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Evaluation of the Propagation Model Recommendation ITU-R P.1546

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**Evaluation of the Propagation Model
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Recommendation ITU-R P.1546 for Mobile

Services in Rural Australia

Article in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology · February 2008

DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2007.901902 · Source: IEEE Xplore

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and parabolic equation [8].2007.38 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. Recommendation ITU-R P. Its three versions (P. against simple models. Index Terms—Field strength measurements. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore. Measurement results show that P. IEEE Abstract—In this paper. introduces several novel concepts. Student Member.1546-2) are compared against simple models and evaluated using measurement results that were obtained by utilizing the pilot signal of a commercial code-division multiple-access mobile telephone network. Hence. WA 6009. 2007 and March 19. The causes of these effects and the suggestions for further development of the Recommendation are discussed and evaluated.1546. Restrictions apply. such as the Bullington [1]. NO. an internationally agreed standard model that is built upon these models may be realized in the near future. various methods. Digital Object Identifier 10. The conclusion of the study at the time was that none of the evaluated models were accurate enough to warrant a recommendation [5]. The Recommendation serves as a standard in areas of spectrum management and radio technology and is constantly under development. To enable realistic cell planning. 2) correction as a function of receiving/mobile antenna height. point-to-area. This work was supported by the Commonwealth of Australia under the Cooperative Research Centre Program. Downloaded on August 26. Michelson.00 © 2008 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES.1546 achieves this by considering the following: 1) the effective height of the transmitting/base antenna. H. 2006. However. Zepernick is with the Blekinge Institute of Technology.g. ostlin@sensear.1546 is considered to be a path general model that uses less information that is unique to each path compared to path specific models. Okumura–Hata model. path loss models and prediction tools that incorporate the characteristics of the particular region in which a system is intended to be deployed are required. NSW 2122. with the ever-increasing computational power. Longley–Rice [3]. were evaluated against each other.-J. VOL. Suzuki is with the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation Information and Communication Technologies Centre.1546-1. 372 25 Ronneby. respectively.1546. underestimates the field strength by more than 10 dB for typical Australian rural areas. In the past. these models were often excluded from the list of suitable candidates as the standard model due to their complex algorithms and computational requirements. Hajime Suzuki. To address the growing need for industry-accepted propagation models for predicting reliable service areas and co-channel interference in the 800/900 MHz frequency range. which are often computationally intensive. The prediction of field strength in a terrestrial environment is a complex task. and 3) correction 0018-9545/$25. D.. the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society Committee on Radio Propagation was established to study radio propagation models and to make appropriate recommendations. This has prompted further effort to seek a standard method that is universally applicable and reliable. which is evaluated in this paper. have been proposed in the literature. Marsfield.370 [9] and P. The review of this paper was coordinated by Prof. . Well-known propagation models. Since Recommendation ITU-R P. May 2006.529 [10] (the modified Okumura–Hata method).1546-2. such as the application of terrain clearance angle (TCA) within the distance of 10 km. Perth.se).1546 for Mobile Services in Rural Australia Erik Östlin. This paper was presented in part at the 63rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference. 1.au). Sweden (e-mail: hans-jurgen. it improves the error standard deviation compared to previous versions. these models are being increasingly used for radio network planning. and Manuscript received April 28. These methods include the use of the geometrical theory of diffraction [6]. verification of the model by actual measurement results is of great importance. Östlin is with Sensear Pty. which are used mainly for broadcasting and mobile services. For the purpose of improving the accuracy in predicting propagation path loss over irregular terrain. integral equation [7]. Note that Recommendation ITU-R P. However. Australia (e-mail: hajime. It supersedes well-known Recommendations such as P.com). I NTRODUCTION T HE USE of mobile phone systems has seen a tremendous increase in the last decade. H. Currently. Member.901902 Okumura [4] models. the ITU-R Working Party 3K is developing a new recommendation that takes into account path specific information to greater extent. I.1109/TVT. IEEE. the validity of Recommendation ITU-R P. A careful planning of cell structure is therefore required to maximize the use of available spectrum in such systems. JANUARY 2008 Evaluation of the Propagation Model Recommendation ITU-R P. Melbourne. and against measurement data. in which each user requires a larger bandwidth to support higher data rates with better quality of service.. 2007. Ltd. The work has been undertaken by the ITU-R Working Party 3K.zepernick@bth. This increase is expected to continue in the areas of wireless broadband services. when obstruction by terrain and/or scattering from objects is involved. on average. Member. The Radiocommunication Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) has developed a new Recommendation on the method of point-to-area predictions for terrestrial services in the frequency range of 30–3000 MHz. IEEE. and Hans-Jürgen Zepernick. 57.suzuki@csiro. [2].1546. and P. ITU-R’s Recommendation P. propagation prediction. P. E. Australia (e-mail: erik. revised February 13. followed by an extensive international approval process. e. Australia.1546 in a short-range terrestrial environment is analyzed.

