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## Calculated stress in CAESAR II software by using failure theory.

REFERENCE DOCUMENT:
- ASME B31.3.
- CAESAE II User Guide.
- Piping Stress Engineering- L.C. Peng.
- Theory of Plasticity- J.Chakrabarty

## PROCEDURE TO ACCOMPLISH THIS TASK AND NOTES:

Note: This study stands in safety views of author. It does not say code wrong or not cover all
cases of safety.
1. In B31.3 show how to evaluate stress in Sustained, Expansion and Occasional.
Sustained:
Sustained conditions may be evaluated by detailed analysis, approximate methods, or simplified means
such as span tables. When detailed analysis is performed, the stress due to sustained loads, SL, shall be
computed and combined as described in this paragraph and shall not exceed the allowable described in
para. 302.3.5(c).-Para.320.1
SL

S b 2S t
2

## ( For more detail can refer to Para.320.2)

Expansion:
The axial, bending, and torsion displacement stress ranges shall be computed using the reference
modulus of elasticity at 21C (70F), Ea, except as provided in para. 319.2.2(b)(4), and then combined
in accordance with eq. (17) to determine the computed displacement stress range, SE, which shall not
exceed the allowable displacement stress range, SA, in para. 302.3.5(d).-Para.319.4.4
( For more detail can refer to Para.319.4.4)
Occasional:
The sum of the longitudinal stresses, SL, due to sustained loads, such as pressure and weight, and of
the stresses produced by occasional loads, such as wind or earthquake, may be as much as 1.33 times
the basic allowable stress.-Para.302.3.6-B31.3.
2. Another way, combined stress is calculated base on material failure theory such as Max. Shear
Stress (Tresca) or Distortional Energy (von Mises). In CAESAR II also show this stress in
analysis output.

What happened when Maximum Stress Intensity of Octahedral Shearing Stress large
than Yielding Strength?
To answer the question, we start from what is Maximum Stress Intensity or Octahedral Shearing
Stress.
In Piping Stress Engineering-L.C Peng give a definition: defining stress intensity as twice the
maximum shear stress.

## Octahedral Shearing Stress( von Mises Stress):

Where:
Sx: Longitudinal stress resulting mainly from bending moments and internal pressure.
Sy: Hoop stress mainly from internal pressure.
xy: Torsion stress mainly due to the torsion moment.
S1,S2: Principle stress( consider pipe stress in two-dimension stress)

## How CAESAR II calculate this two stresses

CAESAR II reports the largest stress using four calculation points through the pipe cross section, as
show in the following figure.

Longitudinal stress (Sl), hoop stress (Sh), radial stress (Sr) and shear stress (St) are calculated at
each position using the appropriate formulas.

These stresses are translated into principal stresses S1,S2,S3 by using Morhs Circle:

## (CAESAR II reports the largest of these four values.)

3D Maximum Shear Stress Intensity (S.I.):

S.I. = S1-S3
(CAESAR II reports the largest of these four values.)
When follow a failure theory (here we follow max. shear stress intensity) what is behavior of piping
system when the value large than Yielding strength.
CAESAR II software use calculate stress and displacement base on elastic field. Therefore the stress
value can be large than Yielding strength (detail can refer to Para. 3.3- Piping Stress Engineer-L.C.
Peng). When the stress is large than Yielding strength, it means plastic deform already appear in
our system.
Imagine it heated or cooled to the same temperature time and time again.
The stresses will never increase over the maximum from the first heat up so
long as the maximum temperature of the first heat up is never exceeded. If the
strains in the L bends elbow exceed the yield stress of the metal (as is
permissible by the B31 codes) the small area of highest stress that exceeds
the yield strength of the metal in the elbow yields or deforms. This
deformation then redistributes the internal strain energy to a larger surface
and hence the peak stress value decreases as shown in the hypothetical graph
in the figure above. This cycle of load application, material yielding, and strain
redistribution will occur repeatedly during the first few cycles. After the strain
has been fully redistributed the system will have been shaken out. This
entire phenomenon is often described as a strain controlled phenomena. After
full shakeout occurs all subsequent cycles will behave in an elastic manner.COADE Mechanical Engineering News-Jan, 2001.

This is the reason why when Max. Stress Intensity large than Yielding strength
our system is still operating under elastic manner.
One example from KNPC project-C-141-1360-0213-R04

Max. Stress Intensity at node 2180(on branch element) large than Yielding
strength (478750.8>241311) plastic deformation is appeared at this node
(on branch element).
Conclusion:
From code stress, we know only our system can run safe under thermal fatigue.
But we dont know the system have plastic deform or not.
From Max. Stress Intensity or Octahedral Shearing Stress, we can know our
system have plastic deform or not. But after some cycle of operating, the stress
reduces into elastic range. Its very importance thing in piping stress analysis.
Problem:
Why in sustained case, code stress evaluation don't include hoop
stress. The stress included only longitudinal and torsion stress.
Whats happened if we find out a case in which Max. Stress Intensity

in sustained case is large than Yielding Strength (or this case never
existing). Can the actual stress (not calculated stress in CAESAR II) be
over ultimate strength (Su)? And our system can be collapsed by
thermal stress?
Can we control plastic deformation in design stage? Whats happened
if the deformation is too large (if existing)?