Draft ESIA Report for Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and

three Transfer Stations Project of Addis Ababa City
Administration

The Sendafa landfill site

(Final Draft)

Prepared by:
ZTS Environment and Development Consulting
Engineers
In association with

MTS Consulting Engineers
Addis Ababa, May 2014

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Table of Content
LIST OF ACRONYMS .................................................................................................................6
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...........................................................................................................9
1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................10
2. BACKGROUND AND PROJECT JUSTIFICATION ........................................................12
2.1 OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................................... 12
2.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE ESIA STUDY ..................................................................................................................................... 12
2.3 SCOPE OF THE ESIA STUDY ........................................................................................................................................... 12

3. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT............................................................13
3.1. LOCATION ................................................................................................................................................................ 13
3.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW SANITARY LANDFILL DESCRIPTION PROJECT................................................................................... 14
3.2.1 Main features of the sanitary landfill............................................................................................................. 15
3.2.2 Leachate Treatment Plant.............................................................................................................................. 17
3.2.3 Drainage System of the Sanitary Landfill...................................................................................................... 18
3.2.4 Storm Water Management System................................................................................................................ 19
3.2.5 Final Cover of the landfill cells........................................................................................................................ 19
3.2.6 Landfill Gas Management .............................................................................................................................. 20
3.2.7 Site facilities and Infrastructures .................................................................................................................. 20
3.2.8 Stockpiles, borrow areas and quarries ........................................................................................................... 21
3.2.9 Landfill Operation........................................................................................................................................... 22
3.2.10 Site Closure ................................................................................................................................................... 23
3.3 TRANSFER STATIONS ................................................................................................................................................... 23
3.3.1 Akaki transfer station ..................................................................................................................................... 28
3.3.2 Koshe transfer Station .................................................................................................................................... 28
3.3.3 Bole Arabsa transfer Station .......................................................................................................................... 29

4. NATIONAL AND REGIONAL POLICIES AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK...31
4.1 POLICY FRAMEWORK .............................................................................................................................................. 31
4.1.1 Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia ....................................................................... 31
4.1.2 National and Regional Conservation Strategy............................................................................................... 32
4.1.3 Environmental Policy of Ethiopia .................................................................................................................. 32
4.1.4 National Health Policy.................................................................................................................................... 33
4.1.5 Land Tenure Policy ........................................................................................................................................ 34
4.1.6 National Biodiversity Policy .......................................................................................................................... 34
4.1.7 The Dry Waste Management Policy of the AACA........................................................................................... 35
4.2 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ............................................................................................................................................ 36
4.2.1 Establishment of Environmental Protection Organs (Proclamation No. 295/2002)...................................... 36
4.2.2 Environmental Impact Assessment (Proclamation No. 299/2002)................................................................. 36
4.2.3 Addis Ababa City Government Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations No. 21/2006....................... 38
4.2.4 Oromiya National Regional State Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation No.176/2012 .............. 38
4.2.5 Environmental Pollution Control (Proclamation No. 300/2002) .................................................................... 38
4.2.6 Solid Waste Management Proclamation (No. 513/2007) .............................................................................. 39
4.2.7 Public Health Proclamation........................................................................................................................... 41
4.2.8 National Rural Land Administration and Use (Proclamation No. 456/2005)................................................ 41
4.3 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ................................................................................................................................. 43
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Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

4.3.1 The Environmental Protection Organs .......................................................................................................... 43
4.3.2 Ministry of Environment and Forestry (former EPA) .................................................................................... 43
4.4. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT STANDARDS ..................................................................................................................... 44
4.4.1 Draft Urban Waste Management Standards ................................................................................................. 44
4.4.2 IFC Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines................................................................................ 49

5. METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................50
6. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT ENVIRONMENT....................................................53
6.1 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT .............................................................................................................................................. 53
6.1.1 Climate ........................................................................................................................................................... 53
6.1.2 Topography of the project area...................................................................................................................... 54
6.1.3 Geology of Addis Ababa and its Surrounding................................................................................................. 55
6.1.3.1 Geology and Soil type of Sendafa Land fill site........................................................................................... 57
6.1.3.2 Geology and soil type of Bole Arbasa Transfer station site ....................................................................... 58
6.1.3.3 Geology and soil type of Koshe Transfer station site .................................................................................. 58
6.1.3.4 Geology and soil type of Akaki Transfer station site................................................................................... 59
6.1.4 Hydrology of the project area ........................................................................................................................ 60
6.1.4.1 Hydrology of the Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Area........................................................................................................60
6.1.4.2 Hydrology of the Bole Arbasa Transfer Station Area..................................................................................................61
6.1.4.3 Hydrology of the Koshe Transfer Station Area ...........................................................................................................61
6.1.4.3 Hydrology of the Akaki Transfer Station Area ............................................................................................................62

6.1.5 Land Use and visual........................................................................................................................................ 63
6.1.6 Water Resources ............................................................................................................................................ 64
6.1.6.1 Surface waters............................................................................................................................................................64
6.1.6.2 Ground waters ...........................................................................................................................................................67

6.1.7 Ambient Air Quality ........................................................................................................................................ 68
6.2 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT .......................................................................................................................................... 69
6.2.1 Terrestrial Vegetation .................................................................................................................................... 69
6.2.2 Wildlife ........................................................................................................................................................... 69
6.3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT .................................................................................................................................. 69
6.3.1 Demography............................................................................................................................................... 69
6.3.2 Administration ........................................................................................................................................... 70
6.3.3 Economic Activity ....................................................................................................................................... 70
6.3.4 Health......................................................................................................................................................... 71
6.3.5 Health Professionals................................................................................................................................... 71
6.3.6 Education ................................................................................................................................................... 72
6.3.7 The current Municipal Solid Waste Management System in Addis Ababa.................................................... 73
6.3.7.1 The Formal Sector ......................................................................................................................................................73
6.3.7.2 The Informal Sector ...................................................................................................................................................77

6.3.8 Cultural Activities, Language, Religion and Ethnic groups ............................................................................. 79
6.3.9 Socio economic background of Bereh woreda and the five towns of Oromia Special zone ........................... 79

7. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES........................................................................................82
8. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION, PREDICTION AND ANALYSIS 84
8.1 THE POSITIVE IMPACTS ................................................................................................................................................. 84
8.1.1 Impact on public health of the wider city ....................................................................................................... 84
8.1.2 Impact on public health of the residents of the five towns in Oromia special zone ....................................... 85
8.1.3 Impact on improvement of the overall solid waste management system of the city .................................... 86
8.1.4 Improvements on enhancing and formalizing ISWM ..................................................................................... 86
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........................................................13 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR EXPOSURE TO HIV / AIDS AND OTHER STD ..............................................98 8......................................... 88 8......................................... 89 8................................... 127 9........1 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP related to design change ............................. 130 9....................................................3............................. 107 8...................... 107 8... 89 8..2................... 114 9....................................................10 Impact of Fire Hazard .....12 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR LOSS OF FARM LAND ..........................3 Impact on Women.........................................1.......................... 98 8.....................................................................................................................................................1.......................................................91 8...........3 IMPACT ON SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT ............... 105 8....................................................................................... 105 8.... 100 8...........................10 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE MECHANISM FOR FIRE HAZARD ...2 Mitigation Measures to Minimize Leachate Infiltration from the Disposal cells................2..................................... 95 8......................................................................................... 125 9....................................................................... 123 9.......... 120 9............. 106 8................1 Impact of leachate on the surface and ground water resources.............3 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS OF LANDFILL GAS ON AMBIENT AIR QUALITY .............3 Impact on public health............................. 106 8......................................................... 129 9......................................5 Impact of Noise...............Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8...4 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT ON PUBLIC HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT ... 104 8..5 Improvement on overall environmental quality and property value around Koshe........1 INSTITUTIONS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ESMP............... 118 9.............................................. 119 9.................. 87 8............................................... 114 9..........................................2..2 Measures to mitigate emission of GHG and exposure to landfill gas.... 121 9............. 129 9.......1 Mitigation measure to minimize leachate volume.......................................................................................................................................5 MITIGATION MEASURE FOR IMPACTS ON SOIL ........1............................................... 102 8............ 143 ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 4 ............2....................................2 THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS ............................................................................................................................................. 86 8.....................................................................2...........................3..... 119 9..............1........................................................................................................3 Leachate treatment plant............ 99 8........ 127 9......................2...................2 Exposure to HIV / AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) .......1................................................1 Impact of Leachate on surface water resources ..................1.........6 PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT OF NOISE AND VIBRATION .......................................................................................................2...... 116 9... 114 9..........................2.........7 Impact on traffic volume during construction and operation .......2........................2..................... IMPACT MITIGATION MEASURES..............90 8. 143 10.. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (ESMP)..................1 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS OF LEACHATE ON SURFACE AND GROUND WATERS ............. 130 10.......114 9.........1.....................................................................3.. 124 9......................................................................................................9 Impacts on terrestrial flora and fauna .............7 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR LAND USE AND AESTHETICS (POST –CLOSURE OF THE LANDFILL).......................................1...........................7 Income generating and small businesses .1 Impacts related to emission of greenhouse gases ...............................................................................143 10..........................3...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Loss of Farm Land................................................2 Impact of Leachate on ground water resources ......................................................4 PUBLIC AND STAKEHOLDERS’ CONSULTATION ...............................................4 Impacts on soil.................................11 Impacts due to spillage of used oil and lubricants ........6 Impact on land use and aesthetics ............................3............................2 PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT OF AKAKI TRANSFER STATION ON AKAKI WELL FIELDS ............................................................................................ 107 9............. Dust and vibration.........................................................2.............................................................2........... 121 9..............................................................................................3........2................................................................2.................................................................................6 Employment creation ............8 PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS ON INCREASED TRAFFIC ...................................................................................................2......................................................................................2 Impact of landfill Gases on ambient air quality....................................1 Gas collection and treatment ..................14 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT ON WOMEN ......3 Mitigation measures for impacts of dust and vehicle exhaust smoke ..11 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS OF USED OIL AND LUBRICANTS ............... 105 8....................1......8 Impacts on occupational health and safety of workers ............................. 103 8........9 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS ON HEALTH AND SAFETY ................................ 129 9...

........................................................................................ REFERENCES ............1....................2 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the construction phase............................ 143 10.... 176 13...............................................................................................................................1 SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION AND MONITORING COSTS ..........................................Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 10...................................................................................................1...163 12..............................................................................................3 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the operation phase ....... CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION...................................................... 181 ANNEX II : LIST OF EIA PREPARERS AND CVS ........................177 14...................................... COST ESTIMATE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION AND MONITORING MEASURES................................................169 12..........178 ANNEXES ...................................... ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MONITORING ... 197 ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 5 ..............................................180 ANNEX I: MINUTES OF CONSULTATION ....................................................................... 144 11..................................................................

Health.A City Government Environmental Protection Authority AACG Addis Ababa City Government AACMA Addis Ababa Cleansing Management Agency AARDPO Addis Ababa Recycling and Disposal Project Office AAWSA Addis Ababa Water and Sewerage Authority BOD5 Biological Oxygen Demand CIS Corrugated Iron Sheet COD Chemical Oxygen Demand CSE Conservation Strategy of Ethiopia CW Constructed Wetland dB Decibel EHS Environmental.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project List of Acronyms AACG EPA A. education and communication IFC International Financial Corporation LAEPB Land Administration and Environmental Protection Bureau of Oromiya ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 6 . and Safety EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EPA Environment Protection Authority EPE Environmental Policy of Ethiopia ESIA Environmental and Social Impact Assessment ESMF Environmental and Social Management Framework EWNHS Ethiopian Wildlife & Natural History Society FDRE Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia FWSF Free Water Surface Flow GHG Green House Gases GIIP Good International Industry Practice GSE Geological Survey of Ethiopia HDPE High Density Poly ethylene HSSF Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow IEC Information.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project LEL Lower Explosive Limit LFG Landfill Gas LTP Leachate Treatment Plant MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forestry MSE Micro and Small Enterprises NGO Non Governmental Organization NMOC Non-methane organic compounds NIMBY Not In MY Back Yard NSR Noise Sensitive Receivers NUSWMS National Urban Solid Waste Management Standards OHS Occupational Health and Safety PAP Project Affected Parties PPE Personal Protective Equipment ppm Parts per Million RPF Resettlement Policy Framework STDs Sexually Transmitted Diseases SWM Solid Waste Management UEL Upper Explosive limit UV Ultra violate VOCs Volatile Organic Chemicals WWDCE Water Works Design and Construction Enterprise ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 7 .

Akaki and Bole Arbasa transfer station sites Fig 8: Showing the confluence of Legetafo with Legedadi River where sample was collected Fig.17: Summary of Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) Table 18: Environmental and social monitoring indicators.9: Solid waste collection coverage in Addis Ababa Fig 10: Annual Solid waste generation and collection Fig 11: Street cleaning performance vis-a-vis demand Fig 12: Showing recently abandoned and new open dump sites in Sebeta town Fig 13: Showing an engineered sanitary landfill turned to open dump site in Adama Fig 14: Showing the community consultation conducted at Sendafa landfill site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 8 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project List of Tables Table 1: Geographical coordinates of the Sendafa landfill site Table 2: Design dimension and function of the blocks of the transfer station Table 3: Monthly Mean temperature (0c) and average rainfall (mm) data for 6 years (2007-2012) from Bole Meteorological Table 4: Average Monthly wind speed (km/hr) of 6 years (2007-2012) Table 5: Population by sub city and number of kebelle Table 6: Health professional by qualification Table 7: Top ten diseases Table 8: Showing school enrolment by gender Table 9: Ratio of school boys to girls Table 10: Population of the towns in Oromia Special zone Table 11: Top ten diseases in Bereh Woreda Table 12: Summary table of alternative sites considered Table 13: Draft Noise emission standards of FEPA Table 14: Magnitude Matrix showing the significance of potential impacts of the project Table 15: Summary of Major impacts and proposed Mitigating Measures Table 16: Summary of Major Positive Impacts and Enhancement Measures Table. frequency of measurement and reporting Table 19: Cost estimates for implementing mitigation measures Table 20: Summary of Environmental Mitigation and Monitoring costs List of Maps Map 1: Location of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill site Map 2: Location of Transfer station and the Sanitary landfill Map 3: Geology of Addis Ababa and Surrounding Area Map 4: Geological Map and water points in Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site Map 5: Water points and Geological structures around Akaki Transfer station Map 6: Drainage Map of Akaki Catchment Map 7: Aquifer Map of Addis Ababa and its surrounding Area Map 8: Akaki Well Fields (WF) List of Figures Fig 1: Showing the design layout of the new Sendafa Sanitary landfill Fig 2: Site layout of the Bole Arabsa transfer stations Fig 3: General layout of the transfer shade (Block 6) of Koshe Transfer Station Fig 4: Partial view the Akaki transfer station site Fig 5: Partial view the open land in Koshe/Repi for transfer station site Fig 6: Partial view the Bole Arbasa transfer station site Fig 7: Showing current land use types at Sendafa landfill.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Executive Summary ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 9 .

Hence. water. Burayu. The development of well designed and planned solid waste disposal site that could address the long term desire of the city is now under implementation. is one of the recently flourishing cities in Africa. Sululta. namely. Geographically. and Gelan towns.The City Council and The City Government (Administration) at the top. producing and elderly citizens of the City. Addis Ababa is becoming the attention-getting of many international agencies. and change the image of the city as a capital of an exemplary country of independence to Africans and a sit for different local and international organizations. the poor waste handling and management practices both by the public and the municipality are putting their shadows on its international image and development. the city has identified waste management sites. the community. Encompassing nearly 3 million inhabitants in its area of 540km2 with a comfortable average temperature of 160C and an altitude of 2500m above sea level.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 1. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) is a process for examining the environmental and social consequences of a proposed development project. transport and controlled removal of solid wastes in an organized landfill is necessary to avert these problems. In this respect. it will also respond to the emerging needs of these five towns of Oromia Special Zone for such appropriate solid waste management facilities and services. construction of new sanitary land fill at Sendafa. the capital of Ethiopia. Uncontrolled disposal of wastes in general and solid wastes in particular to the earth. Sendafa. Introduction Addis Ababa. Though Addis Ababa is astonishingly booming. Bole Arabsa and Akaki. tourists. Addis Ababa now is managed by four governmental hierarchies. work in and visit. and air will seriously affect the health of the growing. and diplomatic corps to mention few to live. construction of three transfer stations in Koshe/Repi. Its causes are numerous and interwoven in nature attributed to an individual inhabitant. the Sub cities (10 in number) in the middle and Woredas (equivalent to districts) at the bottom. and the administrative level. it will decrease the productivity of the land. Historically passing through different administrative restructurings. The construction of the Sendafa sanitary land fill and three transfer stations is expected to respond to the long awaited problem of the city. In addition since the services of the proposed solid waste project extends to cover Sebeta. The ESIA process is designed to ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 10 . the need for integrated management approach and up-to-date collection. Moreover. Addis Ababa is located in 8055 & 9005 North latitude and 38040 & 38050 East latitude.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project provide decision makers and stakeholders with adequate information to manage responsibly the environmental and often social consequences of their actions. National and Regional requirements. Chapter one to three of the ESIA study report presents information that introduces the proposed development project. The baseline data reflecting the current status of the physical and social environments of the project area are outlined in chapter six. While undertaking this ESIA study due considerations were given to relevant International. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 11 . the proposed mitigation measures for the major and significant adverse impacts followed by the Environmental and Social Management Plan are presented in the succeeding chapters. The present ESIA report is prepared to respond to the requirements of the National and Regional Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) legislations by meeting relevant International standards. Whereas identification and analysis of all potential environmental and social impacts are thoroughly discussed in chapter eight. The stated project is implemented by the Addis Ababa City Administration in cooperation with French Development Agency. The present ESIA report is prepared for the new Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and three transfer stations to be developed by the Addis Ababa Solid waste management project. its objectives and describes the key components of the Solid waste management project.

at Bole Arabsa. at Sendafa/Legedadi. Sendafa. 2. the spatial scope is centred at Koshe/Repi. and Gelan towns) through the development of the new sanitary land fill. and Akaki Beseka areas. protect and improve the environmental quality of Addis Ababa and the five towns of Oromia Special Zone (i. Burayu. The study is aimed to ensure that the environmental and social effects of the project activities are adequately and appropriately addressed before decisions are made to implement them. It will also develop relevant mitigation/enhancement ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 12 . Accordingly. Sululta. the closure of the existing dump site. The environmental and social assessment framework would identify the direct and indirect impacts on humans.1 Objectives The overall objective of this project is to preserve. These include Addis Ababa city and limited towns of Oromia special zone. The project sites form the centre of influence for the direct impact zone. cost effective and affordable integrated waste management system in compliance with the national waste management legislation through developing environmentally friendly infrastructures in the waste sector for Addis Ababa City and the five towns of Oromia special zone. socio-economic and environmental components are likely to be directly affected by the activities of the project components.3 Scope of the ESIA study The spatial and temporal scope of the ESIA study is bounded by the location. assess the potential positive and negative effects. the construction of three transfer stations and by providing accompanying services towards an environmentally sustainable. 2. flora and fauna.2 Objective of the ESIA Study The main objectives of the ESIA study is to describe the existing bio-physical and socio-cultural features of the proposed project environment. Sebeta. soil. landscape. The spatial scope of the project will consist of the areas of direct and indirect impact zones. air.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 2. minimize or compensate any undesirable effects expected to result from the construction and operation activities of the project. The temporal scope of the ESIA study would mainly focus on assessing the potential impacts that are likely to occur during construction and operational periods of the project. and recommend appropriate mitigating measures that will avoid.e. construction and operation activities envisaged by the components of the solid waste project. Background and Project Justification 2. water. material assets and cultural heritage stemming from the implementation activities of the project. The direct impact zone is considered to be those areas where the existing biophysical.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project /offsetting measures and monitoring. Bereh Woreda.92665263 CW4 997506. Location The new Sendafa sanitary land fill site is located at North-Eastern side of Addis Ababa in Oromia Region.10099301 CW3 997392.15479734 491784. institutional strengthening measures to be undertaken during project implementation and operation.79209330 492458.1. It can also be accessed via Hayat road though it requires maintenance and bridge construction over the Legetafo River. Geographically. in Chebe Weregenu kebelle close to a town called ‘Legetafo’. Corner point Northing Easting CW0 999500. the new sanitary landfill site is delimited with the following coordinates. It is located about 25km away from Addis Ababa city and about 5km South-West of Lagedadi dam.04732505 CW2 999470.67219718 Table 1: Geographical coordinates of the Sendafa landfill site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 13 . Finfine Zuria special zone.49501042 CW1 999594.78457313 491843.52507593 492459. 3. The new sanitary landfill site can be accessed by diverting from the main Addis Ababa-Dessie highway near Sendafa and taking the new dry weather road that connect Sendafa town with Dukem town. The new Sendafa sanitary landfill site is sometimes called the ‘Chebe Woregenu landfill site’.33567845 491727. Description of the Proposed Project 3.

 Main Features of the Sanitary Landfill site  Drainage System of the Sanitary Landfill  Leachate Treatment Plant  Storm Water Management System  Final Cover of the landfill cells  Landfill Gas Management  Site facilities and Infrastructures ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 14 .2 Description of the new Sanitary Landfill Description project The proposed sanitary landfill consists of the following project components.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site Map -1: Location of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill site 3.

Disposal of wastes at the site will take place 12 hours a day. Sebeta.2% toward the south.2.000 tons over the next 20 years. industrial.5) for hazardous waste (see fig 1). It is anticipated that the life span of the new Sendafa Sanitary Landfill would be 20 years. For preliminary planning purposes. The area used for the construction of the landfill cells and leachate treatment plant is about 82 hectares and the remaining space will be used for the development of all other required facilities such as roads. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 15 . 6 days a week throughout the year. The new sanitary land fill is expected to handle about 8.5 hectare out of which 102 hectares will be used for the landfill development and the rest is free zone left as a buffer between the land fill and the Bole airport.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  Stockpiles. Four of the five cells will be used for disposal of nonhazardous solid waste and the remaining one (cell No. Sendafa. Legetafo. However the new Sanitary landfill will not accept medical wastes for disposal in the cells. institutional and commercial sources as well as from service areas of Addis Ababa City. it has been assumed that the landfill will be developed as five cells including one for hazardous waste. Gelan and Burayu towns.1 Main features of the sanitary landfill The shape of the sanitary landfill site is a strip oriented in North-South direction with a natural slope of 1. The type of waste expected to be disposed in the new Sendafa sanitary landfill will be composed of hazardous and non hazardous waste that will be generated from residential. It has a total area of 124. buildings and drainages.200. borrow areas and quarries  Landfill Developments and Operation  Site Closure  Transfer Stations 3.

The proposed liner systems for active and passive barrier will have the following specifications. - Active barrier: The active barrier will be created by placing a 2mm thick HDPE geomembrane on the whole bottom surface of the cells.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 1: Showing the design layout of the new Sendafa Sanitary landfill Access to the site will be through a newly constructed asphalt road on the north western part of the landfill site. 5). To prevent infiltration of leachate into the ground that may pollute the soil and the groundwater. the active security barrier will be reinforced by an additional smooth and UV protected 2mm thick HDPE geo-membrane. - Passive barrier: 5 meters of materials with a permeability of maximum 10-6 m/s. the bottom and slopes of the constructed cells will be covered with active and passive barriers.e. or equivalent. Rainwater infiltration through disposed solid waste is expected to produce leachate. For the cell receiving hazardous wastes (i. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 16 . Cell No. Approximately 170 meters of new road will be constructed from the access road to the gate of the landfill.

The algal concentration in the pond depends on nutrient loading. The pipes will lead to a leakage control manhole that will be checked on a monthly basis as soon as the first raw of hazardous waste will be disposed of. anaerobic pond and constructed wetland. but is usually in the range of 500 . after which it falls to a minimum during the night. The dissolved oxygen concentration in the leachate gradually rises after sunrise. The process of anaerobic digestion is more intense at temperatures above 15°C and can reach up to 75% of BOD5 removal. These are explained as follows. The process of oxidizing organic matter by algae and aerobic bacteria is dominant. when photosynthesis ceases and respiratory activities consume oxygen.2 m deep) is used to treat the remaining BOD5 and COD downstream of the anaerobic pond.2000 µg chlorophyl-a/l. temperature and sunlight. there is a diurnal variation in the dissolved oxygen concentration. Because of the photosynthetic activities of pond algae. 3. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 17 . This pond will not contain dissolved oxygen or algae. In this anaerobic pond. The pond proposed is sized and designed in order to ensure a long retention time to avoid hydraulic by-passes of the leachate in the pond. to a maximum level in the mid afternoon. a 15cm sand layer with slotted HDPE pipes within it will be placed between the two HDPE geo-membranes.2 Leachate Treatment Plant The proposed sanitary landfill is designed to have a leachate treatment plant. carbon dioxide and water. A retention time of at least 20 days will be used to ensure proper treatment. (b) Facultative Aerobic Pond The facultative aerobic pond (1. COD and BOD5 removal is achieved by conversion of both soluble and non-soluble COD and BOD5 into mainly methane. This will serve as leakage detection layer.2.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project For checking the integrity of the active barrier system. in response to photosynthetic activity. The proposed leachate treatment plant will consist of facultative aerobic pond. (a) Anaerobic Pond An anaerobic pond (3m deep) will receive leachate with high organic loads.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 18 .2.The size of the gravels will be 16/32mm.5m. heavy metals and other toxic or hazardous pollutants. 3. A geo-textile filter will be placed over the drainage layer to protect it from clogging as a result of solids transport. nutrients. At the bottom of the slopes. The pollutants removed by CWs include organic materials.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project (c)Wetland A constructed (or engineered) wetlands (CW) is planned to be constructed to grow wetland vegetation to assist in treating wastewater in a more controlled environment than what occurs in natural wetlands. Since it is impossible to place 50cm of gravels on the side slopes. A layer of 50 cm of gravels (with low CaCO3 content to prevent degradation by acidic leachate) will be laid on top of the protection geo-textile (last layer of the Liner System) . The slotted pipes will be connected to HDPE collectors (full pipes) at the base of the slopes at each low point of cells.5mm. allowing for a safe discharge of sides slopes collected leachate into the bottom LCRS. Maximum spacing between pipes varies. To avoid clogging and capillary action holding water in the drainage layer. These pipes will lead the leachate by gravity to the downstream part of the site. The thickness of this geo-composite for drainage will never be less than 7. Slotted collection pipes will be laid (embedded) within the gravel layer in such a manner that the leachate will be drained within the gravels layer to these slotted pipes. coarse material is used so that there is space within the drainage layer for leachate to drain freely. with a minimum length of 1. pathogens. suspended solids. The geo-composite for drainage will be composed of a HDPE core bonded on both sides by a non-woven filtration geotextile.3 Drainage System of the Sanitary Landfill A drainage layer will be placed all over the bottom liner system and at the bottom of the cells and on the side slopes. a geo-composite side slope drainage layer with at least the same hydraulic conductivity will be placed. The choice has been made to design a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow (HSSF) system as the efficiency is higher than a Free Water Surface Flow (FWSF) for the same plan area. The collectors shall lead to HDPE transmission pipes in the peripheral trenches near the ground level and along the perimeter bunds. the geo-composite will be laid below the granular drainage layer.

2. The storm water management system will include peripheral storm water ditches made of reinforced concrete. originating from non-operating areas of the landfill will be collected and conveyed downstream of the cells. Control valves will therefore be installed on the feeding pipe and assure that this maximum flow is never exceeded.5 Final Cover of the landfill cells The new sanitary landfill is designed to have a final cover with proper slopes. the Leachate Treatment Plant will be fed by gravity only whereas for the other Cells the gravity collector pipes will lead to a pumping manhole downstream of the site. The maximum leachate inflow at the LTP inlet will be controlled so as to never get over 650m3/day.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project For the operation of Cell 1. 3. Non-contaminated storm water. The final cover will meet internationally recognized slope requirements of 5 to 20 percent. 3. No leachate will be discharged to the Storm water Management System. and ratio of cover soil to waste. Storm water coming from outside the cells will all be collected by the ditches of the perimeter road. Storm water management works are designed to control flow within the waste-relief boundary and external surface water flow to prevent flooding and erosion. berm will be made on top of the waste mass and ditches. The Leachate Collection System is entirely separated from the Storm water Management System.4 Storm Water Management System The design of the sanitary landfill consists of a storm water management system. Non-contaminated storm water. where a pump will be installed in order to feed the Leachate Treatment Plant. The slopes may be adapted during the operation period depending on the actual waste density. In addition. The pipes used to drain the uncontaminated storm water coming from non-operated cells will be the same as the future Leachate Drainage Pipe. originating from non-operated cells or sub-cells will be collected through the leachate collection network in place and will be conveyed via another storm water piping network parallel to the leachate transmission network. Compacted waste will be mounded and compacted to provide base for ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 19 . The cover will be designed to allow stability over the waste mass and it will be placed in progress with the operation. on the slopes and on the final cover to protect slopes from erosion.2. Leachate will be collected from the lined cells area and sent to the downstream Leachate Treatment Plant.

The LFG system including drilling of the wells will be constructed with the final cover at the end of the lifetime of each cells or sub-cells. and its impact on the greenhouse effect. The social and environmental impacts of these works had been tackled late 2012 and early 2013 by Omega ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 20 . • Blower creating a negative pressure in the LFG network for LFG extraction and • Flare burning the gas and converting the hazardous methane gas into CO2 reducing the impact on global warming. Fermentation is a phenomenon that occurs spontaneously in engineered landfills as a result of the anaerobic digestion of organic compounds. Each well has a radius of about 30 meters. Finally. the external slope of the peripheral bunds will be covered with local vegetation at their installation whereas the surface of each cell will be covered as soon as the height of waste reaches its final dimension.6 Landfill Gas Management The proposed sanitary landfill has included a mechanism for landfill gas management in its detail design.2. This LFG will need to be collected because of the danger it presents for the staff and local residents. The LFG collection pipes are necessary to get the vacuum to the wells and get the gas from the well to the flare.7 Site facilities and Infrastructures The Addis Ababa Road Construction Authority is implementing a project for the construction of 8km asphalt road that provides access to the new Sanitary landfill site in Sendafa. The equipments that will be used to collect the LFG are: • Vertical pumping wells drilled within the waste body. • Condensate traps collecting the humidity condensate in the pipes. • Horizontal network of HDPE pipes connecting the wells to the extraction system and the flare. 3. 3. Each cell would have about 25 wells. This produces a gas referred to as “Landfill Gas” (LFG) or “biogas” that is essentially composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). These wells could also be used for leachate pumping in case of clogging or breakdown of the bottom leachate drainage system. The confinement of the solid waste at the Sendafa sanitary landfill will steadily increase the production of methane until it finally stabilizes at around 45% by volume.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project profiled cap. • Analyzers to monitor the gas quality and prevent explosions.2.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Consulting, also in charge of the works supervision and contract management on behalf of
AACA. In addition a new 170 meter long access road will be connecting the entrance gate of the
sanitary landfill site to the main road at the northwest corner of the site.
A gate will be constructed across the entrance and instructions to the vehicle drivers delivering
the waste to the site will be put in place. A road 7.0 m wide with a two-lane cross section will be
constructed on the top of the bund between cells 1 and 2/3 and between Cells 4 and Cells 1/2/3.
These roads will be asphalted and the remaining bund crests will be gravel-surfaced so as to
allow for maintenance vehicle to access if needed.
Potable water to the landfill site will be provided from two water storage tanks of 10 m.cu
capacity that will be constructed next to the building facilities area. Moreover, electricity to
the site will be provided through an on-site generator owned and operated by the Landfill
operator.
The fencing of the entire sanitary landfill site with concrete pole and barbed wire has been
implemented already and is well underway. The fence is planned to be completed well before the
commencement of civil works of the sanitary landfill development. Weighbridges and gatehouse
are to be provided close to the entrance of the site to control access and record quantities and types
of the incoming waste. A guard house will be provided for the weighbridge attendant.
Trucks wheel cleaning is required to remove litter and mud at the tipping face of the waste
collection vehicles. The release of this mud and particularly litter on the site access road will create
an unacceptable environmental impact. To minimize such impact concrete hardstand for a highpressure washer will be provided.
An administration building will also be constructed close to the entrance and will provide offices
for the management and administration staff as well as meeting room, locker room and toilet for
operators. Shades will also be constructed for the maintenance of equipment and protection of
vehicles from direct sunlight.