370 [9].1546-2 [13]. provided different results for similar or even identical propagation scenarios. 1. and P. 39 Fig. A rigorous interpolation/extrapolation procedure is given to allow consistent prediction for any input values within the specified range. Various modeling methods have been proposed for each correction factor.1546-0 Deﬁnition of h1 : When d is larger than or equal to 15 km. hb is defined as the height in meters of the transmitting antenna above the terrain Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES.1546-0 [11]. land paths. In addition. which is Fig. Hence. and mixed paths). The three versions of Recommendation ITU-R P. the prediction of field strength should be corrected for different receiving/mobile antenna heights. Transmitting/Base Antenna Height h1 The h1 definition that is used in the P.1546 versions that are compared in this paper are the original P. and TCA correction) are reviewed. The ITU-R P. such as the free space model [14] and the Okumura–Hata (OH) model [16]. 10%. II.: EVALUATION OF PROPAGATION MODEL RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P. Downloaded on August 26. and 1%).1546 are compared with measurement results that were obtained by utilizing the pilot signal of a commercial code division multiple access (CDMA [15]) mobile network in rural Australia. 2. . P.1546 model. and the prediction accuracy may be enhanced by the application of TCA correction. discussed. In the evaluation that is presented in the sequel.1546 models is based on the definition of effective antenna height. and evaluated in Section V. respectively. h1 to be used in the model is simply heff . For path lengths that are less than 15 km.1546 propagation curves for different transmitting/base antenna heights h1 . while P.1546 model are proposed. P. which corresponds to approximately 250 m. location variability (1–99%). cold sea. time variability (50%. P.1546 model and its three main components (effective transmitting/ base antenna height. a nominal frequency of 600 MHz. Effective antenna height heff is calculated as the base station (BS) height in meters over the average level of the ground between distances d of 3 and 15 km in the direction of the mobile antenna (see Fig. the P. correction for receiving/mobile antenna height.1546 models are implemented using a digital elevation map (DEM) with a 9 second resolution grid.1546 model provides a set of curves and tables of field strength as a function of frequency (100 MHz. Definition of effective antenna height heff . The evaluation results using a flat terrain model and the evaluation results using measurement data are presented in Sections III and IV. as explained in Section II. which is hereafter called P. modifications to P. and receiving/mobile antenna height h2 at the representative clutter height R. the P. Note that the prediction accuracy produced by the models described in this paper may be improved by the use of a DEM with a finer resolution. This paper is organized as follows: In Section II. The ITU-R P. Finally. revealing their advantages and disadvantages. Modifications to the P. as previously introduced. After this procedure. In this paper. 1) P. as path loss prediction benchmarks.1546-1 [12]. The applicability of the correction for receiving/mobile antenna height (RAH) in a flat open rural area is analyzed by using the two-ray model [14]. and path type (land. 1 shows one set of curves that is applicable for land paths and a nominal frequency that is equal to 600 MHz.1546. and 2 GHz). 2). (1–1000 km).1546 Previous ITU-R Recommendations. the conclusions and a discussion for future work are presented in Section VI. distance. such as P. However. Note that. The behavior of the TCA correction is highlighted by applying two versions of the Recommendation to flat terrain.ÖSTLIN et al. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore.1546 FOR MOBILE SERVICES as a function of TCA. transmitting/base antenna height.529 [10]. and the latest version P. A. (10–1200 m). warm sea.1546 model was developed to overcome known limitations and to combine various methods into a single method.1546 covers a wide range of different propagation scenarios. R ECOMMENDATION ITU-R P. Restrictions apply. such information is not readily available for the rural areas under investigation.1546 are proposed and evaluated using some of the conventional empirical models. among other factors. Fig. are reviewed. at the height of the receiving/ mobile antenna being equal to the representative height of ground cover. this paper focuses on its application to mobile services in rural areas. supplied by Geoscience Australia. the three factors of Recommendation ITU-R P. 50% of time and locations. as in the Okumura model [4].1146 [17]. which have been incorporated in different versions of the Recommendation [11]–[13]. the P. 600 MHz.

3 are representative for f = 881.1546 prediction curves give field strength values for a reference receiving antenna at height R representing the height in meters of the ground cover surrounding the receiver.1546 correction for the RAH is always greater than the correction that was obtained with the two-ray model for open flat ground. 1) P.. the correction is larger for rural than for suburban areas. the correction curves that correspond to rural and suburban areas intersect (−18. which is approximately 6. Terrain Clearance Angle Correction For land paths.e. the correction curve for RAH agrees reasonably well with the tworay model [see Fig.. It is noted that this change in the transmitting/base antenna height definition was an effort to try to simplify the Recommendation. the method takes the physical height of the transmitting antenna into greater account when the receiving antenna is closer to the BS.7 m. c is about −10 dB for h2 = 1. This may call for the development of distancedependent RAH correction. the receiving antenna height correction that is used in Recommenda- Fig. C. and for h2 = 1 m. enabling obstacles that are close to the receiver site to be taken into account. 2) P. 4(a)]. respectively. • 10 m for suburban and rural areas.2d and d km.e. This may account for added propagation loss due to vegetation and clutter that typically surround the receiving/mobile antenna. ha . < 2 km).1546-1. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore. a correction depending on the ground cover should be added. and hb . respectively. For the frequency under consideration (881. an analysis using the two-ray model [14] for flat ground was performed to develop a better understanding of the RAH correction.1546-2 correction for the RAH for the same scenario. If the height above clutter is not available. The method interpolates linearly (up to 15 km) between ha and hb . The correction is based on the TCA in degrees. 4. B. VOL. 1. Sec.g. NO. the base antenna height h1 to be used in the calculation is heff .44 m. It is noted that the P. the height of the mast htx (in meters). 3 that. the distance to BS.370-7: This ITU-R Recommendation uses gain correction c (in decibels) for different receiving antenna heights (1. the received field strength according to the two-ray model does not necessarily decrease when lowering the receiving antenna [see Fig. It can be seen in Fig. in practice. Correction for Receiving/Mobile Antenna Height The P. and antenna heights h1 . Downloaded on August 26.370-7 and the two-ray model is introduced in Sections II-B1 and 2. This approach is.3]. For example.52 MHz. Receiving/mobile antenna height correction curves for different land categories. tion ITU-R P. but for negative h1 values. Restrictions apply. a correction method that takes both diffraction and tropospheric scattering into account is introduced [13. Examples of reference heights are given as follows: • 30 m for dense urban areas. The correction curves that are presented in Fig. To investigate this matter further. which is calculated as k c = · 20 log10 6 h2 10 (2) where parameter k is 4 dB for the ultrahigh frequency (UHF) band and rural areas. 3.1546-2 Correction for Negative h1 : The h1 definition in P.1546 is to be developed on the basis of empirical results. which is given by θtca = θ − θr Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. 4(b)]. • 20 m for urban areas.52 MHz) and for distances that are larger than 5 km. and distance d are given in meters and kilometers.5 dB less than the P. TCA correction may be added to increase the prediction accuracy. For path lengths that are less than 15 km. and h1 = 35 m. respectively. For the described scenario and shorter distances (e.1546-1 Deﬁnition of h1 : When the distance between the transmitting and receiving antennas is larger than or equal to 15 km. If the receiving antenna height h2 is different from R. 3) P. i. more robust against negative h1 values than the simplified method that is used in P. which correspond to the pilot carrier frequency for a commercial CDMA system (IS-95) in Australia. The transmitting/base antenna height is then calculated as h 1 = ha + (hb − ha )d 15 (1) where ha is the notional height of the transmitting/base antenna height above the clutter in its vicinity.40 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. and the transmitting/base antenna height. The minimum reference height is 10 m. JANUARY 2008 height averaged between 0.1546-2 is the same as that in P. (3) .5–40 m) relative to 10 m. This leads to the conclusion that further investigations would be required to find a more appropriate correction for open rural areas. i.66 dB). 2) Two-Ray Model: While it is acknowledged that Recommendation P. ha is defined as the antenna height above ground. for receiving antenna heights of approximately 1. d = 10 km. as will be shown in Section IV.. h1 is equal to hb . 57.1546-1. It is noted that the method can result in a discontinuity in the predicted field strength at the transition around h1 = 0 m.

