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Somatosensory systems

Braille-alfabetet (punktskrift) er det mest almindelige


og internationale blindeskriftsystem. Systemet blev
opfundet af franskmanden Louis Braille med
inspiration fra et militrt system beregnet til at
kommunikere ordrer lydlst i mrke.
Alfabetets bogstaver er ophjede punkter, der fles
med fingerspidserne, og hvis antal og placering er
varieret inden for en grundform p seks punkter i to
lodrette rkker, nummereret sledes:

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Somatosensory systems
Principal sensory pathways.
Anatomical and functional significance of the
dorsal columns and spinothalamic tracts.
Principal functional consequences of injury to, and
disease of, these pathways.
diminished sensation over the back of the calf and
the lateral border of the foot.

slightly decreased sensation to touch and pain over the


radial border of her right hand

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Sensory receptors in the skin

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Sensory receptors
Primary sensory receptor

Secondary sensory receptor

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Sensory receptors

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Receptor potential Transduction - Transformation


Transduction

Transformation

Guyton & Hall, Medical Physiology, 2006

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Receptor potential Transduction - Transformation

Guyton & Hall, Medical Physiology, 2006

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Receptor potential

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Adaptation to a constant stimulus

Guyton & Hall, Medical Physiology, 2006

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Coding of
Stimulus intensity

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Receptive fields

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

2-point discrimination

Fox, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

2-point discrimination

Fox, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Coding of stimulus intensity by recruitment:


Population coding

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Spinal cord: gray matter and nerves

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Myelination

1 to 2

mm

PNS
single axon

CNS
several axons

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Nerve conduction:
continuous

Fox, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Nerve conduction: saltatory


VGSC
10.000/m2
(100)

Fox, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Nerve fiber classification

Guyton & Hall, Medical Physiology, 2006

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Adequate stimulus

Nerve fiber classification

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Spinal anatomy

Netter, 1986

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Spinal sensory processing

Guyton & Hall, Medical Physiology, 2006

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Lateral inhibition

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Lateral inhibition

Kandel, Principles of Neural Science, 2000

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Anatomy & Physiology Revealed, 2007

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Spinal nerves

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Dermatomes

C6: thumb, tommelfinger


C7:middle finger, langfinger
C8: little finger, lille finger
T4: breast, nipple line
T10: bellybutton, navle
L1: groin, lyske
L4: thigh, lr
L5: large toe, stor t
S1: little toe, lille t

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Ascending tracts

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Cortical representation

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Somatosensory
Homunculus

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Ascending tracts

Anesthesia: loss of sensation


Dysesthesia: unpleasant abnormal sensation
Hypoesthesia: decreased sensitivity
Paresthesia: abnormal sensation

Stanfiled & Germann, Human Physiology, 2008

Jens Ellrich, 2009


Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology

Stanfield and Germann


Human Physiology
Pearson, 2008
Guyton and Hall
Medical Physiology
Elsevier, 2006
Deetjen, Speckmann, Hescheler
Physiologie
Elsevier, 2005
Fox
Human Physiology
McGraw-Hill, 2008
Jens Ellrich, 2009
Medical Physiology & Experimental Pharmacology