3.2.8 Stockpiles, borrow areas and quarries
During construction phase it is planned in the design report that soil from excavations on the site
will first be used, when suitable, for construction of cells, bunds as well as any filling operations
necessary to fit with the projected levels of the overall site as indicated on the design drawings.

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Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Any excavated soil not utilized immediately will be stockpiled on site for future use. Stockpiling
will be the sole responsibility of the landfill operator. Any surplus of soil from excavation will be
used for daily, intermediate, and final cover on the landfill areas. Soil will also be needed for road
construction, any required backfilling operations, and berms. Sources of soil will include all
excavations within the site boundaries. As the south-western part of the site can be utilized neither
for any landfill cell nor for any leachate treatment facilities, it will only serve as borrow area for any
filling works both during construction and operation.
In case of a lack of suitable material from the landfill construction excavations, the following
borrow sites and quarries sites has been identified.

Clay material is found in a borrow area located 2km away from the landfill in the north-east
direction (493654E and 999834mN)

Gravel material is available within 3-4km radius of the Landfill site. The material is coming
from the basaltic rock formation which is moderately weathered. The site is currently used
as aggregate quarry site for gravel road construction

3.2.9 Landfill Operation
At the end of each working day, the entire working face of a cell will be graded smooth and
compacted. Approved cover material will be placed on all exposed waste at the working face. If soil
is used as daily cover, a minimum thickness of 150 mm will be placed. When possible, sandy soil
will be preferred as daily cover material to allow the downward passage of water and provide good
hydraulic connection between the waste layers. Finer-grained soils are less suitable because they
can create lower permeability layers and pathways for the lateral migration of leachate towards the
landfill side slopes. Use of finer-grained soils for daily cover purposes can also cause access
problems for waste delivery vehicles, particularly during windy weather conditions.
Basic functions to be performed by landfill equipment at the site are:

Waste grading and compaction;

Excavation and compaction of daily and intermediate cover;

Typically, these functions will be performed by landfill compactors and wheeled loaders. A pick-up
truck will also be included in the typical on-site equipment fleet. Other functions requiring
equipment are landfill cell preparation, final cover construction, delivery of drop-off bin wastes to
the working face, road maintenance, and dust control. Some of these functions may be performed
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Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

with on-site equipment, but others may require equipment to be leased or a contractor to be hired.
Routine maintenance and cleaning will be performed as necessary to keep onsite equipment in good
operating order.
In areas where land filling has been temporarily discontinued for six months or more, soil will be
placed to minimum thickness of 300 mm as intermediate cover. This intermediate cover will
facilitate the movement of equipment and prevent the exposure of waste from erosion. Intermediate
cover will be placed on the top of each lift of waste and on any interior slopes that will not be
disturbed until the next land filling stage.

3.2.10 Site Closure
During the operational phases of the sanitary landfill, final cover and seeding will be applied
progressively to portions of the landfill area that are completed. Consequently, site closure will
involve reaching final waste elevations over the last remaining area of the landfill followed by the
application and seeding of final cover in that area. During site closure, equipment on site will be
removed. The entrance gate and perimeter fencing will be retained to control access.
A Closure Plan will be submitted to the relevant Federal and Regional offices of the EPA for
approval when the landfill site is two years from its projected completion or by the time 90 percent
of the landfill has been filled, whichever comes first. The closure plan for the site would include
plan showing site appearance after closure, description of the proposed end use of the site,
descriptions of the procedures for closure of the site, including advance notification of the public of
the landfill closure.

3.3 Transfer Stations
A transfer station is an interface between short haul waste collection vehicles and long haul vehicles
which are more appropriate for economical long distance hauling in the process of waste disposal.
Three transfer stations are proposed to be constructed at Akaki, Koshe and Bole Arabsa sites as part
and parcel of the overall waste management system of Addis Ababa City Administration and the
five towns in Oromia special zone. It is to be recalled that the Filidoro site has been changed to
Bole Arabsa site because of the unavailability and unsuitability of the former for transfer station
purpose.
The proposed transfer stations are designed to have the following main building blocks that are
necessary for its day to day operations (see table 2). These blocks are coded Block-A to Block-K in
the site layout of the three transfer stations with slight variation in coding from one to another. In
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3). Access roads for unloading trucks (8m3) and for loading trucks (long haul vehicles) will be separated. Its operational mechanism will fundamentally consist of depositing the waste onto a suitably designed platform for manual loading into the large long-haul vehicle by scraping waste from the floor by front end loader. Block 6 also serves as a loading ground for the 30m3 trucks that haul the solid waste to the sanitary landfill. The long haul trucks to be applied will be open top trailers that unload by tipping in the Sanitary landfill cells.25 m2 30 m2 30 m2 weighing bridge control room Block 6 900 m2 1052 m2 2070 m2 Transfer station shed Block 7 33 m2 33 m2 33 m2 Guard House /Main Gate Table 2: Design dimension and function of the blocks of the transfer station Block 6 will consist of a shed where the 8m3 skip trucks unload the solid waste hauled from different parts of the city to the transfer stations. the main blocks are listed in table 2 as Block 1 to 7. In addition the blocks in each transfer station are equipped with the required basic facilities for the staff working in the stations. Block No. shower room and toilets Block 3 139. Loading will be achieved by front-end loader in the transfer stations.84 m2 165 m2 165 m2 Maintenance workshop Block 4 12 m2 12 m2 12 m2 Generator House Block 5 12. The mode of operation of the proposed transfer stations are designed to have low level of sophistication.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project order to avoid confusion. All the access ways will be asphalt road and the manoeuvrings areas (loading & unloading docks) will be paved with concrete slab (see fig. Size of the Building block Function of the Building block Akaki Bole Arabsa Koshe Block 1 1000 m2 1130 m2 1130 m2 Sorting room Block 2 128 m2 128 m2 128 m2 Changing room. The catchment area for each transfer station is defined based on sub city limits while giving due consideration to maintain the collection areas to be as close as possible to the transfer stations by ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 24 .

Koshe and Bole Arabsa transfer station sites is about 2082 meters. The transfer station design have also incorporated a large shade (i. For those sub-cities or Oromia special zone towns situated close to the Sanitary landfill (Such as Sendafa and Legetafo towns). According to the traffic flow analysis of the detail design report of the transfer stations. The incoming trucks loaded with waste will be weighed in Block 5 of the control room. waste will be hauled directly from skip point to the landfill. On the other hand. tracks that will be engaged in the transportation of wastes from the City to the transfer station and then to the sanitary landfill will be maintained in block 3. The site layout of Bole Arabsa transfer stations is shown in fig 2 as typical demonstration. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 25 . There will be fence around the transfer station sites and the length of the fences around Akaki. about 333 trips of the 8m3 skip trucks and 34 trips of the 30m3 long haul trucks are expected to be handled daily in each of the transfer stations. block 1) for undertaking waste sorting activities where wastes will be segregated for recovery.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project taking into account distance between sub-cities and expected outlets.e. 1820 meters and 1207 meters respectively. reuse and recycling.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 2. Site layout of the Bole Arabsa transfer stations ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 26 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 3: General layout of the transfer shade (Block 6) of Koshe Transfer Station ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 27 .

2. Geographically the site is located 473679E and 979014N. Geologically. One geotechnical core drilling with depth of 10m and 4 test pits were excavated to understand the geology of the area. the Akaki transfer station site is situated on residual soil. The site is found in the Little Akaki River catchment and its tributary Jomo River is found 200 meters north of the landfill site.3m. The topography of the Akaki transfer station site is relatively flat. The elevation of the site varies from 2066 to 2068 masl.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 3. Fig 4: Partial view the Akaki transfer station site 3.3. active land fill site in the southern part and ring road and a school in the northern part. Since the southern ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 28 . The second layer is characterized by black clay soil with an average thickness of 1.3. Geographically the site is located 468026E and 991692N. The third layer is greyish salty clay and it extended up to 10m. It is found in Akaki Kaliti Sub city of Addis Ababa City Administration.2 Koshe transfer Station The Koshe Repi transfer Station is situated at the south west part of Addis Ababa City on the existing landfill site.1 Akaki transfer station The Akaki transfer station is located Southern part of Addis Ababa.0.4m. This residual soil has three layers and has more than 10m thickness. liquid waste treatment site in the East and by a farm land on southern and eastern part. The river flow direction is from south to north. The first layer is characterized by top clay soil and has a thickness of 0. The site is bounded by the Condominium house in northern. The site is bounded by the reclaimed land fill site in the northern part. It is found in the Woreda 01/02 of Nifas Silk Lafto Su-city of the Addis Ababa City Administration.

The Koshe landfill site will be rehabilitated in two phases. It is found in Bole Sub city of Addis Ababa City Administration.3 Bole Arabsa transfer Station The Bola Arabsa Transfer station is located South East part of Addis Ababa. there is rhyolitic volcanic rock. Koshe site lies on Rhyolite rock formation that extends up to 7 meters deep.3. Koshe transfer station is partially operating landfill site. Koshe transfer station site is located on zone 2 seismic zone of Ethiopia with pick ground acceleration of 0. The transfer station site is 3.1m to 0. The organic soil is characterized by partly decomposed waste material with little clay and thickness of 10 to 80cm. Therefore. Below this soil layer there is basaltic rock characterized by slight to moderately weathered rock having thickness of more than 10m. storm water flow is not expected to enter into the transfer station area from outside. The bed rock has slight to ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 29 . The thickness of the soil is not more than 80cm and has very loose top soil. it is sandy clay. Fig 5: Partial view the open land in Koshe/Repi for transfer station site 3. The site is characterized by organic soil and rhyolite rock formation.5km away from Bole Lemi Industry zone and Bole Ayat Condominium Site. Ethiopia. The soil layers have a thickness of 0. This soil is black in colour. Below the organic soil. it is considered as bad material for the construction of engineering structures and it has to be removed during construction. The first phase of 19 hectares will be rehabilitated with the aim of optimization of the transportation of waste to the future Sendafa Landfill site. Geographically the site is located 486390E and 988652N. The site is bounded in all directions by agricultural farm land.8m thick soil.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project part of the site is bounded by the ring road that already has its own drainage system. The Bole Arabsa site is situated on basaltic rock formation and is covered by very thin soil layer.1g.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project moderately weathered rock and has moderate strength.15g. Fig 6: Partial view the Bole Arbasa transfer station site Map 2: Location of Transfer station and the Sanitary landfill ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 30 . Akaki and Bole Arabsa Sites are located on Zone 3 of seismic earthquake zone with peak ground acceleration of 0.

1/1995 as amended) is the foundation for human rights. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 31 . Article 44(2) of the Constitution states that all persons who have been displaced. Article 43 (2) dealing with the rights to development states that nationals have the right to participate in national development and. The government shall pay fair compensation for property found on the land but the amount of compensation shall not take into account the value of land. regulations and institutional frameworks. in particular. and natural resources and environmental management. The concepts of sustainable development and environmental rights are enshrined in the Constitution of the FDRE through articles 43 and 44. Hence relevant policies and laws at various government levels have been drafted and issued in more recent years. National and Regional policies and regulatory framework 4. Moreover.1 Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia The Constitution is the supreme law of the country. Economic objectives of the Constitution states that Government has the duty to hold. it shall also have the duty to support the initiatives of the people in their development endeavours (Article 89 5&6). land and other natural resources and to deploy them for their common benefits & development. without prejudice to the right to private property. to be consulted with respect to policies and projects affecting their community. Government shall all the time promote the participation of the people in the formulation of national development policies and programmes. social. whose provisions must be complied with by all other policies. on behalf of the people. 4.1 Policy framework Following the constitution of the FDRE. economic and environmental related issued are addressed as following. The Constitution of the FDRE (Proclamation No.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4.1. which states among others the right to development and right to live in clean and healthy environment. Accordingly a review and commentary on the extent to which all social. Moreover the Constitution states that. economic and public health related importance of solid waste management is getting increasing attention by the various levels of the government. the government may expropriate private property for public purposes subject to payment in advance of compensation commensurate to the value of the property (Article 40(8). or whose livelihood has been adversely affected as a result of state programs have the right to commensurate monetary or alternative means of compensation including relocation with adequate State assistance.

It recognizes the importance of incorporating environmental factors into development activities from the outset.1.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Article 92 of the Constitution states that the design and implementation of any program and development projects shall not damage or destroy the environment. • Land resource use policy and strategies. and people have the right to be fully consulted and express their views in planning and implementation of environmental policies and project.2 National and Regional Conservation Strategy Since the early 1990s. human-made and cultural resources and their environment as a whole. The ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 32 . 1996). physical land use planning. 4. man-made and cultural resources. so as to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. and environmental protection. The major environmental and natural resources management issues facing Ethiopia are well documented in the CSE (FDRE.1. national and sectoral strategies to conserve and protect the environment. the Federal Government of Ethiopia has undertaken a number of initiatives that aims to develop regional. cultural and gender issues in sustainable resources and environmental management. programs and projects. The CSE sets out detailed strategies and action plans as well as the institutional arrangements required for the implementation of sectoral as well as crosssectoral interventions for the management of Ethiopia’s natural. The most important areas that are addressed by the CSE include the following: • Management of forest and woodland resources. • Integration of social. This document provides a strategic framework for integrating environment into new and existing policies. • Promotion of participation in sustainable development of natural.3 Environmental Policy of Ethiopia The Environmental Policy of Ethiopia (EPE) was issued in April 1997. public awareness and human resources. which views environmental management as an important component of development. Paramount amongst these was the conservation strategy of Ethiopia (CSE. It is also an important policy document. artificial and cultural resources. • Development of environmental education. 4. The overall policy goal is to improve and enhance the health and quality of life of all Ethiopians and promote sustainable social and economic development through sound management and use of natural. 1997).

The principal features of the Environmental Policy in this area are: • Provides for protection of human and natural environments. • Includes mitigation plans and contingency plans. nutritional deficiencies. • Recognizes public consultation. poor environmental conditions. The government has therefore assigned a very high priority to significantly improving health care and.1. • Promotion of private sector and NGO participation in the provision of health care. the policy addresses sectoral and cross sectoral environmental issues. • Provides for an early consideration of environmental impacts in projects and program design. and inadequate access to health services. The policy seeks to ensure the empowerment and participation of the people and their organizations at all levels in environmental management activities. in 1998. In addition to its guiding principles. low levels of education. • Ensuring accessibility to health care for the whole population. • Provides for monitoring and auditing • Establishes legally binding requirements • Institutionalizes policy implementation The policy establishes the Federal Environmental Protection Authority (nowadays Ministry of Environment & Forestry) to harmonize sectoral development plans and implement environmental management programs for the country. This is largely related to low levels of income and widespread poverty. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 33 . raise public awareness and promote understanding of the essential linkage between environment and development. 4. issued a health policy based on the following main principles: • Promotion of disease preventive components.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project policy consists mainly of guiding principles and various sectoral and cross-sectoral policies for sustainable environmental management. • Development of appropriate capacity based on needs assessment.4 National Health Policy Ethiopia had a low level of health coverage even in comparison with other Sub-Saharan countries. The EIA policy emphasizes the early recognition of environmental issues in project planning at all levels of administration. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) policies are included in the cross sectoral environmental policies.

6 National Biodiversity Policy The National Biodiversity Policy (NBP) was established in 1998 based on a holistic ecosystem approach to conserve.1. and promotion of primary health care through community participation. and buying and selling of land is prohibited but leasing rights is allowed. prohibiting its buying and selling. Moreover.1. make rural and urban lands the property of the People and Government of Ethiopia. 4.5 Land Tenure Policy The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) states that the right to ownership of rural and urban land. education and communication (IEC). rational development and sustainable utilization of the country’s biodiversity. develop and utilize the country's biodiversity resources. control of disease. In general. all legal provisions cited above. The strategies include raising the awareness of personal and environmental health care and sanitation through information. and they have to be fully convinced.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • Promotion and strengthening of inter-sectoral activities through a national self-reliance program. Article 40 of the Constitution indicates that land is a common property of the Nations. • Democratization and decentralization of the health care system Health Sector Development Plans and Strategies have been designed to implement the stated health principles within a defined period of time. However. The Land Policy of Ethiopia strongly support that project plans must include attractive and sustainable resettlement strategies to the people who are going to be displaced as a result of the development plan. Nationalities and the People of Ethiopia. it is the right for existing land owner to be compensated fully and satisfactorily if land is expropriated by the state. 4. and shall not be subjected to sale or to other means of transfer. is exclusively vested in the State and People of Ethiopia. as well as all natural resources. Also article 4(5) of the Proclamation 94/1994 deals with provision of land for the conservation. this can be effective only after the consultation and consent of the peasantry and subject to the assurance of their benefits. and contains comprehensive policy provisions for the conservation and ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 34 . The policy provides for guidance towards effective conservation. The Constitution of FDRE retained land under the control of the people and government of Ethiopia thus. development and utilization of state forests or protected areas. compensated and have to participate in all phases of the project implementation.

it is explicit about the desired roles to be played by the various actors. The EPA and Ethiopian Wildlife & Natural History Society (EWNHS). hence OSH issues. Integration of biodiversity conservation and development in federal and regional sectoral development initiatives. and no clear policy and legislative framework have been designed. however. Monitoring and Evaluation. which implies a view that consider solid waste as a resource. suggests strategies in the following four major areas. while the government is to play regulatory and capacity building roles as well as to provide the requisite institutional and legal support thus creating an enabling environment for non-state actors. The policy. The policy is expected to serve as framework for other more detailed pieces of legislations (dry waste management regulations) to be issued by the City Administration. 1995 E. It is worth noting that. namely (a) Information. (b) Research and Development and (c) Environmental Impact Assessment. providing benefits far in excess of those obtained from alternative uses to which they are subjected. are focusing efforts in this direction. compared to the above mentioned issues. 4. the policy gives less attention to public health aspects of waste management.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project sustainable utilization of biodiversity. have been identified as the principal strategies for implementation of the policy. in collaboration with Ramsar Bureau and other funding organizations. and promoting the use of indigenous and appropriate technology in solid waste management related operations. among others.1.) the document provides a good background on solid waste and its management in Addis Ababa as well as specific city-level solid waste related figures.7 The Dry Waste Management Policy of the AACA Issued by the Addis Ababa City Government (in Amharic. The achievement of sustainable solid waste management services through the adoption of cost recovery mechanisms as well as the involvement of the private sector as an alternative mode of service delivery are other aspects stressed in the policy. Accordingly. and mobilization of international cooperation and assistance. and have conducted successful workshops and awareness raising programs. Wetlands are considered among the most productive type of ecosystem in the world. Ethiopia is endowed with vast wetlands. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 35 . efforts towards their conservation and sustainable utilization are very limited. education and communication (IEC). NGOs are encouraged to play an active role in information. The major objectives of the policy include: enhancing the City’s image and generating employment and income. although this can possibly linked to an implicit assumption about its coverage in other separate legislations.C. Moreover.

The EPA will then review the EIA and either approve the project (with or without conditions) or reject it. The Proclamation requires. The proponent of the project must prepare the EIA following the format specified in the legislation.2. The law specifies the projects and activities that will require an environmental impact assessment (EIA).2. 295/2002) This law clarifies the institutional mandate and responsibilities of the Federal Environmental Protection Authority (nowadays MoEF) and aims to integrate environmental considerations into the policies and decision-making of sectoral agencies through such means as the establishment of environmental units in these agencies at the federal level and the creation of independent environmental agencies at the regional level.1 Establishment of Environmental Protection Organs (Proclamation No. among other things: • Specified categories of projects to be subjected to an EIA and receive an authorization from the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency prior to commencing implementation of the project. The mandate of the Council includes: (i) reviewing environmental policies. 4. a trade or operating license or a work permit to a business organization. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 36 . and environmental standards prepared by the EPA. • Licensing agencies to ensure that the requisite authorization has been duly received prior to issuing an investment permit.2 Environmental Impact Assessment (Proclamation No. • A licensing agency may suspend or cancel a licence that has already been issued where the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency suspends or cancels environmental authorization. This law also re-established the Environmental Protection Council. and (iii) reviewing and approving directives. guidelines. (ii) providing appropriate advice on the implementation of the Environmental Protection Policy of Ethiopia.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4. strategies and laws proposed by the EPA and issuing recommendations to government. 299/2002) This Proclamation (No 299/2002) aims primarily at making the EIA mandatory for categories of projects specified under a directive issued by the EPA. • The EPA or the relevant regional environmental agencies may issue an exemption from carrying out an EIA in projects supposed to have an insignificant environmental impact.2 Legislative Framework 4. a cross-sectoral co-coordinating body that advises the federal EPA and supervises its activities.

and submitting the environmental impact study report accompanied by the necessary documents to the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency. etc. projects situated in an environmentally sensitive areas such as land prone to erosion. which provide details of the EIA process and its requirements. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 37 . areas of historic or archaeological interest.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Procedures that need to be followed in the process of conducting an environmental impact assessment are described in the Proclamation. religiously important area. incorporating the means of their prevention. identifying the likely adverse impacts. This in effect means that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be prepared by project proponents and be examined. especially for projects with an adverse effect on the environment. Environmental guidelines are among the tools for facilitating the consideration of environmental issues and principles of sustainable development and their inclusion in development proposals. scale or other relevant characteristics have potential to cause some significant environmental impacts but are not likely to warrant a full EIA study Schedule 3: Projects which would have no impact and do not require an EIA However. will fall under category 1 irrespective of the nature of the project. Thus a project developer is expected to act as follows: • Undertake a timely environmental impact assessment. According to this guideline all project proponents and executing bodies (agencies) in the country should operate in close cooperation with the EPA to ensure that proper mitigating measures are designed and implemented. • Submit an environmental impact study report to the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency for review. To put this Proclamation into effect the EPA issued guideline documents. important landscape. According to this EIA guideline projects are categorized into three schedules: Schedule 1: Projects which may have adverse and significant environmental impacts thus requiring a full Environmental Impact Assessment Schedule 2: Projects whose type. commented and approved by the EPA. desertification.

176/2012 Regional State Environmental Impact Assessment The Oromia regional state has adopted the Federal Proclamation on Environmental Impact Assessment after it customized it to the regional realities.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4.e. 4.299/2002 is the basis for this regulation and the principles and procedures are almost similar except the coverage and difference on the responsible organ actively involved on the decision making process of the EIA (i. In addition to the proclamations. the National EIA Proclamation No. According to the regional proclamation.4 Oromiya National Proclamation No.t. The enforcement of this requirement for environmental assessment is spearheaded by LEPB and its branch offices at Zonal.c.A City Government Environmental Protection Authority and its structures at different levels). However. technology and its application process. particularly of the affected community in environmental impact assessment study and their participation while review of the EIA is made”.5 Environmental Pollution Control (Proclamation No. The Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation No. The Oromia region version of the proclamations is called ‘Oromia National Regional state Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation No.A city government.. 4. cumulative impacts and e.2. 21/2006) aims primarily at making the EIA mandatory for categories of projects specified under a guideline issued by the Authority and which will be implemented within the jurisdiction of A.2. the environmental impact study report is required to contain sufficient and accurate information that would enable the bureau to give its decision. 21/2006 This Regulation (No.3 Addis Ababa City Government Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations No. direct and indirect impacts. City and Woreda levels. 176/2012’. the Land Administration and Environmental Protection Bureau (LAEPB) of Oromiya is preparing detailed regulations on EIA. The LEPB is required by the law to review the EIA study report submitted to it within ten days and issue the authorization letter if satisfied with the report within the stated time limit.2. nature and characteristics of the proposed project. 300/2002) Proclamation No. 300/2002 on Environmental Pollution Control primarily aims to ensure the right of citizens to a healthy environment and to impose obligations to protect the environment of the ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 38 . The regional proclamation also stipulates that LEPB “shall ensure the inclusion of the opinion of the public. A. This implies that the EIA report is expected to contain all necessary information that is relevant to the project site. 176/2012 of the region clearly stipulates the requirement for environmental assessment by stating that “no person shall commence implementation of a project that requires environmental impact assessment without the authorization from the Bureau”.

at their discretion.2. inspectors belonging to the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency are empowered by the Proclamation to enter. Environmental Protection Authority (nowadays MoEF) is responsible for initiating and overseeing the implementation of overall policies. In order to ensure implementation of environmental standards and related requirements. The law addresses the management of hazardous waste. any land or premises at any time. Capacity building is also an area of intervention by the federal and regional environmental entities to foster sound management of waste in the country. and monitoring of pollution. strategies and guidelines on solid waste management. Such wide powers derive from Ethiopia's serious concern and commitment to protecting the environment from pollution. 4.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project country. the Proclamation provides a basis from which the relevant environmental standards applicable to Ethiopia can be developed. it empowers the Federal Environmental Protection Authority or the Regional Environmental Authority to assign environmental inspectors with the duties and responsibilities of controlling environmental pollution. water and soil. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 39 . Regional environmental agencies and urban administrations are also responsible for drawing out their plans as regards the implementation of the Proclamation and monitoring efficacy. municipal waste. while sanctioning violation of these standards as criminally punishable offences Furthermore.6 Solid Waste Management Proclamation (No. without prior notice or court order. In this proclamation the following provisions pertinent to the treatment and disposal of hazardous waste management has been provided: As regards to Inter-Regional Movement of Solid wastes: • Regional states may require any transit of solid waste through their region to be packed and transported in conformity with the directives and standards issued by the concerned environmental agency. The Proclamation recognized the existing solid waste management problems in the country and emphasizes the need to prevent environmental pollution that may result from the disposal of solid waste. the establishment of environmental quality standards for air. The proclamation also addresses noise as one source of environmental pollution and it seeks for standards and limits for noise providing for the maximum allowable noise level taking into account the settlement patterns. 513/2007) This proclamation came into force on February 2007 with an objective of implementing effective solid waste management in the country. In general.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Each urban administration shall in conformity with the relevant environmental standards,
ensure that solid waste disposal sites are constructed and properly used and managed.

As regards to the Transportation of Solid Waste:

Without prejudice to the mandate of the appropriate agency to register, undertake annual
registration and technical inspection of the motor vehicles as well as to issue a driving
license .the conformity of any vehicle or equipment with the specifications set by concerned
environmental agency shall be ascertained by the relevant urban administration prior to its
use for solid waste management

Each urban administration shall ,without prejudice to the weight and size of the vehicles
determine under the relevant laws, set standards to determine the skills of drivers and
appropriateness of the equipment and equipment operators and to prevent overload of the
solid wastes

As regards to the Construction of Waste Disposal Sites

Urban administrations shall ensure that a solid waste disposal site that was under
construction or was constructed prior to the coming into force of this proclamation is
subjected to environmental auditing as per the relevant laws.

Urban administration shall ensure that any new solid waste disposal site being constructed
or an existing solid waste disposal site undergoing any modification has had an
environmental impact assessment according to the relevant law.

As regards to the Auditing of Solid Waste Disposal Sites

Each urban administration is responsible for ensuring that an environmental audit is carried
out on every existing solid waste disposal sites.

The owner of any solid waste disposal site shall make the necessary modification if the
environmental audit made under sub-article (1) of this article shows that its continued
operation poses a risk to public health or the environment.

The authority may prescribe environmental criteria to determine the alternative use of a
solid waste disposal site that has ceased operation or is abandoned.

As Regards to Civil Liabilities

The owner of any solid waste disposal site shall, regardless of fault, be liable for any
damage caused to the environment, human health or property in the course of its operation
and after its closure

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Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Without prejudice to sub-article (1) of the article ,exemption from liability shall be granted
only when certified that it is the victim himself or a third party for whom the owner of the
solid waste disposal site is not responsible that has caused the damage

Any claim for damage under sub-article (1) of this article shall be barred by a period of
limitation unless thought within two years from the date on which the occurrence of the
damage is known

The major intents of the proclamation, as described in the preamble and objective, are maximizing
the economic and social benefits of waste as well as promoting decentralized waste management
services which also include a more strong involvement of the community and public at all level in
the delivery of waste management services. The proclamation considers waste as a resource, and
accords due attention to the issue of waste recycling.

4.2.7 Public Health Proclamation
The Public Health Proclamation (200/2000) comprehensively addresses aspects of public health
including among others, water quality control, waste handling and disposal, availability of toilet
facilities, and the health permit and registration of different operations. The Proclamation prohibits
the disposal of untreated solid or liquid hazardous wastes into water bodies or the environment that
can affect human health.

4.2.8 National Rural Land Administration and Use (Proclamation No. 456/2005)
The Rural Land Administration and Use Proclamation (Proclamation No. 456/2005) defines the
state ownership of rural land and the tenure rights of the land occupant, including rights to
"property produced on his land", rights of inter-generational tenure transfer, and rights of exchange
land and limited leasing rights. Provisions are made for the registration and certification of tenure
rights. Part Three of the Proclamation presents regulations relating to the use of rural land,
particularly as it relates to soil and water conservation and watershed management. The rural land
administration and land use laws are to be implemented by the regional states.
Land holding right gives the right to use the land for agricultural purposes as well as to lease it and,
while the right remains in effect, bequeath it to family members, as well as the right to acquire
property thereon, by labour or capital, and to sell, exchange and bequeath the same. The
Proclamation also addresses environmental concerns, including non-compliance with directives on
environmental protection.

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Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Article 7(3) of the Proclamation reinforces the rights of land users to compensation for the
development they have made on the land. It also states that when the land holder is evicted by
federal government, the rate of compensation would be determined based on the federal land
administration law. When the rural land holder is evicted by regional governments, the rate of
compensation would be determined based on the rural land administration laws of regions.
It is envisaged that the Proclamation will create a sense of ownership among the vast majority of
the rural population and enable them to take initiatives and collectively engage in environmental
management activities.