5). 5.1546 including TCA correction. as it does in P.1546 models.005. In Fig. E VALUATION BY M ODEL where θ is measured relative to the horizontal at the mobile antenna. the higher and lower values of the TCA correction are limited by the values that are given at angles θtca = −0.55◦ (see Fig.: EVALUATION OF PROPAGATION MODEL RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P.1546-2.8◦ to 0.ÖSTLIN et al. How the TCA should be measured in open rural areas requires further discussion on taking into account how the TCA correction and the RAH correction interact with each other. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore. the curves corresponding to 100 and 600 MHz are supported by P. h1 = 35 m. In P. In addition. the TCA correction for UHFs never exceeds +18 dB. (a) d = 5 km. For comparison.1546-0 and P. and the curves were applicable only for distances ranging from 10 to 1000 km. which clears all the terrain obstructions over a distance of up to 16 km but does not go beyond the base antenna (see Fig. Fig. Definition of θ (d ≥ 16 km). The source of the 2000 MHz TCA correction curve is not known to the authors. respectively. flat ground. the following field strength prediction curves are presented: • P.370-7. • P.1546-1. Further development should therefore be aimed at making the TCA correction distance dependent for distances of less than 10 km.1546-1. the lower θtca limit was changed from −0. the authors are of the opinion that the TCA should be measured from the reference height when the receiving/mobile antenna is surrounded by clutter since the line-of-sight (LOS) from the receiving/mobile antenna to the obstructing terrain is blocked by the clutter. comparisons with the well-known OH model were performed for flat rural areas.1546 including TCA and RAH corrections (full model). TCA correction curves for nominal frequencies.370-7. The P.1546-1. In P. Furthermore. • P. . and distance d is given in kilometers. 6).8◦ and θtca = 40◦ . and conductivity σ = 0. • OH models (rural. (b) d = 2 km. 6. h1s − h2s 1000 d (4) To investigate the behavior of the P.1546 excluding corrections for TCA and RAH. when the RAH is changed from its reference height. Downloaded on August 26. III.1546 FOR MOBILE SERVICES 41 Fig. 4. Fig. in P. Reference angle θr is given by θr = arctan where h1s and h2s represent the heights of the base and mobile antennas in meters above sea level. Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. While the TCA correction is measured from the receiving/mobile antenna height. and the resulting effect is that no TCA correction is added for θtca < 0. suburban.1546-0 and P. Relative received power versus receiving/mobile antenna height for vertically polarized isotropic antennas.1546-2 field strength predictions for flat rural scenarios therefore become more pessimistic compared to the predictions that were made by P. both the TCA and the RAH corrections are affected. and urban). 6. relative permittivity r = 15. Restrictions apply.1546 including RAH correction.55◦ . • P.

the aforementioned behavior seems reasonable.3]). the P. Therefore. As shown in Fig.1546-1 are almost identical for the described scenario. the P.5 dB downward (x marks).1546-1 predictions are limited in order to not exceed the predictions by the free space model.1546-1. A. hence. e. 1. Downloaded on August 26.3. In P. does not correct the P.1546-2 model. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore. The field strength prediction results IV. (b) P. 7. respectively. The correction for the RAH reduces the P. the TCA depends on the distance between the transmitting and receiving antennas. In Fig.1546 field strength prediction curve by about 16 dB upward (circles). [18.1546 prediction at the height of representative clutter (plus signs) by about 16.1546 prediction curve that was corrected for TCA (circles). First. NO. At 20 km.1546-2.1546 prediction at the height of representative clutter (plus signs) by about 16. JANUARY 2008 for flat rural terrain using the P. Note that the prediction results for P.1546 is compatible with the OH model for certain urban scenarios [11]–[13].1546-1 without TCA correction applied. It is well known that the OH model. as described in Section II-C. E VALUATION BY M EASUREMENTS In this section. It is noted that Recommendation ITU-R P.1546-1 and P. 7(a) and (b).5 dB (x marks).. Second. 57. VOL. Fig. it can be seen that the predictions provided by the P. independent of the antenna separation distance. the TCA-dependent correction is 0 dB for negative TCA angles (typical LOS scenario) and. the TCA correction for the same flat rural scenario is 0 dB due to the changed lower TCA limit. including both TCA and RAH corrections. 7(a). it can be seen that the field strength predictions provided by the P. For the P. and h2 = 1. produces overly optimistic prediction results for open rural areas (see. The model parameters for this scenario are f = 881. 7(a). which does not seem to be intuitively correct. Hence. 4.5–15 dB lower than those provided by the OH rural model (triangles) for distances ranging from 1 to 20 km.52 MHz.1546 prediction curve (plus signs) at all. (a) P. the prediction approaches the OH urban model.7 m. therefore. It is also recognized that the OH method is based on measurements that are performed in urban areas. 7(b). The full P. in general.1546-1 and provides prediction results that are identical to P. . the model introduces correction factors (see [16]). Restrictions apply. the TCA correction curves.g. the uncorrected P. yield a positive correction when there are negative TCA angles (LOS scenario) and. h1 = 35 m.42 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. correct the P.1546-1 full model (squares) are 2. In Fig.1546-2 full model (squares) is identical to the curve that incorporates only the correction for the RAH (x marks). Sec.5–10 dB lower than those provided by the OH suburban model (diamonds) for distances ranging from 1 to 20 km. Note that.1546 prediction curve (plus signs) is the same as the P. Measurement Procedure Mobile radio wave propagation measurements were performed using a CDMA pilot scanner that was built by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. respectively. therefore predicts much lower field strengths for rural LOS scenarios compared to P. depending on TCA. in the range of 1–3 km. the evaluation of the P.1546 versions using measurement data that were obtained by utilizing the IS-95 pilot signal in a commercial CDMA network in rural Australia is presented.1546-1 and P.1546-2 model. the correction for the RAH corrects the P. therefore. as in P. for a flat scenario as previously given. the OH models are used as a benchmark that points out the different behaviors of the TCA corrections in P.1546-2 full model (squares) are 2.1546-2.1546-0 and P.1546-1. Field strength prediction for flat rural areas. and to cater to suburban and rural areas. 7.1546-2. In Fig.1546-2 models can be seen in Fig.

