Draft ESIA Report for Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and

three Transfer Stations Project of Addis Ababa City
Administration

The Sendafa landfill site

(Final Draft)

Prepared by:
ZTS Environment and Development Consulting
Engineers
In association with

MTS Consulting Engineers
Addis Ababa, May 2014

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Table of Content
LIST OF ACRONYMS .................................................................................................................6
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...........................................................................................................9
1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................10
2. BACKGROUND AND PROJECT JUSTIFICATION ........................................................12
2.1 OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................................... 12
2.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE ESIA STUDY ..................................................................................................................................... 12
2.3 SCOPE OF THE ESIA STUDY ........................................................................................................................................... 12

3. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT............................................................13
3.1. LOCATION ................................................................................................................................................................ 13
3.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW SANITARY LANDFILL DESCRIPTION PROJECT................................................................................... 14
3.2.1 Main features of the sanitary landfill............................................................................................................. 15
3.2.2 Leachate Treatment Plant.............................................................................................................................. 17
3.2.3 Drainage System of the Sanitary Landfill...................................................................................................... 18
3.2.4 Storm Water Management System................................................................................................................ 19
3.2.5 Final Cover of the landfill cells........................................................................................................................ 19
3.2.6 Landfill Gas Management .............................................................................................................................. 20
3.2.7 Site facilities and Infrastructures .................................................................................................................. 20
3.2.8 Stockpiles, borrow areas and quarries ........................................................................................................... 21
3.2.9 Landfill Operation........................................................................................................................................... 22
3.2.10 Site Closure ................................................................................................................................................... 23
3.3 TRANSFER STATIONS ................................................................................................................................................... 23
3.3.1 Akaki transfer station ..................................................................................................................................... 28
3.3.2 Koshe transfer Station .................................................................................................................................... 28
3.3.3 Bole Arabsa transfer Station .......................................................................................................................... 29

4. NATIONAL AND REGIONAL POLICIES AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK...31
4.1 POLICY FRAMEWORK .............................................................................................................................................. 31
4.1.1 Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia ....................................................................... 31
4.1.2 National and Regional Conservation Strategy............................................................................................... 32
4.1.3 Environmental Policy of Ethiopia .................................................................................................................. 32
4.1.4 National Health Policy.................................................................................................................................... 33
4.1.5 Land Tenure Policy ........................................................................................................................................ 34
4.1.6 National Biodiversity Policy .......................................................................................................................... 34
4.1.7 The Dry Waste Management Policy of the AACA........................................................................................... 35
4.2 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ............................................................................................................................................ 36
4.2.1 Establishment of Environmental Protection Organs (Proclamation No. 295/2002)...................................... 36
4.2.2 Environmental Impact Assessment (Proclamation No. 299/2002)................................................................. 36
4.2.3 Addis Ababa City Government Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations No. 21/2006....................... 38
4.2.4 Oromiya National Regional State Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation No.176/2012 .............. 38
4.2.5 Environmental Pollution Control (Proclamation No. 300/2002) .................................................................... 38
4.2.6 Solid Waste Management Proclamation (No. 513/2007) .............................................................................. 39
4.2.7 Public Health Proclamation........................................................................................................................... 41
4.2.8 National Rural Land Administration and Use (Proclamation No. 456/2005)................................................ 41
4.3 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ................................................................................................................................. 43
ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 2

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

4.3.1 The Environmental Protection Organs .......................................................................................................... 43
4.3.2 Ministry of Environment and Forestry (former EPA) .................................................................................... 43
4.4. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT STANDARDS ..................................................................................................................... 44
4.4.1 Draft Urban Waste Management Standards ................................................................................................. 44
4.4.2 IFC Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines................................................................................ 49

5. METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................50
6. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT ENVIRONMENT....................................................53
6.1 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT .............................................................................................................................................. 53
6.1.1 Climate ........................................................................................................................................................... 53
6.1.2 Topography of the project area...................................................................................................................... 54
6.1.3 Geology of Addis Ababa and its Surrounding................................................................................................. 55
6.1.3.1 Geology and Soil type of Sendafa Land fill site........................................................................................... 57
6.1.3.2 Geology and soil type of Bole Arbasa Transfer station site ....................................................................... 58
6.1.3.3 Geology and soil type of Koshe Transfer station site .................................................................................. 58
6.1.3.4 Geology and soil type of Akaki Transfer station site................................................................................... 59
6.1.4 Hydrology of the project area ........................................................................................................................ 60
6.1.4.1 Hydrology of the Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Area........................................................................................................60
6.1.4.2 Hydrology of the Bole Arbasa Transfer Station Area..................................................................................................61
6.1.4.3 Hydrology of the Koshe Transfer Station Area ...........................................................................................................61
6.1.4.3 Hydrology of the Akaki Transfer Station Area ............................................................................................................62

6.1.5 Land Use and visual........................................................................................................................................ 63
6.1.6 Water Resources ............................................................................................................................................ 64
6.1.6.1 Surface waters............................................................................................................................................................64
6.1.6.2 Ground waters ...........................................................................................................................................................67

6.1.7 Ambient Air Quality ........................................................................................................................................ 68
6.2 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT .......................................................................................................................................... 69
6.2.1 Terrestrial Vegetation .................................................................................................................................... 69
6.2.2 Wildlife ........................................................................................................................................................... 69
6.3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT .................................................................................................................................. 69
6.3.1 Demography............................................................................................................................................... 69
6.3.2 Administration ........................................................................................................................................... 70
6.3.3 Economic Activity ....................................................................................................................................... 70
6.3.4 Health......................................................................................................................................................... 71
6.3.5 Health Professionals................................................................................................................................... 71
6.3.6 Education ................................................................................................................................................... 72
6.3.7 The current Municipal Solid Waste Management System in Addis Ababa.................................................... 73
6.3.7.1 The Formal Sector ......................................................................................................................................................73
6.3.7.2 The Informal Sector ...................................................................................................................................................77

6.3.8 Cultural Activities, Language, Religion and Ethnic groups ............................................................................. 79
6.3.9 Socio economic background of Bereh woreda and the five towns of Oromia Special zone ........................... 79

7. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES........................................................................................82
8. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION, PREDICTION AND ANALYSIS 84
8.1 THE POSITIVE IMPACTS ................................................................................................................................................. 84
8.1.1 Impact on public health of the wider city ....................................................................................................... 84
8.1.2 Impact on public health of the residents of the five towns in Oromia special zone ....................................... 85
8.1.3 Impact on improvement of the overall solid waste management system of the city .................................... 86
8.1.4 Improvements on enhancing and formalizing ISWM ..................................................................................... 86
ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 3

