-of regular lay ropes: the direction of the
twist of the wires in the strand is opposite to that of
the strands in the rope.
ii. Parallel or long lay ropes: the direction of twist of
wire and strand is the same. They are more flexible
and resist wear better, but tend to spring and are
used in lift.

iii. Composite or reverse laid ropes: the wires in two


adjacent stands are twisted in the opposite
direction.

Steel Wire Rope Lays

1. General Purpose Steel Wire Ropes


a. Ordinary construction: the strands are twisted of
wires of the same diameter. The repeatedly cross
over of the inner wires create zones of increased unit
pressure, which shortens life.
b.Warrington type compound rope: is twisted of strands
with different wire diameters keeping the proportional
pitch of every layer, thus crossovers are eliminated.

2.Non-spinning Wire Ropes


Each individual wire and strand being laid is
performed to correspond to its disposition in
the rope.
As a result unloaded wires are not subject to
internal stresses and do not tend to spin.

3. Wire Ropes with Flattened Strands


They are usually made from five flattened
strands with a flattened wire core; the
strands are laid on the hemp core.
They experience more uniform pressure and
are used where the rope is subjected to
intensive abrasion and wear.

Ropes with Flattened Strands

4.Locked-coil Steel Wire Ropes


A locked coil rope consists of an outer layer
formed of specially shaped wire and an inner
single lay spiral rope.
Locked-coil wire ropes are used in cable-ways and
cable cranes; they are never met within hoisting
machines.

Locked-coil Ropes

They have the advantage over the other


wire ropes because they have specific
features of smooth surface, tightly
packed wires and little wear.
However, their shortcoming is due to
their little flexibility.

Selecting Steel Wire Ropes


Wires in a loaded rope experience complex stress
consisting of tension, bending, twisting and
compression.
Thus the total stress can be determined
analytically only to a certain degree of
approximation.
Experiments have shown that life of a rope is
greatly affected by fatigue and can withstand only
a definite number of bends during service life

Investigations have shown that the rope life


is inversely proportional to the number of
bends where one bend equals the transition
of the rope from a straight position into a
bent position or vise versa.

Reverse bending reduces the rope life


approximately double of the single bend.
The number of bends is obtained by the
number of points where the rope runs on
and off over a pulley/ drum surface.

Wire ropes for Materials Handling Equipment (According to DIN 655)


Design (DIN655)

6x19=114 wires
+1core
A

6x37=222 wires
+1core
B

8x37=296 wires
+1core
C

Rope dia.
d 5% (mm)

Wire dia.
(mm)

Metal crosssection
(mm2)

Weight (kgf/m)
5%

Strength of the wire rope in (kgf) if the strength of


the wire in (kgf/mm2)
130 kgf/mm2

160 kgf/mm2

180 kgf/mm2

6.5

0.4

14.3

0.15

1860

2300

2550

8.0

0.5

22.4

0.21

2900

3600

4050

9.5

0.6

32.2

0.30

4200

5150

5800

12.5

0.8

57.3

0.54

7450

9150

10300

16.0

1.0

89.5

0.85

11650

14300

16100

19.0

1.2

128.9

1.22

16750

20600

23200

22.0

1.4

175.5

1.66

22800

28050

31600

10

0.45

35.3

0.34

4600

5650

6350

13

0.60

62.8

0.59

8150

10050

11300

16

0.75

98.1

0.93

12750

15700

17650

22

1.00

174.4

1.65

22650

27900

31400

24

1.20

251.1

2.38

32650

40200

45200

30

1.50

392.3

3.72

51000

62750

70600

40

1.80

564.9

5.36

73450

90400

101700

16

0.6

83.7

0.84

10900

13400

15050

19

0.7

113.9

1.14

14800

18200

20500

21

0.8

148.8

1.49

19350

23800

26800

27

1.0

232.5

2.32

30250

37200

41850

32

1.2

334.8

3.35

43500

53550

60250

40

1.5

523.1

5.24

68000

83700

94150

Various methods are used to secure the ends of


chains and ropes to the load suspension appliance.
a) Fastenings of Welded Load Chains

Split yoke and a bolt

Cross piece and forked eyes

b) Fastenings of Roller Chains

A special link having bigger pitch and hole


for bolted connection

c) Fastenings of Wire Ropes

Various Types of Knots of Hemp Ropes