. Restrictions apply. N i=1 Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. the region where the measurement results were obtained can be classified as open farmland with occasional large trees branching overhead. For large parts of the measurements. 2. together with BS positions and altitude shown in meters. and Corrigin are marked with a dot and A. respectively.g. limiting the effect of inter-cell interference. The transmitting pilot power.. used for the point-to-area propagation model Recommendation ITU-R P. the LOS between the transmitting and receiving antennas was present. Digital elevation map. Typically. 8.: EVALUATION OF PROPAGATION MODEL RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P. the receiving antenna was placed on the roof of a car at a height of approximately 1. and antenna pattern (omni-directional) of the BSs were provided by Telstra Wireless Access Services. The measurement data originates from 19 routes and three BSs with omnidirectional antenna characteristics in rural Western Australia. only one pilot channel was received at the same time in these rural areas. . and Corrigin (C)] and cover more than 400 km of different rural terrains with different signal distributions.1546.1546 models and that the measurement tracks are all within 28 km to the BS. correlation factor. The local average received power that was used in the analysis is computed by averaging signal measurements over a measurement track of 300 wavelengths. The scanner is capable of tracking eight pilot signals simultaneously. as described in Section IV-A. N (5) where N is the number of samples corresponding to 300 wavelengths.. can be seen in Fig. and are given on a logarithmic (decibels) scale. Nineteen measurement tracks from the area of interest that is plotted on a DEM. which corresponds to approximately 100 m. The maximum prediction deviation from the measured values is calculated as max = max {|i |} 1≤i≤N (6) and the mean prediction error is obtained as follows: ¯ = N 1 i . The measurements originating from two measurement campaigns that were performed in rural Western Australia in June 2003 [19] and May 2004 [20] were analyzed and used for evaluating the P. i. Otherwise. predicted and measured values are denoted by pi and mi . Statistical Analysis Metrics First order statistics. respectively. B. The collected drive test data originate from three omni-directional BSs with macrocell characteristics [Beverley (A). The BS positions were given by the register of radiocommunications licenses held at the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA). (7) . Downloaded on August 26. During the measurements. the received and measured pilot power is therefore typically affected by these obstacles for shorter antenna separation distances. Fig. antenna height. 13.1546-1 and P. and C. . the transmitting power was verified by LOS measurements near the BS. The typical traveling speed during the measurement was in the range of 80–100 km/h. .1546 versions. The scanner is controlled by a laptop personal computer and includes a global positioning system (GPS) receiver and an omni-directional antenna. As can be seen in. B. Australia. allowing tracking of fast signal fades. or just outside. 8. The data are therefore very suitable for evaluating and comparing the two different sets of TCA correction curves that were incorporated in P. Quairading. B. From left to right: The BSs Beverley. and the correlation peak (the magnitude of the dominant path) of one pilot signal can be sampled at rates that are selectable down to 1/600 seconds. The prediction error is expressed as i = pi − mi . It should also be noted that building and vegetation information were not included in the path loss predictions using the P.1546 FOR MOBILE SERVICES 43 Fig. i = 1. Where possible. Here. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore. built-up areas (small business centers and large storage facilities). and hit rate metrics have been used to evaluate the results. and C are positioned within. e. (CSIRO) and the Australian Telecommunications Cooperative Research Centre (ATcrc). Quairading (B).1546-2.7 m above ground. It is noted that the three BS stations A. using 9 second resolution. Perth. within the size of a rural IS-95 cell.e. which resulted in negative TCAs.ÖSTLIN et al. 1) First Order Statistics: The mean of the prediction error and its standard deviation are first order statistics that are traditionally used for evaluating the accuracy of prediction models. respectively.

P. (8) σ = i=1 N −1 Fig. 10. VOL. 20. 2) Correlation Coefﬁcient: The correlation coefficient provides a measure of the degree of linear relationship between two random variables and is calculated as N r = (mi − m)(pi − p) N N (mi − m)2 (pi − p)2 i=1 i=1 (9) i=1 where m and p are the means of the measured and predicted values. less than.52%. To compare the different models using THR.min to LT. In this paper. where LT is the path loss threshold.1 dB steps.64%. A small value of AHRE indicates a good fit between the predicted and estimated values. NO.43%. Finally. JANUARY 2008 Fig. respectively. The method is useful in assessing the validity of a model where coverage is determined simply by a threshold value. Downloaded on August 26. 22. 9. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore. For further details on the hit rate metrics. P. In this paper.max in 0. hit rate metrics [21] may be used to complement the first order statistics and the correlation factor. Furthermore. Given a path loss threshold LT . the location-specific total hit rate (THR) is used as a direct indication of the quality of the prediction model. A correlation coefficient that is close to 1 indicates a strong linear relationship.44 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. AHRE is the mean deviation from 100% THR and is expressed as AHRE = 1 NLT LT . the prediction is regarded as correct. The AHRE results for P. Measurement 2004_A5 around Beverley BS with negative transmitting/base antenna height and TCA correction overshoot at a traveled distance of approximately 13 km.min 100% − THR(LT ) (10) Fig. LT.1546-1. Model comparison using THR and measurement 2003_A1. and 9. so that AHRE may be interpreted as the area between the THR curve and 100% (see Fig. 3) Total Hit Rate: When determining the accuracy of a prediction model. respectively. Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. 9). 11. and NLT is the number of THR points. . Restrictions apply.1546-2. 1.max LT =LT .max are chosen. where the transmitting/ base antenna height is negative for some parts of the route. if both the predicted and measured path loss values are greater than. or equal to LT . path loss threshold LT is increased from LT. and Model A are 13. irrespective of the deviation of the predicted from the measured value.26%.1546-0. Measurement 2003_A1 around Beverley BS. the average total hit rate error (AHRE) was introduced in [19]. see [21]. the prediction error’s standard deviation is calculated as N (i − ¯)2 . 57.min and LT.