4.2.9 Addis Ababa City Administration Waste Management, Collection & Disposal
Regulation
This is an elaborate piece of legislation (Regulation No 13/2004) which has 9 parts and 37 articles.
Among the key concerns of this regulation are environmental pollution and public health related
issues as well as the economic importance of waste. The general spirit of the regulation is the
promotion of a more decentralized, participatory and private sector driven waste management
service delivery in the City. The regulation also provides, among others, for the establishment of
governmental organizations dedicated for waste management related affairs both at the City, SubCity and Kebele levels.
As expected, the regulation stipulates general provisions that assume detail guidelines and
directives to be developed at a later stage to enable the proper implementation of the regulation.
The regulation gives a clear definition for the term “hazardous waste”. Article 13 which refers to
the management and disposal of hazardous wastes, for example, stipulates that a directive shall be
issued on this issue. The regulation also stresses the need to have special authorization from the
City’s Environmental Protection Authority, although specific tools that will be used in enforcing
these provisions are not indicated.
Notwithstanding the key roles residential and business establishments in the City play in achieving
the objectives stated in the regulations, it is more explicit about the responsibility of the generators
than on the commitment of the government. Likewise, Article 27 that refers to “Safety and Health
of Online Workers” stipulates that taking care of the safety and health of online workers is the
responsibility of the employer, although it does not provide for specific instruments to be employed
to ensure its proper adherence. It is also worthwhile to note that Article 29, which is about
incentives, explicitly promotes the use of appropriate technology for recycling and reduction of
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setting environmental quality standards for air. but it is silent about the need to provide incentives to those that adopt and/or promote OHS practices. among others. 295/2002) is aimed to assign the responsibilities for environmental management to various entities in order to ensure sustainable use of environmental resources. The MoEF is the key national level environmental agency. Both institutions will have a stake on the proposed Sanitary Landfill construction. Accordingly.A City Government Environment Protection Authority is such an institution established by the A.3 Institutional Framework 4. regulations and standards.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project waste. for all projects or activities that falls under the control of the Federal Government also falls within the responsibilities of the EPA. the regional states are required to create their own regional environmental agencies. support all federal agencies in establishing environmental units.2 Ministry of Environment and Forestry (former EPA) The MoEF is one of the line ministries which directly report to the prime minister.3. operation and decommission processes. 4. According to the Environmental Protection Organs Proclamation.1 The Environmental Protection Organs Environmental Protection Proclamation (Proc. The MoEF is involved in the development of environmental policy and legislation. with a mandate to address environmental issues. establishing EIA procedures and an environmental information system. MoEF) is in charge of formulating policies. water and soils. and develop skills in strategic environmental analysis of policies and public instruments. laws. At the federal level the Environmental Protection Authority (i.e. with EIAs for regionally managed infrastructures or development activities. the A. The environmental legislation gives the MoEF powers to fulfil its role. These institutions are to deal.3.A City Government. while Land Administration and Environmental Protection Bureau of Oromiya is established by Oromiya Regional State. Most of the regional states have already established their own Regional Environment Protection offices. thereby avoiding possible conflicts of interest and duplication of efforts. monitoring pollution. 4. Enforcing the laws and policies including EIAs and environmental monitoring. and undertaking capacity ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 43 . It is also intended to establish a system that fosters coordinated but differentiated responsibilities among environmental protection offices at a federal and regional level.

likely to entail inter. as well as social and economic development policies. most specifically the SWM Proclamation (No 513/2007). affordable and sustainable urban SWM systems in order to protect public health and environmental quality. also proposed activities subject to execution by a federal agency. • Notification of its decision to the concerned licensing agency at or before the time specified in the appropriate law or directives. • Auditing and regulation of implementation of the conditions attached to the decision. 4.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project development in relevant agencies to ensure the integration of environmental management in policy development and decision making. • Development of incentives or disincentive structures required for compliance with regional environmental agency requirements. The Federal EPA is responsible for: • Establishment of a system for environmental assessment of public and private sector projects.4. laws. decision-making and follow-up implementation of environmental impact study reports for projects. 295/2002). as well as social and economic development programs or plans where they are subject to federal licensing. Solid Waste Management Standards 4. implementation and operation of SWM systems. • Making its decisions and the EIA report available to the public. • Resolution of complaints and grievances in good faith and at the appropriate time. The NUSWMS shall be applied across Ethiopian cities and towns and they provide the basic minimum requirements to be achieved in the design.4. • Review. The Standards provide minimum requirements to enable competent authorities to meet their legal responsibilities as set out in various legal instruments. strategies. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 44 . execution or supervision.or trans-regional and international impacts. The mandate and duties of the former EPA were subsequently clarified in the Establishment of Environmental Protection Organs Proclamation (Proclamation No.1 Draft Urban Waste Management Standards The National Urban Solid Waste Management Standards (NUSWMS) create the framework for municipalities to provide effective. and programs of federal level functions.

Category 2 .001 . Competent authorities may exceed the standards.001 to 100.000.000.towns/cities with population of 100.towns with population of 20. Competent authorities shall ensure that basic minimum standards of SWM are implemented to acceptable levels.towns with population of 2. For the purpose of implementing the SWM standards urban settlements are categorised as follows: Category 1 .  Establishment and operation of leachate treatment through the installation of oxidation ponds etc.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The NUSWMS places responsibility on regional and local public authorities (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Competent Authorities’) to:  Ensure that all urban residents are provided with regular and reliable waste collection services that meet the basic minimum requirement to protect public health.001 to 20.500.  Installation of full liner system with groundwater monitoring and control measures and seepage control. Class 1 Sanitary landfill The following are minimum standard requirements for class I sanitary land fill. Category 4 .  Catalyze the economic development of the sector in terms of growth opportunities for small and medium sized enterprises. treatment or disposal. The following are some of the requirements outlined in the standards for class I sanitary landfill and waste transfer stations. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 45 .towns/cities with population above 500.000.towns with population of 50. Hence the new Sendafa sanitary landfill project falls under Category 1. Category 3 . a. Category 5 . and implement alternative conforming waste management system types.001 to 50. so long as the three basic minimum goals are achieved. The Standards have been designed to ensure that they address the above priorities and at the same time are realistically achievable and applicable to different contexts. in order to protect the quality of the environment.  Ensure that collected waste is managed properly.  Installation of active landfill gas collection systems with flaring (or utilization) of gas.000.000. regardless of whether it is destined for recycling.

medical and other hazardous wastes.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  Located with sufficient void space for a minimum of 10 years operational life.  Competent authorities shall ensure the installation and functioning of landfill gas management systems at all landfill sites.  The need for and design of waste transfer systems shall be considered in regional/city SWM plans. industrial wastes.  Operation in accordance with management plan.  As a minimum ‘passive’ landfill gas venting shall be ensured at all sites. utilized as a source of renewable energy. This allows small collection vehicles to return quickly to collection routes and maximises efficiency of transporting large volumes of waste to distant treatment or disposal facilities through use of larger capacity haulage vehicles.  Where possible landfill gas shall be collected and flared.  Auxiliary and amenity facilities  Minimum area requirement shall be area required for fill volume plus ~ 40% for additional facilities and site activities. demolition and construction wastes (except where utilized as cover and site engineering purposes) shall be prohibited from being disposed at such sites. Weigh scales should be installed at all other landfill sites where possible. and where economically justifiable. In addition the solid waste management standards require the following as a minimum for category 1 landfill management. The location and type of transfer station will depend upon the location of the final disposal/treatment facilities in relation to the location of waste production and the type of collection system implemented. b. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 46 .  Category 1 and 2 landfills will have vehicle weigh scales installed to obtain exact records of waste quantities being delivered.  Approximate waste acceptance capacity = 251 – 500 Tones/day  Whole tyres. Waste transfer Waste transfer involves transferring waste materials from a small collection vehicle / cart to a larger vehicle / trailer.

or similar.  Size of small transfer points shall be determined by the same methodology as calculating container sizes as detailed in Box-1 plus minimum additional area of 2 times area of containers to accommodate transfer vehicles.  Service radius of transfer stations shall be determined by maximum radius of primary collection vehicles serving the transfer point or station.  The competent authority shall ensure an EIA is completed in conjunction with consultation with the local residents before final selection of a transfer-station location.  Category 1 and 2 municipalities shall evaluate the need for installing and operating transfer stations at fixed sites within the urban area – where waste from primary collection services is to be transferred into larger containers/vehicles. they may be located either within or outside of the urban area. enhanced health and safety procedures and equipment shall be utilized to minimise the risk of accidents and injuries. shall only be undertaken as a temporary or emergency measure.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  However. 4 & 5 municipalities shall evaluate the use of containers at agreed collection points – utilizing a hook-lift system or a crane-tipper system – as a transfer option. etc. unless temporary operational reasons do not permit this.  Depending on the design and management regime for the transfer station. using a front-end loader.  Incoming waste shall be transferred from the transfer-station within 1 day. there may be no need to employ waste transfer points / stations.  The design of the transfer operation shall enable the site operations to be efficient and hygienic.  Category 3. where the final disposal/treatment centre is located close to the city/town centre – say within 2-3 km. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 47 .  Competent authorities shall ensure that waste transfer and waste transport is undertaken during daylight hours other than where traffic congestion is a serious concern. ramps.  Where traffic density dictates the movement of waste at night time.  Transferring waste from the ground.

provision and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). facilities and containers shall be kept clean and orderly at all times with containers and site area inspected and cleaned monthly. site area and service radius of transfer stations shall be determined through Feasibility Study. monitoring neighborhood waste collection services. Consideration shall be given to all aspects of the work.  Equality of employment opportunity shall be ensured between women and men within the SWM sector at all levels: from policy to administration and financing. Health and Safety  Competent authorities have an employer’s responsibility and humanitarian duty to prevent illness and injury of the workforce. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 48 . supported by appropriate levels of supervision. and a total area clean extending to 20m in all directions around entire site every quarter (3 months).  Health and safety training.  Collection workers shall not stand on wastes in collection vehicles during loading and/or transport. shall be ensured so that waste management workers understand the origins of the risks that they face and know how to minimize these risks. location.  Competent authorities shall ensure that collection workers should never be expected to lift wastes above their shoulder height because the risk of serious injury.  Transfer station sites shall have a hard standing and security fencing with gate.  All waste transfer points.  Competent authorities shall establish an accident and incident reporting system whereby every event is recorded and investigated. including: the design of the equipment. regular medical check-ups and immunization. educating and interfacing within the communities. planning. sanitary facilities. c. water and electricity. and handling complaints from the public. design.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  The type. and provision of toilets and washing facilities.

sitting. pollution prevention opportunities. or according to local regulatory requirements. Health. quantities. and necessary treatment.2 IFC Environmental. Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines a. and monitoring. with an appropriate timetable for achieving them.4. Application of the EHS Guidelines to existing facilities may involve the establishment of site-specific targets. and design activities. assimilative capacity of the environment. The EHS Guidelines contain the performance levels and measures that are generally considered to be achievable in new facilities by existing technology at reasonable costs. including during equipment modifications and process alterations. types of wastes produced. such as host country context. Waste management planning Facilities that generate waste should characterize their waste according to composition.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4. and other project factors. Effective planning and implementation of waste management strategies should include: • Review of new waste sources during planning. generation. storage. and disposal infrastructure • Collection of data and information about the process and waste streams in existing facilities. Additional guidance specifically applicable to hazardous wastes is also presented in IFC guideline document. generation rates. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines are technical reference documents with general and industry-specific examples of Good International Industry Practice (GIIP). b. transport. disposal. General waste management The following guidance applies to the management of nonhazardous and hazardous waste. Overview The Environmental. and potential use/disposition • Establishment of priorities based on a risk analysis that takes into account the potential EHS risks during the waste cycle and the availability of infrastructure to manage the waste in an environmentally sound manner ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 49 . The applicability of the EHS Guidelines should be tailored to the hazards and risks established for each project on the basis of the results of an environmental assessment in which site-specific variables. are taken into account. to identify expected waste generation. Waste management should be addressed through a Waste management system that addresses issues linked to waste minimization. source. c. including characterization of waste streams by type.

Transportation On-site and Off-site transportation of waste should be conducted so as to prevent or minimize spills.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • Definition of opportunities for source reduction. waste materials should be treated and disposed of and all measures should be taken to avoid potential impacts to human health and the environment. Selected management approaches should be consistent with the characteristics of the waste and local regulations. and exposures to employees and the public. Methodology The methodology adopted for conducting the environmental and social impact assessment study includes the conventional methods. • Definition of procedures and operational controls for onsite storage • Definition of options/procedures /operational controls for treatment and final disposal d. final disposal of waste materials such as bioremediation. as well as reuse and recycling. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 50 . reduction. which are briefly discussed below. be properly loaded on the transport vehicles before leaving the site. or other methods known to be effective in the safe. or physical treatment of the waste material to render it nonhazardous prior to final disposal • Treatment or disposal at permitted facilities specially designed to receive the waste. All waste containers designated for offsite shipment should be secured and labelled with the contents and associated hazards. and be accompanied by a shipping paper (i. Treatment and Disposal If waste materials are still generated after the implementation of feasible waste prevention. recovery and recycling measures. Examples include: composting operations or organic non-hazardous wastes. releases.. permitted and operated landfills or incinerators designed for the respective type of waste. and may include one or more of the following: • On-site or off-site biological. manifest) that describes the load and its associated hazards.e. e. properly designed. reuse. chemical. 5.

as it was necessary to ensure a thorough assessment of the project impacts. Competent authority guidelines The Federal. This has enabled the ESIA team to provide its inputs and positively influence the design process to make it more environment friendly. c. national and regional policies. These include the Bereh woreda sector offices and Addis Ababa City Administration ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 51 . guidelines etc. Sociological and environmental data were gathered by discussing and filling questionnaires with the experts in concerned government agencies. IFC-EHS guidelines on waste management. policies. d. legislations and standards as well as the World Bank Safeguard Policies. Addis Ababa and Oromia Region EPA’s legislative and institutional framework.e. b. biological and socio-economic environment was collected for each site. procedures. Koshe and Akaki transfer station sites and gathered essential field data. In addition review of detail design reports and drawings of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations. Artelia in association with Metaferia Consult) that were in charge of designing the Sanitary landfill and transfer stations project. Bole Arabsa. Literature review Information on existing environmental conditions was obtained from review of various published and unpublished sources. Housing and Construction were also extensively consulted. The team has already made observations in and around the Sendafa landfill site. Field Surveys The method of field surveying is second to none in understanding the likely impacts of a given development project on the particular environment around the project site. During the field survey information on physical. In addition base line data collection was done through field investigations. The team of environment consultants were mobilized for field survey to the project sites several times during the extended project period. standards. are also reviewed and consulted. relevant ESMF and resettlement policy framework (RPF) documents were also reviewed.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project a. In due course extensive discussions were also made with the project management to develop common understanding of the main components of the project. Interviews with designing firm specialists The ESIA team has the opportunity to closely work with the consultancy firms (i. The team discussed project detail designs and processes with the engineers at different stages of the designing process. The recent draft solid waste management standard hand books issued by the Ministry of Urban Development.

It also gives opportunity for the affected people to influence the project to reduce adverse impacts. identifying additional potential social impacts (positive and negative). The samples were collected on the same day at an interval of approximately one hour interval. education. The resulting data from the analysis is applied to establish bench mark conditions as part of the baseline assessment. and to seek the participation and contribution of the public during the implementation of the project. and on the implementation of the proposed mitigation measures for the negative impacts and on measures of reinforcement for the positive impacts. The water samples were collected from upstream positions relative to the proposed landfill site. Community consultation The primary purpose of public consultation is to protect the interest of affected persons/communities. urban agriculture. g. especially the poor and vulnerable groups. The samples were collected using grab sampling techniques and were sent to Addis Ababa Environment Protection Authority Laboratory for analysis. At Federal level the Ministry of Urban Development Housing and Construction and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (former EPA) as well as other relevant offices were consulted. maximize additional benefits. e. Extensive consultation was also conducted with the relevant Authorities of the Bereh Woreda Administration as well as Addis Ababa City Administration. Water Supply and Sewerage. Sampling and Monitoring Two surface water samples were collected from Hambisa River and from a point below the confluence of Legedadi River with Legetafo River. Public consultations were carried out with the objective of informing the public on the potential impacts. Consultation with relevant regional and local authorities Interviews and discussions with several local authorities and stakeholders were carried out in the project area. culture and tourism. f.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project health. and ensure that they receive appropriate compensation for loss of property and land due to the project. as well as the Addis Ababa Recycling and Disposal Project Office were consulted. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 52 . The Hambisa River is situated east of the Sendafa landfill project site and both the Legetafo and Legedadi rivers drain on the west side. Cleansing Management Agency.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project FDRE Constitution also reaffirms the participation of the public. • To identify local issues and concerns to be addressed. • To identify major social impact issues. in particular. Stakeholders’ consultation was also conducted to ensure the participation of all interested parties. This seasonal variation of rainfall distribution within the study area is due to the annual migration of the inter-tropical convergence ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 53 . The objective of public and stakeholders’ consultation were. community severance and compensation for affected properties and assets. Kebelle administrations and Woreda experts and professionals from different offices in the woreda. • To obtain acceptance of the project both by the public and stakeholders. interested groups. in policies and projects that affect their livelihood. • To ensure that the public and stakeholders. • To solicit the views of local population what beneficial impact they expect from the project 6. • To consult on the loss of productive resources mainly loss of farm and grazing land. the climate of the area can be categorized in to two broad seasons: the dry season (winter) which covers the period from October to May and the Wet season extends from June to September. to be consulted with respect to policies and projects affecting their community”. with slight rainfall during autumn and spring. Description of the project environment 6.2 states that “Nationals have the right to participate in national development and. such as involuntary resettlement. cultural and economic ties and networks during and after construction works. Article 43 No.1 Climate Based on Rainfall. local government officials. • To enable meaningful and accessible participation of the public and the affected population in particular.1.1 Physical environment 6.. civil societies are informed about the project and its impact and the information will clarify doubts about who will be affected or benefit from the project. including people residing in the project area. • To inform on the nature of potential social impacts of the project and its impacts on the social.

1 22.5 0C.8 24. It extends ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 54 .1 16. The site on its middle western and eastern part slopes toward the southwest and southeast respectively. Legedadi and Koshe sites.9 12.65 0.1 Mean monthly max.37 0. Temp.62 0.4 23.6 8.50C.7 8.0 35.1 19.7 10. The annual rainfall of Addis Ababa collected from Bole meteorological station is 1040mm.1 12. Small variation in annual rainfall is observed towards Akaki and Legedadi areas.4 0. Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 23.55 0.68 0.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project zone. ( 0C) 8.27 0. mean maximum annual temperature over the record periods is 23.0 11.0 25.0 0 Table 3: Monthly Mean temperature ( c) and average rainfall (mm) data for 6 years (2007-2012) from Bole Meteorological Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0.0 11. while mean minimum annual temperature value is 10. ( 0C) Mean monthly min.1. 253 251 140.3 0.8 25. a low-pressure zone marking the convergence of dry tropical easterlies and moist equatorial westerlies across the catchment.8 21. Temp.7 21. Akaki. Based on the data collected and analyzed.5 17.67 0.2 Topography of the project area The new Sendafa sanitary landfill site is relatively flat topped and elevated from the surrounding but the margin of the site is gentle sloped towards eastern and south western gorges.8 12.2 20.2 109.77 0. one can classify the climate in this area as warm temperate climate.6 9.1 25.67 0. Meteorological data of the past six years (2007-2012) has been collected from Bole meteorological station which is relatively representative to the project sites in Bole Arabsa.4 84.7 9.63 Table 4: Average Monthly wind speed (km/hr) of 6 years (2007-2012) 6.55km/hr. In general.4 23. The average annual wind speed calculated is 0.7 23.7 12.7 25. The daily variation in temperature in the area is more pronounced than the annual variation and the calculated mean annual temperature is around 170C.8 Average annual rainfall (mm) 9.2 80.

6. Due to the location of the study area with respect to the Main Ethiopian Rift. but there are some faults and lineaments oriented Southeast-Northwest and Northeast-Southwest. 1990). different workers and scholars have contributed to the geology of this area. AAWSA & Seureca. 1990. 1985. It comprises of basalts associated with rhyolites. porphyritic feldspar basalt & aphanitic basalts. and 1967). Individual flows are usually easily observed & paleosols & scoraceous horizons are found at the bottom of flows in many places (Kebede Tsehayu and Taddese Hailemariam. b. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 55 . Kazmin (1975). Vernier and Chernert. The litho-stratigraphic units of the catchment can be outlined from the oldest (bottom) to the youngest (top) as follows: a. Earlier works further subdivided this series into Alaji Rhyolites and Intoto silicic. central Addis Ababa. On the other hand. 1979. Its shape represents a strip oriented North-South with a natural slope of 1.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project between the levels +2436m and +2470m ASL. Addis Ababa Basalts They overlie Intoto silicic and outcrops mainly occur in the Intoto Mountain. tuffs and agglomerates. Tsehayu and H/Mariam. In addition. the topography of Akaki transfer station site has flat topography. Hailesellasie Girmay and Getaneh Asefa (1989). The elevation difference is about 2m and it is from 2066m to 2068m. along Akaki River course (south) in the vicinity of Lega Dadi dam to the north of Lake Gefersa and southern part of the city. Their composition can be porphyritic olivine basalt. the rocks were subjected to rift tectonics that is manifested by a number of fault systems having a general trend of the rift system (Northeast – Southwest). ignimbrites. Bole Arabsa transfer station site has gentle topography. Its elevation difference is about 25m and it is from 2249m to 2225m. 1991). some are: Mohr (1964. 1966. Alaji series (Lower Miocene) This unit covers the Entoto Mountain and extends to the north beyond Akaki catchment. The site also presents on its Middle Eastern part a slope toward the south-east ranging from 2 to 6%.2% (average value) toward the south.1. trachyte.3 Geology of Addis Ababa and its Surrounding The Akaki River catchment comprises of wide range of volcanic rocks of different ages (Morton et al.

The thickness of this deposit varies between 5m to 50m. Trachy basalt out crops are found around Repi area and General Winget School and associated with undifferentiated volcanic. Yerer. The general trend of most of these faults follows the rift system (NE – SW) orientation but there are some faults with orientation of east-west and northwest-southeast. Lacustrine Deposits.. They have well preserved shape of cones. The exposed thickness of the lava sequence is about 500m (Anteneh Girma.basalt lava flows. The major lineament oriented along east west that extends from Kessem River in the east through Addis Ababa to Ambo in the west. ignimbrites.40m over the Akaki well field but thinner to absent in other places. which is manifested by a number of major and minor fault systems. Between Abba Samuel Lake and small Akaki River. 1994). Bofa Basalts This unit comprises of olivine porphyritic basalt. 1989). vertically and horizontally jointed (Hailesellasie Girmay and Getaneh Assefa. trachyte and rhyolites make up this group of younger Volcanics. Therefore. They appear to have upper thick basalt of 20 . cuts across the Western rift escarpment and uplifted its northern block (Zennettin et al. welded tuffs. Lacustrine soils occur around Bole. some of the basaltic lava and cinder cones situated to the Southeast & Northeast of the Akaki well field probably have erupted through these fractures as they are concentrated along the major NE – SW trending fault systems of Akaki and Dukem areas. 1994). Mekanisa. scoria. vesicular & scoriaceous basalt. This formation is gray colored. Lideta. An ignimbrite sheet (upper Welded tuff) out crop occurs in the northeast of Addis Ababa at the base of Intoto Mountain and Lega Dadi areas. Another major lineament oriented in Northwest direction & situated to the northeast of the Akaki well field extends between Akaki and Dukem (following the main Debrezeit highway) is one of the lineaments that do not follow the rift trend. The Akaki catchment where all the Addis Ababa SWM project sites are located has been subjected to the rift tectonics.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project c. e. alluvial & Residual soils: These are quaternary to recent deposits. 1978). ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 56 . Nazareth Group Aphanitic basalt. They extend in to the south from Akaki River and the unit is as thick as 10 meters (Anteneh Girma. Aphanitic basalt flows cover the southern portion of Addis Ababa. Rhyolite flows belonging to this group outcrop at the top and southern flanks of Mt. d. and trachy . The density of faults increases to the southeast of the rift valley.

vertically and horizontally jointed (Hailesellasie Girmay and Getaneh Assefa.1 Geology and Soil type of Sendafa Land fill site Sendafa Land fill site lies within Tarmaber basalt and ignimbrite sheet (upper Welded tuff) out cropped in the northeast of Addis Ababa at the base of Intoto Mountain and Legadadi areas. It is underlain by aphanitic basalt and overlain by young olivine basalts (Hailesellasie Girmay. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 57 . From Geological map of Addis Ababa. The ignimbrite formation is gray colored. 1989). the land fill site in Legedadi is at a vicinity of a fault trending N-S direction.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 3: Geology of Addis Ababa and Surrounding Area 6.3.1. 1985).

vertically and horizontally jointed (Getaneh Aseffa et al. Its porous. The northern segment site is covered by Miocene ignimbrite (welded tuff) and trachyte underlain by aphantic basalts. the area around the site is covered dominantly with clay and to some proportion of silt developed from young volcanic rocks of Mt. locally amygdaloidal.1. vesicular. The land is gently sloping landscape.1m to 1m. from Mt. Therefore the average of the soil cover is about 0.3. tuff and pumice. Tulu Iyoo to Repi and Wechecha Range.3 Geology and soil type of Koshe Transfer station site Koshe site is found in the younger volcanic of Chilalo formation comprising Trachyte. It is well exposed all along the Akaki river gorge and its tributaries and extensively excavated for various construction purposes. The black cotton soil horizon or layer from the three test pits observed during field assessment has an average thickness of 1. According to Solomon Tale (2000). from soil map of Addis Ababa.3. Trachy basalts. It was difficult to identify the soil type of the site from field observation as the site is filled with solid waste and selected soil materials transported from other areas for recapping. such as volcanic ash. Olivine porphyritic basalt (Addis Ababa Basalt) outcrop in the north eastern part of the site and the central part of the city.1. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 58 . strongly fractured and jointed. the black cotton soil cover above the weathered rock ranges between 0. 6.2 Geology and soil type of Bole Arbasa Transfer station site The southern segment of the site area is covered by basalt flows representing the oldest rock unit exposed in the site area. According to the Test Pitting dug at the site. The trachyte flow is underlain by tuff and overlain by alternating flows of plagioclase basalt and rhyolite at Repi (Anteneh Girma. It is grey colored. the entire project area is dominantly covered with black cotton soil. predominantly aphantic. Trachytic flow and Trachy-basalts dominantly cover extensive areas in the site as well as west and southwest part of the site. The rock is dark gray in colour. From field observation.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project With regard to soil type. 1989).. locally strongly layered. dark-colored soils developed from volcanic origin.5m. degree of weathering ranges from strong to moderate.5m. However. Ignimbrites and Rhyolites. Wechecha. Furi and Mt. 6. Soils encountered in the site are black cotton soils with characteristics of high plasticity and high degree of swelling. Bole Arabsa site is dominantly covered with black cotton soil. Furi. There is a fault close to Bole Arabsa transfer station trends NNE-SSW direction like most faults of Ethiopian rift valley. 1994).

Map 4: Geological Map and water points in Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 59 . vesicular & scoraceous basalts and it is also close to Alluvial deposits along the bank of Big Akaki River The site is also at the vicinity of normal fault striking NW-SE and dipping towards the site.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 6.1.3.4 Geology and soil type of Akaki Transfer station site Akaki transfer station is within lacustrine silts and clays underlain by Bofa basalts. The type of soil along the bank of Big Akaki River which is not far from the site is dominantly loose materials consisting of clay. silt. The site is dominantly covered with black cotton soil developed over lacustrine clay and silt deposits. Bofa basalts comprises of scoria . sand and gravel in different proportions.

The transmisivities of these aquifers vary between mean minimum value of 616m2/day and mean maximum of about 37000 m2/day. The transmissivity of these aquifers varies between mean minimum value of 3m2/day and mean maximum of about 1700 m2/day.1. Scoria deposits. Wells drilled in these aquifers often yielded between 2 l/sec and 5 l/sec.4. the site lies on aquifers which are fractured and inter granular aquifers of old volcanic rocks covering Legedadi plains. and volcanic rocks such as weathered/fractured basalts. the study area is a complex catchment.type aquifers. major aquifers are fractured and intergranular aquifers of young volcanic sequences excluding the mountain ranges. 6.1 Hydrology of the Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Area From hydro-geological map of Addis Ababa. The interconnection of the voids has resulted in high permeability for these deposits. Minor aquifers are those fractured and inter granular aquifers of old volcanic rocks covering the city of Addis Ababa & the bases of Intoto Mountain and Legedadi plains. Previous works show that the Akaki river catchment is made up of both inter .4 Hydrology of the project area Hydro-geologically. trachyte. The mountain ranges of Intoto. welded tuffs and rhyolites are fractured aquifer types. Alluvial sediments and pyroclastic rocks are inter.granular porosity aquifers. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 60 .granular and fracture .grained alluvial deposits intercalated with ash materials and well compacted lacustrine deposits. Accordingly. Different aquifers have different hydro geological characteristics. Wechecha and Furi are non-aquifers because are generally not considered as ground water containing materials in exploitable quantities. among the major aquifers are the most important unit from hydrological point of view. Poor aquifers are fine . In the Akaki area highly productive wells were drilled in these deposits.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 6. Boreholes of variable discharges have been drilled in these aquifers and in most cases the yield is over 10 l/sec. Old wells owned by AAWSA drilled up to 250m in these aquifers of fractured old basalt and ignimbrites often yielded between 5 l/s and 10 l/s except an artesian well relatively close to the site owned by AAWSA with a depth of 200m yielding 50 l/s during conducting pumping test. ignimbrites. but this generalization is exceptional to alluvial deposits of sand and gravel types that cover smaller area in the catchment as wells drilled in them have good yields.1.

