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Earth Formation and

Differentiation
September 26, 2016

Our own pale blue


dot...
-

Cosmology: study of overall


structure of the Universe

Only planet to harbor liquid


water and life

Universe
- Local Supercluster
- Milky Way Galaxy
- Solar System
- Earth

Geocentric vs.
Heliocentric

Geocentric Model
Earth is the center of
the Universe
Widely accepted until
the Renaissance
Heliocentric Model
Sun is the center of the
Universe
Proven by scientists like
Johannes Kepler and
Galileo Galilei
The Universe
All of space and that
matter and energy
within it

Formation of our
Universe: The Big
Bang

The Big Bang


Started out at a
small infinitesimal
point
Exploded
13.8 Ga
Continually expanding
Distance between
galaxies increases

All H atoms have


formed and enough
have combined to
form He; ratio of H:He
is 3:1

Super small, super


dense, super hot; too
hot for even atoms to
be created

Big Bang
(13.8 Ga)

A few
seconds
later

Neutrons, protons,
electrons came into
existence

20 mins
later

First true star is


born.

200 Million
years later

800 Million
years later

Nebulae of H and He
dispersed throughout the
universe until one
particularly denser nebulas
gravity started collapsing
into an accretionary disk.

Possible
essay
question!!

Galaxies...more
specifically the
Milky Way Galaxy

Formation:
Clusters of dust + gas ->
cluster of stars -> galaxy
Shape of galaxies
Gravity of neighbors
Collisions
Andromeda Galaxy
Milky Way
Spiral Galaxy
Our solar system located
in Orion Arm
Light-year
Distance that light travels
in a year
(~6 trillion
miles)

Formation of the Milky Way Galaxy

Our own pale blue dot...

Our own pale blue dot...

Our own pale blue


dot...
This is where you
are in the Solar
System

Buzzfeed video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Eh5BpSnBB
w

Formation of our Solar


System

Nebular Theory

Planets grow out of rings of


gas, dust, and ice surrounding a
newborn star.
~4.6 Ga
Our Solar System (in order of
appearance):

Sun

Mercury

Venus
Terrestrial Planets

Earth

Mars

Asteroid belt

Jupiter

Saturn
Jovian Planets

Uranus

Neptune

Kuiper belt

Oort Cloud

Rocky planet, primarily


silicate rocks/metals, solid
surface
meaning Jupiter-like, gas/ice
giants, gaseous outer layer,
metallic middle layer, rocky core

BUT WHAT ABOUT PLUTO?!

Definition of a planet
Must orbit a star
Be somewhat spherical
Clear its neighborhood of any
objects
Pluto does not fit the
third qualification
Also good to note.
Planets must also be < 75x
mass of Jupiter
Definition of a dwarf planet
Same first two qualifications of
planet
CANNOT clear its
neighborhood of any objects
CANNOT be a satellite
Satellite = moon
Examples: Pluto, Ceres, Eris

Think-Pair-Share

What is the difference between Terrestrial and Jovian planets?

Stars

Elements factories!
Big Bang nucleosynthesis
Elements formed right after
the Big Bang
H, He, Li, Be
Stellar nucleosynthesis
Elements up to Iron (atomic
#26) formed during fusion
rxns during life cycle of stars
First generation stars left the
heavier elements to interact with H
and He leftover from Big Bang
Second generation stars interact
with heavy elements from first
generation stars
And on and on and on
Supernovae nucleosynthesis

Crab Nebula

But do all stars


explode???

Capable of supernova

No.
How it dies depends
on mass
Cool down
m < 10 suns
Neutron star
10 suns < m <
25 suns
Blackhole
m> 25 suns
Hertzspringer-Russell Diagram

Discussion Topic: What are the differences between planets and stars?
Planets

< 75x mass of Jupiter


Form around already existing
star from remnants of
collapsed nebula

Stars

> 75x mass of Jupiter


Form from collapsed nebulae
Nuclear reactions that burn H in
core

Think-Pair-Share

Where do all the elements found on Earth come from?

Carl Sagans Pale Blue Dot

Differentiation of
Earth

4.56 Ga
Based on meteorite ages
Series of events:
Homogenous distribution
Planetesimals heated up:
Collisions
Compression of matter
into smaller volume
Decay of radioactive
elements
Internal melting
Dense iron settled at
core
Light, rocky materials
remained as shell

Earths Moon

Formation at 4.35 Ga
Mars-like protoplanet
collision
Ring of debris left around
Earth
Coalesced into Moon
Craters happened 3.0 - 4.35 Ga
3.9 Ga: Heavy
bombardment of
meteorites
of Earths radius (1,737 km)
Synchronous rotation
1 rotation/orbit
~27 days to orbit Earth
Always same side facing
Earth

Lunar
highlands
Marias

Earths Moon: Synchronous Rotation