with P. . Fig. this is thought to be the case.1546 models. In particular. In particular.1546-0 model provides the overall best predictions (max . P.77 dB for P. Downloaded on August 26. the P.26 and −1. the different h1 definitions (P. σ .1546-2 model produces the highest overall average hit rate error (AHRE = 23. Figs.65). r .1546 versions.07%) and. the average of the maximum prediction deviation over all 19 measurements (from 2003_A1 to 2004_C5) is of similar order for all three P.: EVALUATION OF PROPAGATION MODEL RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P. Restrictions apply.87. mainly due to the fact that TCA correction is not applied in P. and h1 and TCA are shown in the 45 figures to reveal how the different algorithms produce different parameter values. As such. Again. 13.1546 FOR MOBILE SERVICES Fig. predicts 11. Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. because of how the TCA correction is applied (see Section II-C). The statistical analysis summary for the P. with the AHRE being the area between the THR curve and 100%. Fig.1546 versions.1546-2 providing overall higher path loss predictions. The figures also show Model A. r . the last row in each table presents the average prediction results for all measurements that were calculated per model and statistical analysis metric. 28.1546-0 provides the best overall AHRE results (AHRE = 15. The free space model is given as a path loss boundary.1546-2 model.34 dB higher path loss than P.1546-0. The statistical analysis metrics max .1546-1 (AHRE = 16.52. and AHRE) of the three P.1546-2 for θtca < 0. P.1546-1 and P. Furthermore.1546 versions is concerned. This notation describes when and where the measurements were obtained [year (2003/2004).1546 models is shown in Tables I and II. namely. because TCA correction is applied only when the straight line between the transmitting and receiving antennas is obstructed. 10–13 show four examples of path loss prediction versus traveled distance for the P. and P. BS (A/B/C).1546-2.1546-2 model (¯ result of TCA correction being applied for both LOS and non-LOS scenarios.1546-0 and P. the path loss predictions of P. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore.g. and route index]. This is the (¯ r = 0. ¯.11 dB for the P. P.1546-1 follow the trends in the measurements better than that of the P. As shown in Table I. the average of the mean prediction errors for the P. it can be seen how the difference in the application of TCA correction (P. In other words. 25. Fig. where the small difference compared to P.23%) originates from their different h1 definitions (see Section II-A). The results show that the P. is noticeable (2–3 dB) up to a traveled distance of about 8 km.1546-0 and P.1546-1 yield a slightly better average correlation coefficient r = 0. Furthermore.1546-0 and the P. it can be seen in Table II that P. A more distinct differentiation among the three versions can be observed with respect to the total hit rate and average hit rate error.ÖSTLIN et al. As far as the prediction accuracy of the three P.1546-2 provides the lowest average standard deviation of 8. hence. Measurement 2004_B8 around Quairading BS with TCA correction overshoot at a traveled distance of approximately 13 km. Measurement 2003_C1 around Corrigin BS spanning over 1–24 km to the BS.1546 models and all measurements ranging from 2003_A1 to 2004_C5 are presented in Tables I and II. which incorporates the authors’ proposed modifications and is introduced later in Section V.75%). However. ¯.1546-2 model.1546-1 models are −0.23 dB. 13.1546-0 and P.1546-1. the P. respectively.1546-1.1546-2) affects the final prediction results.37 dB and 12. provides only inferior results compared to both P.71 dB of the P. and 29. and AHRE for the P. respectively. respectively. e.69) than the P. The P.1546-0 and P. C.1546-2 model.1546-0 and P. On the other hand. Results Here.1546 models are evaluated using the measurement data that were described in Section IV-A.. on average.1546-1) reflect a small difference in the path loss predictions.1546 versions. 9 shows the THR curves for the representative example of measurement 2003_A1. To illustrate this characteristic. which can be considered to be very good compared with the average of the mean prediction error of 11. which in.55◦ . 12.1546-1.

AND P.1546 models sometimes produce abnormal predictions due to the negative h1 values being produced (2003_A1 and 2004_A5). Downloaded on August 26. Second. P. For the same scenarios. as shown in Section V-A.1546-0 model handles the problem with negative h1 values better due to the fact that h1 is calculated. which is described and evaluated in this section. land usage and vegetation information should preferably be incorporated in the propagation model. It is also noted that path loss prediction overshoots originating from the TCA correction sometimes occur. a number of other findings can be deduced from the individual measurements as follows: In particular. 1.1546-1. which can be seen in Figs. D ISCUSSIONS AND P ROPOSED M ODIFICATIONS Apart from the aforementioned overall statistical characteristics.1546-1. For example. This behavior also explains the large standard deviation σ of error for the associated predictions. which can clearly be seen in Figs.1546-0.5 km to the BS. buildings and other man-made obstacles. NO. Restrictions apply. . VOL. which can be First.1546-2 M ODELS seen in Fig. V. This correction may result in a prediction discontinuity. To increase the prediction accuracy. h1 is calculated. albeit it has known limitations. for shorter transmitting and receiving antenna separation distances where both antennas are positioned on the same slope. resulting in increased path loss.1546-0. a new transmitting/base antenna height definition h1 that remedies this behavior is proposed in Section V-A. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore. and corrections for different land usage and vegetation surrounding the receiving antenna are introduced. TCA correction is applied as in P.1546-1 model severely overestimates (> 50 dB) the path loss when h1 produces negative values for parts of some measurement routes (2003_A1 and 2004_A5).1546-2 correction for negative h1 values slightly improves the prediction accuracy. 11 and 12 at a traveled distance of approximately 13 km. as in [4].1546 field strength curves.1546 [11]–[13] to obtain the transmitting/base antenna height. the P. Transmitting/Base Antenna Height Modiﬁcation The definition of effective antenna height.1546-2 MODELS TABLE II CORRELATION COEFFICIENT AND AHRE FOR THE P. AND P. are typically present for distances within about 2. taking the physical height of the transmitting antenna into greater account (see Section II-A1). P. In addition. A. In contrast. for the measurements that are presented in this paper. Therefore. 10 and 11. the P. the results in Section IV-C show that the P. the P. The model is based on the P. These modifications are therefore incorporated in our proposed Model A. which is used in P. 11 at a traveled distance of approximately 18 km. JANUARY 2008 TABLE I FIRST ORDER STATISTICS FOR THE P. this definition might produce negative h1 Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. is widely used and accepted. 57. vegetation along the measurement routes sometimes has a major impact on the received field strength.1546-1.46 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY.