6. rhyolites and tuffs often yielded between 2 l/sec and 5 l/sec and transmissivity between 50m2/day and 100m2/day.8m. The deep test wells have water yield of 15 and 20 l/s and static water level of 6m .1.3 Hydrology of the Koshe Transfer Station Area The site is categorized as extensive and moderate productive fissured aquifer stored with in moderately weathered and fractured trachyte. tuffs and basalts form moderate productive aquifers with yield of 262m3/day to 432m3/day. The Hydraulic conductivity of these upper aquifers varies between mean minimum value of 1m/day and mean maximum of about 6m/day.4.1.2 Hydrology of the Bole Arbasa Transfer Station Area The Hydro geological characteristic of the area is variable. The porphyritic to Aphantic basalt unit which covers north eastern part of the site is productive aquifers yielding 5l/Sec to 10 l/Sec. Wells drilled towards south and west of the site on moderately fractured trachyte. Less fractured ignimbrite. Moderately fractured and weathered ignimbrites. the site is at the periphery of South Ayat-North Fanta well field buffer zone which is one of the five Groundwater prospective sites identified in Addis Ababa city. the major aquifer in the area is fractured basalt. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 61 . During drilling significant amount of water was struck at 60m and 180m depths.4. scoria and Scoraceous basalt. boreholes drilled more than 400m deep into the lower aquifer in South Ayat North Fanta well field are productive wells with a yield of 35 -50 l/s. However. 6. rhyolites and tuffs.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project From the deep test wells drilled up to depth 432 and 500m around the site to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the Legedadi-Legatafo-Ayat groundwater prospective area. However. No 1 2 3 4 Bore hole location Owner Abune Yosef school Voice of Gospel Ginbot 20 school Rahima Diary Abune Yosef school Voice of Gospel Ginbot 20 school Rahima Diary Well depth(m) 94 33 100 Static water level(m) 29 - borehole was observed within a radius of 1km from the site. rhyolite and trachyte are with relatively less permeable upper aquifer system.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 62 . Addis Ababa Water Supply Authority has actively undertaking groundwater development through drilling deep wells in selected three well fields named as WF01. and WF03.1. the thickness of the lower aquifer is penetrated by 500 meters deep wells.3 Hydrology of the Akaki Transfer Station Area Four principal hydrogeological units are recognized in Akaki area groundwater prospective site where the transfer station is located. Deep wells drilled up to 400m to 550m around the site yielding water from 22 l/s to 90 l/s with static water level depth of 8m . WF02.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Table 5: Boreholes within a radius of 1 km from Koshe site 6. in addition to operational old Akaki well fields. Currently.000m3/day. (WWDSE. March 2008) showed that Akaki prospective site has high groundwater potential and the annual exploitable groundwater resources from the Akaki prospective site is preliminarily estimated to be about 168 MCM/Year or 537. The thickness of the upper aquifer is estimated to be a maximum of 360 meters. Akaki area groundwater prospective site is one of the five prospective groundwater sites identified around Addis Ababa city. The general groundwater movement is from north to south. The massive basalt layers within this aquifer may act as a separating layer between the upper and lower aquifer. • Alluvial confining layer • Upper basalt aquifer.vesicular basalt and scoria The first hydro lithological units is alluvial sediment composed of clay and silty clay material and its thickness is about 40m and it acts as confining layer of the upper aquifer.4.35m.vesicular basalt and scoria • Confining layers – trachytes and massive basalts • Lower Basalt aquifer. The upper aquifer is composed of vesicular basalt intercalated with scoria and massive basalt layers of multi layered aquifer.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 5: Water points and Geological structures around Akaki Transfer station 6. grazing and residential uses. Similarly. one of the major water supply sources for Addis Ababa city. Thus the dominance of agricultural and rural residential land use types is thinning out fast around the project sites. However. industrial and residential land use types are fast approaching towards Bole Arbasa area with the expansion of industrial and residential projects. Legedadi dam. For example. in the Akaki transfer station area. The project area itself was widely used for agriculture with less dense residential places. the agricultural fields are changing into vast residential places with the development of housing projects by the City Government. wheat and lentils are the major crops in the area. On the other hand the Bole Arbasa and Akaki transfer station sites are found at the outer peripheries of Addis Ababa city and hence the major land use types were agricultural and residential. is also found in the locality and forms one of the important land uses in Sendafa area. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 63 . barely.1. It is the primary land use. teff. the dominance of these land use types in the areas appears to be changing fast.5 Land Use and visual The major land use type dominating the areas around Sendafa sanitary landfill are farming.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Fig 7: Showing current land use types at Sendafa landfill, Akaki and Bole Arbasa transfer station sites

6.1.6 Water Resources

6.1.6.1 Surface waters
The Akaki River catchment comprises of numerous small rivers. The dominant ones are the Big
Akaki with catchment area of 900km2, which drains the eastern part of the catchment area, and the
little Akaki catchment with area of about 540km2, that drains the western part of the catchment; and
their respective tributaries. The two rivers form one of the biggest tributaries of the Awash River
called Akaki River. Almost all the streams in the catchment originate from the northern part of the
catchment (see map 6).
Entoto Mountain range in the northern forms the surface water divide between the Blue Nile and
Awash River basins. The drainage of an area is affected by numerous factors among which,
rainfall, slope, vegetation, rock type and tectonic activity, infiltration capacity, soil types and
thicknesses, are some. In the northern part of the catchment the drainage forms steep narrow gorges
(facilitates runoff) which can be attributed to high rainfall, dense vegetation cover and high
topographic elevation (>2800m). Where there are volcanic ridges /domes, drainage radiates in all
directions forming radial or parallel drainage system. It is clear that areas with higher permeability
have lower drainage density that in turn may decrease the surface runoff. These can be observed
from the topographic map of the area in that areas with high elevation and that are not covered with
vegetation have higher drainage density compared to flat lying areas and areas that are covered with
vegetation (increases permeability). Generally the drainage in the catchment is oriented nearly from
north to south following the regional slope.

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Map 6: Drainage Map of Akaki Catchment

a. Surface water around Sendafa Sanitary Landfill site
There are no permanent streams flowing within the Sendafa sanitary landfill site boundary;
however during heavy rainfall events there are some streams created within and around the current
site. During rainy season storm water from the western part of the project site is drained into small
creek locally named as” Bickine” which is small tributary of Legedadi river while the eastern part
of the site drains the water through dry gorges into Hambisa river which also joins Big Akaki River
further downstream. There is no surface water flowing from the outside to the inside of the project
site since its general elevation is higher than the adjacent areas.

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Fig 8: Showing the confluence of Legetafo with Legedadi River where sample was collected

The Sendafa sanitary landfill site is located downstream of Legedadi dam which has reservoir
capacity of 40x106 m3 and supply rate of 127,000m3/day. From field observation, Hambisa River is
brackish and polluted with cattle dung as it is extensively used for grazing by the near community.
Parameters

Water quality
Hambissa river

Water quality of
Legetafo River after
joining with
Legedadi river

Remarks

1

PH

5.53

6.3

Sampling point location at
Hambisa river was 494614E
& 995290N

2

Electrical Conductivity (µs/cm)

259

190

Sampling point location at
confluence of Legedadi and
Legatafo Rivers was
491533E & 1001205N

3

TDS (mg/l)

129

95

4

Suspended solids (mg/l)

237

2435

5

Reactive Phosphate (PO43-),
(mg/l)

18.3

179.5

6

Total Ammonia (mg/l)

0.02

2.5

7

Nitrate (mg/l)

10.5

Nil

8

Flouride (mg/l)

0.2

0.29

9

TOC (mg/l)

Nil

Nil

10

Phenol (mg/l)

0.009

Nil

11

Sulfate (SO42-), (mg/l)

Nil

2.0

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00001 19 Silver (Ag).6. shallow unconfined aquifers on alluvial deposits and minor aquifers with in fractures of volcanic rocks are recharged from the catchment and base flow from the adjacent rivers.00001 < 0. However. % Nil Nil 13 Total Hardness (mg/l) 235 750 14 Total Alaklinity (mg/l) 450 862. Outflows from the ground water system include well withdrawal.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 12 Salinity.1.00001 20 BOD5.2 Ground waters Studies conducted by different geologists on Akaki river catchment have concluded that the main groundwater of Akaki is old water that have travelled from far area and it is believed that the major productive deep aquifers like Akaki well fields are mainly recharged by regional groundwater flow systems.00001 < 0.875 < 0. (mg/l) 210 675 16 COD (mg/l) 40 100 17 Lead (Pb).5 15 Chloride. Ground water recharge amount is higher for the northern part relative to southern or central zones of the catchment. (mg/l) 38 40 Table 5: Laboratory analysis result of river water samples from Hambisa and legetafo-Legedadi rivers 6. with some local variations. (mg/l) 1. The general trend of groundwater flow direction was determined to be from north to south. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 67 .00001 18 Cadmium (Cd). subsurface outflow. base flow to rivers and springs discharge. (mg/l) < 0. (mg/l) < 0.

2002). This study has summarized the result as follows: With respect to PM10. This may be especially true for the annual ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 68 . than the EPA’s ambient standards for PM10 and PM2. and lead ambient air quality conditions in Addis Ababa are far better than in Cairo. are close to.1. especially in urban and residential areas within the city. Nevertheless. However. if not higher.5.. and carbon monoxide concentrations. Thus data on ambient air quality are scares.7 Ambient Air Quality The ambient air quality of Addis Ababa city is not regularly monitored. PM2. this pilot study suggests that concentrations. a pilot-scale ambient air quality study was conducted in Addis Ababa between 26 January and 28 February 2004. Egypt (Abu-Allaban et al.5. airborne lead.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 7: Aquifer Map of Addis Ababa and its surrounding Area 6. The intent of the study was to obtain a snapshot of the air quality conditions in Addis Ababa. especially with respect to PM10.

525 are male and 1.979.2 Biological Environment 6.3 Socio-economic environment 6. Very few indigenous trees like Juniperous procera and Hypericum quanrtinum are seen in the Legedadi area (Seureca.086. 1.2.3. 2006). this study had several major shortcomings that ought to be addressed in future work.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project standards. 6. trees on open spaces. It is the largest and populous city in the country. recreational parks and indigenous trees in religious places such as churches. hyenas. hare. In general tree plantation is thick and well developed on the mountains but scattered and depleting in the villages. it is apparently dominated by the Eucalyptus tree and in some places by acacia.559. however. Even though the species diversity of the terrestrial vegetation appears to consist of several different varieties. large canopy of terrestrial vegetation that are grown as fencing shrubs. i. and of which. fox. This does not mean these animals exist abundantly in the Sendafa area and the project site.2.1 Terrestrial Vegetation Addis Ababa city and it’s environ have possessed very limited natural vegetation. street side trees. However. Natural vegetations are to a great extent diminished in Sendafa/ Legedadi due to encroachment and clearance over the last century. the transfer and landfill sites. and monkey. the city of Addis Ababa has a population of 2. 6. Addis Ababa hosts 2. the occurrence of unique and indigenous tree plant species is negligible. servile.561 are female. in all of the proposed project sites. Apparently the Legedadi catchment in Sendafa area is noticeably covered with patches of eucalyptus trees here and there.419. No protected areas such as parks. The main vegetation in the catchment consists of production forests and scattered bushes. The built up area in Addis Ababa city comprises. While providing insight into air quality in Addis Ababa—including spatial and temporal distributions—when no information existed before.1 Demography According to the 2007 census carried out by the Central Statistical Agency (CSA) and projected for July 2011. sanctuaries or game reserves has found at reasonably near distance of the project sites. 6. poexuines. There is quite a big gap between Addis Ababa and the rest of the cities in the country in relation to population and socio economic development.e.2 Wildlife The most common fauna (animal) species in Sendafa area and the surrounding are duiker.5 million of the urban population or 23% of the total ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 69 .

No.235 10 5 Akaki Kality 194. Almost all major industries.389 11 9 Addis Ketema 320. The Sectoral activities of the city Government are run and managed by the different Bureaus and Agencies that are responsible for the implementation of development activities.508 10 4 Kolfe Keranyo 261. This shows the importance and supremacy of Addis Ababa in every aspect of development.2 Administration Addis Ababa has almost equal status to that of a regional state and is governed by a city administration that directly reports to the Federal Government.389 9 10 Yeka 368. 6. The population size of the five towns in Oromia special zone which will utilize the Sendafa Sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities are also shown in table 10. These industries and businesses ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 70 . Sub City Population No.073 9 8 Bole 320.3.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project urban population of the country and it is also 11 times of the second largest city.330 11 3 Gulele 318. Addis Ababa has its own city council elected every 5 years. it is divided into 10 sub cities and 116 kebeles (which are termed woredas at present). The city Government is run by an elected Mayor.002 8 6 Nefas Silk Lafto 321. Administratively. transport services.000 10 7 Lideta 296. and businesses are concentrated in Addis Ababa and in the surrounding towns. Dire Dawa. It also hosts the largest open market in Africa. of kebeles 1 Arada 297.3.418 13 Table 5: Population by sub city and number of kebeles 6.942 10 2 Kirkos 335.3 Economic Activity The city of Addis Ababa is both the economic and political hub of the country.

6% are nurses of all type.7% are physicians of all type. economically and has also stretched in size in every direction. which are run under Government. 42.6% Pharmacists 16 0. The city is growing at an increasing rate demographically. The labour force is mainly concentrated in the area of commercial activities.6% Health Assistants 703 20.5 Health Professionals There are about 3366 health professionals working both in private and Government health institutions located in Addis Ababa. Like any other metropolitan city. Table 6 presents the number of health professionals in Addis Ababa. It takes 48% of the share of financial institutions and 55% of insurance companies. 39 are hospitals (12 are run by government and 27 private) and 26 health centres (50 more are under construction by government) and 406 are clinics (private).3. 17. health stations and clinics. 6.8% Paramedicals 592 17. Among the health professionals. The ratio of hospitals to population is 1:76. and at household level (domestic workers). manufacturing and industry.47% Nurses (All type) 1436 42.386.7% Health Officers 23 0.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project generate a lot of commercial and industrial waste that have impacts on the environment and health of the residents of the city. The ratio of physician to population shows 1:4998 and that of a nurse is 1:2074. Professionals by qualification No. NGO and private health institutions. The economic strength of Addis Ababa is also manifested in the financial sector as well. its growth and economic development has initiated the development of satellite cities in future.3. Addis Ababa houses more than half of the national labour force. 6.4 Health The health institutions present in Addis Ababa include hospitals. Percentage Physicians (All types ) 596 17. Among the existing health institutions.5% Total 3366 Table 6: Health professional by qualification ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 71 .

The leading top ten diseases of the city are presented in the table 7 below. Table 8 presents the school enrolment by gender and grade level in 2010/11.282 are in primary school (1-8) and 152. In the city there are also more than 192 different universities.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The top ten leading diseases are not very much different from other parts of the country.571 2. No.Y (2010/11) is 654. colleges and institutes outside the administration of the city. 502.945 80.7% Table 8: Showing school enrolment by gender ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 72 .237 502.626 152.3% 71.6 Education The city of Addis Ababa has 728 primary schools (1-8) and 168 secondary schools (9-12).853 and of which.3. Top ten diseases 1 Acute respiratory infections 2 Bronco-pneumonia 3 Other helminthes 4 Gastritis and duodenitis 5 Infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue 6 Inflammatory diseases of the eye 7 Hypertrophy of tonsils adenoids 8 Other toxemna 9 Muscular rheumatism and rheumatism unspecified 10 Acute bronchitis Table 7: Top ten diseases 6.282 -0.571 are in secondary schools (9-12). The number of students in both primary and secondary schools in 2003E.045 280. Primary 1-8 Secondary 9-12 Boys Girls Total AAGR Boys Girls Total AAGR 222.

and Woredas at the bottom. According to the report there were 11 private micro and small enterprises engaged in solid waste collection services. 1 and in secondary schools is 79. point from where the waste is finally transported in vehicles to the disposal dumpsite (Cambridge Industries. On the other hand. secondary and street sweeping.8 103.4 103.7. Primary 1-8 Secondary 9-12 Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 102.3. Nov 2012). and then temporarily stored into (958) skips. a.7 Table 9: Ratio of school boys to girls 6. The breakdown by sex and school level for 2003E.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The ratio of girls to boys in primary schools is 103.Y (2010/11) is presented in table 9. The Primary Collection System is the one that is carried out by Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) from door-to-door in households using simple hand tools such as shovels. The report of the Evaluation of the 2003-2010 Development Plan of Addis Ababa City Environmental Planning (February 2011) stated that 95% of the city’s solid waste is collected by these enterprises. the management of any waste recycling attempts and the disposal of waste at Koshe dumpsite is the responsibility of the Addis Ababa Recycling and Disposal Project Office (AARDPO). ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 73 .1 The Formal Sector Currently the solid waste management system of Addis Ababa is managed by two offices. Segregations and Storage at Household Level Though the Addis Ababa Cleansing Management Agency is undertaking awareness raising programs through different mass media.3. 10 Sub-city Administrations in the middle.7. b. operating in eight Woredas of Addis Ababa before 2003. except for selling valuable waste to “Kuralew”. Collection Solid waste collection in Addis Ababa is currently carried out in three different types of collection systems: primary. pick-axes. forks.2 79. the segregation and storage of waste into different containers by households is not a common practice.1 88 73. The collection and transportation service provision is handled by Addis Ababa Cleansing Management Agency (AACMA) which is structurally stretched into three layers with AACMA on the top at the city level. rakes and wheel carts.7 The current Municipal Solid Waste Management System in Addis Ababa 6.

but in the years followed (2006 . almost all of the households get the service of solid waste collection service with direct service charge with the water bill. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 74 . But it has been investigated that the existing means of payment has not been made applicable for all waste generators in the city.2009) the annual solid waste collection coverage was below this number as shown in the following figures adopted from the report. This is because commercial centers in the city like Merkato. The method of collection service charges is also changed to the rate of water consumption. Thus. etc do not use water supply services. However. & 70 birr per m3 private companies (Birr 240 for MSE & 560 for private companies) are paid as the current rate per an 8m3 container solid waste collected. Piaza. The solid waste collection service fee for households and institutions is 20% and 40% of their monthly water consumption rate respectively. Hence. the service charges for solid waste collection are not currently based on willingness and ability to pay as before.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project They had created 119 job opportunities and had the capacity of collecting about 204 m3 each week with a monthly charging of 10 . The service at the time was being determined by a kind of bargaining with the household heads. It is now compulsory across all income groups. Sanitation service fees of 30 birr per m3 for MSE.30 Birr for the service they were rendering. yet they are huge generators of solid wastes in the city. in 2010 the number increased to 521 Micro and Small Enterprise Unions with a total number of more than 10.000 operators working on solid waste collection (but the AACMA reported in 2013 that there are about 563 SMEs managing 5573 solid waste collectors). The evaluation finally indicated that more than 70% of the total solid waste generated was collected in the city collection system in the year 2004 and 2005 (the lowest proposed cut of point at the planning year in 2003 was 65%).

schools and other service delivery and manufacturing organizations (Evaluation of the 2003 – 2010 Development Plan of Addis Ababa City Environmental Planning. but streets being cleaned each day were 503km( 87%) and 800km (41%) in the year 2003 and 2010 respectively (see fig.11). hospitals. Although the ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 75 . The third one is Street Sweeping System that is held by the AACMA. February 2011).9: Solid waste collection coverage in Addis Ababa Years Fig 10: Annual Solid waste generation and collection Secondary Collection System is the block (container) collection that is carried out by private companies (5% of the solid waste generated by the city) in hotels. Streets requiring cleaning have increased about 300% from the year 2003 to 2010.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Solid waste generated & collected (m3) Fig.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 76 . for the operation of the secondary collection and had at its disposal of 70 collection vehicles and 1. He presented that there are 106 government solid waste collection and transportation vehicles in the city. transportation of solid waste to Koshe dumpsite is conducted by the government and private companies using: Side loaders. Still. About 12 private sector vehicles are involved in the transportation of not more 6% of the city’s solid waste. Compactors. of which only 65 are maintained at working condition throughout the year. February 2011). it is clear to recognize that the service delivery in this regard has not expanded hand in hand with the construction of new roads that require regular cleaning to address the street sanitation problems in the city (Evaluation of the 2003 – 2010 Development Plan of Addis Ababa City Environmental Planning. IGNIS (2010) shown in its paper that the waste management authority in 2008 employed a total of 637 people.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project figures show an increased coverage of street cleaning in the city.850 containers in operation. 26 are under repair and 11 are non-functional. many of which are extremely old. Transport to Repi (Koshe) Dumpsite According to Maschal’s 2011 presentation about Integrated Solid Waste Management Opportunities and Challenges of Addis Ababa. On the other hand the Cambridge Industries (Nov 2012) reported that the city’s Solid Waste Management Authority employed only 116 garbage trucks. among are drivers and assistants. the AACMA reported in 2013 that there are 103 trucks of which 68 are on duty. and Container lift. 2010 2007 2003 Streets being cleaned daily in % Streets being cleaned daily in km Streets requiring cleaning in km 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Fig 11: Street cleaning performance vvis-a-vis demand c.

this doesn’t mean that the total number of informal sector waste pickers from households is these much. based on a result of six days study of the Institute of Technology of Addis Ababa. shorten for “Korkoro Yalew” meaning “who do have metal scrap?”. 6% from street sweeping. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 77 . but there is no any leachate and gas emission control mechanism established so far. composting is not common practices both at households and dumpsite (only accounting 5%).Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project d. many individuals collect and bring any metal scrap. 9% from commercial areas.700 “kuralew” entered into Minalesh Tera every day. however. By the same report. Disposal at Repi (Koshe) Dumpsite Waste from the primary and secondary collections in combination with street sweepings is dumped into the Koshe dumpsite under the authority of the Addis Ababa Recycling and Disposal Project Office.2 The Informal Sector For the sake of subsistence. near to be closed. IGNIS project (2010) reported. the Cambridge Industries Energy with the Ethiopian Electric Power Authority has finalized its environmental and social impacts study report to establish a facility to generate power out of waste at Repi. rag. and other containers walking on foot. the composition of the waste dumped to Koshe accounts 76% from residential. used plastics. Known by local name “Kuralew”.3.7. that about 2. Recycling is not also performed. however. not given any recognition. screaming Kuralew in every residential corner of the city on a daily basis to Minalesh Tera of Merkato. 5% from industries. except informal picking of valuable waste at the dumpsite and households (this also accounts only 5% of the total solid wasted produced in the city). 6. However. the informal sector has been making a great deal of contribution to the management of solid waste both at the households and Koshe dumpsite in Addis Ababa. glass. About 17km2 of its area is recapped. According to the 1992 NOR CONSULT estimation. Koshe now is beyond its carrying capacity.200 to 2. Studies indicated that about 70% of the solid waste generated in the city is compostable. Serving for more than 47 years. There is no formal waste recycling or waste-to-energy facility known to the area up to now. researcher Bjerkli in 2005 estimated the total number of Kuralew about 5000. 3% from hotels 1% from hospitals.

Also.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project According to the report. Waste picking work at Koshe dump site is full of challenges and risks. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 78 . There are also a sizable number of female waste pickers in Koshe dump site. The waste pickers collect all types of salvageable materials from the waste stream and sell it to their clients. a. the social impact assessment study carried in Repi have confirmed that for the majority of the waste pickers in Koshe dump site. as well as motor parts. Other reusable materials are fed into the market for reuse. Finally. the main reason and hence the main driver that push them to work is lack of other income generation opportunities which they need to support their livelihood. it was found out that around 300 middle-men commercialize mainly metal scrap. Waste pickers of Koshe comprise a broad range of age groups that extend from children to older people. and car spare parts like batteries. and glass bottles are recovered for reuse and recycling (IGNIS 2010). other plastic products. The number of waste pickers has shown considerable increase through time and currently it is confirmed that there are about 685 waste pickers who work regularly in the dump site. Much of these salvaged materials are taken by dealers to plastic and metal recycling factories in the city. people who are engaged in waste picking work at landfill sites are usually driven by poverty and lack of other survival means. The presence of such broad range in age group is expected simply because it is more or less a reflection of the wider society which is a source for them. metal and plastic barrels. As it is the case in many parts of the world. electrical devices. some 280 middlemen are dedicated to buy and sell keys and other door parts. 170 intermediaries work. Social baseline of Koshe waste pickers community Waste picking (scavenging) is a regular activity that takes place in Koshe dump site. electric cables of various size and other items. The waste pickers sell their salvaged materials to the middle men and the middle men sell either to the big dealers or take it to the recyclers. In line with it. plastics. The Koshe waste pickers are characterized by rudimentary and basic educational levels. Especially metal and plastic materials are diverted in large quantity from the waste stream. The work environment is unhealthy and demeaning. rubber. A large portion of the waste pickers settle normally integrated with the wider community as its ordinary members. The business of salvaged waste involves a number of business people in the market chain. It is a practice that has been going on for over three decades. An estimated 60 middle-men work in buying and selling corrugated iron sheets and items like rubber.

In general. There are waste pickers who play the role of middle men in the market chain.3. The income is also influenced by the role of the waste picker in the market chain of the salvaged materials. Bereh woreda is not only the place where the site for the Sendafa Sanitary landfill project is situated but also is a beneficiary of the services of the sanitary landfill itself. its economic and political muscle makes it the attraction for all the country’s ethnic and cultural groups. Tigray and Guragie. Sendafa and Legetafo towns. Religion and Ethnic groups The geographic location of Addis Ababa. There is not any ethnic or cultural group of the country that does not reside and represented in Addis Ababa. It is very common to observe both Churches and Mosques in every part of the city. Those who buy salvaged materials directly from the waste pickers at the dumpsite and sell it out to the next in the market chain will have a better income than the others.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The amount of daily income generated by waste pickers depends on a number of factors. In its cultural activities. monasteries. 6. archaeological and ethnographic). Gelan. and old churches. the three transfer stations and Sendafa Sanitary landfill project will provide its service to all the five towns found in Oromia Special Zone which include Sebeta. the preference of waste pickers to salvage high or low value material has a direct influence on the daily income. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 79 . Firstly.3. culture and language diversity. Two of its main towns. Oromo. Language. traditional restaurants.9 Socio economic background of Bereh woreda and the five towns of Oromia Special zone The Sendafa Sanitary landfill project site is located in Oromia National Regional State. are going to use the sanitary landfill to dispose its solid wastes. Amharic is the official language of the city government and is also widely spoken. It is probably the only city in the country with such type of ethnic. Sululta. the Amhara. The major ethnic groups that reside in Addis Ababa include. 6. Religion wise all major religions are quite visible in Addis Ababa and live in peace and harmony. art galleries. The Capital of Bereh Woreda is Sendafa town. Burayu. Sendafa and Legetafo towns. it has a number of museums (historical. Finifine Zurya Special Administrative zone in Bereh woreda.8 Cultural Activities. cultural and language groups. This makes Addis Ababa a highly colourful city which hosts many ethnic.

4 Pharmacists.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project No.972 people.411 are male and 39. three flower farms have been established in the woreda. The top ten diseases in the year 2012 (2004 EC) in the woreda include.750 (CSA. and of which. 3 Lab technician. in the town sections there are only small scale businesses.537 students. 4 clinics. The health professionals working in the above health facilities including 4 Health officers. the woreda has 53 primary schools having 16. Sub City Population Remarks 1 Burayu 89 057 Projected for 2013 2 Sebeta 79 722 >> 3 Lege Tafo 9 237 >> 4 Gelan 6 698 >> 5 Sululta 10 563 >> 6 Sendafa 10. 40. 1Sanitarian. Ethnically. Agricultural practices have not yet developed much and mainly practiced by using traditional farming methods by using oxen plough share and it is also small scale household farm. and 76 Health agents. bars. 2007). ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 80 . In Bereh woreda there is very little business and industrial development outside of agriculture. 20 health posts.558 are female. The Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia. The population of Sendafa town alone is estimated to be 10. The health coverage shows that there are 3 health centres. The Bereh woreda is predominantly rural and the mainstay of the population is crop farming. restaurants and grinding mills. 46 Nurses. The distribution of social services in the woreda shows that drinking water supply coverage has reached 56% only. such as. The number of teachers in the above schools is 338 (120 female) and among the above teachers none have degree level qualification. In terms of education. Outside the household farms. 2007) Table 10: Population of the towns in Oromia Special zone The Bereh woreda has a total population of 79.750 (CSA. recently. the woreda population is predominately Oromo ethnic group and their language is also Affan Oromo.

7 5 Dermatitis 390 2.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Type of Disease Number % 1 Injury 901 6.8 7 Acute Upper 2219 15.27 2 Pneumonia 1321 9.1 3 Acute Febrile 4256 29 Illness 4 Diarrhoea 2279 15.3 Respiratory Tract Infection 8 Intestinal Parasite 1360 9.5 10 Urinary Tract Infection 333 2.4 9 Conjunctivitis 803 5.7 6 Gastritis 554 3.3 Table 11: Top ten diseases in Bereh Woreda ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 81 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

7. Analysis of Alternatives
The alternatives considered for the solid waste management project include change of site, change
of design and the “no project option”. The selection of suitable site for the sanitary landfill project
had been conducted by different technical groups assigned by the Addis Ababa City
Administration. Initially, the Fillidoro, Bole Arabsa and Fincha sites were studied by different
technical groups. However, feasibility studies have revealed that these sites were found unsuitable
for use as sanitary landfills due to various reasons shown in table 12.

Site location

Fillidoro site

Bole Arbasa site

Fincha site

Northwest of the city close
to little Akaki River

South-east of the City

37kms south of the city
very close to Akaki well
field

shallow wells, which are
used as water supply

- Pollution of surface
water downstream of the
landfill site

-located at the recharge
area for the Akaki well
field

- Size of the proposed
site is insufficient

- displace large number
of people

- permeability of the
geological formations
were high

- Clearing of the existing
forest trees could
enhance erosion and loss
of wild life habitat

- Pollution of
groundwater due to the
high permeability of the
geological formations.

Reasons for not - Occurrence of nearby
being selected

- can pollute the
groundwater

- Pollution of the Akaki
river as surface and
groundwater drains
towards the stream
Table 12: Summary table of alternative sites considered

After the above sites failed to prove suitable, another task team was formed in September 2009 to
look for probable sites within 40km radius considering the hydro-geological, geological, ecological
and engineering geological aspects. The six potential sites considered includes Chebe Weregenu
(Legetafo), Gubaya (Tefike), Abeyi dibdbe (Dukem), Simbrite Kore (Menagesha), Daleti Ejersa
(Butajira road), and Geja Jewie (Sebeta). From these candidate sites the Chebe-Weregenu site (now
commonly called as Sendafa Sanitary landfill site) was selected as one of the first priority site.
A detailed feasibility study of the Chebe-weregenu site on geological, engineering geological,
hydro-geological, and geophysical investigations were carried out by the GSE during 2009 – 2010
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GC. The feasibility study conducted at 1:5000 scales allowed to generate data to understand the
subsurface conditions of the proposed site and make tangible conclusions on its suitability for
sanitary landfill. From engineering geological point of the host rock underlying the top soil has
medium mass strength. The permeability value of the residual soil covering the landfill site
indicates that the soil is semi-pervious. In terms of hydrogeology the immediate area surrounding
the site is found not much promising for water well development. According to geophysical
investigations the residual soil has sufficient thickness to protect leakage of leachate. The study
also concluded that due to topography and absence of prominent tectonic structures, flooding, slop
instability problems are not expected to pose any significant risk. Besides, construction raw
materials to be used as a blanket for the landfill is found at a distance of about 1500 meters NE of
the site. Moreover, the site is found entirely on an area of water shed free from surface drainage. It
is a flat land (table land) situated between 2400 to 2600 masl. Consequently, due to all the above
reasons, the current Sendafa sanitary landfill site was selected as suitable site for the purpose.
The design process of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations has passed through a number of
steps including preliminary and detailed design development stages. During these stages various
design alternatives were considered before arriving at the final detail design for the sanitary landfill
and transfer stations. The draft detailed designs were presented in a workshop held in December
2014 involving several stakeholders including representatives from regional and federal EPAs and
were discussed and commented thoroughly. As a result, the final detail designs have incorporated
the various comments forwarded by the workshop participants, which have been instrumental in
considering alternatives and improvements to the transfer stations and sanitary landfill designs.
The ‘no project’ option will allow the continued use of Koshe Repi open dumpsite which is already
getting full and also causing environmental problems in the area. On the other hand, considering the
rapid development taking place both in Addis Ababa city and its surrounding, the no project option
will probably allow the utilization of the selected sanitary landfill and transfer station sites for other
competing priority purposes and deprive the city from its opportunity of getting suitable landfill site
in its peripheries.

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8. Environmental impact identification, prediction and analysis
The implementation of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations project will have certain impacts
on the natural and socio-economic environment in which it is set. The impacts can be categorized
into direct, indirect and cumulative impacts. These categories can be further broken down
according to their nature, into positive or negative impacts, random or predictable impacts, local or
widespread impacts, temporary or permanent impacts, and short or long-term impacts. Each
positive and negative impact will vary in extent and it can be either enhanced or mitigated. The
main focus of this chapter is to identify the significant impacts of both negative and positive nature
and to analyse it under the scenario where no mitigation and enhancement measures are put in
place. For the purpose of this assessment, impacts and/or benefits that will occur during
construction and operation phases will be considered. The environmental analysis will therefore
attempt to screen out the insignificant impacts and bring the major significant impacts into the
attention of decision makers.