.............................1 Gas collection and treatment .......................................................... 143 ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 4 .......................................................................................................................................................8 PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS ON INCREASED TRAFFIC ..................................3 IMPACT ON SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT ................2................................................... 103 8...... 89 8............ 119 9...2..................12 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR LOSS OF FARM LAND .....................................................................................98 8...............................................................................................90 8....143 10........................................................................................................................ 143 10...............................3 Impact on Women..2......................................................................................1....... 116 9............2....................................114 9................................................ 87 8..4 Impacts on soil......................................................................................4 PUBLIC AND STAKEHOLDERS’ CONSULTATION ........2 Exposure to HIV / AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) ... 127 9............ 102 8...... 124 9...................................................................... 107 8.............................................2.............................91 8...................3 Leachate treatment plant........................................... 130 10........ 120 9......................................................... 121 9..........3 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS OF LANDFILL GAS ON AMBIENT AIR QUALITY ....................... 118 9.................3......................................... 129 9......2......1 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP related to design change ..............1........................ 121 9................2.............. 114 9..... 105 8................................2 THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 106 8...............................................................................................................................11 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS OF USED OIL AND LUBRICANTS . 88 8.....2 Impact of landfill Gases on ambient air quality................................................................................................................................................................................2 Impact of Leachate on ground water resources ........................................................................... 105 8........................3 Mitigation measures for impacts of dust and vehicle exhaust smoke .............. 107 9......................................................................2..5 Impact of Noise...2 Mitigation Measures to Minimize Leachate Infiltration from the Disposal cells.............................. 95 8...............1................................................................................ 123 9............1......3..........................................1 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS OF LEACHATE ON SURFACE AND GROUND WATERS ........................Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8.............10 EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE MECHANISM FOR FIRE HAZARD .............2...1 Mitigation measure to minimize leachate volume...........................1 Impact of Leachate on surface water resources ..........2.................................. 104 8.......................4 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT ON PUBLIC HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT ................1 Loss of Farm Land............. 114 9....9 Impacts on terrestrial flora and fauna ................................2 Measures to mitigate emission of GHG and exposure to landfill gas........1...............................................................8 Impacts on occupational health and safety of workers ....... Dust and vibration.............6 Employment creation ..........1 Impact of leachate on the surface and ground water resources..........................................3..................................................................... ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (ESMP)....................................1 Impacts related to emission of greenhouse gases ................... 99 8.................................1... 107 8...................1.........................................................................2..................................3.................2 PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT OF AKAKI TRANSFER STATION ON AKAKI WELL FIELDS ...... 129 9.. 119 9..13 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR EXPOSURE TO HIV / AIDS AND OTHER STD ..5 Improvement on overall environmental quality and property value around Koshe................6 PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT OF NOISE AND VIBRATION ....11 Impacts due to spillage of used oil and lubricants ..................................1.................3 Impact on public health..................................................................3.........14 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACT ON WOMEN ............................7 Income generating and small businesses ............................3........................7 Impact on traffic volume during construction and operation .....................................................................9 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS ON HEALTH AND SAFETY .............................2...............2............................................. 105 8.............................................................................................................. 106 8............................. 130 9...................................................................................................................................2...................................................................1......................... 98 8.......6 Impact on land use and aesthetics ..............10 Impact of Fire Hazard .........................5 MITIGATION MEASURE FOR IMPACTS ON SOIL ...... 127 9..........................................1 INSTITUTIONS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ESMP................................................................................................................ 129 9. 86 8........................... 125 9.......... IMPACT MITIGATION MEASURES...................................7 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR LAND USE AND AESTHETICS (POST –CLOSURE OF THE LANDFILL). 89 8............................................ 114 9...................................................................................................................................................2....... 100 8..

............................................................................................................................................................. 197 ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 5 .............................................................................................................................................................................163 12.................................................. 144 11.........180 ANNEX I: MINUTES OF CONSULTATION .1.178 ANNEXES ....................1........................ REFERENCES .......................Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 10................................................................................................... 143 10. COST ESTIMATE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION AND MONITORING MEASURES.................3 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the operation phase ............................ ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MONITORING ................................169 12...............2 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the construction phase... 176 13.................................................... CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.....................................177 14.................................................................................1 SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION AND MONITORING COSTS .............................................. 181 ANNEX II : LIST OF EIA PREPARERS AND CVS .....................................................

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project List of Acronyms AACG EPA A. and Safety EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EPA Environment Protection Authority EPE Environmental Policy of Ethiopia ESIA Environmental and Social Impact Assessment ESMF Environmental and Social Management Framework EWNHS Ethiopian Wildlife & Natural History Society FDRE Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia FWSF Free Water Surface Flow GHG Green House Gases GIIP Good International Industry Practice GSE Geological Survey of Ethiopia HDPE High Density Poly ethylene HSSF Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow IEC Information. Health. education and communication IFC International Financial Corporation LAEPB Land Administration and Environmental Protection Bureau of Oromiya ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 6 .A City Government Environmental Protection Authority AACG Addis Ababa City Government AACMA Addis Ababa Cleansing Management Agency AARDPO Addis Ababa Recycling and Disposal Project Office AAWSA Addis Ababa Water and Sewerage Authority BOD5 Biological Oxygen Demand CIS Corrugated Iron Sheet COD Chemical Oxygen Demand CSE Conservation Strategy of Ethiopia CW Constructed Wetland dB Decibel EHS Environmental.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project LEL Lower Explosive Limit LFG Landfill Gas LTP Leachate Treatment Plant MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forestry MSE Micro and Small Enterprises NGO Non Governmental Organization NMOC Non-methane organic compounds NIMBY Not In MY Back Yard NSR Noise Sensitive Receivers NUSWMS National Urban Solid Waste Management Standards OHS Occupational Health and Safety PAP Project Affected Parties PPE Personal Protective Equipment ppm Parts per Million RPF Resettlement Policy Framework STDs Sexually Transmitted Diseases SWM Solid Waste Management UEL Upper Explosive limit UV Ultra violate VOCs Volatile Organic Chemicals WWDCE Water Works Design and Construction Enterprise ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 7 .

9: Solid waste collection coverage in Addis Ababa Fig 10: Annual Solid waste generation and collection Fig 11: Street cleaning performance vis-a-vis demand Fig 12: Showing recently abandoned and new open dump sites in Sebeta town Fig 13: Showing an engineered sanitary landfill turned to open dump site in Adama Fig 14: Showing the community consultation conducted at Sendafa landfill site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 8 .17: Summary of Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) Table 18: Environmental and social monitoring indicators.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project List of Tables Table 1: Geographical coordinates of the Sendafa landfill site Table 2: Design dimension and function of the blocks of the transfer station Table 3: Monthly Mean temperature (0c) and average rainfall (mm) data for 6 years (2007-2012) from Bole Meteorological Table 4: Average Monthly wind speed (km/hr) of 6 years (2007-2012) Table 5: Population by sub city and number of kebelle Table 6: Health professional by qualification Table 7: Top ten diseases Table 8: Showing school enrolment by gender Table 9: Ratio of school boys to girls Table 10: Population of the towns in Oromia Special zone Table 11: Top ten diseases in Bereh Woreda Table 12: Summary table of alternative sites considered Table 13: Draft Noise emission standards of FEPA Table 14: Magnitude Matrix showing the significance of potential impacts of the project Table 15: Summary of Major impacts and proposed Mitigating Measures Table 16: Summary of Major Positive Impacts and Enhancement Measures Table. frequency of measurement and reporting Table 19: Cost estimates for implementing mitigation measures Table 20: Summary of Environmental Mitigation and Monitoring costs List of Maps Map 1: Location of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill site Map 2: Location of Transfer station and the Sanitary landfill Map 3: Geology of Addis Ababa and Surrounding Area Map 4: Geological Map and water points in Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site Map 5: Water points and Geological structures around Akaki Transfer station Map 6: Drainage Map of Akaki Catchment Map 7: Aquifer Map of Addis Ababa and its surrounding Area Map 8: Akaki Well Fields (WF) List of Figures Fig 1: Showing the design layout of the new Sendafa Sanitary landfill Fig 2: Site layout of the Bole Arabsa transfer stations Fig 3: General layout of the transfer shade (Block 6) of Koshe Transfer Station Fig 4: Partial view the Akaki transfer station site Fig 5: Partial view the open land in Koshe/Repi for transfer station site Fig 6: Partial view the Bole Arbasa transfer station site Fig 7: Showing current land use types at Sendafa landfill. Akaki and Bole Arbasa transfer station sites Fig 8: Showing the confluence of Legetafo with Legedadi River where sample was collected Fig.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Executive Summary ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 9 .

and the administrative level. the poor waste handling and management practices both by the public and the municipality are putting their shadows on its international image and development. construction of three transfer stations in Koshe/Repi. and Gelan towns. work in and visit. Sendafa. The development of well designed and planned solid waste disposal site that could address the long term desire of the city is now under implementation. the community. Geographically. the capital of Ethiopia. producing and elderly citizens of the City. The ESIA process is designed to ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 10 . Addis Ababa is located in 8055 & 9005 North latitude and 38040 & 38050 East latitude. and air will seriously affect the health of the growing. Hence. Its causes are numerous and interwoven in nature attributed to an individual inhabitant.The City Council and The City Government (Administration) at the top. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) is a process for examining the environmental and social consequences of a proposed development project. The construction of the Sendafa sanitary land fill and three transfer stations is expected to respond to the long awaited problem of the city. the Sub cities (10 in number) in the middle and Woredas (equivalent to districts) at the bottom. transport and controlled removal of solid wastes in an organized landfill is necessary to avert these problems. the city has identified waste management sites. Addis Ababa now is managed by four governmental hierarchies. the need for integrated management approach and up-to-date collection. Uncontrolled disposal of wastes in general and solid wastes in particular to the earth. Historically passing through different administrative restructurings. namely. Addis Ababa is becoming the attention-getting of many international agencies. Burayu. In this respect. and change the image of the city as a capital of an exemplary country of independence to Africans and a sit for different local and international organizations. is one of the recently flourishing cities in Africa. tourists.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 1. and diplomatic corps to mention few to live. construction of new sanitary land fill at Sendafa. Moreover. Though Addis Ababa is astonishingly booming. it will also respond to the emerging needs of these five towns of Oromia Special Zone for such appropriate solid waste management facilities and services. Encompassing nearly 3 million inhabitants in its area of 540km2 with a comfortable average temperature of 160C and an altitude of 2500m above sea level. Bole Arabsa and Akaki. Introduction Addis Ababa. water. it will decrease the productivity of the land. In addition since the services of the proposed solid waste project extends to cover Sebeta. Sululta.