2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore. (12) for 12 km ≤ d < 15 km. 15(a) and (b). this means that the BS-to-mobile (downlink) predictions should preferably be equal to the mobile-to-BS (uplink) predictions. In addition.1546-2. a simple solution has yet to be presented and accepted. in turn. resulting in negative transmitting/ base antenna height. and ht . Fig. 3) Proposed Deﬁnition: To obtain an h1 definition that can be accepted by both broadcasting and mobile communications users. It is known that the approach that was used in P. In this paper. Therefore. as shown in Fig. the traditional method appears to be more realistic (at least in one direction) (see Fig. 1) Alternative Effective Antenna Height Deﬁnition he : The effective height of the base antenna. 15 (ht −htx )d . as previously shown in Section IV-C and Figs. he . .ÖSTLIN et al. values.. the proposed h1 definition that deals with the negative transmitting/base antenna height problem is presented. Short-range (d < 15 km) same-slope scenario. less prone to produce negative h1 values) than the method that was used in P. Downloaded on August 26. 15. This. which is one of the basic requirements from the mobile community point of view. The explanation for this is that.1546-1 and P. this definition mitigates the problems with both negative values and reciprocity. (b) Reverse scenario. Alternative definition of effective antenna height he . Therefore. and distance d are given in meters and kilometers. 16). should preferably be used. For antenna separations d that are less than 15 km. antenna heights hb . To avoid a discontinuity at the transition at 15 km. the resulting effective antenna height should be interpolated from he and heff . a transition effective antenna height may be calculated as ht = (hb − he )d + 15he − 12hb 3 (11) for distances within the range of 12–15 km. 14 and [22] and [23]). he is defined as the average difference of terrain height relative to a line connecting the ground levels at transmitting and receiving antennas subtracted from the height of the transmitting antenna htx . the alternative effective antenna height definition he . (he −htx )d . Fig.1546 models. 10 and 11. In (11). 16. (a) Transmitting antenna positioned below the receiving antenna. as in the P. sometimes results in negative h1 values when the receiving antenna is located on a slope and the transmitting/base antenna is located below [see Fig. Scenarios where negative h1 values sometimes may occur are also presented and discussed. 15 for 1 km ≤ d < 12 km. Restrictions apply. For a mobile telephony scenario. for longer distances where the transmitting antenna is located on an isolated height. if the path is relatively flat from transmitter to receiver and the transmitting antenna is mounted on a high mast. In practice. Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. In this section. respectively. 2) Scenarios: The heff definition. 15(a)]. If the transmitting and receiving antennas change positions. 14. Even though this is a well-known shortcoming.1546 FOR MOBILE SERVICES 47 Fig. he remains the same. for 15 km ≤ d ≤ 1000 km. which was given in Section V-A1.1546-0 to calculate h1 is more robust (i. the 12 km limit has been chosen based on the available measurement data and may be updated when more data originating from diverse terrains become available for comparison. h1 is calculated as htx + h1 = htx + heff . sometimes results in an unrealistic underestimation of the field strength. (see Fig.e.: EVALUATION OF PROPAGATION MODEL RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P. we propose that the effective antenna height definition heff be used for distances that are greater than 15 km. it is noted that the standard definition is not reciprocal. as in a typical broadcasting situation. On the other hand. the propagation characteristics may be very similar to the transmitter being on a lower mast that is located on a hill. Typical broadcasting situation with the transmitting antenna located on an isolated height.

The data are given on broadscale format and identifies vegetation types in patches that are larger than about 25 hectares. 18. 1. and 24). Although the vegetation along the measurement routes is very sparse. The crown density metric corresponds to the estimated percentage of land that is covered by the tree crown [25]. These experiments showed that single trees attenuated the received signal with 10–20 dB. corresponding to no vegetation and dense vegetation. In the rural area where the measurements were performed.. JANUARY 2008 TABLE III VEGETATION TYPES This definition (12) was proposed in [24] and is used in this paper for Model A path loss predictions. In Section IV. respectively. depending on vegetation type and vegetation density. an add-on field strength correction factor based on vegetation type and vegetation density is introduced and incorporated into Model A. the data set contains information on two levels: 1) land-use data and 2) vegetation type (e. It is therefore motivated to not apply further attenuation due to vegetation for θtca > 0. The vegetation density near the receiver (VDN) corresponds to the average vegetation density within a 100 m by 100 m area surrounding the receiving antenna. so for convenience. Land usage has been implemented using the correction for the RAH (see Section II-B). B.1546 models. Therefore. Western Australia. a field strength attenuation factor as a function of the vegetation density in the vicinity of the receiving antenna is proposed by the authors. This information was then used in the standard P. as . the land usage could be considered as being built-up. Figs. 8. satellite photos and notes that were made during the measurements were inspected.. NO. it can be seen that the TCA correction sometimes gives an overshoot in the path loss predictions for prominent terrain obstacles and shorter distances.1546 correction for the RAH. 2) Vegetation Density: The vegetation density data that were used in the analysis were provided by the CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences and the Land Monitor Western Australia. 23. 1) Vegetation Type: The vegetation type (VT) data that were used in the analysis were provided by the Department of Agriculture. it is clear that the vegetation surrounding the receiving antenna sometimes has a big impact on the received field strength. In Section IV-C (e.g. it was noted that the measured field strength is typically attenuated due to buildings near the BS. 7. VOL. The perennial crown density information is given on an accurate 25 m grid and is represented by a scalar value ranging from 0% to 100%. Furthermore.48 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. ten different vegetation types were identified. To gather information about land usage (built-up areas). and 29) and shrublands (2. medium woodland and York gum). Land Usage and Vegetation Information To further enhance Model A. Attenuation factors are not available for all vegetation types.55◦ . The approach in this paper is to simply add a field strength attenuation factor (FSAF) in decibels.g. the types were divided into two groups corresponding to woodland (3. In Section V-B4. land usage and vegetation information are incorporated in the predictions. 3) Extracted Data: The data that were extracted from the vegetation type database corresponds to the most occurring vegetation type within a 100 m by 100 m area (typically only one type). as shown in Table III. The representative clutter height for the built-up areas was set to be 20 m. which is already available in the P. 19. 6. 4) Vegetation Attenuation: The attenuation of field strength due to vegetation is based on previous findings for tree attenuation at 869 MHz [26]. It was then concluded that in the measurements. 11 and 12 at a traveled distance of approximately 13 km). 57.

Downloaded on August 26. which is in agreement with. and AHRE = 14. VDN · 20 . and have clearly improved compared with those of the P. The only statistic that does not improve compared with that of all three P. too optimistic by 8. The averages for the maximum prediction error.1546-2 model (11.71. 100 It is noted that VDN rarely exceeds 50% for the areas under consideration.1546 versions is the average of the mean prediction error (1. compared to the P. [18]. on average.78 dB.65 dB. will never overcorrect the predictions.1546 versions in Tables I and II with the results for Model A in Table IV reveals that Model A produces more accurate predictions overall.1546 Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. Restrictions apply. respectively. C. for shrublands. Evaluation of Model A The statistical analysis summary for Model A and the rural OH model is presented in Table IV. It can be seen from these results that Model A outperforms the rural OH model with respect to all considered statistics. r¯ = 0.1546 models. While the P. . for woodland 100 (13) FSAF = VDN · 10 . σ ¯ = 8. and the total hit rate error with respect to the conducted 19 measurements are obtained as ¯max = 22. the correlation factor.95 dB). which means that the FSAF. can be clearly seen in Figs.76%. The advantage of the proposed definition of the transmitting/base antenna height h1 . Specifically.19 dB. the OH path loss predictions are.1546 models.. It should be noted that this result is still better than the average of the mean prediction error that was obtained by using the P. most likely. A comparison of the statistics of the three P. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore.11 dB) and is well within the measurement accuracy margin. the standard deviation.g. 10 and 11. e. as outlined in Section V-A.