8.1 The positive impacts
8.1.1 Impact on public health of the wider city
The development of new sanitary landfill in Sendafa is anticipated to have both direct and indirect
positive impacts on public health. One of the indirect positive impacts of the proposed new sanitary
landfill is through its facilitation for the closure of Koshe/Repi open dump site.
It is well known that the improper management of solid waste in Koshe dump site was a source of
ambient air, surface and ground water pollution. The public is affected directly and indirectly
through the affected environment such as the polluted waters and air. The release of leachate from
the koshe dump site has an impact on the nearby surface and ground water. The persistent release
of foul odour and smoke by the koshe dumpsite is a source of health problem for members of the
public. People in the city are consuming fruits and vegetables grown downstream by polluted
surface water sources. In addition to the assimilation of heavy metals through the consumption of
vegetables, the direct contamination of plants by bacteria and virus may contribute to the health
effects of the public. Thus, the proper closure of Koshe/Repi open dump site will undoubtedly
improve the environmental quality of the locality by relieving it from the continued release of
smoke and foul odor as well as uncontrolled release of leachate among others. This in turn is likely
to have an immediate positive impact on the public health as well as on the property value of the

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2 Impact on public health of the residents of the five towns in Oromia special zone Sebeta. Burayu. Gelan and Sululta are towns which are becoming increasingly populated and more urbanized in recent times. Sendafa. Fig 12: Showing recently abandoned and newly opened dump sites in Sebeta town The establishment of the Sendafa sanitary landfill and three transfer stations and the opportunity to use these facilities by the five Oromia special zone towns is anticipated to have a significant positive impact on improving the solid waste management practices of the towns resulting in improvement of their environmental sanitation and public health status. 8.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project locality. Thus the construction of the new sanitary landfill will contribute indirectly towards the improvement of public health of the city residents. On the other hand. Legetafo. the public health of the community was increasingly getting threatened due to lack of proper solid waste collection and disposal facilities.1. These towns are found adjacent to Addis Ababa city and their social and economic growths are observed to show a considerable leap in recent years. Hence the opportunity to utilize the new transfer station and sanitary landfill project facilities will present a medium and long term solution to the environmental and public health concerns of the five towns of Oromia Special Zone. As a result. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 85 . almost all of these towns do not have well organized solid waste management system that consists of proper solid waste disposal facilities. In most of these towns industrial and residential development activities are taking place and are expanding fast. despite the rapid urbanization and growth observed. Sanitary landfill is a huge urban infrastructure which may prove difficult to put in place by each of the stated towns for themselves.

1. Therefore. reuse and recycling through sound and formal means. The waste segregation is expected to result in recovering reusable and recyclable materials from the solid waste stream by employing a sizable number of formal waste pickers. the proposed solid waste management project will have a positive impact of enhancing environmental sustainability by facilitating for waste recovery. Thus the proposed project is anticipated to have a potential positive impact on the overall SWM of the city and its sanitation condition. 8. 8. With the improvement of the public attitude ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 86 . Especially the avoidance of the most noticeable sources of irritation to the public in the area which are the foul odour and smoke coupled with the unsightly scenery of the dump site are anticipated to gradually improve the negative attitudes of the public to the locality.3 Impact on improvement of the overall solid waste management system of the city Installing and operating a properly designed sanitary landfill facilities and transfer stations will contribute for the overall improvement of the solid waste management of the city and its efficiency.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8. The reusables and recyclables recovered from the solid waste stream are expected to be channelled to the recycling establishments through formalized means. The improvements in efficiency to be gained in the secondary collection are anticipated to precipitate down to improvements and enhanced efficiency in solid waste collection coverage and frequency from the primary collectors.5 Improvement on overall environmental quality and property value around Koshe The facilitation of the closure of Koshe dump site and ceasing the waste disposal operation from taking place in the area is also anticipated to have a positive potential impact on the property values in the area.1.1. but also provides a space to undertake continued waste sorting and segregation activities at the transfer stations. The development and operation of the transfer stations are anticipated to enhance the efficiency of the secondary solid waste collection systems in the city. Each of the transfer stations consists of a separate block where waste sorting and segregation will be conducted. The ceasing of waste disposal operation at the site followed by proper closure and reclamation is likely to improve the environmental quality in the area.4 Improvements on enhancing and formalizing ISWM The proposed sanitary landfill and transfer station project is designed not only to facilitate the sound collection and disposal of solid waste. The expanded waste collection coverage and increased collection frequency is anticipated to contribute towards the betterment of the overall waste management system of the city and its sanitation condition.

and an estimated 200 people (most being unskilled workers) could have employment opportunity during peak construction work. recovery and reuse activities to be conducted in the three transfer stations. the proposed project will have a significant positive impact in the area of job employment creation and will also introduce new skills and knowledge to the locality. These jobs will include waste sorting. the new sanitary landfill facilitating the closure of the existing dump site will have an indirect impact on property value of the koshe neighbourhood. In the process of employment. the contractor is also expected to respect and abide with the labour code of the country. and improvement of the local economy. It is anticipated that large number of workers will be employed or contracted to conduct the waste sorting and recovery activities in the transfer stations. The employment opportunities will be mainly for the youth and women residing in the area that will benefit from the project. If such employment mechanisms are adopted the project would contribute to the creation of jobs and income. the lower property value observed in the immediate neighbourhood of Koshe is anticipated to rise in the future. It can be assumed that creation of employment opportunities will have a significant contribution to the reduction of poverty at the household level. and will increase the revenue capacity of the project area. 8. The new sanitary landfill will also create new jobs for equipment and machinery operators and other skilled and semi-skilled staff who will be engaged in running and managing the daily operations of the sanitary landfill. The youth and women residing in the project areas will benefit from the employment opportunities created due to the construction of the landfill and transfer stations. Thus. The employment of semi-skilled and unskilled labour should be from the locality during construction and priority should also be given to women and in particular to female headed households. Therefore.1. The design of the new transfer stations has included a large block of 1130 m2 area and it will be exclusively used for such purposes. During operational phase the project is anticipated to create more waste management related jobs both in the transfer stations and the new sanitary landfill.6 Employment creation The project is envisage and expected to create both short term and long term employment opportunities for the local communities.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project triggered by improved environmental quality. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 87 .

Some of these services and goods in demand are ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 88 . 8. • The contractor needs to observe the Labour code for employment. Experiences from other infrastructure projects show that there is always a demand for some services and goods by construction workers. During construction phase jobs to be created include mainly casual jobs. In the works contract document of the contractor to be employed. such as. and it is also common that the above workforce will demand for different services from the business persons operating in the direct influence area of the project. The jobs that would be created would be during construction and operation phases. However. It is estimated that 100-200 construction workers could be engaged during the construction works.e. mechanics and cleaners for offices. carpentry. The above jobs apply mainly for uneducated or for women who have very low level of education. off-farm) and market based economic activities. During construction of the landfill. and related issues. drivers.1. work safety regulations. the construction of the project in the area is expected to create new opportunity and skill for women. different types of small scale income generating (or commercial) activities could start through local communities and in particular by women in order to meet the demand of the construction workforce. The jobs to be created during operation phase are expected to be handled by AACMA and that will include employment of guards. During the construction phase of the project women could work as daily labourers and in particular jobs that will not have negative impact on their biological and social characteristics and during the operation phase women can work as cleaners for offices and other related jobs. The project will give priority in employment to women and in particular to female headed households. etc. daily labourers.7 Income generating and small businesses In the direct influence area of the project there are not many opportunities for income generating (i. a clause should be added to ensure the employment of casual and semi skilled workers and that the employment has to be made from among the people living in the project area. minimum wage. • Ensure women’s employment and improve their employment opportunities and working conditions. Women in the project area have very limited exposure of working in such type of projects. machine operators. masonry.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  Measures of Reinforcement for employment generation • The contractor should employ large proportion of casual and semi skilled workers from the local population residing in the project area.

Liquid fractions in the waste will also add to the leachate depending on the age of the landfill.1 %). Leachate is the aqueous effluent generated as a consequence of rainwater percolation through the wastes deposited on the sanitary landfill and the inherent water content of the disposed wastes themselves.000 tonnes of waste over the next 20 years. surface water runoff. glass ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 89 .1 Impact of leachate on the surface and ground water resources It is predictable that during the operational phases of the proposed sanitary landfill a leachate effluent will be generated which has the potential to affect the ground and surface waters. It is expected that rain precipitation percolates through the waste deposit at the landfill and will leach out the dissolved and suspended components from the biodegrading waste where several physical and chemical reactions will take place. cardboard (3. organic concentration (COD) in the leachate will decrease and ammonia nitrogen concentration will increase. In general.3 %). and biological decomposition. it is anticipated that between 50 to 100 people could be able to generate income through various income generating activities. hygienic textile (2. Other contributors to leachate generation include groundwater inflow. and physical modification of the waste leachate. Textile (3. paper (4. etc. Whenever there is large number of workmen who have come either from outside or employed from the locality it will become a driving force that initiates local communities to start income generating and small business which has never been there. It is forecasted that Sendafa Sanitary landfill would receive approximately 8. beverage. The composition of leachate from landfill site varies greatly from site to site.0%). degree of decomposition. Plastic (8. The waste that will be disposed at the Sendafa Landfill is composed of Organic (57.8%). and to diversify their income sources and to exploit their potential. In general. eating places and selling of food.7%).2 The Negative impacts 8. The income generating activities and businesses that are expected to be established due to the construction work would allow households to learn new skills and also earn additional income. Some of the factors affecting composition include age of landfill. 8. it is anticipated that some 20-30 business persons will be directly providing the services and some 50 or more persons who could indirectly serve as suppliers (mainly local farmers) for the business men could be able to generate income during construction and operation phases.1 %).200. types of waste. and can also vary within a particular site.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project kiosk for selling of basic items and consumables.2. As the age of the landfill increased.

Pathogenic microorganisms and toxic substances that might be present in the waste are often cited as dangerous. 8. Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn). uncontrolled leachate release from the landfill site into Hambisa River will have an adverse impact on the quality of the river on which the local community is dependent for live stock watering and irrigation purposes. Cadmium (Cd). Potassium (K). Moreover. It is anticipated that there is low probability that the Legedadi dam could be contaminated by leachate generated from the Sendafa sanitary landfill site. sulphate ions with high concentrations of common metal ions. the Hambisa and Legetafo rivers are tributaries of the great Akaki River and thus the impact of the leachate is anticipated to expand further downstream along the Akaki river catchment. health care waste (1.1 Impact of Leachate on surface water resources One of the important surface water bodies found around the proposed sanitary landfill site is the Legedadi Dam that supply water to Addis Ababa City. Cobalt (Co). However. It is proposed to construct five waste disposal cells and the fifth cell will be dedicated for the disposal of hazardous waste. unclassified combustible and incombustible (5. as the proposed landfill site is located downstream of the dam. Manganese (Mn). but since pathogenic organism counts will reduce rapidly with time in the landfill it will only be an issue to the fresh leachate at the initial stage. Magnesium (Mg).6%). Hambisa River runs alongside the eastern boundary of the site. Lead (Pb). If the landfill has no leachate collection system the leachate to be generated during the operational phases can enter into ground and surface water resources found around the sanitary landfill site. flowing from North to South.7 %) (Artelia & MCE. and rich in organic acid groups. especially iron. The risks from waste leachate are due to its high organic contaminant concentrations and high level of ammonia and nitrogen.3 %).1 %) and others (9. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 90 . landfill leachate is acidic. The predicted impacts of leachate on the important surface and ground water bodies found around the proposed landfill site are further discussed below in the next sub-sections. Nickel (Ni).2. The volume of leachate that will be generated from this disposal cells is anticipated to range from 645m3/day when cell one (1a) is operating and the rest of the cells are closed to 1336 m3 /day when cell 4a is operated and other cells are closed during the lifetime of the sanitary landfill. The contamination of river by leachate is expected to raise the concentrations level of heavy metals like Chromium (Cr).1. Typically.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project (2. 2013).

The solid waste littered and accumulated in the transfer station sheds will continue to biodegrade and decay and get washed with storm waters causing contamination to surface and to ground waters through seepage respectively. Impact on Legadadi well fields The Legedadi dam has also an area in its surrounding reserved for well field development.2. with static water level of less than 10m as well as springs emerging at downstream. the intensive pumping of groundwater from the Legedadi well field in the future may result in rapid decline of groundwater levels leading to disturbance in the flow direction system of the groundwater. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 91 . The manifestation of the springs downstream of the site can be an indication of tectonic structure controlled groundwater flow system in the area. This process potentially facilitates the rapid flow of contaminated water from the aquifer underlying the proposed sanitary landfill site to the Legedadi well field. The shallow depth of water level in the adjacent boreholes and absence of thick top clay soils may facilitate direct percolation of contaminants from the landfill to the groundwater reservoir. It is predicted that the shallow depth of water level in the adjacent Legedadi well field boreholes and absence of thick top clay soils may facilitate direct percolation of contaminants to the groundwater reservoir. Therefore it is anticipated that in the absence of proper management of the proposed sanitary landfill.5km from the site.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8.1. eventually resulting in groundwater flow towards the depression zone. Though the piezometric surface constructed from groundwater point inventory made during previous studies showed that the general groundwater flow in the area is towards southeast direction and away from Legedadi well field where currently deep bore holes are being drilled to expand the city water supply. There are also more than four springs on downstream of the landfill site aligned along N-S normal faults close to periphery of the site. b. Impact of Akaki transfer station on Akaki well fields The potential impact of Akaki transfer station on the ground water resources is anticipated to arise from littering of solid waste inside and outside of the transfer station area as well as through hauling delays resulting in storing of the solid waste for days inside the transfer sheds because of operational failures. leachate may have an adverse impact on the nearby deep test wells and shallow wells drilled by AAWSA found within a radius of 3.2 Impact of Leachate on ground water resources a.

therefore. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 92 . unlikely that the contaminants from the transfer station may easily leak into the aquifer at a depth as a result of direct percolation. the 40-50m thick unsaturated zone of lacustrine sediment with high proportion of clay soil can act as a geochemical and biological filter. because of its low permeability. It is. However. From geological log data taken from deep boreholes around the site. which is manifested by a number of major and minor fault systems. The impermeable layer. massive basalt overlain with the thick clay soil.000m3/day has been produced from 15 deep boreholes since 2012.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Akaki Transfer station is located within Well Field-1 from which a total of 60. mostly black cotton soil. the area has been subjected to the rift tectonics. Particularly. The transfer station is also not far from Well field-2 and Well field-3 (Map 8). prevents downward percolation of contaminated water into aquifer. weak zone along the fault striking from NW-SE on western part of the site can be a conducive path for contaminants leaked from the transfer station towards south part of the well field where most of the deep and shallow wells are concentrated. nearby shallow unconfined aquifers may be exposed to pollution as a result of base flow from Akaki River drained by the transfer stations. Moreover. The general trend of most of these faults follows the rift system (NW–SE and NE-SW) orientation.

Storm water discharge from Bole Arabsa transfer station is drained into Great Akaki River.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 8: Akaki Well Fields (WF) C. north-eastern as well as southZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 93 . The solid waste littered and accumulated in the transfer station sheds will continue to biodegrade and decay and get washed with storm waters causing contamination to surface and to ground waters through seepage respectively. the potential impact of Bole Arabsa transfer station on the nearby surface and ground water resources is anticipated to arise from littering of solid waste inside and outside of the transfer station area as well as through hauling delays resulting in storing of the solid waste for days inside the transfer sheds because of operational failures. Impact of Bole Arabsa Transfer Station on surface and ground water bodies In a similar manner. It is observed that since the Great Akaki River drains most of the central.

On the other hand. bacteriological and heavy metal concentration. The presence of heavy metals (such as Chromium. Impact of Koshe Transfer Station on Surface and Ground Water Resources The impact of the proposed new Koshe/Repi transfer station on surface and ground water resources in the area is anticipated to have a cumulative and synergistic effect of enhancing the existing and perhaps the highly significant impact caused by the Koshe open dump site itself. it is exposed to a load of pollutants from urban solid waste and sewage releases. air and water pollution. The nearest ground water prospective areas under investigation by AAWSA are the South Ayat-North Fanta well field which is found about 3. Thus it is important to avoid or minimize sources of additional pollution load that can be washed away by storm water from the transfer station.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project eastern parts of Addis Ababa city. Copper and Cobalt) and BOD in the samples can be used as tracer in relation to leachate percolation. Based on the intrinsic vulnerability map of Akaki Catchment. Koshe dump site is the major source of groundwater pollution for the nearby wells. Lead. Thus the transfer station may not become an immediate pollution threat to existing well field that supply water to the city. COD and bacteria were found in the collected groundwater samples. Thus the Great Akaki River already contains an agglomeration of pollutants from the upstream and further contamination from the transfer station will have a cumulative and synergistic effect in enhancing the pollution level of the river. it is imperative to take necessary measures that prevent the seepage of leachate into the ground water during the operational phases of the transfer station to avoid long term impacts on the ground water. However. As there is no other possible anthropogenic source for the trace metals. Accordingly certain heavy metal substances. D.5 km south of the proposed transfer station. the Bole Arabsa transfer station site is located in the range of medium vulnerability (Dereje 2003). groundwater samples around Koshe dump site were analyzed for physicochemical. BOD. Zinc. Water quality sampled from a borehole located 0. however. Based on previous studies. This implies that leachate created from decaying waste in the transfer station can have possibility of percolation down to the water table if there is no proper prevention and control system in place. The nonengineered Koshe landfill site has been in operation for the last four decades and the solid waste disposed there have been a source of foul odour nuisance. the area around Bole Arabsa transfer station is not currently serving as well field area for Addis Ababa city. industrial and commercial discharges as well as other diffused pollution sources while draining through the city.8km south of ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 94 .

the generation of landfill gas poses significant risks to human. Therefore. since the larger source of impact on ground and surface waters in the koshe transfer station area is the open landfill site itself. Finally. the new koshe transfer station may cause additional impact to the ground and surface water if not properly managed and operated.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Koshe dump site and Mekanisa well which is also located 1. During operational phases. Landfill gas is generated by the degradation of the disposed solid waste materials under anaerobic conditions (i. the presence of heavy metals and coliforms in the nearby groundwater samples is expected to be a result of direct percolation and surface-ground water interaction in the Koshe landfill area. which is toxic and inflammable gas. In an open area. The most significant risk associated with landfill gas arises from its potential to form flammable mixtures with air. e. and dust releases during construction and operational phases. animal and plant health and life.8km south of Koshe open dump site were found to be out of acceptable drinking water quality standards (Tigstu H. foul odour nuisance. 2012). it is assumed that this will be further investigated and discussed in detail in the ESIA report of the decommissioning and closure of the Koshe landfill to be prepared in the future.2. 8. With its high content of methane. Methane and carbon dioxide are the major gases produced by the bacterial decay of the wastes. The risk is greatest where gas is allowed to build-up in confined spaces. the proposed Sendafa Sanitary landfill will generate a Land Fill Gas (LFG) which is likely to have significant potential impact on the ambient air quality and climate change. The impacts on ambient air quality are anticipated to occur due to landfill gas.e. in the absence of oxygen). Groundwater flow direction which is from north to south have made conducive environment for contaminated water flow to downstream shallow unconfined aquifers. Even though the contribution it may make would be comparatively small. such as within buildings or in collapsed void spaces within the deposited waste.2 Impact of landfill Gases on ambient air quality One of the potential impacts of the proposed sanitary landfill and transfer stations project is its impact on ambient air quality. The critical concentrations limits within which a flammable gas will burn (or explode) are known as the ‘Lower Explosive Limit’ (LEL) and ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 95 . If it is allowed to accumulate in a confined space it could be a source of ignition and an explosion may result. landfill gas can give rise to ‘flash fires’. etal.

although the rate at which this occurs is affected by landfill content and by the weather. the air quality of Addis Ababa city is not regularly monitored due to shortage of equipments and resources. While this dilutes the gases with fresh air. dimethyl sulfide. carbon dioxide. Also. However. For methane these are approximately 5% and 15% respectively.5. landfill gases are carried on surface level winds. and sulfides. In the absence of proper landfill gas collection and management system. hydrogen sulphide. from the pilot air quality monitoring study conducted.. if not higher. mercaptans). Once emitted into the air. the other major constituent of landfill gas has an adverse effect on respiration and is a hazard to health if it is present in concentrations in excess of 1. than the EPA’s ambient standards for PM10 and PM2.5%. especially in urban and residential areas within the city. In the same way landfill gases that are expected to be released from the proposed Sendafa Sanitary landfill have the potential to cause odour nuisance in neighbourhoods surrounding the landfill.g.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ‘Upper Explosive limit’ (UEL). Thus odour will be anticipated to occur in the vicinity of the landfill work places especially at the cell filling areas and is likely to affect few rural ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 96 . the release of smoke caused by open flare of LFG from the new sanitary landfill can exaggerate the situation due to synergistic effect. Naturally. Mostly wind occurs at 120° and 130° in the northeast direction at the Bole metrological station. Therefore. the amounts and types of VOCs in landfill depend upon whether chemical reactions are occurring which either remove or create them. These odorous gases give the landfill gas mixture its characteristic "rotting" smell. the proposed sanitary landfill project can immensely contribute to deterioration of ambient air quality in the area through smoke release caused by spontaneous burning of methane gas. it can also move them into the community. Other chemicals can also be present in landfill gases. by displacing air (oxygen). As stated in the baseline chapter. although their levels are typically very small compared to the levels of methane. The gases generated tend to rise through the landfill and reach the air above.55km/hr with the maximum 18m/sec at 120° in the northeast direction. Carbon dioxide. The average annual wind speed calculated for the area is 0. Other gases produced by landfill bacteria are termed reduced sulphur gases or sulphides (e. it was observed that concentrations. Landfill gas may also act as an asphyxiant (suffocating agent). if it accumulates in a confined space. are close to. wind speed and direction determine whether local residents will notice landfill odours so that the degree of the problem will vary greatly from day to day.

simply smelling an unpleasant odour can be sufficient to create an adverse physiological response (nausea. At locations near the landfill. In either case the foul odour released from the transfer stations can affect the neighbourhood inhabitants and the workers inside. headache. The nearest densely populated area to the site is about 5 – 10 kms far away and thus the probability of the odour affecting large size of population is very low.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project households (villages) present northeast direction of the proposed new sanitary landfill. Especially the foul odour release from Koshe and Akaki transfer stations is anticipated to have the greatest effect due to presence of inhabitants around it. etc. While there is some concern that odours might precipitate an asthmatic attack in highly sensitive people. for some people. These concentrations are well below the level needed to produce toxicity. In most cases landfills do not emit enough of these VOCs to increase their concentration above the background levels commonly found in the community. However. and the levels that might reach surrounding homes are generally far below that which is known to cause ill effects. the effects usually reverse when the odour dissipates and do not require medical attention.). Although this situation is highly undesirable. This is when winds tend to be most gentle. It is also likely that similar foul odour can be released from the transfer stations if the solid wastes are not promptly hauled without storing and keeping it for days and if the sanitary situation of the transfer stations deteriorates. providing the least dilution of the gas. Other VOCs that might be present in landfill gas are less odorous than sulfides. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 97 . the worst time of the day may be early morning. a controlled study of asthmatics found that exposure to a high level of hydrogen sulphide (2ppm) did not trigger an asthmatic attack or upper respiratory function. Measures to capture landfill gases and prevent their migration to the community are warranted for the proposed sanitary landfill project where odours are anticipated to create a persistent nuisance. with the odours not being a good indicator of whether other chemicals are present. Sulfides can cause unpleasant odours even at very low concentrations. This means that landfill odours represent more of a public nuisance than a community health hazard.

Gas from the decomposition of domestic wastes is a minor contributor to the overall problem of methane emissions into the atmosphere.tc.2. with emissions from animals and natural decomposition of vegetable matter likely to be the main sources of emissions. e. Such facilities include the availability of engineered cells for disposal of solid waste on daily basis.2.1 Impacts related to emission of greenhouse gases Methane gas.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8. It is observed that the engineering design of the proposed sanitary landfill and transfer stations provide facilities that are necessary to prevent the environment from pollution and to protect public health. is widely understood to be a major greenhouse gas. daily cover soils. Unless the solid wastes to be hauled through the transfer stations are taken to the landfill continuously without delay.2. Nevertheless. the presence of these facilities alone may not ensure protection of the environment and public health. Emission of green house gases under the proposed project is anticipated to be considerably less in comparison with the current solid waste disposal and dumping practices. the proper disposal of waste in regulated landfill together with the capture and flaring of the gas is a step in the overall movement towards control of greenhouse gas emissions and so the effect is assessed as minimum. leachate control and treatment.3 Impact on public health The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations on public health is anticipated to possibly occur under future potential scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities to be developed by the project are not operated properly. due to the proposed landfill gas collection system and the flaring of the gas to be installed in the new sanitary landfill. Moreover. one of the major gaseous products from the decomposition of solid waste in anaerobic conditions. Unless it is properly operated. it will continue to biodegrade and decay and get washed with storm waters causing contamination to surface and ground waters through seepage respectively. landfill gases collection and treatment. 8. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 98 . storing it for days inside the transfer sheds because of operational failures could cause a serious odour problem to the surrounding.

Fig 13: Showing an engineered sanitary landfill turned to open dump site in Adama From experience it has been observed that sanitary landfills built with all engineering design features to protect the environment and public health are seen to fail because of failures in operation. Therefore. the whole concept of utilizing the sanitary landfill will be jeopardized and it will ultimately fail to serve its purpose.4 Impacts on soil The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations project on soil is anticipated to occure during construction and operation phases. compacted and covered with daily or intermediate soil cover in the appropriate cells.2. Construction of the various components of the solid waste project will all require conducting excavation to lay the foundations at certain depths. 8. Unless disposed appropriately in a selected place. Under such inappropriate operational conditions the sanitary landfill will degenerate into an open landfill and become source of environmental pollution and public health hazard. the importance of properly operating the sanitary landfill and transfer stations is as important as building it with all its engineering design features.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project If the wastes reaching the new sanitary landfill is not spread. Fig 13 above shows an example in Adama town where one of the first sanitary landfills built in the Country was turned to simple open dump site due to operational failures caused by lack of equipments. Open landfills attract undesirable vermin such as rodents. the excavation material from the transfer stations that will be carted away can create a ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 99 . pests including dogs and birds. The main activities of the project which are identified to have likely potential impact on soil are the excavation works during construction. The potential impacts of operational failure can also go beyond public health concerns. The attraction of a large population of birds in ill operated sanitary landfill in particular may probably have unintended potential impact on air transport route.

The soil material from the project site is identified as a suitable cover soil and thus there is a plan in the design to use it as a cover soil in the new sanitary landfill. Whereas the project sites for Sendafa sanitary landfill and Bole Arabsa transfer stations are situated in rural settings where there are no populated villages and structures nearby. during operation phase. Therefore.e.5 Impact of Noise. it is essential that appropriate measures are taken to dispose the excavation material with out affecting the activities in the disposal area. is increasingly becoming a residential area as the construction of massive apartment buildings is taking place close by. Thus its impact as construction waste will be minimum provided it is managed according to the design plans. the Koshe and Akaki transfer stations are situated nearby residential areas of Addis Ababa city. With regard to the Sanitary landfill. Under such conditions the waste litter can creat unsightly places around and may likely contaminate the soil through decay in the long term. the impact of noise and vibration will be significant in Koshe and Akaki transfer station sites and less significant in Sendafa landfill and Bole Arbasa transfer station sites. soil material) to cover the wastes disposed in the cells. Therefore. The significance of the potential impact of noise and vibration during construction phase is likely to be dependent on the presence or absence of receptors who will be affected by the noise and vibration released. 8. for carting away the excavated materials. it is going to require daily and intermediate cover material (i. during operation phase. The presence of receptors of the noise and vibration in the immediate neighbourhood to the project site makes its impact to be of significance. it is likely that littering of solid waste may occure in and around the transfer stations and the sanitary landfill that are blown by wind or by mismanagement of waste hauling and disposal activities. i. Akaki transfer station site. and delivery of other construction materials will release roaring noises and create vibrations in the project area. The later.e. The sources of noise and vibration nuisance during the construction phase are essentially going to emerge from the construction activity and its machineries. The vehicles and construction machines that will be used for excavations. On the other hand. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 100 . The potential impact of waste litter on the soil can become significant if it remains uncontrolled and unattended.2.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project stockpile of construction waste that can cause undesired effects at the disposal site. Dust and vibration Noise and vibration nuisance are predicted to occur at different levels during construction and operation phases of the proposed project.

the significance of this impact is anticipated to be pronounced in those sections of the haulage routes along the approach to the transfer stations situated close to residential areas.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The noise and vibration impacts to be created due to movement of heavy equipments operating the landfill will be anticipated to be low for similar reasons stated in the preceding paragraph. The time of the day during which the noise and vibration is released will also be a factor in affecting the receptors.00 am to 9.e. and delivery of other construction materials will create dust resuspension in all the project sites.00p. In a simmilar manner. As a result the likely receipents of the dust pollution in the sanitary landfill and Bole Arabsa transfer station sites will be largely the construction workers themselves and few passer by villagers. This is because noise released during night time when the majority of the neighbourhood go to sleep will have more sever nuisance impact than that during normal working hours of the day. More specifically.m Note. However. The dust release is expected to be significant during the dry season. former EPA).00am The potential impact of dust release is essentially going to emerge from the construction activity and its machineries as well as due to movement of waste hauling trucks during operation phases. the permissible noise limits differ based on the dominant functions of the areas under consideration and the time of the day. waste hauling trucks will also create dust along the dusty road routes during operational phases on a daily basis. The vehicles and construction machines that will be used for excavations.m. According to the draft emission limit standards of the MoEF (i. On the other hand the source of noise and vibration impacts during operational phase will be mainly the movement of waste hauling skip trucks. Table 13 below shows the permissible limit values for noise. to 6. the impact of the re-suspended dust will vary from site to site based on the presence of receptors or people to be affected. Table 13: Draft Noise emission standards of FEPA Limits in dB (A) Leq Day timeNote 1 Night timeNote 2 Industrial area 75 70 B Commercial area 65 55 C Residential area 55 45 Area Code Category of area A Note-1: Day time reckoned in between 6. The ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 101 .00p. The re-suspension of dust in the Akaki and Koshe transfer stations will likely affect larger community in the neighbourhood. The potential impact of noise released by haulage trucks is likely to mainly affect those receptors found along the waste haulage routes.2: Night time reckoned in between 9. for carting away the excavated materials.