The stated project is implemented by the Addis Ababa City Administration in cooperation with French Development Agency. The present ESIA report is prepared to respond to the requirements of the National and Regional Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) legislations by meeting relevant International standards. National and Regional requirements.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project provide decision makers and stakeholders with adequate information to manage responsibly the environmental and often social consequences of their actions. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 11 . the proposed mitigation measures for the major and significant adverse impacts followed by the Environmental and Social Management Plan are presented in the succeeding chapters. The baseline data reflecting the current status of the physical and social environments of the project area are outlined in chapter six. its objectives and describes the key components of the Solid waste management project. Chapter one to three of the ESIA study report presents information that introduces the proposed development project. The present ESIA report is prepared for the new Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and three transfer stations to be developed by the Addis Ababa Solid waste management project. Whereas identification and analysis of all potential environmental and social impacts are thoroughly discussed in chapter eight. While undertaking this ESIA study due considerations were given to relevant International.

It will also develop relevant mitigation/enhancement ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 12 .2 Objective of the ESIA Study The main objectives of the ESIA study is to describe the existing bio-physical and socio-cultural features of the proposed project environment. and Gelan towns) through the development of the new sanitary land fill. The direct impact zone is considered to be those areas where the existing biophysical. construction and operation activities envisaged by the components of the solid waste project. These include Addis Ababa city and limited towns of Oromia special zone. Sendafa. flora and fauna. at Bole Arabsa. cost effective and affordable integrated waste management system in compliance with the national waste management legislation through developing environmentally friendly infrastructures in the waste sector for Addis Ababa City and the five towns of Oromia special zone. minimize or compensate any undesirable effects expected to result from the construction and operation activities of the project.1 Objectives The overall objective of this project is to preserve. material assets and cultural heritage stemming from the implementation activities of the project. The environmental and social assessment framework would identify the direct and indirect impacts on humans. 2. air. The temporal scope of the ESIA study would mainly focus on assessing the potential impacts that are likely to occur during construction and operational periods of the project. Sululta. socio-economic and environmental components are likely to be directly affected by the activities of the project components. soil. the spatial scope is centred at Koshe/Repi. Sebeta. protect and improve the environmental quality of Addis Ababa and the five towns of Oromia Special Zone (i. 2. The spatial scope of the project will consist of the areas of direct and indirect impact zones.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 2.3 Scope of the ESIA study The spatial and temporal scope of the ESIA study is bounded by the location. assess the potential positive and negative effects. The study is aimed to ensure that the environmental and social effects of the project activities are adequately and appropriately addressed before decisions are made to implement them. the closure of the existing dump site. at Sendafa/Legedadi. Background and Project Justification 2. and recommend appropriate mitigating measures that will avoid. water. and Akaki Beseka areas. Burayu. landscape. the construction of three transfer stations and by providing accompanying services towards an environmentally sustainable.e. The project sites form the centre of influence for the direct impact zone. Accordingly.

Corner point Northing Easting CW0 999500. Location The new Sendafa sanitary land fill site is located at North-Eastern side of Addis Ababa in Oromia Region.49501042 CW1 999594.67219718 Table 1: Geographical coordinates of the Sendafa landfill site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 13 .78457313 491843. Geographically.92665263 CW4 997506.10099301 CW3 997392. in Chebe Weregenu kebelle close to a town called ‘Legetafo’.52507593 492459. It can also be accessed via Hayat road though it requires maintenance and bridge construction over the Legetafo River. The new sanitary landfill site can be accessed by diverting from the main Addis Ababa-Dessie highway near Sendafa and taking the new dry weather road that connect Sendafa town with Dukem town.33567845 491727.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project /offsetting measures and monitoring.1. institutional strengthening measures to be undertaken during project implementation and operation.15479734 491784. Bereh Woreda. It is located about 25km away from Addis Ababa city and about 5km South-West of Lagedadi dam. 3.04732505 CW2 999470.79209330 492458. The new Sendafa sanitary landfill site is sometimes called the ‘Chebe Woregenu landfill site’. Description of the Proposed Project 3. the new sanitary landfill site is delimited with the following coordinates. Finfine Zuria special zone.

2 Description of the new Sanitary Landfill Description project The proposed sanitary landfill consists of the following project components.  Main Features of the Sanitary Landfill site  Drainage System of the Sanitary Landfill  Leachate Treatment Plant  Storm Water Management System  Final Cover of the landfill cells  Landfill Gas Management  Site facilities and Infrastructures ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 14 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site Map -1: Location of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill site 3.

It has a total area of 124. For preliminary planning purposes. However the new Sanitary landfill will not accept medical wastes for disposal in the cells. Disposal of wastes at the site will take place 12 hours a day. it has been assumed that the landfill will be developed as five cells including one for hazardous waste. institutional and commercial sources as well as from service areas of Addis Ababa City. The area used for the construction of the landfill cells and leachate treatment plant is about 82 hectares and the remaining space will be used for the development of all other required facilities such as roads. The type of waste expected to be disposed in the new Sendafa sanitary landfill will be composed of hazardous and non hazardous waste that will be generated from residential. Sebeta. Gelan and Burayu towns. It is anticipated that the life span of the new Sendafa Sanitary Landfill would be 20 years. The new sanitary land fill is expected to handle about 8.000 tons over the next 20 years. Legetafo.5 hectare out of which 102 hectares will be used for the landfill development and the rest is free zone left as a buffer between the land fill and the Bole airport.5) for hazardous waste (see fig 1). buildings and drainages.2% toward the south. industrial. borrow areas and quarries  Landfill Developments and Operation  Site Closure  Transfer Stations 3. 6 days a week throughout the year. Four of the five cells will be used for disposal of nonhazardous solid waste and the remaining one (cell No.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  Stockpiles.2.200.1 Main features of the sanitary landfill The shape of the sanitary landfill site is a strip oriented in North-South direction with a natural slope of 1. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 15 . Sendafa.

Approximately 170 meters of new road will be constructed from the access road to the gate of the landfill.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 1: Showing the design layout of the new Sendafa Sanitary landfill Access to the site will be through a newly constructed asphalt road on the north western part of the landfill site.e. Cell No. The proposed liner systems for active and passive barrier will have the following specifications. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 16 . the bottom and slopes of the constructed cells will be covered with active and passive barriers. To prevent infiltration of leachate into the ground that may pollute the soil and the groundwater. 5). Rainwater infiltration through disposed solid waste is expected to produce leachate. - Passive barrier: 5 meters of materials with a permeability of maximum 10-6 m/s. - Active barrier: The active barrier will be created by placing a 2mm thick HDPE geomembrane on the whole bottom surface of the cells. or equivalent. For the cell receiving hazardous wastes (i. the active security barrier will be reinforced by an additional smooth and UV protected 2mm thick HDPE geo-membrane.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 17 . to a maximum level in the mid afternoon. This pond will not contain dissolved oxygen or algae.2. COD and BOD5 removal is achieved by conversion of both soluble and non-soluble COD and BOD5 into mainly methane. These are explained as follows. The pond proposed is sized and designed in order to ensure a long retention time to avoid hydraulic by-passes of the leachate in the pond. carbon dioxide and water. (a) Anaerobic Pond An anaerobic pond (3m deep) will receive leachate with high organic loads. The dissolved oxygen concentration in the leachate gradually rises after sunrise. This will serve as leakage detection layer. 3. A retention time of at least 20 days will be used to ensure proper treatment.2 m deep) is used to treat the remaining BOD5 and COD downstream of the anaerobic pond. after which it falls to a minimum during the night. there is a diurnal variation in the dissolved oxygen concentration. The process of oxidizing organic matter by algae and aerobic bacteria is dominant. In this anaerobic pond. anaerobic pond and constructed wetland. The algal concentration in the pond depends on nutrient loading.2 Leachate Treatment Plant The proposed sanitary landfill is designed to have a leachate treatment plant. temperature and sunlight. The pipes will lead to a leakage control manhole that will be checked on a monthly basis as soon as the first raw of hazardous waste will be disposed of. but is usually in the range of 500 .2000 µg chlorophyl-a/l. The process of anaerobic digestion is more intense at temperatures above 15°C and can reach up to 75% of BOD5 removal.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project For checking the integrity of the active barrier system. The proposed leachate treatment plant will consist of facultative aerobic pond. (b) Facultative Aerobic Pond The facultative aerobic pond (1. Because of the photosynthetic activities of pond algae. when photosynthesis ceases and respiratory activities consume oxygen. a 15cm sand layer with slotted HDPE pipes within it will be placed between the two HDPE geo-membranes. in response to photosynthetic activity.