. Additional improvements can be obtained by incorporating land usage and vegetation information into the path loss predictions to cater to field strength attenuation due to buildings and vegetation at the receiving antenna. the prediction results improve when using the vegetation correction. such as Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. a path loss overestimation due to negative h1 values will occur (see Figs. Although a significant amount of work has been performed and incorporated into the development of Recommendation ITU-R P.1546-2 improves the standard deviation of the prediction error compared to previous versions of the Recommendation.1546-2. which can be seen in. VI.. C ONCLUSION In this paper.1546 FOR MOBILE SERVICES 49 TABLE IV STATISTICS FOR MODEL A AND THE OH RURAL MODEL models tend to significantly overestimate the path loss for those parts of the measurement routes where negative or small h1 values occur.g. the validity of the three versions of Recommendation ITU-R P.9 km). and P. such as the Okumura–Hata model. This shortcoming is typically observed as a severe overestimation of the path loss in some scenarios (see Figs. As the P.1546-1 provide better overall prediction of path loss compared to traditional models.1546-1 and P. on average. versions P.1546 versions has revealed some degradation in prediction performance in cases when negative values of transmitting/base antenna height h1 are produced. underestimates the field strength by more than 10 dB for typical Australian rural areas.: EVALUATION OF PROPAGATION MODEL RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P.1546-0. Additional comparisons with measurement data to be obtained in different rural areas are needed to further prove Model A’s universal applicability. It is shown that P. a modification of the transmitting/base antenna height h1 definition is proposed in this paper. e.1546-0 to calculate h1 is more accurate and robust toward the processing of negative h1 values than the method that was used in the successor versions P. The statistical results support the conclusion that there are no obvious shortcomings for normal scenarios using the definition of the transmitting/base antenna height h1 . Downloaded on August 26. In addition. as proposed in (12). e.1546 models and the rural OH model. This h1 definition incorporates the effective height he of the BS for distances d < 15 km and uses the well-established effective antenna height heff for distances d ≥ 15 km [see (12)]. Specifically. it is found that P. Restrictions apply.ÖSTLIN et al. Specifically. 10. For instance.1546-1. However. Fig. To remedy this problem. that the proposed definition of h1 . . The evaluation of the three P. 11 at a traveled distance in the range of 4–7 km.1546-0 and P.1546 for path loss prediction in rural Australia has been analyzed. Model A provides more accurate and reliable path loss predictions for the rural areas that were tested than the P. are consolidated into Model A. P. quite drastically remedies the prediction overshoot problem with negative h1 values.1546 models cater for corrections for both RAH and TCA. as described in Section V-A3. 10 and 11).g. it is noted that the method that was used in P. The addition of land usage (buildings) for shorter distances makes the predictions more accurate (see. otherwise. The comparison with the measurement results also shows that P.1546-2 are compared against simple models and evaluated using measurement results that were obtained by utilizing the pilot signal of a commercial CDMA mobile telephone network. Fig. together with the aforementioned proposed definition of the transmitting/base antenna height. Another factor behind the improvement in the overall prediction results for Model A. These factors. In summary. is given by the incorporation of land usage and the vegetation attenuation factor. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore.1546-2. 10 and 11). it can be seen in Fig.1546 since its incarnation in 2001.8 and 7. It is shown that a considerable improvement in prediction accuracy can be achieved in scenarios where. as shown in Table IV. this problem is less severe with Model A. 10 for traveled distances between 2. at a traveled distance of approximately 13 km. additional accuracy to the predictions can generally be achieved.