As a result there appears to be no significant conflict caused by the land use change. its visual (aesthetic) impact on the surrounding will be minimum as it may not create a major contradiction with the landscape.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project presence of receptors of the dust pollution in the immediate neighbourhood to the project site makes its impact to be of significance. The project area itself was majorly used for agriculture with less dense residential places around it. Since the proposed sanitary landfill area is sparsely populated. grazing and residential uses. after site closure and decommissioning. 8. the Sendafa sanitary landfill may remain unsuitable for any other forms of beneficial land uses because of the waste deposited. since the transfer station activities are designed to be undertaken inside building blocks. However. the current agricultural land use around Bole Arbasa and Akaki transfer stations will change to temporary solid waste handling purposes. the Not In MY Back Yard (NIMBY) syndrome associated with the location of the landfill site is not observable in the area. since the project site is situated in a typical rural setting with open farming fields around it. in the long term. with the realization of the proposed projects. Nevertheless. Moreover. the overall land use pattern in these areas is fast changing and the dominance of agriculture is thinning out. This change in land use and its impact on income generation and livelihood of the farmers that were tilling the land is compensated by paying out cash compensations (This will be discussed further under the social impacts section). As a result it may likely pose a certain level of contradiction with the land use types in the area and may also cause a visual impact on the surrounding if left unattended. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 102 .2. It was stated in the baseline chapter that the major land use type dominating the areas around Sendafa sanitary landfill is farming. it is anticipated that with proper management and operation of the landfill including capping the cells with daily and intermediate cover. In a similar manner.6 Impact on land use and aesthetics The potential impact of the Sendafa sanitary landfill on land use is anticipated to be of low significance. Likewise the design of the transfer station blocks is observed to be aesthetically in harmony with the developments taking place in the area and the general landscape. Thus. However. Thus proper mitigations should be put in place to avoid the post closure land use and aesthetics impacts. the agricultural land use type is being changed to waste disposal site. it is anticipated that it will not create major land use conflict with the upcoming residential and industrial purposes in the future.

the second stage of waste hauling will involve the movement of comparatively few big long haul trucks and trailers that will carry large loads of the waste. Especially the Bole Arbasa transfer station is found in a remote place away from the main road that terminates near the new Bole Lemi Industrial Zone Development Project. the available waste skip trucks will be distributed to haul the waste to the three transfer stations. In terms of impact on traffic volume. The impact of the first stage waste hauling on traffic volume is again likely to vary with the general location of the specific transfer stations. Whereas the Akaki transfer station is situated along one of the busiest road of the city (Addis Ababa – Akaki road). Thus there is ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 103 . Thus in terms of impacts on traffic volume the Akaki transfer station is likely to have a significant impact than the other proposed transfer stations. On the other hand. While the first stage of hauling is likely to involve the movement of several waste skip trucks to and from the transfer stations. currently the Bole Arabsa and Akaki transfer stations have no well paved detour roads that can be used to connect to the main roads and to approach the transfer stations. The second stage is the impact on traffic volume during transfer of waste from the transfer stations to the sanitary landfill. On the other hand. the koshe transfer station is situated along the moderately busy ring road system of the city. The road that leads to Akaki transfer station is currently a gravel road which may cause traffic problem during wet seasons.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8. In chapter three it was described that the Akaki. The net impact of koshe transfer station on the traffic volume of the area will become lower than its current impact as disposal site. This is because. the Bole Arbasa transfer station is situated in parts of the city where the traffic volume is comparatively low. Bole Arbasa. south eastern and south western suburbs of the city respectively. The first stage is the impact on traffic volume during waste hauling to the transfer stations.Akaki road but also will negatively influence the speed of waste hauling to the Akaki transfer station. This impact on traffic volume will not only affect the general traffic flow along the Addis Ababa .7 Impact on traffic volume during construction and operation The impact of the proposed project on traffic volume during operation phase can be analysed by categorising it in two stages. Koshe as disposal site is receiving all the waste hauled by all operational waste skip trucks available in the city. the first stage of waste hauling to the transfer stations is likely to be more significant than the second stage.2. and Koshe transfer stations are situated at the south. But with the coming of the transfer station into operation.

smoke. who come from the poorest families.Dessie road where practically there is no sizable traffic flow in the area. because of the comparatively small scale of construction activities to be undertaken to build the transfer stations.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project a need to connect the two transfer stations (Akaki & Bole Arabsa) with the main roads and make them easily accessible. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Therefore. The foul odour. Apparently the workers that may be involved in waste sorting at transfer stations. the additional traffic triggered by the construction activities is anticipated to be low. Firstly. This is especially true after one reaches the Gurd Sholla square and heads towards Sendafa town. The impact of the second stage waste hauling on traffic volume is anticipated to be insignificant for a couple of reasons. the main highway that connects the Sendafa sanitary landfill with Addis Ababa city is the Addis Ababa-Dessie road and comparatively speaking the traffic volume along this road is moderately low. 8. The impact of the proposed project on traffic volume during construction phase is generally anticipated to be low and insignificant. vermin. the construction of the sanitary landfill is going to take place outside the Addis Ababa . The majority of the waste recyclers are young men and women as well as children. the number of big trucks that will haul the waste to Sendafa transfer station are anticipated to be small in number. Similarly. it is imperative to consider the Page 104 . This is mainly because. Secondly. The big waste hauling trucks can use several alternative roads to reach to the Gurd Sholla square through which they can proceed to Sendafa sanitary landfill.8 Impacts on occupational health and safety of workers Owing to the environment they work in. The health risk to waste pickers from direct contact with wastes is acute due to their lack of protective gear and prolonged exposure to waste. the waste management workers in the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations will be exposed to occupational health risks. during operational phases. Waste separation at the transfer station and landfill has a potential negative impact on occupational health and safety when compacted waste is de-compacted to enable separation. and dust releases from the trasfer stations and sanitary landfill operations will be a source of occupational health risk to the waste pickers and the broader waste management workers when exposed for prolonged period of time. waste disposal at the sanitary landfill cells and other staff directly involved in waste handling and hauling are exposed to many injuring materials that can affect their health.2.

Also neither wetlands nor other sensitive ecosystems are found within or near to the proposed project areas.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project occupational health aspects of waste management workers in the sanitary landfill and transfer stations. 8. This is because methane gas is highly flammable and it can aggravate combustion in case of accidents thereby damaging properties and creating a cloud of thick smoke that can affect the air quality of the surrounding.10 Impact of Fire Hazard Fire Hazard is another important impact which can have an adverse impact not only on the sanitary landfill. 8.2. the potential and likeliness of changing the spontaneous fire hazard caused by landfill gas (methane) to a fire risk is generally higher in the stated waste management facilities. More specifically. Each transfer station will have a block where the maintenance of waste hauling trucks and other equipments will be serviced and maintained. 8. transfer stations and its surroundings. No protected areas such as parks. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 105 . Despite the presence of landfill gas collection and flaring system in the design of the sanitary landfill. but also on the environment at large.2. except Koshe/Repi.9 Impacts on terrestrial flora and fauna As it has been described in the baseline chapter of this ESIA document. the site for the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations are void of trees and implementation of the project will not necessitate the cutting of any terrestrial vegetation. The project areas. were largely grazing areas where there is no wildlife. Fire hazard can have the potential of causing serious air pollution. the presence of unique and indigenous tree plant species is negligible. Hence it is anticipated that the potential impacts emanating from the implementation of the solid waste project and its components will be none or minimal. in all of the transfer and the landfill sites proposed by the project. sanctuaries or game reserves has been found at reasonably nearer distance of the project sites.11 Impacts due to spillage of used oil and lubricants During operational phases an important source of contamination for the soil and surface water bodies will be the spillage of used oil and lubricants from the maintenace workshop of the transfer stations.2.

8. On the other hand the Sendafa Sanitary landfill will have a facility where the wheel of waste hauling trucks will be flushed with high-pressure washer to remove litter and mud at the tipping face of the vehicle. farmers reported that since each farmer had plots of land in different locations they are able to continue their livelihood without much difficulty after losing their farmland to the project for they didn’t face total loss. some were able to construct new houses.194 to the above farmers who have lost their land.1 Loss of Farm Land The new Sendafa sanitary landfill project has caused permanent loss of 137. the land has formally been handed over to the project office.767. and some others have started to save.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Spillage of used oils and lubricants from the vehicles and machineries to be engaged during operational phase can pose pollution risk to the soil grounds of the transfer stations and to the main Akaki River and its tributaries found nearby the transfer stations. the project office has not acquired any land for the construction of access road to the ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 106 . The project office has paid compensation amounting to Birr 24. The project office has started to fence the site with concrete pole and barbed wire which will be completed soon. Some reported that they were able to expand their agricultural activities by renting more land. During the public consultation. The project may still temporarily acquire farmland from farmers for the construction of access road. Following the compensation payment made in 2011. Thus it is important to handle the wastewater generated to avoid potential impacts on the soil grounds and its tidiness. The wastewater generated from the cleaning activities of skip truck wheel can affect the tidiness of the premises there by affecting the soil grounds if not managed properly. The affected farmers have also reported that they were able to properly utilize the compensation payment.3 Impact on Socioeconomic Environment 8. Currently.07 hectare of farmland which used to be under the entitlement of 217 farmers.3. To minimize such impacts introducing a mechanism for proper handling of oils. and lubricants spillages is essential. The residential settlements of the farmers were also outside the demarcated landfill area and hence there was no need for involuntary resettlement of the farmers who have lost their farmland to the project.

Valuation of property and assets as well as compensation for affected households was carried out and administered as per FDRE law (proclamation No. has emerged as a major health hazard.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project land fill. and this will lead to unequal treatment of women during employment of the construction work force. and female workers do not obtain particular attention due to their biological and physical condition. in most cases. The consultations were carried out in four locations.3. Project Affected Persons (PAPs) and also that of local authorities (woreda and kebelle administration).2 Exposure to HIV / AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) In Ethiopia. namely ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 107 . 8. 135/2007. It is well known and common that infrastructure projects prefer to employ only men. Contacts and communications created between local communities and construction workers who have come to the project area from major towns will expose the local community to new culture and behaviour. the discrimination against women will negatively affect those women who want to work in the construction work. the HIV/AIDS pandemic.455/2005) and regulation No.4 Public and Stakeholders’ consultation Public and Stakeholders’ consultations are carried out in order to solicit the views of the public residing nearby the project area. Such discriminatory acts and lack of other employment opportunities may force women to carry out other marginal activities. affecting mainly the age group of 15 to 49 years. favour to employ men rather than women. Construction workers and truck drivers are considered as having high potential (or good vectors) for the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS virus due to their mobility. 8. and the contractors. women always do not receive equal employment opportunities. 8. in recent years.3.3 Impact on Women In infrastructure project. The introduction of new cultures and behaviours mainly contribute to the spread of communicable diseases such as STD and HIV/AIDS. Hence. But the land to be acquired for the construction of access road is anticipated to be much less compared to the landfill area.

dust and the like. Some of the health hazards could be due to odour. woreda 4.  The payment of compensation for affected households and procedures for valuation of property and assets is carried out as per FDRE law (proclamation No.  The project office needs to take the maximum care that no waste (from factories. monitoring should be conducted to ensure that no health hazard will be observed on the local population. Since the minutes are written in Amharic the following is the English translation of the minutes.  During operation phase there could be some potential negative impacts that might affect the health and livelihood of the local population living in the surrounding. in all the locations where public consultations are held the public are highly supportive and positive about the construction of the project.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Bereh woreda administration (with stakeholders). noise. Issues and concerns for regional level  In future. Outcomes of stakeholders’ consultation in Bereh Woreda Issues and concerns for local level  In general. Gora ketena (Akaki transfer station) and at Bole Arabsa area (transfer station) with residents and PAPs.455/2005) and regulation No.  The affected population has participated in the valuation of property and were made aware of the procedures and guideline prior to the compensation payment. 135/2007.  In the future.  The design for the construction of the access road that takes to Sendafa land fill area has to be made clear for the public and woreda authorities. during the operational phase of the project. and with the public at Sire Goyo kebelle (Sendafa land fill area). When will the construction of the ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 108 . The minutes of both public and stakeholders’ consultation is attached in Annex-I. employment priority should be given to the local population. during the operation phase of the project. Affected persons have also selected 5 persons to represent them in the valuation and compensation process. households or offices) is dumped outside of the land fill area.  The woreda anticipates that the local population will have employment opportunities during the operation phase of the project and in future there is a potential for the establishment of some factories producing goods through the process of recycling waste materials that are collected from the land fill.

Outcomes of Public Consultation The following is outcome of public consultations held in Sire Geyo kebele-Akaki Kile village (located at Sendafa landfill area). Before the project. however. electricity and drinking water supply for the local population but so far there has not been any progress regarding its implementation. During the public consultations. so far we did not have any satisfactory employment opportunity. b.  We were promised by authorities from the project office that we will be given priority during employment procedures and that no employment will be made outside of the locality. This appears to be difficult since there are not many people who have finished grade 10 among us. we were promised that the project will construct various social service facilities such as school. To solve the above problem the officials who have come from the project office have promised us that they will construct access road and that will allow us to have access through the landfill area. But currently due to the fencing of the landfill area they have found it difficult to travel to their farmland and were forced to take a detour around the fence of the landfill to access their farmland. For instance. But now it looks that the employment procedures and criteria is different from what has been promised to us by the project office. A total of fifty two PAPs participated in the three kebeles.  Employment opportunity: We would like to be given priority in employment opportunities that are created due to the implementation of the project. they were able to travel to their farmland by crossing the existing landfill area without any access problem. i) Sero Goyo kebele (Sendafa land fill)  Construction of social services: During public consultation meeting held with officials who came to visit the landfill site previously from Addis Ababa. Bole Arbasa and Woreda 4-Gora ketene (Akaki transfer station).  Lack of Access road to farmlands: Those who have farmland adjacent to the landfill area have faced access problem due to the fencing of the project site. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 109 . the criterion set to employ a guard is reported that he should be someone who has completed grade 10.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project access road to the land fill area start and which kebeles it will cross and how will it affect the farmlands along the route and what will be the size of farmland that will be affected if constructed/affect?. a number of issues were raised and discussed and the following is summary translation of the minutes of consultation meetings.

 Changes in Livelihood: Participants of the consultation have reported that they have received the appropriate compensation payment for loss of their production and some PAPs even reported that they were able to improve their livelihood through the compensation payment they received for their lost farmland. however. in the last three years there has not been any significant work carried out by the project office.  Impact on community health: Those of us who are living in close proximity to the project site are worried and concerned that the project will affect our health in the future because of the hazardous chemicals dumped in the site. The delay in the implementation of the project has made the land to stay idle for such long time which we could have used the land to farm and grow crops and generated income. some have rented additional land to expand their farm business. the majority reported that they are aware of the procedures and the process has been transparent and that they have elected their representatives (elders) from among them to participate in the process of measuring affected land size. Conclusion: Generally. Fig 14: Showing the community consultation conducted at Sendafa landfill site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 110 . we have no objection in the implementation of the project in our nearby vicinity as far as appropriate mitigation measures are considered and implemented to minimize the negative impacts.  Delay in the implementation of project: The land was taken from us some three years ago by the project office.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  Participation in land measurement and property valuation: Some PAPs complained that they did not have sufficient information about the procedures of land measurement and property valuation. in carrying out property valuation and in the procedure for compensation payment. Some also reported that they have built CIS roof houses. However. some have bought mini buses to use as public transport and some others have moved to town and built house with the compensation payment received and started small business.

however.  Participation in land measurement: PAPs reported that they have taken part in the measurement of affected land however.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ii) Bole Arabsa kebele:  Impact on Akaki River: The project site borders with Akaki River and it is our main source of drinking water. Hence. Some PAPs have made good use of compensation payment in investing it by renting farm land from neighbouring kebeles. During the rainy season the odour from the solid waste could be harmful to our health and it could also be washed to the river and become hazardous to both human and animal life. the estimated compensation cost is not sufficient enough when compared with the current living standard and economic situation.  Grievances: Some PAPs who have lost their land to the project have refused to collect the estimated amount of compensation payment and have taken the case to court.  Impact on Human Health: The project could have potential impact on human health. We would like the project to take maximum care that the solid waste does not pollute the river which is our main drinking water supply. did not participate in property valuation. we would like the project to recruit its workforce from among the local population during construction and operation phase. The public would like the project office to make its maximum effort in the management of negative impacts.  Compensation payment: The payment of compensation for PAPs is made through Bank system. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 111 . The case is still pending in court.  Delay in payment: Some PAPs complain that the compensation payment was delayed for longer period. they would not like to have similar health problem from the solid waste transfer station also. iii) Woreda 4 –Gora Ketena: Impact on public health: Residents of Gora ketena and PAPs have worries that the project will have negative health impact on local residents and in particular on the residents of Gelan Condominium housing which is located adjacent to the transfer site.  Employment opportunity. The local population are currently suffering from odour problems from the Addis Ababa Sewage Treatment Plant project which is located in the area. The reason for refusal to the estimated amount of compensation payment is because they found that the land they have lost to the project and the amount of compensation payment is not compatible.

Hence. the community would like the project office to construct drinking water supply for them.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Lack of access to drinking water: The kebele does not have proper drinking water supply. Notes on table 14: “X” Represent adverse environmental impacts “XXX” “XX” “X” Highly significant impacts Medium significance impact Low significance impacts “” Represent positive and beneficial impacts “” “” “” ZTS-EDCE & MTS Highly beneficial impacts Medium beneficial impacts Low beneficial impacts Page 112 . Employment opportunity: The local population would like the employment of temporary and regular project staff to be from the locality.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Project action Environmental Components/ Characteristics Construction Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Operation Transfer stations Sendafa Sanitary landfill Post-closure Transfer stations Sanitary landfill Soil and geology XX XX XXX XXX XX Flora X X X X  Fauna X X X X X Air quality (dust) XX XX XXX XX X Surface water quality X X XXX XXX XXX Land use and aesthetic effects X X X X XXX Noise & vibration effect X XX X XXX NA Archaeological and religious sites X X X X X Traffic X X XX XXX X      X X    X X XXX XXX XXX Occupational health and safety X X XXX XXX XX Parks & reserves X X X X X Effects on wildlife habitat X X X X X Employment Impact on Public Health (SWM facilities properly operated) Impact on Public Health (under operational failure) Table 14: Magnitude Matrix showing the significance of potential impacts of the project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 113 .

the volume of rainwater or surface run-off that comes into contact with the waste at the Sendafa Sanitary Landfill should be minimized.1. the run-off water will be led by gravity to the nearby streams in the south-west direction. the following mitigation measures as described in the following sub-sections will be taken. Impact mitigation measures 9. The mitigation measures outlined below are fully incorporated in the design of the proposed sanitary landfill and will be implemented as main components of the sanitary landfill development. The ditches along the landfill should be lined to avoid erosion of the cover layers of the closed cells.1 Mitigation measures for impacts of leachate on surface and ground waters In order to minimize and control the anticipated potential impacts of leachate on surface and ground waters. Storm drainage of a size that will handle the highest rainfall intensity is proposed to be constructed within and around the proposed sanitary landfill site.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 9. will need to be captured by ditches around the landfill body and directed to the lowest point of the landfill located in the south west.1. From this low point. The surface of the waste body will therefore need to be covered intermediately during operation of the landfill and finally after closure of the landfill. 9.2 Mitigation Measures to Minimize Leachate Infiltration from the Disposal cells The next proposed mitigation measure to avoid and minimize the impact of leachate on surface and ground waters is to prevent its infiltration and release from the landfill cells into the stated water bodies. In order to achieve this. the design of the proposed project has incorporated a robust mechanism for the development of leachate containment and collection mechanism as fundamental component of the engineering measures. To minimize the release of leachete from the waste disposal cells into the ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 114 . 9. The rainwater that flows from the surrounding areas and (after filling) from the surface seal of the landfill. Accordingly.1 Mitigation measure to minimize leachate volume The first mitigation option to prevent the impact of leachate is to reduce its generation in the sanitary landfill.

the active security barrier will be reinforced by an additional HDPE geo-membrane of 2. Slotted pipes will be laid (embedded) within the gravel layer in such a manner that the leachate will be drained within the gravels layer to these slotted pipes. An active security barrier made of HDPE geo-membrane with 2mm thickness will be used for both the bottom of the cell and the slopes and it should be UV protected. groundwater and surface waters from getting polluted by leachate. b. The collectors shall lead to HDPE pipes in ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 115 . the drainage and the collection of leachate and avoids the use of the passive security barrier. c. In most part of the cells. in the long run. This will serve as leakage detection layer.0mm thickness. a 15cm sand layer with slotted HDPE pipes within it will be placed between the two HDPE geo-membranes. The leachate drainage layer is made of a high-porosity medium providing a preferential flow-path to the leachate collection pipes. For checking the integrity of the active barrier system. the clay soil depth below the liner system is proposed to be more than 2 meters. The active barrier ensures the hydraulic independence of the cell. the prevention of soils. This will consist of bottom drainage layer and side slope drainage layer. Leachate Drainage layer A leachate drainage layer will be placed all over the bottom liner system. the liner is sloped toward the leachate collection pipes which ones are also sloped toward the leachate transmission pipes and these slopes should be between one and three per cent. Leachate collection system The leachate collection system comprises a high permeability drainage layer. Passive and Active security barriers The purpose of the passive security barrier is to ensure. At least 1 meter of natural clay soil with a permeability < 10-6 m/s will be placed below the cell liner system and will play the role of passive barrier. a. perforated or slotted collection pipes. For cells receiving hazardous wastes. The pipes will lead to a leakage control manhole that will be checked on a monthly basis as soon as the first raw of hazardous waste will be disposed of.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project surrounding environment it is proposed to install the following facilities as the disposal of waste progresses during the life time of the sanitary landfill. and geo-textiles to protect the geo-membrane and prevent clogging of the drainage layer. In the case of Sendafa sanitary Landfill.

These pipes will lead the leachate by gravity to the downstream part of the site. This ensures that leachate is contained within the drainage layer.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project the peripheral trenches near the ground level and along the perimeter bunds. coarse material will be used so that there is space within the drainage layer for leachate to drain freely. This includes:  An anaerobic pond. This pond will not contain dissolved oxygen or algae. The drainage layer shall be placed across the entire landfill cells area and comprise at least 0. Anaerobic pond An anaerobic pond (3m deep) will receive leachate with high organic loads. total suspended solids of 100 mg/l. To avoid clogging and capillary action holding water in the drainage layer.1. BOD5 of 100 mg/l and total nitrogen of 30mg/l. To meet the required level of leachete effluent a three-stage treatment system is proposed. Accordingly. COD and BOD5 removal is achieved by ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 116 . the required level of leachate concentration of the effluent that will be discharged into the surrounding environment is proposed not to exceed COD of 300 mg/l.5meter of coarse aggregates or the equivalent performance with a geo-synthetic drainage material.3 Leachate treatment plant The final mitigation measure proposed to prevent the impact of leachate is to treat it in a three stage leachate treatment plant to bring down its pollutant load into internationally accepted levels and render it harmless to the environment. thus minimizing the potential for clogging of the drainage layer. Since there are no emission limit standards concerning leachate effluent concentration in Ethiopia. Using coarse material also ensures leachate flow in the event of clogging of some parts within the leachate collection pipes. and  A constructed wetland a. In this anaerobic pond. the design for the proposed leachate treatment plant have adopted French regulation as a base for treatment level.  A facultative pond. 9. The hydraulic conductivity of the drainage layer is proposed to be greater than 1x10-4 m/s. A geo-textile filter would also be placed over the drainage layer to protect it from clogging as a result of solids transport. The detail design of the proposed sanitary landfill consists of a leachate treatment plant as one of its component which will be built together with the project.

The same will apply to the senescing plants of the constructed wetland. it will need to be disposed in the sanitary landfill. Wetlands A constructed (or engineered) wetlands (CW) is a planned system designed and constructed to employ wetland vegetation to assist in treating wastewater in a more controlled environment than what occurs in natural wetlands. The process of anaerobic digestion is more intense at temperatures above 15°C and can reach up to 75% of BOD5 removal. Since the sludge cake will be rich in heavy metal contents. c. nutrients. it will be necessary to periodically clean and scrap the anaerobic and facultative ponds by scraping the sludge cake. For this project it is proposed to design a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow (HSSF) system as the efficiency is higher than a Free Water Surface Flow (FWSF) for the same plan area.2m deep) is used to treat the remaining BOD5 and COD downstream of the anaerobic pond. This is because the conceptual site design takes into account the potential impact of contamination of water resources from leachate emissions. The nutrients and pollutants then move through the plant body to underground storage organs when the plants senesce. It will then be deposited in the bottom sediments through litter and peat accumulation when the plants die.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project conversion of both soluble and non-soluble COD and BOD5 into mainly methane. b. A high standard of leachate containment and management is ensured in the proposed site design through implementation of the following of: ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 117 . In summary it can be concluded that the key potential negative impacts identified in this environmental analysis will be mitigated by the design of the sanitary landfill and through good operational practices. The process of oxidizing organic matter by algae and aerobic bacteria is dominant at this stage. A retention time of at least 20 days is used to ensure proper treatment. The pollutants removed by CW s include organic materials. Plants take up the dissolved nutrients and other pollutants from the water. suspended solids. using them to produce additional plant biomass. carbon dioxide and water. Facultative pond The facultative aerobic pond (1. pathogens. heavy metals and other toxic or hazardous pollutants. During operation of the treatment system.

• an operational and leachate management policy that is based on not discharging any leachate offsite.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • the installation of two HDPE lining systems in the zone of leachate accumulation. the project design of the transfer station also recognizes possible adverse effects of wastewater that may be released from the waste heaps temporarily stored at the Akaki Transfer Station on the groundwater aquifer where well field 1 is located. both designed to meet the maximum permeability specification. To minimize this and other adverse impacts the following additional mitigation measures are proposed to integrate into the overall transfer station design. • the adoption of routine operational measures to minimize leachate generation.  Cover with pavement the area within the transfer station by double layer of asphalt concrete or enforced concrete to minimize infiltration of wastewater that may be released from the temporary waste storage into the surrounding aquifer  Install appropriate storm water drainage and sewerage system in the transfer station to minimize/prevent pollution of the nearby rivers. However. • the provision of a leachate treatment pond and re-circulation facilities and equipment to promote the evaporation of any collected leachate. including control of surface water run-on. 9. To achieve this no waste shall be stored at the transfer station for longer than a day and the sanitation of its premises need to be kept in good condition. in order to reduce leachate quantities and leachate strength. • the provision of a high permeability leachate collection and transfer system to facilitate the collection of leachate percolating through waste materials and to drain the leachate from the landfill in order to prevent a build-up of leachate within the body of the deposited waste. cellular filling and the adoption of re-circulation to dry absorptive waste. streams and boreholes  Collect leaching waste water that may percolate through waste materials at the transfer station and dispose the leached waste water to the sewerage system for appropriate treatment and disposal ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 118 .2 Proposed mitigation measures for Impact of Akaki transfer station on Akaki well fields The first mitigation measure proposed to avoid the impact of contaminated water (or leachate) on Akaki well field is to prevent the formation of leachate in the transfer station itself.

3 Mitigation measures for impacts of landfill gas on ambient air quality The following gas management systems are proposed to be introduced to minimize impact of landfill gases at the Sendafa Sanitary landfill. The gas can. The possible use of the extracted gas for electricity or heat generation has not been considered at this stage of the project. The gas will be directed to a landfill gas flare beside the gas pumping station where the gas will be incinerated at temperatures of about 1. in some circumstance.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  Re-open and clean the nearby streams to divert surface runoff around the transfer station site and construct retaining walls around the perimeter of the transfer station  Dividing the transfer station site surface area into smaller catchments that contain gravitational outlets to the proposed storm water drainage These mitigation measures are also applicable to the remaining two transfer stations. 9.200° C. Best practice is to collect the gas and burn it. Vertical gas wells will be installed in the waste progressively as the landfill grows vertically towards final levels or after filling each cell of the landfill. migrate away from the site and cause explosions. The landfill will be actively degasified by means of a vertical gas collecting system. Inside the pumping station blowers will provide the required negative pressure gradient in the landfill body which guarantees active degasifying at a high gas collection rate. There will be five year of operation at least before ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 119 . namely Bole Arbasa and Koshe transfer stations. 9. An active gas system is proposed for the project site in view of the relatively large quantities of organic waste that will be deposited.1 Gas collection and treatment The anaerobic decomposition of organic substances inside the proposed Sendafa Sanitary Landfill is expected to generate landfill gas during the operation phase.000 -1. With a good degasifying system it will be possible to collect at least 50% of the produced gas. The gas pumping station will be located in facilities zone at the northern part of the landfill.3. A compensation layer between the waste and the mineral surface sealing of the filled cells will be constructed through which gas can flow easily and which allows supply to the gas vents. These allow gas to be collected through perforated HDPE pipes linked to a compressing station.

and possibly over the supply of combustion air. • A blower or booster developing the head of pressure needed to feed landfill gas to the flare. in addition to piping. Should landfill gas be detected during routine site surveys. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 120 . the passive gas wells converted to an active gas abstraction system in which gas is sucked out of the landfill under a vacuum. the method of gas control will be reviewed and.2 Measures to mitigate emission of GHG and exposure to landfill gas The proposed mitigation measure to minimize the impact of landfill gas on climate change is generally to reduce its impacts by flaring. The landfill gas is also combusted to reduce the risk of fire and explosion as well as to reduce odours. Methane which is the adverse green house gas present in the LFG will be eliminated and reduced to less adverse GHGs such as CO2 by flaring. It is essential that a program of landfill gas monitoring is carried out at regular periodic intervals during and after the working life of the site in order to assess the effectiveness of the gas control measures in place. The technology of a landfill gas flare is conceptually very simple: landfill gas is brought into contact with a supply of air and ignited. • some method of control over the flow rate of landfill gas to the burner.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project gas is collected from the first cell during which the feasibility of energy recovery can be considered. 9. valves and the body of the flare. • One or more flame arrestors in the landfill gas feed line to prevent flash-back of the flame down the pipe. from the landfill gas.3. as necessary. • Gas cleaning/conditioning before the flare to remove moisture and possibly impurities. • A burner designed such that it maintains turbulent mixing of air and fuel and that the velocity of the gas is high enough to reduce the risk of flash-back of the flame down the feed pipe without blowing off the flame. Thus it is important that good site operational practices are maintained in the proposed sanitary landfill during operational phases. there always remains a residual moderate potential for landfill gas impacts. The proposed configuration of a landfill gas flare is recommended to comprise the following basic elements. particularly if site management is not of the highest standard. A variety of configurations of conduits and chambers can be used for the purpose. such as airborne debris. Whilst the impacts associated with landfill gas should be minimized by good site operational practices.

• To minimise leachate generation. has an operational plan.3 Mitigation measures for impacts of dust and vehicle exhaust smoke The dust nuisances predicted to occur during construction and operation will be mitigated by applying the following measures. is adequately staffed. Re-suspension of dust in the construction sites will be prevented by frequent sprinkling of water.3. • A flame detector to check that ignition has been successful and combustion is taking place – this facility is normally provided with enclosed flares but it is more difficult for open flares since the location of the flame can be highly unstable.4 Mitigation measures for impact on public health and the environment It was anticipated that the potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations on public health is anticipated to likely occur under future potential scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities to be developed by the project are not operated properly. In order to avert the potential impacts from occurring. As a matter of routine it is considered good practice to use modern.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • An ignition system to light the gas mixture on start-up. the sanitary landfill will have to be operated in a way that complies to the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum. Water for sprinkling of the dust grounds should be fetched from the nearby Rivers to avoid using municipal water.3. The following are the minimum standards for sanitary landfill management that the Sendafa landfill will need to observe during operation phases to mitigate the stated potential impacts. cover material shall be applied to the entire surface of the tipping-cell to a minimum depth of 15 cm at the completion of each working day – but every third day as a minimum. 9.1a). 9. breeding of pests. well-maintained and regularly serviced vehicles in order to minimize vehicle exhaust release impacts in increased traffic flows at the transfer stations and the neighbouring communities. wind-blown litter and odours.5. This will be specially applied during the carting away operations of the excavation materials. and that suitable mobile equipment is in functional use. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 121 . • AARDPO shall ensure that the site is operated in compliance with the standards for class I sanitary landfill (refer sec 4.