These pipes will lead the leachate by gravity to the downstream part of the site. allowing for a safe discharge of sides slopes collected leachate into the bottom LCRS. Maximum spacing between pipes varies. the geo-composite will be laid below the granular drainage layer. nutrients. coarse material is used so that there is space within the drainage layer for leachate to drain freely. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 18 . with a minimum length of 1. A geo-textile filter will be placed over the drainage layer to protect it from clogging as a result of solids transport. To avoid clogging and capillary action holding water in the drainage layer.3 Drainage System of the Sanitary Landfill A drainage layer will be placed all over the bottom liner system and at the bottom of the cells and on the side slopes.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project (c)Wetland A constructed (or engineered) wetlands (CW) is planned to be constructed to grow wetland vegetation to assist in treating wastewater in a more controlled environment than what occurs in natural wetlands. a geo-composite side slope drainage layer with at least the same hydraulic conductivity will be placed. The geo-composite for drainage will be composed of a HDPE core bonded on both sides by a non-woven filtration geotextile.2. suspended solids. Slotted collection pipes will be laid (embedded) within the gravel layer in such a manner that the leachate will be drained within the gravels layer to these slotted pipes. pathogens.5mm. The pollutants removed by CWs include organic materials.5m. heavy metals and other toxic or hazardous pollutants. Since it is impossible to place 50cm of gravels on the side slopes. A layer of 50 cm of gravels (with low CaCO3 content to prevent degradation by acidic leachate) will be laid on top of the protection geo-textile (last layer of the Liner System) . 3.The size of the gravels will be 16/32mm. The collectors shall lead to HDPE transmission pipes in the peripheral trenches near the ground level and along the perimeter bunds. The slotted pipes will be connected to HDPE collectors (full pipes) at the base of the slopes at each low point of cells. The choice has been made to design a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow (HSSF) system as the efficiency is higher than a Free Water Surface Flow (FWSF) for the same plan area. The thickness of this geo-composite for drainage will never be less than 7. At the bottom of the slopes.

Storm water management works are designed to control flow within the waste-relief boundary and external surface water flow to prevent flooding and erosion. 3. The maximum leachate inflow at the LTP inlet will be controlled so as to never get over 650m3/day. where a pump will be installed in order to feed the Leachate Treatment Plant. In addition. originating from non-operating areas of the landfill will be collected and conveyed downstream of the cells. the Leachate Treatment Plant will be fed by gravity only whereas for the other Cells the gravity collector pipes will lead to a pumping manhole downstream of the site. No leachate will be discharged to the Storm water Management System. The cover will be designed to allow stability over the waste mass and it will be placed in progress with the operation.5 Final Cover of the landfill cells The new sanitary landfill is designed to have a final cover with proper slopes.4 Storm Water Management System The design of the sanitary landfill consists of a storm water management system. and ratio of cover soil to waste. originating from non-operated cells or sub-cells will be collected through the leachate collection network in place and will be conveyed via another storm water piping network parallel to the leachate transmission network. 3. Leachate will be collected from the lined cells area and sent to the downstream Leachate Treatment Plant.2.2. Storm water coming from outside the cells will all be collected by the ditches of the perimeter road. Non-contaminated storm water. The pipes used to drain the uncontaminated storm water coming from non-operated cells will be the same as the future Leachate Drainage Pipe. The slopes may be adapted during the operation period depending on the actual waste density. Non-contaminated storm water. on the slopes and on the final cover to protect slopes from erosion. The final cover will meet internationally recognized slope requirements of 5 to 20 percent. Compacted waste will be mounded and compacted to provide base for ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 19 . The storm water management system will include peripheral storm water ditches made of reinforced concrete.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project For the operation of Cell 1. The Leachate Collection System is entirely separated from the Storm water Management System. Control valves will therefore be installed on the feeding pipe and assure that this maximum flow is never exceeded. berm will be made on top of the waste mass and ditches.

7 Site facilities and Infrastructures The Addis Ababa Road Construction Authority is implementing a project for the construction of 8km asphalt road that provides access to the new Sanitary landfill site in Sendafa. • Horizontal network of HDPE pipes connecting the wells to the extraction system and the flare. • Analyzers to monitor the gas quality and prevent explosions. The social and environmental impacts of these works had been tackled late 2012 and early 2013 by Omega ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 20 . Fermentation is a phenomenon that occurs spontaneously in engineered landfills as a result of the anaerobic digestion of organic compounds. These wells could also be used for leachate pumping in case of clogging or breakdown of the bottom leachate drainage system. The equipments that will be used to collect the LFG are: • Vertical pumping wells drilled within the waste body. Finally. This produces a gas referred to as “Landfill Gas” (LFG) or “biogas” that is essentially composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Each well has a radius of about 30 meters. and its impact on the greenhouse effect.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project profiled cap.2. • Condensate traps collecting the humidity condensate in the pipes. 3. Each cell would have about 25 wells. The LFG collection pipes are necessary to get the vacuum to the wells and get the gas from the well to the flare.2. The LFG system including drilling of the wells will be constructed with the final cover at the end of the lifetime of each cells or sub-cells. • Blower creating a negative pressure in the LFG network for LFG extraction and • Flare burning the gas and converting the hazardous methane gas into CO2 reducing the impact on global warming. The confinement of the solid waste at the Sendafa sanitary landfill will steadily increase the production of methane until it finally stabilizes at around 45% by volume. the external slope of the peripheral bunds will be covered with local vegetation at their installation whereas the surface of each cell will be covered as soon as the height of waste reaches its final dimension. This LFG will need to be collected because of the danger it presents for the staff and local residents.6 Landfill Gas Management The proposed sanitary landfill has included a mechanism for landfill gas management in its detail design. 3.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Consulting, also in charge of the works supervision and contract management on behalf of
AACA. In addition a new 170 meter long access road will be connecting the entrance gate of the
sanitary landfill site to the main road at the northwest corner of the site.
A gate will be constructed across the entrance and instructions to the vehicle drivers delivering
the waste to the site will be put in place. A road 7.0 m wide with a two-lane cross section will be
constructed on the top of the bund between cells 1 and 2/3 and between Cells 4 and Cells 1/2/3.
These roads will be asphalted and the remaining bund crests will be gravel-surfaced so as to
allow for maintenance vehicle to access if needed.
Potable water to the landfill site will be provided from two water storage tanks of 10 m.cu
capacity that will be constructed next to the building facilities area. Moreover, electricity to
the site will be provided through an on-site generator owned and operated by the Landfill
operator.
The fencing of the entire sanitary landfill site with concrete pole and barbed wire has been
implemented already and is well underway. The fence is planned to be completed well before the
commencement of civil works of the sanitary landfill development. Weighbridges and gatehouse
are to be provided close to the entrance of the site to control access and record quantities and types
of the incoming waste. A guard house will be provided for the weighbridge attendant.
Trucks wheel cleaning is required to remove litter and mud at the tipping face of the waste
collection vehicles. The release of this mud and particularly litter on the site access road will create
an unacceptable environmental impact. To minimize such impact concrete hardstand for a highpressure washer will be provided.
An administration building will also be constructed close to the entrance and will provide offices
for the management and administration staff as well as meeting room, locker room and toilet for
operators. Shades will also be constructed for the maintenance of equipment and protection of
vehicles from direct sunlight.

3.2.8 Stockpiles, borrow areas and quarries
During construction phase it is planned in the design report that soil from excavations on the site
will first be used, when suitable, for construction of cells, bunds as well as any filling operations
necessary to fit with the projected levels of the overall site as indicated on the design drawings.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 21

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Any excavated soil not utilized immediately will be stockpiled on site for future use. Stockpiling
will be the sole responsibility of the landfill operator. Any surplus of soil from excavation will be
used for daily, intermediate, and final cover on the landfill areas. Soil will also be needed for road
construction, any required backfilling operations, and berms. Sources of soil will include all
excavations within the site boundaries. As the south-western part of the site can be utilized neither
for any landfill cell nor for any leachate treatment facilities, it will only serve as borrow area for any
filling works both during construction and operation.
In case of a lack of suitable material from the landfill construction excavations, the following
borrow sites and quarries sites has been identified.