Veh. 9–10. N. degree in electrical engineering from Högskolan Dalarna. Bentley. “Radio propagation at frequencies above 30 mega-cycles.” in Proc. Veh. Oct.E. J. “Automated methods of tree boundary extraction and foilage transparency estimation from digital imagery. [13] Method for Point-to-Area Predictions for Terrestrial Services in the Frequency Range 30 MHz to 3000 MHz. [25] S. 1986. vol.” in Proc. pp. pp. JANUARY 2008 methods for mixed land/sea paths and short urban/suburban paths.529-3. Australia.1146. [3] A. H. no. 2005. 1. 114–118. ERL 79-ITS 67. 57–61. A. 10. Oct. Telecommun.-M. 1995. D. [8] C. Bertoni. vol.. ITU-R Recommendation P. he has been a Digital Signal Processing Engineer with Sensear Pty. Pollok for their assistance with the measurement campaigns. 1968. 2004. [26] W. Bullington. degree in electrical engineering. 1977. [23] Proposed Modiﬁcation to Recommendation ITU-R P.” Quart.. Antennas Propagat. vol. Östlin. NJ. 2004. ITU-R Recommendation P. R. Conf. Suzuki. “Coverage prediction for mobile radio systems operating in the 800/900 MHz frequency range. Veh.” IEEE Trans. S. 10. Veh. Elect.” IEEE Trans.. Veh. To develop reliable distancedependent correction models. Mech. 3. pp. VT-26. Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. 2000. vol. Industry Assoc. “Evaluation of a new effective antenna height definition in ITU-R Recommendation P. in 1993 and 1995.” in Proc.. a large quantity of measurement data originating from different types of terrain should be obtained and analyzed in future work. Antennas Propagat. E. Falun. Sep.” IEEE Trans. no. 1996. [4] Y. [20] E. Oct. Luebbers. Technol. Australia. “Macrocell radio wave propagation prediction using an artificial neural network.. 1122–1136.. 4. 9. Parsons.1546. Nov. R EFERENCES [1] K. Appl. Ed. T. Perth. J. J. pp. pp. Bullington. Technol.. Erik Östlin (S’06) received the B. Hata. particularly. Zepernick. The implication is that both TCA correction and RAH correction in these scenarios can be very much dependent on the distance to the BS. Gov.. no. and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments. He is also the Chairman of the Subgroup 3K-3 on indoor and short-range propagation. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank U. 57. 47. Oct. no. S.370-7.-J. Telstra Wireless Access Services for providing the BS characteristics. Washington. Araman. D. 19th Biennial Workshop Color Photography Videography Airborne Imaging Resource Assessment. degree from the University of Technology. 1947. 37. He finished his M. 1. A. Lee. Fukada. Jul. Ohmohri. In 1999. Logan. Constantinou. [18] J. Wallace and Dr.” in Proc. Orlando. Saunders.. Antennas Propagat. “Field strength and its variability in VHF and UHF land-mobile radio service. respectively. H. in 2001. AP-32. IEEE Semiannu. “An integral equation approach to the problem of wave propagation over an irregular surface. Technol. Owadally. “Prediction of tropospheric radio transmission over irregular terrain-A computer method-1968.-J.” in Proc. 1. vol. FL. and the Ph. no. DC. Perth. pp. 317–325. Jul.1546-1. from Blekinge Institute of Technology. 2004. Conf. Commun. Rep. CA. Feb. ITU-R Recommendation P. Technol. Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Technol. Math. Western Australia. vol. Jan. of the Working Party 3K (point-to-area propagation). Ltd. Östlin. 3-72. Since April 2006. Technol. C. “Radio propagation for vehicular communications. Sep.-J. pp. pp. Downloaded on August 26.” U. vol. 1984. pp. [24] E. 11th Asia-Paciﬁc Conf. [16] M. Sep. [10] Prediction Methods for the Terrestrial Land Mobile Service in the VHF and UHF Bands. 391–404. “A three-dimensional parabolic equation applied to VHF/UHF propagation over irregular terrain. where he is currently working toward the Licentiate degree. [9] VHF and UHF Propagation Curves for the Frequency Range From 30 MHz to 1000 MHz. Zepernick. 1460–1464. International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). and M.. in 1999 and the M. TIA/EIA/IS-95. 2003. UT. AP-34. Okumura. Sep.. Washington. . Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). no. “Evaluation of the new semiterrain based propagation model Recommendation ITU-R P. Veh. pp. no. Östlin. he joined the Division of Telecommunications and Industrial Physics. Rappaport. Shortly after.” IRE.S. and P. Commun. E. pp. 1999. Printing Office. vol.1546.S. Zepernick. 2001.” IEEE Trans. G.” Rev. 951–955. Suzuki. Rice. Hufford. The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel. VOL. 1999. 1999. 1979–1983.1546-2. Hajime Suzuki (S’94–M’99) received the B.” in Proc. He is an active participant of the Australian Radio Communication Study Group 3 and of the Study Group 3 (Radio Propagation). Zelley and C. with emphasis on signal processing and telecommunications. Oct. “Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services. Conf. project at the Australian Telecommunications Research Institute.1546-2 severely underestimates the field strength when tested against measurement results for short range (typically less than 20 km) and rural scenarios. 128–132. [17] The Prediction of Field Strength for Land Mobile and Terrestrial Broadcasting Services in the Frequency Range From 1 to 3 GHz. vol. ESSA Tech. [15] “Mobile station-base station compatibility standard for dual-mode wideband spread spectrum cellular system. 2005. Engelke and A. “A comparison of the accuracy of propagation models using hit rate analysis. Marsfield.1546-1. 16. [11] Method for Point-to-Area Predictions for Terrestrial Services in the Frequency Range 30 MHz to 3000 MHz. and S. [19] E. [22] Effect on Prediction Accuracy Using New Deﬁnition of Effective Transmitting/Base Antenna Height in Recommendation ITU-R P. Australia. Los Angeles. ITU-R Recommendation P. 1988. VT-29.S. [5] H. pp. 4. 1993. [21] A.: Wiley. additional efforts are still needed to obtain a model that can be widely applied for a large variety of scenarios.. 1952. 2003. NO. Restrictions apply. 2005. Aug. and H. for making the vegetation type database available. ITU-R Recommendation P. Vogel and J. 4. ITU-R Recommendation P. Suzuki. A. J. Chia of CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences and Land Monitor. Shepherd of the Department of Agriculture. Apr. 1586–1596. Atlantic City. A. he was invited to join the Australian Telecommunications Cooperative Research Centre Wideband CDMA Scanner Project.” IEEE Trans. degrees from the University of ElectroCommunications. Dec. Chichester. vol. New York: Prentice-Hall. and K. [14] T.50 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. 12. no.E. 1968. and H.. Western Australia. IEEE Semiannu. J. DC. H. Labs. [7] G..1546-2. Sweden. 825–873. 295–308. Sep. Oct. 35. 2001. Clark.. vol.” IEEE Trans. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore. 1. Australia. U. and H. Tokyo. Sweden.D. 9. IEEE Semiannu. ITU-R Input Document 3K/39-E.K. in 1999. [12] Method for Point-to-Area Predictions for Terrestrial Services in the Frequency Range 30 MHz to 3000 MHz. Goldhirsh. [2] K. and was transferred to the CSIRO Information and Communication Technologies Centre in 2003. Oct. respectively. 1980. Perth. no. Sydney. for providing the digital vegetation density data. Australia. For example. Oct. ITU-R Input Document 3K/72-E. this paper shows that the latest version P. Kawano. Montiel. Longley and P. pp. Ronneby.S. “Propagation prediction for hilly terrain using GTD wedge diffraction. [6] R.1546. L. vol. “Tree attenuation at 869 MHz derived from remotely piloted aircraft measurements. Japan.

He is also the lead author of the textbook entitled Pseudo Random Signal Processing: Theory and Application (Wiley. Deputy Director of the Australian Telecommunications Research Institute (ATRI). His research interests include radio channel characterization and modeling. Perth. and future-generation wireless systems. Siegen. and Associate Director of the Australian Telecommunications Cooperative Research Centre (ATcrc). He is currently a Professor and the Chair of radio communications at the School of Engineering.ÖSTLIN et al. He has been an active participant with the Wireless World Research Forum and is actively involved in the European FP6 Network of Excellence EuroFGI. equalization. Australia. 51 . Hagen. coding and modulation. Sweden. in 1994. Prior to his appointment at BTH in October 2004. Germany. He served on the Board of Management of ATRI and the Executive Research Committee of the ATcrc. Downloaded on August 26. Authorized licensed use limited to: CSIRO LIBRARY SERVICES. He was the Leader of ATcrc’s wireless program and the Leader of the center’s radio transmission technology project.: EVALUATION OF PROPAGATION MODEL RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P. degree from the University of Hagen. He is the author or coauthor of some 110 technical papers and five book chapters in the areas of wireless and radio communications. spread-spectrum systems. Germany. mobile multimedia communications. Restrictions apply. 2005).-Ing. in 1987 and the Dr. he held the positions of Professor of wireless communications at Curtin University of Technology. Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH).-Ing. 2009 at 19:02 from IEEE Xplore. Ronneby. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Siegen.1546 FOR MOBILE SERVICES Hans-Jürgen Zepernick (M’94) received the Dipl.

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