• Category 1 and 2 landfills will have vehicle weigh scales installed to obtain exact records of waste quantities being delivered. It is also recommended that the landfill and transfer station operators should be trained on the landfill and transfer station management standards. basic ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 122 . in order to avert the potential impacts on public health and the environment arising from ill operated transfer stations. • During normal operational hours landfill operators shall allow regulated access of informal recyclers/waste-pickers to the landfill site.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • AARDPO shall ensure that suitably qualified and experienced personnel are assigned to manage the day-to-day landfill operations. • Mobile equipment sufficient to ensure that operational standards are met shall be provided and maintained in use at the landfill site. The following are among the minimum standards for transfer station management that the Koshe. unless temporary operational reasons do not permit this. and that any persistent fires are reported to the competent authority. • Landfill operators shall ensure that no fires are tolerated within landfill sites. it is recommended to develop detailed manuals and procedures that translate the requirements into daily operational procedures for the staff and management of the sanitary landfill. it will have to be operated in a way that complies to the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum. • The design of the transfer operation shall enable the site operations to be efficient and hygienic. • Incoming waste shall be transferred from the transfer-station within 1 day. • The AARDPO shall ensure the installation and functioning of landfill gas management systems at all landfill cells. in order to implement the above stated minimum standard requirements for the Sendafa Sanitary landfill and transfer stations. utilised as a source of renewable energy. • All waste transfer points. • Where possible landfill gas shall be collected and flared. Therefore. The site manager must have ready access to suitable equipment and resources to properly manage the site. and a total area clean extending to 20m in all directions around entire site every quarter (3 months). to work in designated areas but not at the working face of the landfill. and where economically justifiable. Similarly. facilities and containers shall be kept clean and orderly at all times with containers and site area inspected and cleaned monthly. Akaki and Bole Arbasa stations will need to observe during operation phases to mitigate the stated potential impacts.

skilled and semi-skilled labour force are necessary for the proper management of the Sanitary landfill and transfer stations. its risk to attract undesired vermin such as rodents. pests including birds will be significantly decreased.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project operational procedures and associated manuals. the proposed project have design plans to use surplus soil from excavation for daily. The project management and the contractor will ensure that the construction waste to be generated during excavations and related activities will be disposed in officially designated place. 9. This will always remain the best bird control system. The bird problem will be strongly minimized by good working practice. Especially. If the sanitary landfill and transfer stations are operated properly by complying with the stated draft operational standards of solid waste management. Stockpiling will be the sole responsibility of the landfill operator. Thus the stockpiling of the soil and future use as cover material for the landfill cells during operation by itself serves as mitigation for its uncontrolled disposal. The designated site should be an eroded or degraded land which can be rehabilitated and remedied by filling it back with soil and earth material. If there is absence of an officially designated site for disposal of construction waste in the area. keeping the working area to a minimum and covering the waste at the end of each working day. The project management and contractor will facilitate for obtaining permission to access such tipping site which shall be designated by the AAEPA. the project management and the contractor will ensure that a degraded land that can be rehabilitated by tipping soil and other earth material is selected and used. Accordingly any excavated soil not utilized immediately will be stockpiled on site for future use. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 123 . equipment. intermediate and final cover on the landfill cell areas. The operational manuals and procedures coupled with the necessary machinery. The design of the landfill has carefully accounted for this aspect by placing all infrastructures of the new landfill beyond a 13km radius from Bole airport limits. Hence the standard 13km distance of the Sendafa sanitary landfill as a buffer zone from the Bole Air Port will suffice to avoid any impact on the air transport route.5 Mitigation Measure for impacts on soil It has been shown in the impact analysis sections that inappropriate disposal of construction waste generated during the foundation excavation activities of the transfer stations will be one aspect that will potentially affect the environment. With regard to excavation soils from the Sendafa Sanitary landfill. it is anticipated that the population of birds in the area that will be attracted by the landfill will be kept at minimum or nonexistent.

In general the impact of construction noise will depend on: • the proximity of construction activities to noise sensitive receivers (NSRs).Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project It was also anticipated that during operation phase. The fences will be placed immediately downwind of the working area to maximize the capture of windblown litter. In order to mitigate it. and • the length of time over which construction works are undertaken In order to mitigate these potential impacts the following measures will be taken.6 Proposed Mitigation measures for impact of noise and vibration a. - orienting equipment with high directivity to emit noise away from NSRs. trucks and other vehicle will have their normal muffler intact in their smoke exhaust pipe and care will be taken to repair it when broken to avoid unnecessary release of noise during operation in the fields. trucks and other vehicle operators will be advised not to unnecessarily blow horns in areas where settlements are present - locating stationary equipment that is noisy as far as possible from the NSRs. on the landfill. Construction activities will take place across the whole of the sites of the proposed SWM project. Trucks hauling the solid waste to and from the transfer station will also be covered with tents or other suitable material to prevent littering of waste during transport. a regular (daily or weekly) program of litter pick-up will be operated at the sanitary landfill and transfer station sites. Keeping the working face to the practical minimum width will reduce litter generation. - switching off unnecessary or idle equipment. - Earth moving equipments. it is likely that littering of solid waste may occure in and around the transfer stations and the sanitary landfill that are blown by wind or by mismanagement of waste hauling and disposal practices. - use of temporary noise baffles and noise fencing during the construction of the site access road adjacent if necessary to protect adjacent NSRs. As there are no controls that will completely prevent blowing litter during windy days. - Earth moving equipments. • the specific heavy plant and equipment deployed. 9. portable litter control fences will be used around the working area. Construction phase The main potential impact of the proposed development project on the neighborhood is anticipated to occur due to noise and vibration release by the construction machineries. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 124 .

Land filling activities will be mobile and not fixed in that they move across the landfill footprint. while multiple use of mobile plant equipment is restricted to short time periods.Earth moving equipments. Operational phase Effective noise management protocols to be implemented as part of the proposed project include: . During site closure the last remaining cell of the landfill will be covered with final soil cover and it will be planted with seedlings. It was also anticipated that the Sendafa sanitary landfill is likely to have post closure land use and aesthetics impacts.7 Mitigation measures for land use and aesthetics (Post –Closure of the landfill). Therefore. The closure plan shall also outline the procedures for post-closure care of the site. a description of a proposed end use of the site that do not affect public health. trucks and other vehicle will have their normal muffler intact in their smoke exhaust pipe and care will be taken to repair it when broken to avoid unnecessary release of noise during operation in the fields. for long continuous periods of time. . . The entrance gate and perimeter fencing will be retained to control access and keep the site safe. and inspection and maintenance of the final cover and landscaping. no area is subjected to the operation of the dozer and/or track loader. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 125 . 9. a progressive action will be taken to cover the completely filled cells with plant seedlings one after the other. Thus it is recommended that a site closure plan shall be submitted to the competent authority for review and approval by the time 90% of the sanitary landfill is filled. for example.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project - Fitting of noise mufflers to mobile plant and equipment. and all site screening measures will be in place in advance of the start of site operations. and preventative maintenance of equipment to minimize noise emissions b. unlike construction activities.Mobile plant equipment will be used singly. In order to harmonize the sanitary landfill with the surrounding landscape and aesthetic views. The closure plan should outline a plan showing the final appearance (landscaped) of the site after closure.

 Remove obvious hazards where obvious and practical  Implement rodent and nuisance control measures where a problem is identified  Consolidate waste and compact where appropriate  Shape and grade to the extent possible to achieve the required finished grades prior to backfilling  Install final cover system to minimize the infiltration of liquids and soil erosion  Cover all refuse evenly with 60cm of back fill material which will include an erosion control layer of 15cm of soil capable of sustaining native plant growth  Grade the final cover to accommodate settling of the waste. hours of operation and contact numbers for the alternate waste disposal site  Install “No Trespassing” and “No Dumping” signage at the former site entrance stating the applicable fines for offense The closure plan will have to include contingency plans to deal with the following: • Illegal dumping around the former waste disposal site following closure • Fire safety. and direct surface drainage away from the waste disposal area.  Seed to initiate vegetation cover. and geographic positioning system coordinates  Install and maintain permanent markers and/or fencing to indicate site boundaries  Install site signage to notify the public of the pending closure date.  Collect and bury windblown litter and debris from the site. and the anticipated future condition relating to environmental concerns. including as built drawings pre and post closure. reduce erosion potential and improve the appearance of the site  Install drainage ditches.  Remove all infrastructure no longer required from the site.  Remove accessible scrap metal to recycling. in the event of a deliberate or spontaneous occurrence Provide a summary report describing the work done to close/decommission the site. and providing directions to.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project In order to minimize the post closure impacts the following mitigation measures are proposed to be implemented as part of the closure plan for the site. prevent surface ponding and seepage. on the up-gradient sides of the site to divert precipitation/drainage waters away from the disposal area and to prevent impact from future overland flow  Delineate waste disposal site boundaries and features using available existing and historic information. the existing condition. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 126 . if not already in place.

ponding from settlement. after which a long term monitoring and care program will be established. While building the access road to Akaki transfer station consideration should be given to select alternative route that can avoid congested road stretches and road junctions.9 Mitigation measures for impacts on health and safety It was anticipated that there will be significant potential negative impact or risk on occupational health and safety of workers involved in operational phase of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations. if required. Some of the proposed mitigation measures to minimize traffic impact along the main waste hauling routes include: • Conduct traffic flow study on the routes and based on the study result widening and rehabilitation of the roads leading to the transfer stations and to the waste disposal site • Provide separate entry and exit connections to the main road and a merging lane to access the waste disposal site and to the transfer stations • Control vehicles transporting waste to prevent taking shortcuts on unsuitable road • Facilitate for proper maintenance and servicing of solid waste hauling fleet vehicles to ensure continuous and uninterrupted traffic flow along the approach routes to the sanitary landfill and transfer stations thereby avoiding traffic jams. regular inspection and monitoring shall take place for a period of two years after site closure. These include the Bole Arbasa and Akaki transfer stations as well as the Sendafa sanitary landfill. Chemical hazard. Erosion. Though construction is underway to build a new 8km road that connect the Sendafa landfill with the main roads.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Long-term maintenance will be carried on the final cover and leachate management system. and leachate seeps will be corrected.8 proposed mitigation measures for Impacts on increased traffic The first priority in terms of mitigating impacts on traffic is to develop access roads to those proposed solid waste management sites that do not have all weather access at present. if the project has not considered the issue of OHS of workers. the prevailing situation appears different with Bole Arbasa and Akaki transfer stations. In order to avert the potential impacts (Physical/Mechanical hazard. and bad ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 127 . Thus it is recommended that a new all weather access roads that can handle the traffic flow to and from the stated transfer stations should be built to mitigate the pending traffic problems that can be created during operational phases. 9. Typically. Biological hazard. 9.

• AARDPO shall establish an accident and incident reporting system whereby every event is recorded and investigated. • AARDPO shall ensure that collection workers should never be expected to lift wastes above their shoulder height because the risk of serious injury. shall be ensured so that waste management workers understand the origins of the risks that they face and know how to minimize these risks. provision and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). • Health and safety training. but the personnel will have to be approved by site management and be appropriately equipped and trained. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 128 . and provision of toilets and washing facilities. The following are the minimum standards for sanitary landfill management on health & safety issue. • Manual separation of recyclables will still be allowed in the early phases of the project. which the Sendafa landfill and the three transfer stations will need to observe during operation phases to mitigate the stated potential impacts. • Formalize waste separation and introduce entry passes to prevent children from entering these facilities for waste segregation • Formalize waste picking/separating through a pilot recycling plant at the landfill • Provide appropriate training/skills development for both waste recyclers and the women in their households in the pilot recycling scheme. • AARDPO have an employer’s responsibility and humanitarian duty to prevent illness and injury of the workforce. In addition. the health & safety system will have to be operated in a manner that complies with the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum. regular medical check-ups and immunization. Consideration shall be given to all aspects of the work. supported by appropriate levels of supervision. • Provide sorting facilities for semi-manual separation with disposal container to minimize health risks.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ergonomics) that may occur from the hazard/risk. to minimize impacts on waste recyclers the following mitigation measures will be implemented. including: the design of the equipment.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 129 . 9.c. • Compensate farmers for loss of crops (perennial or annual). The environment or occupational health and safety officer will be responsible to organize such trainings. in order to prevent the impact of diffused lubricant and used oil spills from the maintenance workshop. The settling tank will be used to collect and separate the lubricant and used oil by decantation.t.12 Mitigation measures for Loss of Farm Land The following mitigation measures are proposed and were practically implemented to mitigate the impacts on farm lands lost to the project sites. 9. trees as per the Federal legislation (Proclamation 455/2005) based on market prices. the project management will ensure that a settling tank that receives the wash waters from the maintenance workshop areas is included in the design of the transfer station.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 9. The decanted used oil and lubricant can be sold to dealers for use as furnace fuel in brick factories e. the management of the three transfer stations will be advised to set out work procedures for its employees working at the maintenance workshop to safely collect used oils and lubricants while servicing and maintaining the waste hauling vehicles and machineries. The sanitary landfill and transfer stations will also make available water hoses connected to the water main in suitable places to fight fire. it appears necessary to put in place a response mechanism that can control the fire hazard. Moreover the sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities will also train its personnel on prevention of fire hazards and on the use of fire extinguishers in case of emergency.11 Mitigation measures for impacts of used oil and lubricants During operational phase of project.10 Emergency preparedness and response mechanism for fire hazard In order to prevent the fire risk associated with the release of methane gas from the sanitary landfill and transfer stations. The first stage in the emergency response will be to develop an in-house capacity to extinguish fire before it spread. For this purpose the sanitary landfill and transfer stations will ensure that fire extinguishers are made available in visible and easily accessible places. • Consult and involve PAPs in the estimation of costs for lost assets. In addition. The used oils and lubricants should be collected in dedicated barrels and taken away from the site to recyclers or to furnace oil dealers.

Table 15: Summary of Major impacts and proposed Mitigating Measures ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 130 .194 to the above farmers who have lost their land.07 hectare of farmland which used to be under the entitlement of 217 farmers. schools and by road sides to minimize the spread of HIV/AIDS.767. • Display educational posters and flyers about STD and HIV/AIDS. the land has formally been handed over to the project office. • Monitor the above mitigation measures using indicators. special information campaigns for women should be enhanced.14 Mitigation Measures for Impact on Women • Ensure women's participation and improve their employment and avoid discrimination against women. 9. construction workers and local population must be informed through awareness raising and education campaigns about HIV / AIDS. Following the compensation payment made in 2011.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • Allow enough time for PAPs to remove their crops (perennial or annual) and trees. • Conduct education and awareness creation campaigns on the spread and transmission of STDs and HIV/AIDS for construction workers and local communities living close to the construction camp sites. 9.13 Mitigation Measures for Exposure to HIV / AIDS and other STD As a preventive measure. At the community level. • Support women from the locality to learn new skills and employ them during project operation phase also. The project office has already paid compensation amounting to Birr 24. using local language (Affan Oromo) at public gathering locations. • Compensate ahead of construction works for the loss of perennial crops/ trees compensate based on market prices and as per the law. The new Sendafa sanitary landfill project has caused permanent loss of 137.

collection and treatment system shallow wells are concentrated.Develop a leachate containment. around the landfill body and direct to In the absence of proper management of the treatment facility. landfill. Measure to minimize leachate volume: -Cover the surface of the waste body intermediately during operation of the landfill and finally after closure of the landfill.Installation of passive barrier with the natural clay soil placed below the cell liner system . . landfill site The weak zone along the fault striking from NWb. Measures to Minimize Leachate SE on western part of the Akaki transfer station site can be a conducive path for contaminants Infiltration from the Disposal cells leaked from the transfer station towards south part of the Akaki well field where most of the deep and . - - - Recommended Mitigation measures a. leachate may have an adverse impact on the Legedadi deep test wells and shallow wells -Cconstruct storm drainage within and around the proposed sanitary drilled by AAWSA.Project Major Impacts No 1 phase Operation The volume of leachate that will be generated from the Sendafa sanitary landfill site will range from 645m3/day to 1336 m3/day during the lifetime of the sanitary landfill. If the landfill has no leachate collection system the leachate can enter into ground and surface water resources around the site.Installation of active barrier of HDPE geo-membrane with 2mm thickness for both the bottom of the Anticipated Residual impacts . Uncontrolled leachate release from the landfill site into Hambisa River will have an adverse impact on -Capture the rainwater from the surface seal of the landfill by ditches the river.

c.Installation of high permeability leachate collection and transfer system to facilitate the collection of leachate .Collect leaching wastewater that from the transfer station and dispose to the sewerage system for appropriate treatment and disposal ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 132 .Install appropriate storm water drainage and sewerage system in the transfer station to minimize/ prevent pollution of the nearby boreholes. Measures to minimize the effects of Akaki Transfer Station on Akaki well fields .Cover with pavement the area within the transfer station by double layer of asphalt concrete or enforced concrete to minimize infiltration of wastewater .Installation of three-stage leachate treatment system and re-circulation facilities to reduce organic and heavy metal pollutants. .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project cells and the slopes .

.e. by vehicles and machineries affect ambient air quality . . vents) progressively as the landfill grows vertically towards its final .Sprinkle water on dusty roads frequently on day time during construction. and smoke release caused by spontaneous burning.Carryout monitoring program at regular periodic intervals during and after the working life of the site to assess effectiveness of the landfill gas control measures.000 -1. .Upgrade roads to asphalt during operation in the approaches to transfer stations . ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 133 .Emission of green house gases (i. .Pump to collection points where it .Collect the landfill gases by .200° C by the landfill gas flare.incinerate the gas at temperatures of about 1. methane & CO2) installing vertical gas wells (gas from the landfill will contribute to climate change.Waste hauling trucks will create local air pollution along level the hauling routes during operational phases. foul odour nuisance.Keep waste collection and disposal vehicles fleet well-maintained and regularly serviced to minimize exhaust smoke release. the proposed sanitary landfill is anticipated to affect the ambient air quality due to release of landfill gas.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 2 Operation In the absence of proper landfill gas collection and management system. Also: The following gas management systems are proposed to minimize impact of landfill gases at Sendafa Sanitary landfill.dust releases during construction and operational phases will be flared. .

is adequately staffed. -Allow regulated access of informal recyclers/waste-pickers to the landfill site during normal operational hours ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 134 . -Mobile equipment sufficient to ensure that operational standards are met shall be provided and maintained in use at the landfill site.2 for detail measures). . to a minimum depth of 15 cm at the completion of each working day – but every third day as a minimum.attracts vermin and birds which may have unintended the entire surface of the tipping-cell potential impact on air transport route. .cause a serious odour problem to the surrounding -Cover material shall be applied to . These include: .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 3 Operation -The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations on public health is anticipated to possibly occur under future scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities are not operated properly.will become source of environmental pollution and public -AARDPO shall ensure that the site health hazard is operated with an operational plan. -Ensure that no fires are tolerated within landfill sites.will degenerate into an open landfill Operate the sanitary landfill in compliance with the standards for class I sanitary landfill of the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum (refer sec 9. -Suitably qualified and experienced personnel and resources are assigned to manage the day-to-day landfill operations. and that any persistent fires are reported to the competent authority.

For transfer station management: . unless temporary operational reasons do not permit this. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 135 . -Develop detailed manuals and procedures that translate the requirements into daily operational procedures for the staff and management of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations.The design of the transfer operation shall enable the site operations to be efficient and hygienic. basic operational procedures and associated manuals. .Incoming waste shall be transferred from the transfer-station within 1 day. .All waste transfer points. facilities and containers shall be kept clean and orderly at all times with containers and site area inspected and cleaned monthly. -Train landfill and transfer station operators on SWM standards. -Ensure the installation and functioning of landfill gas management systems at all landfill sites.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project to work in designated areas.

Project Major Impacts Recommended Mitigation measures Anticipated Residual impacts .Littering of solid waste in and around the transfer stations and sanitary landfill may contaminate the soil in the long term.orienting equipment with high directivity to emit . . -Stockpile and use the soil excavated during landfill construction as cover material for the landfill cells during operation -Apply portable litter control fences downwind of the working area to capture litter -Keep the working face of landfill to the practical minimum width to reduce litter generation -Conduct regular (daily or weekly) program of litter pick-up at the sanitary landfill and transfer station sites.Improper disposal of construction waste will affect the environment -Dispose the construction waste in officially permitted place. 5 Operation .Noise and vibration releases of construction machines. vehicles and waste hauling trucks will affect residents in the neighbourhood and along the waste haulage routes.planting of buffer trees and shrubs where appropriate. -Cover waste hauling trucks to and from the transfer station with tents to prevent littering of waste during transport. The designated place should be a degraded site to be remedied by tipping soil material. . None No phase 4 Construction and operation .locating stationary equipment that is noisy as far as possible from the NSRs. .

and preventative maintenance of equipment to minimize noise emissions .switching off unnecessary or idle equipment.It may also cause a visual impact on the surrounding if left unattended after closure. . the Sendafa sanitary landfill may remain unsuitable for other forms of beneficial land uses because of the waste deposited.After site closure and decommissioning. -fitting of noise mufflers to mobile plant and equipment.During operation phase. -Harmonize with the surrounding landscape and aesthetic views by progressively covering filled cells with plant seedlings one after the other. para 3 as part of the action plan. . -Include the mitigation measures outlined in bullets under section 9.restrict multiple use of mobile plant equipment to short time periods (operation phase) 6 Operation . . without proper management.7. the sanitary landfill will have visual (aesthetic) impact on the surrounding as it may create contradiction with the landscape.use of temporary noise baffles and noise fencing during if necessary to protect adjacent NSRs. . -Submit a site closure plan to the competent authority by the time 90% of the sanitary landfill is filled for review and approval.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project noise away from NSRs. -outline the procedures for post-closure care of the site in the closure plan -Include contingency plans for illegal dumping in the former landfill after site closure -Include plans for fire safety in the event of a deliberate or spontaneous occurrence ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 137 .

Waste hauling to the transfer stations is likely to have significant impact on traffic flow and will negatively influence the speed of waste hauling to the Akaki transfer station -Construct alternative road to provide access to the transfer stations by avoiding congested road stretches such as for Akaki transfer station. -Provide separate entry and exit connections to the main road and a merging lane to access the waste disposal site and to the transfer stations -Control vehicles transporting waste to prevent taking shortcuts on unsuitable road -Conduct traffic flow study on the routes and based on the study result widening and rehabilitation of the roads leading to the transfer stations and to the waste disposal site.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 7 Operation .Facilitate for proper maintenance and servicing of solid waste hauling fleet vehicles to ensure continuous and uninterrupted traffic flow and thereby avoiding traffic jams. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 138 . .

Gloves.Periodical medical check-up for works forworking the lossdirectly of perennial crops/ workers on waste trees compensate based on market management (Landfill. waste disposal at the sanitary landfill cells and other staffs directly involved in waste handling and hauling The Sendafa sanitary landfill project will cause are exposed to negative impact on occupational health permanent loss of 137.07 hectare of farmland which and safety. trees as minimum per the Federal legislation (Proclamation based on .Construction workers and truck drivers are considered as having high potential (or good vectors) for the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS virus due to their mobility. Recommended Mitigation measures . Page 139 Anticipated Residual impacts Chronic health impact .Provision of 455/2005) personal protective market prices. cloths. equipments (Safety shoes.Provision training on annual) and trees. and etc). Dust & chemical masks -Allow enough time for PAPs to remove theirofcrops (perennial or . 10 Construction ZTS-EDCE & MTS .Operate the health & safety system of the sanitary landfill in accordance to the draft Ethiopian standards on -Compensate farmers for loss of Solid waste management to the crops (perennial or annual).Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Project Major Impacts No phase 8 Construction 9 Construction Workers involved in waste sorting at transfer stations. -Conduct education and awareness creation campaigns on the spread and transmission of STDs and HIV/AIDS for construction workers and local communities living close to the construction camp sites. used to be under the entitlement of 217 farmers. occupational safety and health -Compensate ahead of construction . sorting room prices and as per the law.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 140 .

give priority for female headed households during employment.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Anticipated Project phase Major Positive Impacts Reinforcement measures No 1 Residual impacts Construction phase The construction of the project is expected to create employment opportunities and jobs for the local communities.Provide training for the landfill and transfer station operators on None ZTS-EDCE & MTS Installing and operating the sanitary landfill facilities and transfer stations will improve the overall solid waste management of the city and its efficiency. and other administrative measures adopted for the local workforce should be in line with the country’s law. 2 Construction The construction of the landfill project in and operation the area will have positive impacts on women (female headed households in phases particular) during and after the construction works of the Sanitary landfill through employment. . -Contractor and local authorities to ensure that women receive equal chance for employment.employ work force mainly from the locality where the construction work will be undergoing.ensure that employment. Page 141 .eensure women’s employment and improve their employment opportunities and working conditions. . . procedures and guidelines to efficiently operate the SWM facilities as intended. wage system. None .assign women workers in those jobs which are fit to their biological and physical conditions. . . None 3 Operation phase -Introduce operational plans.

Table 16: Summary of Major Positive Impacts and Enhancement Measures ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 142 None .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4 Operation phase Closure & ceasing of waste disposal operations in Koshe improves environmental quality and will have a positive impact on the property value of koshe neighbourhood. -Speeding up the construction of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations. -Closure of the Koshe dump site will have to be Pollution of followed by proper reclamation and landscaping of ground and the site. surface waters 5 Operation phase Development of Sendafa Sanitary landfill will contribute indirectly to improve public health of city residents by facilitating the closure of the Koshe/Repi open dump site.

Environmental and social management plan (ESMP) 10. It is believed that the project proponent in this particular case. construction supervisors.2 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the construction phase During construction. 10. the contractor will be responsible for implementing environmental mitigation measures included in the present ESIA report.10. monitoring requirements and it identifies the organizations assigned to implement them.1. The Contractor will be fully responsible for ensuring that all the work will be carried out as per the environmental requirements indicated in the design and technical specifications and the present ESIA report. It is envisaged that environmentalist. the project management unit of the Addis Ababa City Administration and AFD and the local . City Administration and Oromia Special zone environment protection authority will monitor the proper implementation of mitigating measures at the right time.1.1 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP related to design change For mitigation measures related to design change. the consultant assigned to design the SWM project will be responsible for incorporating the recommended mitigation measures into the design and into the technical specifications of the main project report. Mitigating measures for the impacts that are likely to arise from implementing the project are outlined in the previous chapter and here it will be correlated with the responsible organs for implementation. the construction supervisor and the Federal. with a broad range of experience and knowledge in environmental management systems of the proposed development project should be intermittently assigned by the Federal Ministry of Environment. The environmentalists from Regional EPAs and AARDPO will be jointly responsible for the overall coordination of the environmental management activities. Addis Ababa and Oromia regional authorities responsible for environment will take the major responsibility in supervising the implementation of the environmental mitigation and monitoring plans. Addis Ababa and Oromia special zone EPA offices to supervise proper implementation of the mitigating measures. Addis Ababa City Administration. 10. They will advise the contractors. The construction supervisor and an environmentalist from the Federal Ministry of Environment. with monitoring requirements and estimated budget requirements.1 Institutions responsible for the implementation of ESMP The Environmental management plan gives the mitigating measures.

10.3 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the operation phase During the operation period. and the AARDPO. Table.1. the environmental issues will be monitored jointly by Addis Ababa and Oromia special zone environment offices.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project authorities regarding the implementation of the environmental mitigating measures and monitoring of impacts. In particular. the regional office in charge of environment will coordinate all other organizations stated above.17: Summary of Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 144 .

-Cconstruct storm drainage within and around the proposed sanitary landfill site Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures .Landfill -Cover the surface of the waste operator body intermediately during operation of the landfill and finally after closure of the . If the landfill has no leachate collection system the leachate can adversely affect the ground and surface water resources around the site. Measure to minimize leachate volume: -Uncontrolled leachate release from the landfill site into Hambisa River will have an adverse impact on the river.Construction landfill.Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 1 The volume of leachate that will be generated from the Sendafa sanitary landfill site will range from 645m3/day to 1336 m3/day during the lifetime of the sanitary landfill.AARDPO During Operation phase During Operation phase During Construction Phase During Construction Phase -Construction Supervisor Time Horizon . b. Measures to Minimize Leachate Infiltration from the Disposal cells Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring . contractor -Capture the rainwater from the surface seal of the landfill by ditches around the landfill body and direct to treatment facility. a.

Installation of passive barrier with the natural clay soil placed below the cell liner system . Construction Supervisor During Construction Phase During Construction Phase -AARDPO. .The weak zone along the fault striking from NW-SE on western part of the Akaki transfer station site can be a conductive path for contaminants leaked from the transfer station towards south part of the Akaki well field where most of the deep and shallow wells are concentrated.In the absence of proper management of the landfill. as well as Bole Arbasa & Koshe Page 146 .Construction contractor >> >> .Construction contractor AARDPO.Installation of high permeability leachate collection and transfer system to facilitate the collection of leachate . collection and treatment system .Installation of three-stage leachate treatment system and recirculation facilities c. Measures to minimize the effects of Akaki Transfer Station on Akaki well fields. Construction Supervisor During Construction phase During Construction phase >> >> Time Horizon . ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts .Installation of active barrier of HDPE geo-membrane with 2mm thickness for both the bottom of the cells and the slopes . leachate may have an adverse impact on the Legedadi deep test wells and shallow wells drilled by AAWSA.Develop a leachate containment.

Construction within the transfer station by contractor double layer of asphalt concrete or enforced concrete to minimize infiltration of wastewater -AARDPO. Construction Supervisor During Construction phase During Construction phase .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring .Install appropriate storm water drainage and sewerage system in . -AARDPO During Construction phase During Construction phase Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures -Construction Supervisor Time Horizon .Collect leaching wastewater that from the transfer station and dispose to the sewerage system for appropriate treatment and disposal ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 147 .Construction the transfer station to minimize/ contractor prevent pollution of the nearby boreholes.Cover with pavement the area .

MoEF staff . foul odour nuisance. AARDPO .e. methane & CO2) from the landfill will .000 . and after the working life of the change.Waste hauling trucks will landfill gas control measures.During Operation phase .. Also: . and smoke release caused by spontaneous burning.During Operation phase .Potential environmental & Proposed mitigation measures social impacts 2 In the absence of proper landfill gas collection and management system.Carryout monitoring program at contribute to climate regular periodic intervals during .Emission of green house 1.AACMA.Oromia special zone EPA.During Operation phase .During Operation phase .Collect the landfill gases by installing vertical gas wells (gas vents) progressively as the Sanitary landfill grows vertically towards its final level Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures -Design consultant -AARDPO .During Operation phase . site to assess effectiveness of the AARDPO .200° C by the landfill gas flare.Landfill .During Operation phase . operator gases (i.MoEF -Construction contractor Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring .Oromia special zone EPA office . the proposed sanitary landfill is anticipated to affect the ambient air quality due to release of landfill gas. create local air pollution along the hauling routes during operational phases.Pump to collection points where it will be flared. incinerate the gas at temperatures of about 1.

Keep waste collection and disposal vehicles fleet wellmaintained and regularly serviced to minimize exhaust smoke release. . . ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures AA City Roads Authority AARDPO Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Construction Supervisor AA City Administration (City Manager Office) AAEPA/Oromia Special zone EPA Page 149 Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During Construction phase During Construction phase During Construction/ Operation phase During Construction/ Operation phase During Operation phase During Operation phase .Sprinkle water on dusty roads Construction frequently on day time during contractor construction.Upgrade roads to asphalt during operation in the approaches to transfer stations.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts -Dust releases during construction and operational phases by vehicles and machineries affect ambient air quality .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 3 -The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations on public health is anticipated to possibly occur under future scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities are not operated properly. These include: Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures -AA City Administration . problem to the surrounding -Suitably qualified and experienced personnel and . Operate the sanitary landfill in compliance with the standards for class I sanitary landfill of the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum (refer sec 9.attracts vermin and resources are assigned to manage birds which may have the day-to-day landfill operations. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> Page 150 . is adequately . unintended potential impact on air transport route.cause a serious odour third day as a minimum. open landfill -Cover material shall be applied .will become source of to the entire surface of the environmental pollution tipping-cell to a minimum depth and public health hazard of 15 cm at the completion of each working day – but every .2 for detail measures).will degenerate into an staffed.MOEF Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During Operation phase During Operation phase -Landfill operator team -AARDPO shall ensure that the site is operated with an operational plan.Oromia Special zone EPA -AARDPO .