Clay material is found in a borrow area located 2km away from the landfill in the north-east
direction (493654E and 999834mN)

Gravel material is available within 3-4km radius of the Landfill site. The material is coming
from the basaltic rock formation which is moderately weathered. The site is currently used
as aggregate quarry site for gravel road construction

3.2.9 Landfill Operation
At the end of each working day, the entire working face of a cell will be graded smooth and
compacted. Approved cover material will be placed on all exposed waste at the working face. If soil
is used as daily cover, a minimum thickness of 150 mm will be placed. When possible, sandy soil
will be preferred as daily cover material to allow the downward passage of water and provide good
hydraulic connection between the waste layers. Finer-grained soils are less suitable because they
can create lower permeability layers and pathways for the lateral migration of leachate towards the
landfill side slopes. Use of finer-grained soils for daily cover purposes can also cause access
problems for waste delivery vehicles, particularly during windy weather conditions.
Basic functions to be performed by landfill equipment at the site are:

Waste grading and compaction;

Excavation and compaction of daily and intermediate cover;

Typically, these functions will be performed by landfill compactors and wheeled loaders. A pick-up
truck will also be included in the typical on-site equipment fleet. Other functions requiring
equipment are landfill cell preparation, final cover construction, delivery of drop-off bin wastes to
the working face, road maintenance, and dust control. Some of these functions may be performed
ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 22

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

with on-site equipment, but others may require equipment to be leased or a contractor to be hired.
Routine maintenance and cleaning will be performed as necessary to keep onsite equipment in good
operating order.
In areas where land filling has been temporarily discontinued for six months or more, soil will be
placed to minimum thickness of 300 mm as intermediate cover. This intermediate cover will
facilitate the movement of equipment and prevent the exposure of waste from erosion. Intermediate
cover will be placed on the top of each lift of waste and on any interior slopes that will not be
disturbed until the next land filling stage.

3.2.10 Site Closure
During the operational phases of the sanitary landfill, final cover and seeding will be applied
progressively to portions of the landfill area that are completed. Consequently, site closure will
involve reaching final waste elevations over the last remaining area of the landfill followed by the
application and seeding of final cover in that area. During site closure, equipment on site will be
removed. The entrance gate and perimeter fencing will be retained to control access.
A Closure Plan will be submitted to the relevant Federal and Regional offices of the EPA for
approval when the landfill site is two years from its projected completion or by the time 90 percent
of the landfill has been filled, whichever comes first. The closure plan for the site would include
plan showing site appearance after closure, description of the proposed end use of the site,
descriptions of the procedures for closure of the site, including advance notification of the public of
the landfill closure.

3.3 Transfer Stations
A transfer station is an interface between short haul waste collection vehicles and long haul vehicles
which are more appropriate for economical long distance hauling in the process of waste disposal.
Three transfer stations are proposed to be constructed at Akaki, Koshe and Bole Arabsa sites as part
and parcel of the overall waste management system of Addis Ababa City Administration and the
five towns in Oromia special zone. It is to be recalled that the Filidoro site has been changed to
Bole Arabsa site because of the unavailability and unsuitability of the former for transfer station
purpose.
The proposed transfer stations are designed to have the following main building blocks that are
necessary for its day to day operations (see table 2). These blocks are coded Block-A to Block-K in
the site layout of the three transfer stations with slight variation in coding from one to another. In
ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 23

84 m2 165 m2 165 m2 Maintenance workshop Block 4 12 m2 12 m2 12 m2 Generator House Block 5 12. shower room and toilets Block 3 139.25 m2 30 m2 30 m2 weighing bridge control room Block 6 900 m2 1052 m2 2070 m2 Transfer station shed Block 7 33 m2 33 m2 33 m2 Guard House /Main Gate Table 2: Design dimension and function of the blocks of the transfer station Block 6 will consist of a shed where the 8m3 skip trucks unload the solid waste hauled from different parts of the city to the transfer stations. Loading will be achieved by front-end loader in the transfer stations. The mode of operation of the proposed transfer stations are designed to have low level of sophistication. All the access ways will be asphalt road and the manoeuvrings areas (loading & unloading docks) will be paved with concrete slab (see fig. Its operational mechanism will fundamentally consist of depositing the waste onto a suitably designed platform for manual loading into the large long-haul vehicle by scraping waste from the floor by front end loader. The catchment area for each transfer station is defined based on sub city limits while giving due consideration to maintain the collection areas to be as close as possible to the transfer stations by ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 24 . Size of the Building block Function of the Building block Akaki Bole Arabsa Koshe Block 1 1000 m2 1130 m2 1130 m2 Sorting room Block 2 128 m2 128 m2 128 m2 Changing room. In addition the blocks in each transfer station are equipped with the required basic facilities for the staff working in the stations. The long haul trucks to be applied will be open top trailers that unload by tipping in the Sanitary landfill cells. Block No.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project order to avoid confusion. the main blocks are listed in table 2 as Block 1 to 7. Access roads for unloading trucks (8m3) and for loading trucks (long haul vehicles) will be separated. 3). Block 6 also serves as a loading ground for the 30m3 trucks that haul the solid waste to the sanitary landfill.

block 1) for undertaking waste sorting activities where wastes will be segregated for recovery. tracks that will be engaged in the transportation of wastes from the City to the transfer station and then to the sanitary landfill will be maintained in block 3. waste will be hauled directly from skip point to the landfill. The site layout of Bole Arabsa transfer stations is shown in fig 2 as typical demonstration. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 25 .e. The transfer station design have also incorporated a large shade (i. Koshe and Bole Arabsa transfer station sites is about 2082 meters. On the other hand. 1820 meters and 1207 meters respectively. According to the traffic flow analysis of the detail design report of the transfer stations. There will be fence around the transfer station sites and the length of the fences around Akaki. For those sub-cities or Oromia special zone towns situated close to the Sanitary landfill (Such as Sendafa and Legetafo towns).Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project taking into account distance between sub-cities and expected outlets. reuse and recycling. The incoming trucks loaded with waste will be weighed in Block 5 of the control room. about 333 trips of the 8m3 skip trucks and 34 trips of the 30m3 long haul trucks are expected to be handled daily in each of the transfer stations.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 2. Site layout of the Bole Arabsa transfer stations ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 26 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 3: General layout of the transfer shade (Block 6) of Koshe Transfer Station ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 27 .

the Akaki transfer station site is situated on residual soil. The third layer is greyish salty clay and it extended up to 10m. This residual soil has three layers and has more than 10m thickness. Fig 4: Partial view the Akaki transfer station site 3. active land fill site in the southern part and ring road and a school in the northern part. The site is bounded by the Condominium house in northern.2. liquid waste treatment site in the East and by a farm land on southern and eastern part. The topography of the Akaki transfer station site is relatively flat.3m. The site is bounded by the reclaimed land fill site in the northern part. The site is found in the Little Akaki River catchment and its tributary Jomo River is found 200 meters north of the landfill site.2 Koshe transfer Station The Koshe Repi transfer Station is situated at the south west part of Addis Ababa City on the existing landfill site.1 Akaki transfer station The Akaki transfer station is located Southern part of Addis Ababa.3.4m. The river flow direction is from south to north. The second layer is characterized by black clay soil with an average thickness of 1.0. Since the southern ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 28 . It is found in Akaki Kaliti Sub city of Addis Ababa City Administration. Geographically the site is located 473679E and 979014N. The elevation of the site varies from 2066 to 2068 masl. The first layer is characterized by top clay soil and has a thickness of 0.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 3. It is found in the Woreda 01/02 of Nifas Silk Lafto Su-city of the Addis Ababa City Administration. One geotechnical core drilling with depth of 10m and 4 test pits were excavated to understand the geology of the area.3. Geographically the site is located 468026E and 991692N. Geologically.

5km away from Bole Lemi Industry zone and Bole Ayat Condominium Site. Therefore. The Koshe landfill site will be rehabilitated in two phases.1g. Below the organic soil.3 Bole Arabsa transfer Station The Bola Arabsa Transfer station is located South East part of Addis Ababa. The organic soil is characterized by partly decomposed waste material with little clay and thickness of 10 to 80cm. Koshe site lies on Rhyolite rock formation that extends up to 7 meters deep.1m to 0.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project part of the site is bounded by the ring road that already has its own drainage system. Ethiopia. there is rhyolitic volcanic rock. The site is bounded in all directions by agricultural farm land. Koshe transfer station is partially operating landfill site. The thickness of the soil is not more than 80cm and has very loose top soil. it is considered as bad material for the construction of engineering structures and it has to be removed during construction. The site is characterized by organic soil and rhyolite rock formation. it is sandy clay. The soil layers have a thickness of 0. Fig 5: Partial view the open land in Koshe/Repi for transfer station site 3. The bed rock has slight to ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 29 . The transfer station site is 3. This soil is black in colour. Below this soil layer there is basaltic rock characterized by slight to moderately weathered rock having thickness of more than 10m. The first phase of 19 hectares will be rehabilitated with the aim of optimization of the transportation of waste to the future Sendafa Landfill site. Koshe transfer station site is located on zone 2 seismic zone of Ethiopia with pick ground acceleration of 0. It is found in Bole Sub city of Addis Ababa City Administration. Geographically the site is located 486390E and 988652N. storm water flow is not expected to enter into the transfer station area from outside.8m thick soil. The Bole Arabsa site is situated on basaltic rock formation and is covered by very thin soil layer.3.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project moderately weathered rock and has moderate strength. Fig 6: Partial view the Bole Arbasa transfer station site Map 2: Location of Transfer station and the Sanitary landfill ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 30 .15g. Akaki and Bole Arabsa Sites are located on Zone 3 of seismic earthquake zone with peak ground acceleration of 0.

land and other natural resources and to deploy them for their common benefits & development. Article 44(2) of the Constitution states that all persons who have been displaced. The government shall pay fair compensation for property found on the land but the amount of compensation shall not take into account the value of land. or whose livelihood has been adversely affected as a result of state programs have the right to commensurate monetary or alternative means of compensation including relocation with adequate State assistance. National and Regional policies and regulatory framework 4. Accordingly a review and commentary on the extent to which all social.1. Government shall all the time promote the participation of the people in the formulation of national development policies and programmes.1 Policy framework Following the constitution of the FDRE.1 Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia The Constitution is the supreme law of the country. it shall also have the duty to support the initiatives of the people in their development endeavours (Article 89 5&6). Moreover the Constitution states that. the government may expropriate private property for public purposes subject to payment in advance of compensation commensurate to the value of the property (Article 40(8). to be consulted with respect to policies and projects affecting their community. Article 43 (2) dealing with the rights to development states that nationals have the right to participate in national development and.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4. on behalf of the people. without prejudice to the right to private property. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 31 . Hence relevant policies and laws at various government levels have been drafted and issued in more recent years. 1/1995 as amended) is the foundation for human rights. The concepts of sustainable development and environmental rights are enshrined in the Constitution of the FDRE through articles 43 and 44. Moreover. The Constitution of the FDRE (Proclamation No. social. 4. Economic objectives of the Constitution states that Government has the duty to hold. regulations and institutional frameworks. whose provisions must be complied with by all other policies. economic and public health related importance of solid waste management is getting increasing attention by the various levels of the government. which states among others the right to development and right to live in clean and healthy environment. economic and environmental related issued are addressed as following. in particular. and natural resources and environmental management.

programs and projects. 1996). 4. artificial and cultural resources. 1997). and environmental protection. It recognizes the importance of incorporating environmental factors into development activities from the outset. man-made and cultural resources. physical land use planning. human-made and cultural resources and their environment as a whole. national and sectoral strategies to conserve and protect the environment. The CSE sets out detailed strategies and action plans as well as the institutional arrangements required for the implementation of sectoral as well as crosssectoral interventions for the management of Ethiopia’s natural. This document provides a strategic framework for integrating environment into new and existing policies. The overall policy goal is to improve and enhance the health and quality of life of all Ethiopians and promote sustainable social and economic development through sound management and use of natural. and people have the right to be fully consulted and express their views in planning and implementation of environmental policies and project. cultural and gender issues in sustainable resources and environmental management. The ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 32 . which views environmental management as an important component of development. • Development of environmental education. • Promotion of participation in sustainable development of natural. Paramount amongst these was the conservation strategy of Ethiopia (CSE.2 National and Regional Conservation Strategy Since the early 1990s. 4. It is also an important policy document. public awareness and human resources.1. so as to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. • Land resource use policy and strategies.1. • Integration of social.3 Environmental Policy of Ethiopia The Environmental Policy of Ethiopia (EPE) was issued in April 1997. The most important areas that are addressed by the CSE include the following: • Management of forest and woodland resources.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Article 92 of the Constitution states that the design and implementation of any program and development projects shall not damage or destroy the environment. the Federal Government of Ethiopia has undertaken a number of initiatives that aims to develop regional. The major environmental and natural resources management issues facing Ethiopia are well documented in the CSE (FDRE.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) policies are included in the cross sectoral environmental policies. This is largely related to low levels of income and widespread poverty. nutritional deficiencies. • Provides for an early consideration of environmental impacts in projects and program design. in 1998. The principal features of the Environmental Policy in this area are: • Provides for protection of human and natural environments.1. 4. • Includes mitigation plans and contingency plans. The EIA policy emphasizes the early recognition of environmental issues in project planning at all levels of administration.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project policy consists mainly of guiding principles and various sectoral and cross-sectoral policies for sustainable environmental management. • Recognizes public consultation. • Development of appropriate capacity based on needs assessment. low levels of education. In addition to its guiding principles. • Ensuring accessibility to health care for the whole population. poor environmental conditions. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 33 . the policy addresses sectoral and cross sectoral environmental issues. issued a health policy based on the following main principles: • Promotion of disease preventive components. The government has therefore assigned a very high priority to significantly improving health care and. • Promotion of private sector and NGO participation in the provision of health care. The policy seeks to ensure the empowerment and participation of the people and their organizations at all levels in environmental management activities.4 National Health Policy Ethiopia had a low level of health coverage even in comparison with other Sub-Saharan countries. and inadequate access to health services. raise public awareness and promote understanding of the essential linkage between environment and development. • Provides for monitoring and auditing • Establishes legally binding requirements • Institutionalizes policy implementation The policy establishes the Federal Environmental Protection Authority (nowadays Ministry of Environment & Forestry) to harmonize sectoral development plans and implement environmental management programs for the country.

The strategies include raising the awareness of personal and environmental health care and sanitation through information. and they have to be fully convinced. and contains comprehensive policy provisions for the conservation and ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 34 . education and communication (IEC). as well as all natural resources. Nationalities and the People of Ethiopia. Article 40 of the Constitution indicates that land is a common property of the Nations. and promotion of primary health care through community participation. However. Also article 4(5) of the Proclamation 94/1994 deals with provision of land for the conservation. is exclusively vested in the State and People of Ethiopia. prohibiting its buying and selling. this can be effective only after the consultation and consent of the peasantry and subject to the assurance of their benefits. 4. The Constitution of FDRE retained land under the control of the people and government of Ethiopia thus. all legal provisions cited above.6 National Biodiversity Policy The National Biodiversity Policy (NBP) was established in 1998 based on a holistic ecosystem approach to conserve.5 Land Tenure Policy The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) states that the right to ownership of rural and urban land.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • Promotion and strengthening of inter-sectoral activities through a national self-reliance program. compensated and have to participate in all phases of the project implementation. • Democratization and decentralization of the health care system Health Sector Development Plans and Strategies have been designed to implement the stated health principles within a defined period of time. rational development and sustainable utilization of the country’s biodiversity. and buying and selling of land is prohibited but leasing rights is allowed. development and utilization of state forests or protected areas.1. develop and utilize the country's biodiversity resources.1. 4. The Land Policy of Ethiopia strongly support that project plans must include attractive and sustainable resettlement strategies to the people who are going to be displaced as a result of the development plan. In general. and shall not be subjected to sale or to other means of transfer. make rural and urban lands the property of the People and Government of Ethiopia. it is the right for existing land owner to be compensated fully and satisfactorily if land is expropriated by the state. The policy provides for guidance towards effective conservation. control of disease. Moreover.