-Ensure that no fires are tolerated within landfill sites. -Allow regulated access of informal recyclers/waste-pickers to the landfill site during normal operational hours to work in designated areas. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During Operation phase During Operation phase -Landfill operator team >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> Page 151 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures . -Ensure the installation and functioning of landfill gas management systems at all landfill sites. and that any persistent fires are reported to the competent authority.MOEF maintained in use at the landfill -AARDPO site.Oromia Special -Mobile equipment sufficient to -AA City ensure that operational standards Administration zone EPA are met shall be provided and .

ZTS-EDCE & MTS AARDPO Environmental ist.The design of the transfer operation shall enable the site operations to be efficient and hygienic. -Train landfill and transfer station operators on SWM standards.AARDPO -Development Partners Page 152 During PreConstruction phase During Operation phase During PreConstruction phase During Operation phase During Operation phase During Operation phase During Construction Phase During Construction phase . basic operational procedures and associated manuals. AA Health Bureau Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring For transfer station management: .AARDPO .AACMA -AAEPA.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures . .All waste transfer points. -Develop detailed manuals and procedures that translate the requirements into daily operational procedures for the staff and management of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations.AARDPO -AAEPA. -Design consultant AA City Administration .Incoming waste shall be transferred from the transfer-station within 1 day. Transfer station operating team . AA Health Bureau -AA City Administration City Manager Office . unless temporary operational reasons do not permit this. facilities and containers shall be kept clean and orderly at all times with containers and site area inspected and cleaned monthly.

Construction supervisor . The designated place should be a degraded site to be remedied by tipping soil material.During Operation Phase . -Keep the working face of landfill to the practical minimum width to reduce litter generation ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures . -Stockpile and use the soil excavated during landfill construction as cover material for the landfill cells during operation -Apply portable litter control fences downwind of the working area to capture litter.During Construction phase -Construction supervisor.Construction Contractor . Bereh Woreda Administration.Landfill operating Team >> Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring .Littering of solid waste in and around the transfer stations and sanitary landfill may contaminate the soil in the long term.During Operation phase . Landfill operating Team .Improper disposal of construction waste will affect the environment .During Construction phase .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 4 . -Dispose the construction waste in officially permitted place.AAEPA.During Operation Phase . AARDPO Environmental ist -Construction contractor . AARDPO Environmentalist .During Operation phase -Oromia Special zone EPA office >> Page 153 >> >> .

Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures .AARDPO Environmentalist -Cover waste hauling trucks to and from the transfer station with tents to prevent littering of waste during transport.During Operation phase -During Operation phase . ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 154 Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring .Landfill -Conduct regular (daily or weekly) program of litter pick-up operating at the sanitary landfill and transfer Team station sites.

>> >> ZTS-EDCE & MTS Time Horizon Page 155 . AARDPO Environmental ist .use of temporary noise baffles and noise fencing if necessary to protect adjacent NSRs.orienting equipment with high directivity to emit noise away from NSRs. AAEPA & Oromia special zone EPA Environmentalists . Mitigation Monitoring -During Construction phase -During Construction phase >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> .switching off unnecessary or idle equipment.locating stationary equipment that is noisy as far as possible from the NSRs. .Construction Supervisor . Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures -Construction contractor .Noise and vibration releases of construction machines.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 5 . >> >> . vehicles and waste hauling trucks will affect residents in the neighborhood and along the waste haulage routes.

planting of buffer trees and shrubs where appropriate for long term prevention. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Time Horizon Page 156 .restrict multiple use of mobile plant equipment to short time periods (operation phase) Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> . and preventative maintenance of equipment to minimize noise emissions .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts -fitting of noise mufflers to mobile plant and equipment.

AARDPO During closure of landfill During closure of landfill Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 6 . the sanitary landfill will have visual (aesthetic) impact on the surrounding as it may create contradiction with the landscape. -MoEF & Oromia EPA . .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring -Harmonize with the surrounding landscape and aesthetic views by progressively covering filled cells with plant seedlings one after the other. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 157 Time Horizon .It may also cause a visual impact on the surrounding if left unattended after closure. AARDPO -MoEF & Oromia EPA During closure of landfill During closure of landfill -Include the mitigation measures outlined in bullets under section 9. para 3 as part of the action plan.AA City Administration .During operation phase.AA City Administration .7. -Landfill operation team.Oromia Special zone EPA. without proper management. the Sendafa sanitary landfill may remain unsuitable for other forms of beneficial land uses because of the waste deposited. . AARDPO Environmental ist . .After site closure and decommissioning. MoEF environmentalists During operation phase During operation phase -Submit a site closure plan to the competent authority by the time 90% of the sanitary landfill is filled for review and approval.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts -outline the procedures for postclosure care of the site in the closure plan ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures .AA City Administration . AARDPO -MoEF & Oromia EPA -Include contingency plans for illegal dumping in the former landfill after site closure >> -Include plans for fire safety in the event of a deliberate or spontaneous occurrence >> Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During closure of landfill During closure of landfill >> >> >> >> >> >> Page 158 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 7 .AACMA .AACMA & AA traffic police department -AA City Administration & its relevant organs AA City Administration & its relevant organs Page 159 Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During construction or Operation phase During construction or Operation phase >> >> -During Operation phase -During Operation phase -During Operation phase -During Operation phase . ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures AA City Administration . AA Roads Authority AA City Administration >> >> .Waste hauling to the transfer stations is likely to have significant impact on traffic flow and will negatively influence the speed of waste hauling to the Akaki transfer station -Construct alternative road to provide access to the transfer stations by avoiding congested road stretches such as for Akaki transfer station. -Conduct traffic flow study on the routes and based on the study result widening and rehabilitation of the roads leading to the transfer stations and to the waste disposal site. -Provide separate entry and exit connections to the main road and a merging lane to access the waste disposal site and to the transfer stations -Control vehicles transporting waste to prevent taking shortcuts on unsuitable road.

Gloves.AARDPO.Provision of training on occupational safety and health >> >> >> >> >> >> .A Bureau of Labour and Social Affairs >> >> . .Provision of personal protective equipments (Safety shoes. Dust & chemical masks) >> A. waste disposal at the sanitary landfill cells and other staffs directly involved in waste handling and hauling are exposed to negative impact on occupational health and safety.Operate the health & safety system of the sanitary landfill in accordance to the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures . cloths.Periodical medical check-up for workers working directly on waste management (Landfill. Landfill operating team A. sorting room and etc).Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 8 Workers involved in waste sorting at transfer stations. AAEPA Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During operation phase During operation phase .A Bureau of Labour and Social Affairs. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures >> >> Page 160 .

-Compensate ahead of construction works for the loss of perennial crops/ trees compensate based on market prices and as per the law. trees as per the Federal legislation (Proclamation 455/2005) based on market prices.07 hectare of farmland which used to be under the entitlement of 217 farmers.B: AARDPO Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures AARDPO & Bereh Woreda Administration Bereh Woreda Administration.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 9 The Sendafa sanitary landfill project will cause permanent loss of 137.194) -Allow enough time for PAPs to remove their crops (perennial or annual) and trees.(N.Compensate farmers for loss of crops (perennial or annual). ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> Page 161 .767. Oromia Region EPA Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring Before construction phase Before construction phase have already paid compensation amounting to Birr 24. .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 10 ZTS-EDCE & MTS . AARDPO. AACMA .AA Health Bureau. Bereh Woreda Health Bureau -During Construction & Operation Phases Before construction phase Page 162 Time Horizon . Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring -Construction Contractor. -Conduct education and awareness creation campaigns on the spread and transmission of STDs and HIV/AIDS for construction workers and local communities living close to the construction camp sites.Construction workers and truck drivers are considered as having high potential (or good vectors) for the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS virus due to their mobility.

11. . The monitoring program for the present project will be undertaken to meet the following objectives: • to monitor the environmental conditions of the respective river. can improve the planning and execution of future. through a feedback mechanism. and to provide a basis for formulating appropriate additional impact control measures. similar projects. or which were unforeseen. Environmental monitoring is very essential part of the project implementation. in order to reduce impacts on the environment or local population. • to provide information on the actual nature and extent of key impacts and the effectiveness of mitigation and benefit enhancement measures which. • to check on whether mitigation and benefit enhancement measures are proving effective in practice. extent and intensity of the impacts. and to verify the impact predictions. The selection of the issues to be monitored must be based on the severity. Monitoring should be performed during all stages of the project (namely: construction. and operation) to ensure that the impacts are no greater than predicted. frequency of measurement and reporting requirement are indicated in table 18. • to provide a means whereby any impacts which were subject to uncertainty at the time of preparation of the ESIA. For this particular project the proposed environmental and social monitoring indicators. commissioning. can be identified. Environmental and social monitoring Environmental monitoring is an essential tool in relation to environmental management as it provides the basis for rational management decisions regarding impact control. The monitoring program will indicate where changes to procedures or operations are required.

000 . -Uncontrolled leachate release from the landfill site into Hambisa River will have an adverse impact on the river. -In the absence of proper management of the landfill. Impact I Construction phase 1 The volume of leachate that will be generated from the Sendafa sanitary landfill site will range from 645m3/day to 1336 m3/day during the lifetime of the sanitary landfill. frequency of measurement and reporting No. -The weak zone along the fault striking from NW-SE on western part of the Akaki transfer station site can be a conducive path for contaminants leaked from the transfer station towards south part of the Akaki well field where most of the deep and shallow wells are concentrated. If the landfill has no leachate collection system the leachate can enter into ground and surface water resources around the site. leachate may have an adverse impact on the Legedadi deep test wells and shallow wells drilled by AAWSA. Performance indicators to be Frequency of Frequency of Budget Monitored measurement reporting Bi-annually during operation phase (wet and dry season) Bi-annually Analysis of water samples from nearby rivers and boreholes per year in Birr 10.Table 18: Environmental and social monitoring indicators.

methane & sulphur dioxide CO2) from the landfill will contribute to climate change. Also: Analysis of air samples to determine the level of methane and CO2 gases Monthly starting second year of operation monthly 30.000 Analysis of air samples to determine level of dust and . .e. the proposed sanitary landfill is anticipated to affect the ambient air quality due to release of landfill gas.will become source of environmental pollution stations. ZTS-EDCE & MTS .000 Every year Every year 9.will degenerate into an open landfill .dust releases during construction and operational phases by vehicles and machineries affect ambient air quality 3 -The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations is anticipated to possibly occur under future scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities are not operated properly.Emission of green house gases (i. foul odour nuisance.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 2 In the absence of proper landfill gas collection and management system. and smoke release caused by spontaneous burning. .cause a serious odour problem to the surrounding. . and public health hazard .Interview members of the community around the sanitary land fill and the transfer stations to express their grievances Page 165 . -Monitoring the overall waste management of the landfill and transfer stations -Surveillance of health status of the community around the sanitary landfill and transfer .Waste hauling trucks will create local air pollution along the hauling routes during operational phases.attracts vermin and birds which may have unintended potential impact on air transport route.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS -carry out health surveillance Before and after specific to HIV Aids and to construction phase sexually transmitted diseases Ones the first year of the phase Page 166 during 10.Littering of solid waste in and around the transfer stations and sanitary landfill may contaminate the soil in the long term.000 the construction phase 7 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project S Impact No. vehicles and waste hauling trucks will affect residents in the neighborhood and along the waste haulage routes.07 hectare of compensation is provided to the phase farmland which used to be under the affected parties entitlement of 217 farmers.000 5 . Performance indicators to be Frequency of Frequency of Budget per Monitored measurement reporting year in Birr 4 . biannually Once before 10.000 6 The Sendafa sanitary landfill project will -Interview to check if adequate Prior to construction cause permanent loss of 137. Average noise level measurements show values below maximum allowable noise limits and severity of nuisance caused on community members is low as assessed by interview.000 operation . Monitoring the overall waste biannually management in and around the premises of sanitary land fill and transfer station by carrying visual inspections biannually 6. biannually 5.Noise and vibration releases of construction machines.Construction workers and truck drivers are considered as having high potential (or good vectors) for the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS virus due to their mobility.

000 9 . the Sendafa sanitary landfill may remain unsuitable for other forms of beneficial land uses because of the waste deposited. .000 .After site closure and decommissioning.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project II Operation phase S Impact No. without proper management. the sanitary landfill will have visual (aesthetic) impact on the surrounding as it may create contradiction with the landscape. biannually 20.000 Interview nearby communities of the visual impact due to the construction of sanitary land fill and transfer stations Once during the Make traffic count before and after the construction and operation phase During the first year Daily first year of operation . 10 . yearly 3. waste disposal at the workers involved in waste sorting two years of sanitary landfill cells and other staffs at the transfer stations operation directly involved in waste handling and hauling are exposed to negative impact on occupational health and safety. Performance indicators to be Frequency of Frequency of Budget per Monitored measurement reporting year in Birr 8 Workers involved in waste sorting at Carry health surveillance on the Monthly for the first transfer stations.Waste hauling to the transfer stations is likely to have significant impact on traffic flow and will negatively influence the speed of waste hauling to the Akaki transfer station ZTS-EDCE & MTS of operation phase Page 167 month for a 25.During operation phase.It may also cause a visual impact on the surrounding if left unattended after closure.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Note: -Monitoring reports from the various parties should be sent to the Addis Ababa Cleansing Management Agency for compilation and reporting to the Federal and Regional offices in charge of the environment -The Federal and regional offices in charge of the Environment will assign environmental inspector during project construction and operation -Monitoring cost will be covered by the institutions assigned to undertake the monitoring. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 168 .

Measures to Minimize Leachate Infiltration from the Disposal cells . -Cconstruct storm drainage within and around the proposed sanitary landfill site b. -Capture the rainwater from the surface seal of the landfill by ditches around the landfill body and direct to treatment facility. Cost estimate for environmental mitigation and Monitoring measures Table 19: Cost estimates for implementing mitigation measures Impacts Mitigation Measures Unit Quantity Unit Cost Cost in Birr Remark Cost is part of the technical component i.Installation of high permeability leachate collection and transfer system to facilitate the collection of leachate . -The weak zone along the fault striking from NW-SE on western part of the Akaki transfer station site can be a conducive path for contaminants leaked from the transfer station towards south part of the Akaki well field where most of the deep and shallow wells are ZTS-EDCE & MTS a. collection and treatment system .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 12. -In the absence of proper management of the landfill. -Uncontrolled leachate release from the landfill site into Hambisa River will have an adverse impact on the river. If the landfill has no leachate collection system the leachate can enter into ground and surface water resources around the site.Develop a leachate containment. the costs for these mitigation measures are reflected in the actual construction costs of the project (Birr) The volume of leachate that will be generated from the Sendafa sanitary landfill site will range from 645m3/day to 1336 m3/day during the lifetime of the sanitary landfill. Measure to minimize leachate volume: -Cover the surface of the waste body intermediately during operation of the landfill and finally after closure of the landfill.Installation of active barrier of HDPE geo-membrane with 2mm thickness for both the bottom of the cells and the slopes .Installation of passive barrier with the natural clay soil placed below the cell liner system . leachate may have an adverse impact on the Legedadi deep test wells and shallow wells drilled by AAWSA.Installation of three-stage leachate treatment system Page 169 .e.

. .Carryout monitoring program at regular periodic intervals during and after the working life of the site to assess effectiveness of the landfill gas control measures. methane & CO2) from the landfill will contribute to climate change. Cost is part of the technical contract . . .Pump to collection points where it will be flared.Collect leaching wastewater that from the transfer station and dispose to the sewerage system for appropriate treatment and disposal In the absence of proper landfill gas collection and management system.Collect the landfill gases by installing vertical gas wells (gas vents) progressively as the landfill grows vertically towards its final level .Emission of green house gases (i.000 1.incinerate the gas at temperatures of about 1.Upgrade roads to asphalt during operation in the Page 170 i. the proposed sanitary landfill is anticipated to affect the ambient air quality due to release of landfill gas. .Install appropriate storm water drainage and sewerage system in the transfer station to minimize/ prevent pollution of the nearby boreholes. Also: . the costs for these mitigation measures are reflected in the actual construction costs of the project .e.e. and smoke release caused by spontaneous burning.Sprinkle water on dusty roads frequently on day time during construction.Cover with pavement the area within the transfer station by double layer of asphalt concrete or enforced concrete to minimize infiltration of wastewater . and re-circulation facilities c.200° C by the landfill gas flare. Measures to minimize the effects of Akaki Transfer Station on Akaki well fields . . . foul odour nuisance.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project concentrated.Waste hauling trucks will create local air pollution along the hauling routes during operational phases.dust releases during construction and operational phases by vehicles and machineries affect ambient air ZTS-EDCE & MTS The following gas management systems are proposed to minimize impact of landfill gases at Sendafa Sanitary landfill.

attracts vermin and birds which may have unintended potential impact on air transport route. -Ensure that no fires are tolerated within landfill sites.will degenerate into an open landfill . -Ensure the installation and functioning of landfill gas management systems at all landfill sites. -The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations is anticipated to possibly occur under future scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities are not operated properly.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project quality approaches to transfer stations .e. is adequately staffed. For transfer station management: ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 171 i. and that any persistent fires are reported to the competent authority.Keep waste collection and disposal vehicles fleet wellmaintained and regularly serviced to minimize exhaust smoke release. -Mobile equipment sufficient to ensure that operational standards are met shall be provided and maintained in use at the landfill site. -Allow regulated access of informal recyclers/wastepickers to the landfill site during normal operational hours to work in designated areas. These include: Cost is part of the technical contract -AARDPO shall ensure that the site is operated with an operational plan. . . -Cover material shall be applied to the entire surface of the tipping-cell to a minimum depth of 15 cm at the completion of each working day – but every third day as a minimum.cause a serious odour problem to the surrounding -Suitably qualified and experienced personnel and resources are assigned to manage the day-to-day landfill operations. .will become source of environmental pollution and public health hazard Operate the sanitary landfill in compliance with the standards for class I sanitary landfill of the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum (refer sec 9. the costs for these mitigation measures will be reflected in the actual operational budget of the sanitary landfill .2 for detail measures).

.The design of the transfer operation shall enable the site operations to be efficient and hygienic. -Develop detailed manuals and procedures that translate the requirements into daily operational procedures for the staff and management of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations. Cost is part of the operational budget -Cover waste hauling trucks to and from the transfer station with tents to prevent littering of waste during ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 172 .All waste transfer points.000 Birr 150.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project . facilities and containers shall be kept clean and orderly at all times with containers and site area inspected and cleaned monthly. Cost is part of the technical contract -Stockpile and use the soil excavated during landfill construction as cover material for the landfill cells during operation -Apply portable litter control fences downwind of the working area to capture litter -Keep the working face of landfill to the practical minimum width to reduce litter generation -Conduct regular (daily or weekly) program of litter pick-up at the sanitary landfill and transfer station sites. basic operational procedures and associated manuals. The designated place should be a degraded site to be remedied by tipping soil material. 300.Incoming waste shall be transferred from the transferstation within 1 day. -Train landfill and transfer station operators on SWM standards.Improper disposal of construction waste will affect the environment . .000 Birr -Dispose the construction waste in officially permitted place. unless temporary operational reasons do not permit this. .Littering of solid waste in and around the transfer stations and sanitary landfill may contaminate the soil in the long term.

Cost is part of the technical contract -Submit a site closure plan to the competent authority by the time 90% of the sanitary landfill is filled for review and approval.After site closure and decommissioning. -Include the mitigation measures outlined in bullets under section 9.7. .Noise and vibration releases of construction machines.planting of buffer trees and shrubs where appropriate. the sanitary landfill will have visual (aesthetic) impact on the surrounding as it may create contradiction with the landscape. without proper management. . A lump sum of 50. .orienting equipment with high directivity to emit noise away from NSRs. para 3 as part of the action plan. . the Sendafa sanitary landfill may remain unsuitable for other forms of beneficial land uses because of the waste deposited.000 Birr per year . .switching off unnecessary or idle equipment. . -fitting of noise mufflers to mobile plant and equipment.During operation phase.locating stationary equipment that is noisy as far as possible from the NSRs.use of temporary noise baffles and noise fencing during if necessary to protect adjacent NSRs. and preventative maintenance of equipment to minimize noise emissions .It may also cause a visual impact on the surrounding if left ZTS-EDCE & MTS -Harmonize with the surrounding landscape and aesthetic views by progressively covering filled cells with plant seedlings one after the other. .restrict multiple use of mobile plant equipment to short time periods (operation phase) . vehicles and waste hauling trucks will affect residents in the neighborhood and along the waste haulage routes. -outline the procedures for post-closure care of the site in the closure plan -Include contingency plans for illegal dumping in the former landfill after site closure Page 173 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project transport.

. . A lump sum of 200.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project unattended after closure.000 -Provide separate entry and exit connections to the main road and a merging lane to access the waste disposal site and to the transfer stations -Control vehicles transporting waste to prevent taking shortcuts on unsuitable road -Conduct traffic flow study on the routes and based on the study result widening and rehabilitation of the roads leading to the transfer stations and to the waste disposal site. -Include plans for fire safety in the event of a deliberate or spontaneous occurrence .Provision of training on occupational safety and health .000 Birr per year . Dust & chemical masks .Provision of personal protective equipments (Safety shoes. waste disposal at the sanitary landfill cells and other staffs directly involved in waste handling and hauling are exposed to negative impact on occupational health and safety. Workers involved in waste sorting at transfer stations.Operate the health & safety system of the sanitary landfill in accordance to the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum A lump sum of 100.Waste hauling to the transfer stations is likely to have significant impact on traffic flow and will negatively influence the speed of waste hauling to the transfer stations -Construct alternative road to provide access to the transfer stations by avoiding congested road stretches such as for Akaki transfer station. sorting room and etc).000 Birr Page 174 . cloths.Construction workers and truck drivers are considered as having high potential for the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS virus due to ZTS-EDCE & MTS -Conduct education and awareness creation campaigns on the spread and transmission of STDs and HIV/AIDS for construction workers and local communities living close to the construction camp sites.Periodical medical check-up for workers working directly on waste management (Landfill. Lump sum of 500. Gloves.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 175 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project their mobility.

Item Unit Cost in Birr Total cost 1 Environmental Mitigation and Management Cost - 850. 987 200 300. .800 8.000 3.07 hectare of farmland acquired from 217 farmers.000 Remark Birr 24. Capacity building and training - 250.1 Summary of Environmental Mitigation and Monitoring costs Table 20: Summary of Environmental Mitigation and Monitoring costs No.000 5.12. Grand total - 1.000 6.194 is paid to compensate the 137.400 7.000 Birr + compensation of the farmers that lost farm land 2. Contingency (10%) - 172. Administration costs (5%) - 86. Environmental audit and reporting - 200. Environmental monitoring costs - 128.767. Operational Manuals & procedures preparation 4.

tc. leachate control and treatment. e. landfill gases collection and treatment. Such facilities include the availability of engineered cells for disposal of solid waste on daily basis. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 177 . the success of the Sendafa Sanitary landfill and transfer station project depends not only on developing well engineered facilities. it is also recommended to develop detailed manuals and procedures that translate the requirements into daily operational procedures and to train the staff and management of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations. the essence of the Sendafa Sanitary Landfill project is an environmental project designed to prevent the environment and public health from adverse impacts. Accordingly.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 13. daily cover soils. Conclusion and recommendation The entire purpose of building a sanitary landfill is to prevent short and long term adverse environmental impacts that may occur as a result of waste disposal. Even though the draft National Urban Solid Waste Management Standards came late in the process. Thus. but also on the proper operation of these facilities. Thus it is recommended that the Sendafa sanitary landfill and transfer station project could be implemented with full implementation of the mitigation measures. it is observed that the design features of the Sendafa Sanitary landfill and transfer stations also meets those standards to a larger extent. coverage and sustainability of solid waste management practices in Addis Ababa city. Thus. However. Hence it is highly recommended that the Sanitary landfill and transfer stations are operated according to the draft standards for “Landfill Management” as stipulated in the draft urban solid waste management standards. For this purpose. implementation of the solid waste management project will have significant benefits in enhancing the efficiency. it is observed that the engineering design of the proposed sanitary landfill and transfer stations provide facilities that are necessary to prevent the environment from pollution and to protect public health.

2003. Abiye. 10.Strategic and technical studies and Works supervision. March 1992. Environmental impact and vulnerability of the surface and ground water system from municipal solid waste disposal site: Koshe. Annexes. Detailed Design of Bole Arbasa Transfer Station. Feasibility Study of the Chebe Weregenu Sanitary landfill site for the City of Addis Ababa.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 14. Addis Ababa’s National and International Settings and Roles. Federal Environment Protection Authority.al. 12. TAHAL Consulting Engineers Ltd. AAWSA. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 178 . ARTELIA Ville et Transport and MCE. References 1. Akaki Water Supply Project. 13.Strategic and technical studies and Works supervision. Review of Feasibility Study and Preliminary Design Report. March 2014. Solid waste management project . 2012. Housing and Construction. IFC and World Bank Group. 9. TAHAL Consulting Engineers Ltd in association with SHAWEL Consult International. April 2010. AAWSA. 4. 14. ARTELIA Ville et Transport and MCE. 3. Solid waste management project . 6. et. Well field Summary Report. 11. Yassin W. Solid waste management project . Volume II. ARTELIA Ville et Transport and MCE. AAWSA April 1993. February 2011. 7. Draft Standards for Ambient Environmental Quality. AAWSA May 1999. Geological Survey of Ethiopia. the case of Addis Ababa city (MSc thesis). Detailed Design of Akaki Transfer Station. Health. Akaki Water Supply Project Phase 1. April 2007. Detailed Design of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines.. Environmental. Hydro geological Study Report. Addis Ababa University. Tamiru A. Executive Summary. 2. Earth sciences Graduate programs. Shimeles K. 8. Water Supply Project Stage III. May 1992. Addis Ababa.. 5. December 2013. March 2014. Ministry of Urban Development. Akaki Groundwater Project. Urban Solid Waste Management Standard (Part –I). December 2013. Evaluation of the 2003 – 2010 Development Plan of Addis Ababa City. Mekonnen M. Analysis of potential sanitary landfill waste disposal sites.Strategic and technical studies and Works supervision. Associated Engineering. Feasibility Study. June 2009. Tigistu Haile.

17. 18. Final Summary: Main Social and Municipal Services. Vol 1. et. 2010. 2004 16. WHO. Evaluation of the 2003 – 2010 Development Plan of Addis Ababa City. 2008. Zeleke Z.al. Geneva World Health Organization.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 15. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Evaluation of Ada’a and Becho Plains Groundwater Basins for Irrigation Development Project. WWDCE. Evaluation of Groundwater Resources of Akaki Area Groundwater Prospective Site (SWAWF). MOWR. February 2011 ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 179 . WWDCE. February.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Annexes ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 180 .

cultural and economic ties and networks during and after construction works. settlement patterns. main sources of livelihood and past history of displacement of the population. Obtain acceptance of the project both by the public and stakeholders. community severance and compensation for affected properties and assets.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Annex I: Minutes of Consultation Public and Stakeholders’ Consultation The primary purpose of public consultation is to protect the interest of affected persons/communities. Article 43 No. • • • • • • • • • To ensure that the public and stakeholders. The minutes of both public and stakeholders’ consultation is attached in the Annex section. in particular. and on the implementation of the proposed mitigation measures for the negative impacts and on measures of reinforcement for the positive impacts.. especially the poor and vulnerable groups. Kebele administrations and Woreda experts and professionals from different offices in the woreda. interested groups. Public consultations were carried out with the objective of identifying the potential social impacts (positive and negative). maximize additional benefits. in policies and projects that affect their livelihood. to inform the public on the potential impacts and seek the participation and contribution of the public during the construction of the project. The objective of public and stakeholders’ consultation is. On the nature of potential social impacts of the project and its impacts on the social. and ensure that they receive appropriate compensation for loss of property and land due to the project. including people residing in the project area. It also gives opportunity for the affected people to influence the project to reduce adverse impacts. Identify local issues and concerns to be addressed.2 states that: “Nationals have the right to participate in national development and. civil societies are informed about the project and its impact and the information will clarify doubts about who will be affected or benefit from the project. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 181 . On the loss of productive resources mainly loss of farm and grazing land. to be consulted with respect to policies and projects affecting their community”. if any. Identification of major social impact issues. Soliciting the views of local population what beneficial impact they expect from the project Social composition. Enable meaningful and accessible participation of the public and the affected population in particular. FDRE Constitution also reaffirms the participation of the public. Since the minutes are written in Amharic the following is the English translation of the minutes. local government officials. such as involuntary resettlement. Stakeholders’ consultation was also conducted to increase the participation of all the stakeholders.

some have rented land to farm. 2. We have been promised that the project will construct school and water supply but so far nothing has been done towards it. We have elected elders from among us to participate in the process of measuring affected land. 4. During the above three years we could have used the land and made productive by growing crops. Some of did not have clear information on the procedures of land measurement and property valuation but we trust the authorities & committee and have received the payment. employment priority should be given to the local population. Some farmers were able to improve their livelihood through the compensation payment made to them for their lost farmland. In future. dust and the like. The affected population has participated in the valuation of property and made aware of the procedures and guideline prior to the compensation payment. 8. The payment of compensation for affected households and procedures for valuation of property and assets is carried out as per FDRE law (proclamation No. noise. In the future. some bought transport cars and some built house in the town. 9. 7. The land was taken from us three years ago but so far there has not been any work carried out by the project office. Affected persons have also selected 5 persons to represent them in the valuation and compensation process. 7. We expect to be given priority of employment and so far we are not given satisfactory employment. in all the locations where public consultations are held the public are highly supportive and positive about the construction of the project.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Translation of minutes of stakeholders’ consultation 1. Some of the health hazards could be due to odour. Those who have farmland outside of the landfill area will be forced in future to go round the project area and this creates inconvenience and takes more time. 4. The construction of the access road has to be made clear when it will start and which kebeles it will cross and the size of farmland it will affect. during the operational phase of the project monitor that no health hazard will be observed on the local population. in property valuation and in the compensation payment 5. 2. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 182 . To overcome the problem we were told by the officials who have come from the project office that access road will be constructed that passes through the landfill. 135/2007. 3. Some have built CIS roof house. In general. The project office needs to take the maximum care that no waste (from factories. 6. 5. Translation of minutes of public consultation 1. The woreda anticipates that the local population will have employment opportunities during the operation phase of the project and in future there is a potential for the establishment of some factories producing goods through the process of recycling waste materials that are collected from the land fill. households or offices) is dumped outside of the land fill area. During operation phase there could be some potential negative impacts that might affect the health and livelihood of the local population living in the surrounding.455/2005) and regulation No. during the operation phase of the project. 3. 6.

We were promised that employment priority will be given to us. Now the criteria to employ a guard someone who has completed grade 10. Generally.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8. Those of us who are living in close proximity to the project site are worried and concerned that the project will affect our health in the future. we have no objection in the implementation of the project as far as appropriate mitigation measures are considered and implemented to minimize the negative impacts. Figure 1 Public consultation at Sendafa ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 183 . This seems a deliberate action not to employ from among us since there are not people who have finished grade 10. 9. But now the employment criteria and procedure is different from what has been promised earlier. 10.

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Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 1: Public consultation participants at Bole Arbasa Transfer station site Fig 2: Public consultation participants AT Akaki transfer station site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 196 .

Ato Mistir Lingerew Environmental Health Specialist (M. Ato Getachew Abraha Hydro geologist (M.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Annex II : List of EIA preparers and CVs The ESIA report was prepared by a team of experts composed of the following: 1. Ato Asefa Adisu Sociologist (B. Ato Tequam T/Mariam Environmental Engineer (M.Sc) ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 197 . Ato Zereu Girmay Team Leader & Environmentalist (M.sc) 4.Sc) 3.Sc) 2.Sc) 5.