among others. providing benefits far in excess of those obtained from alternative uses to which they are subjected. and mobilization of international cooperation and assistance. The major objectives of the policy include: enhancing the City’s image and generating employment and income.1.C. and have conducted successful workshops and awareness raising programs. hence OSH issues. 1995 E. The achievement of sustainable solid waste management services through the adoption of cost recovery mechanisms as well as the involvement of the private sector as an alternative mode of service delivery are other aspects stressed in the policy.) the document provides a good background on solid waste and its management in Addis Ababa as well as specific city-level solid waste related figures. compared to the above mentioned issues. although this can possibly linked to an implicit assumption about its coverage in other separate legislations. are focusing efforts in this direction. and no clear policy and legislative framework have been designed.7 The Dry Waste Management Policy of the AACA Issued by the Addis Ababa City Government (in Amharic. the policy gives less attention to public health aspects of waste management. and promoting the use of indigenous and appropriate technology in solid waste management related operations. The policy is expected to serve as framework for other more detailed pieces of legislations (dry waste management regulations) to be issued by the City Administration. however. efforts towards their conservation and sustainable utilization are very limited. Moreover. while the government is to play regulatory and capacity building roles as well as to provide the requisite institutional and legal support thus creating an enabling environment for non-state actors. Accordingly. it is explicit about the desired roles to be played by the various actors. in collaboration with Ramsar Bureau and other funding organizations. It is worth noting that. suggests strategies in the following four major areas. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 35 . 4. Integration of biodiversity conservation and development in federal and regional sectoral development initiatives. have been identified as the principal strategies for implementation of the policy. (b) Research and Development and (c) Environmental Impact Assessment. Monitoring and Evaluation. Wetlands are considered among the most productive type of ecosystem in the world. education and communication (IEC). The EPA and Ethiopian Wildlife & Natural History Society (EWNHS). which implies a view that consider solid waste as a resource.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project sustainable utilization of biodiversity. The policy. NGOs are encouraged to play an active role in information. namely (a) Information. Ethiopia is endowed with vast wetlands.

• Licensing agencies to ensure that the requisite authorization has been duly received prior to issuing an investment permit. 4. 295/2002) This law clarifies the institutional mandate and responsibilities of the Federal Environmental Protection Authority (nowadays MoEF) and aims to integrate environmental considerations into the policies and decision-making of sectoral agencies through such means as the establishment of environmental units in these agencies at the federal level and the creation of independent environmental agencies at the regional level.2.2 Legislative Framework 4. a cross-sectoral co-coordinating body that advises the federal EPA and supervises its activities. This law also re-established the Environmental Protection Council. guidelines.1 Establishment of Environmental Protection Organs (Proclamation No. and environmental standards prepared by the EPA. The proponent of the project must prepare the EIA following the format specified in the legislation.2. • The EPA or the relevant regional environmental agencies may issue an exemption from carrying out an EIA in projects supposed to have an insignificant environmental impact.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4. and (iii) reviewing and approving directives. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 36 . a trade or operating license or a work permit to a business organization.2 Environmental Impact Assessment (Proclamation No. The mandate of the Council includes: (i) reviewing environmental policies. strategies and laws proposed by the EPA and issuing recommendations to government. The law specifies the projects and activities that will require an environmental impact assessment (EIA). (ii) providing appropriate advice on the implementation of the Environmental Protection Policy of Ethiopia. • A licensing agency may suspend or cancel a licence that has already been issued where the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency suspends or cancels environmental authorization. 299/2002) This Proclamation (No 299/2002) aims primarily at making the EIA mandatory for categories of projects specified under a directive issued by the EPA. among other things: • Specified categories of projects to be subjected to an EIA and receive an authorization from the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency prior to commencing implementation of the project. The Proclamation requires. The EPA will then review the EIA and either approve the project (with or without conditions) or reject it.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Procedures that need to be followed in the process of conducting an environmental impact assessment are described in the Proclamation. desertification. Thus a project developer is expected to act as follows: • Undertake a timely environmental impact assessment. religiously important area. According to this EIA guideline projects are categorized into three schedules: Schedule 1: Projects which may have adverse and significant environmental impacts thus requiring a full Environmental Impact Assessment Schedule 2: Projects whose type. will fall under category 1 irrespective of the nature of the project. identifying the likely adverse impacts. important landscape. According to this guideline all project proponents and executing bodies (agencies) in the country should operate in close cooperation with the EPA to ensure that proper mitigating measures are designed and implemented. projects situated in an environmentally sensitive areas such as land prone to erosion. This in effect means that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be prepared by project proponents and be examined. etc. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 37 . scale or other relevant characteristics have potential to cause some significant environmental impacts but are not likely to warrant a full EIA study Schedule 3: Projects which would have no impact and do not require an EIA However. To put this Proclamation into effect the EPA issued guideline documents. commented and approved by the EPA. Environmental guidelines are among the tools for facilitating the consideration of environmental issues and principles of sustainable development and their inclusion in development proposals. especially for projects with an adverse effect on the environment. incorporating the means of their prevention. areas of historic or archaeological interest. which provide details of the EIA process and its requirements. • Submit an environmental impact study report to the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency for review. and submitting the environmental impact study report accompanied by the necessary documents to the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency.

the environmental impact study report is required to contain sufficient and accurate information that would enable the bureau to give its decision. The enforcement of this requirement for environmental assessment is spearheaded by LEPB and its branch offices at Zonal. particularly of the affected community in environmental impact assessment study and their participation while review of the EIA is made”. 300/2002 on Environmental Pollution Control primarily aims to ensure the right of citizens to a healthy environment and to impose obligations to protect the environment of the ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 38 . nature and characteristics of the proposed project. The Oromia region version of the proclamations is called ‘Oromia National Regional state Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation No. A. direct and indirect impacts. The regional proclamation also stipulates that LEPB “shall ensure the inclusion of the opinion of the public.A City Government Environmental Protection Authority and its structures at different levels).2. 4. cumulative impacts and e. technology and its application process. 4.c.3 Addis Ababa City Government Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations No. 21/2006 This Regulation (No. 176/2012’. 176/2012 of the region clearly stipulates the requirement for environmental assessment by stating that “no person shall commence implementation of a project that requires environmental impact assessment without the authorization from the Bureau”. 300/2002) Proclamation No. This implies that the EIA report is expected to contain all necessary information that is relevant to the project site.2. In addition to the proclamations.2. 21/2006) aims primarily at making the EIA mandatory for categories of projects specified under a guideline issued by the Authority and which will be implemented within the jurisdiction of A. the National EIA Proclamation No.5 Environmental Pollution Control (Proclamation No. The LEPB is required by the law to review the EIA study report submitted to it within ten days and issue the authorization letter if satisfied with the report within the stated time limit.A city government. However. the Land Administration and Environmental Protection Bureau (LAEPB) of Oromiya is preparing detailed regulations on EIA. City and Woreda levels. According to the regional proclamation. The Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation No.176/2012 Regional State Environmental Impact Assessment The Oromia regional state has adopted the Federal Proclamation on Environmental Impact Assessment after it customized it to the regional realities.e..t.4 Oromiya National Proclamation No.299/2002 is the basis for this regulation and the principles and procedures are almost similar except the coverage and difference on the responsible organ actively involved on the decision making process of the EIA (i.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4.

In this proclamation the following provisions pertinent to the treatment and disposal of hazardous waste management has been provided: As regards to Inter-Regional Movement of Solid wastes: • Regional states may require any transit of solid waste through their region to be packed and transported in conformity with the directives and standards issued by the concerned environmental agency. at their discretion. 4. it empowers the Federal Environmental Protection Authority or the Regional Environmental Authority to assign environmental inspectors with the duties and responsibilities of controlling environmental pollution. inspectors belonging to the EPA or the relevant regional environmental agency are empowered by the Proclamation to enter. without prior notice or court order. Capacity building is also an area of intervention by the federal and regional environmental entities to foster sound management of waste in the country. In order to ensure implementation of environmental standards and related requirements. municipal waste.6 Solid Waste Management Proclamation (No. Environmental Protection Authority (nowadays MoEF) is responsible for initiating and overseeing the implementation of overall policies.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project country. the establishment of environmental quality standards for air. the Proclamation provides a basis from which the relevant environmental standards applicable to Ethiopia can be developed. The Proclamation recognized the existing solid waste management problems in the country and emphasizes the need to prevent environmental pollution that may result from the disposal of solid waste. and monitoring of pollution. water and soil. any land or premises at any time. In general. Such wide powers derive from Ethiopia's serious concern and commitment to protecting the environment from pollution. while sanctioning violation of these standards as criminally punishable offences Furthermore. strategies and guidelines on solid waste management. Regional environmental agencies and urban administrations are also responsible for drawing out their plans as regards the implementation of the Proclamation and monitoring efficacy. The proclamation also addresses noise as one source of environmental pollution and it seeks for standards and limits for noise providing for the maximum allowable noise level taking into account the settlement patterns. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 39 .2. 513/2007) This proclamation came into force on February 2007 with an objective of implementing effective solid waste management in the country. The law addresses the management of hazardous waste.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Each urban administration shall in conformity with the relevant environmental standards,
ensure that solid waste disposal sites are constructed and properly used and managed.

As regards to the Transportation of Solid Waste:

Without prejudice to the mandate of the appropriate agency to register, undertake annual
registration and technical inspection of the motor vehicles as well as to issue a driving
license .the conformity of any vehicle or equipment with the specifications set by concerned
environmental agency shall be ascertained by the relevant urban administration prior to its
use for solid waste management

Each urban administration shall ,without prejudice to the weight and size of the vehicles
determine under the relevant laws, set standards to determine the skills of drivers and
appropriateness of the equipment and equipment operators and to prevent overload of the
solid wastes

As regards to the Construction of Waste Disposal Sites

Urban administrations shall ensure that a solid waste disposal site that was under
construction or was constructed prior to the coming into force of this proclamation is
subjected to environmental auditing as per the relevant laws.

Urban administration shall ensure that any new solid waste disposal site being constructed
or an existing solid waste disposal site undergoing any modification has had an
environmental impact assessment according to the relevant law.

As regards to the Auditing of Solid Waste Disposal Sites

Each urban administration is responsible for ensuring that an environmental audit is carried
out on every existing solid waste disposal sites.

The owner of any solid waste disposal site shall make the necessary modification if the
environmental audit made under sub-article (1) of this article shows that its continued
operation poses a risk to public health or the environment.

The authority may prescribe environmental criteria to determine the alternative use of a
solid waste disposal site that has ceased operation or is abandoned.

As Regards to Civil Liabilities

The owner of any solid waste disposal site shall, regardless of fault, be liable for any
damage caused to the environment, human health or property in the course of its operation
and after its closure

ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 40

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Without prejudice to sub-article (1) of the article ,exemption from liability shall be granted
only when certified that it is the victim himself or a third party for whom the owner of the
solid waste disposal site is not responsible that has caused the damage

Any claim for damage under sub-article (1) of this article shall be barred by a period of
limitation unless thought within two years from the date on which the occurrence of the
damage is known

The major intents of the proclamation, as described in the preamble and objective, are maximizing
the economic and social benefits of waste as well as promoting decentralized waste management
services which also include a more strong involvement of the community and public at all level in
the delivery of waste management services. The proclamation considers waste as a resource, and
accords due attention to the issue of waste recycling.

4.2.7 Public Health Proclamation
The Public Health Proclamation (200/2000) comprehensively addresses aspects of public health
including among others, water quality control, waste handling and disposal, availability of toilet
facilities, and the health permit and registration of different operations. The Proclamation prohibits
the disposal of untreated solid or liquid hazardous wastes into water bodies or the environment that
can affect human health.

4.2.8 National Rural Land Administration and Use (Proclamation No. 456/2005)
The Rural Land Administration and Use Proclamation (Proclamation No. 456/2005) defines the
state ownership of rural land and the tenure rights of the land occupant, including rights to
"property produced on his land", rights of inter-generational tenure transfer, and rights of exchange
land and limited leasing rights. Provisions are made for the registration and certification of tenure
rights. Part Three of the Proclamation presents regulations relating to the use of rural land,
particularly as it relates to soil and water conservation and watershed management. The rural land
administration and land use laws are to be implemented by the regional states.
Land holding right gives the right to use the land for agricultural purposes as well as to lease it and,
while the right remains in effect, bequeath it to family members, as well as the right to acquire
property thereon, by labour or capital, and to sell, exchange and bequeath the same. The
Proclamation also addresses environmental concerns, including non-compliance with directives on
environmental protection.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 41

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Article 7(3) of the Proclamation reinforces the rights of land users to compensation for the
development they have made on the land. It also states that when the land holder is evicted by
federal government, the rate of compensation would be determined based on the federal land
administration law. When the rural land holder is evicted by regional governments, the rate of
compensation would be determined based on the rural land administration laws of regions.
It is envisaged that the Proclamation will create a sense of ownership among the vast majority of
the rural population and enable them to take initiatives and collectively engage in environmental
management activities.

4.2.9 Addis Ababa City Administration Waste Management, Collection & Disposal
Regulation
This is an elaborate piece of legislation (Regulation No 13/2004) which has 9 parts and 37 articles.
Among the key concerns of this regulation are environmental pollution and public health related
issues as well as the economic importance of waste. The general spirit of the regulation is the
promotion of a more decentralized, participatory and private sector driven waste management
service delivery in the City. The regulation also provides, among others, for the establishment of
governmental organizations dedicated for waste management related affairs both at the City, SubCity and Kebele levels.
As expected, the regulation stipulates general provisions that assume detail guidelines and
directives to be developed at a later stage to enable the proper implementation of the regulation.
The regulation gives a clear definition for the term “hazardous waste”. Article 13 which refers to
the management and disposal of hazardous wastes, for example, stipulates that a directive shall be
issued on this issue. The regulation also stresses the need to have special authorization from the
City’s Environmental Protection Authority, although specific tools that will be used in enforcing
these provisions are not indicated.
Notwithstanding the key roles residential and business establishments in the City play in achieving
the objectives stated in the regulations, it is more explicit about the responsibility of the generators
than on the commitment of the government. Likewise, Article 27 that refers to “Safety and Health
of Online Workers” stipulates that taking care of the safety and health of online workers is the
responsibility of the employer, although it does not provide for specific instruments to be employed
to ensure its proper adherence. It is also worthwhile to note that Article 29, which is about
incentives, explicitly promotes the use of appropriate technology for recycling and reduction of
ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 42

Enforcing the laws and policies including EIAs and environmental monitoring.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project waste. setting environmental quality standards for air. The environmental legislation gives the MoEF powers to fulfil its role. thereby avoiding possible conflicts of interest and duplication of efforts. Accordingly.3. support all federal agencies in establishing environmental units. among others. operation and decommission processes. The MoEF is the key national level environmental agency. the A.A City Government. the regional states are required to create their own regional environmental agencies.3. while Land Administration and Environmental Protection Bureau of Oromiya is established by Oromiya Regional State.3 Institutional Framework 4. MoEF) is in charge of formulating policies. for all projects or activities that falls under the control of the Federal Government also falls within the responsibilities of the EPA. At the federal level the Environmental Protection Authority (i. with EIAs for regionally managed infrastructures or development activities.2 Ministry of Environment and Forestry (former EPA) The MoEF is one of the line ministries which directly report to the prime minister. water and soils. 4. with a mandate to address environmental issues. establishing EIA procedures and an environmental information system. Both institutions will have a stake on the proposed Sanitary Landfill construction. and develop skills in strategic environmental analysis of policies and public instruments.1 The Environmental Protection Organs Environmental Protection Proclamation (Proc. monitoring pollution. and undertaking capacity ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 43 . regulations and standards. 295/2002) is aimed to assign the responsibilities for environmental management to various entities in order to ensure sustainable use of environmental resources. The MoEF is involved in the development of environmental policy and legislation. It is also intended to establish a system that fosters coordinated but differentiated responsibilities among environmental protection offices at a federal and regional level. 4. Most of the regional states have already established their own Regional Environment Protection offices. According to the Environmental Protection Organs Proclamation.A City Government Environment Protection Authority is such an institution established by the A. These institutions are to deal. laws.e. but it is silent about the need to provide incentives to those that adopt and/or promote OHS practices.

• Making its decisions and the EIA report available to the public. and programs of federal level functions. The NUSWMS shall be applied across Ethiopian cities and towns and they provide the basic minimum requirements to be achieved in the design.or trans-regional and international impacts. as well as social and economic development policies. execution or supervision.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project development in relevant agencies to ensure the integration of environmental management in policy development and decision making. implementation and operation of SWM systems. • Auditing and regulation of implementation of the conditions attached to the decision. likely to entail inter. also proposed activities subject to execution by a federal agency. • Notification of its decision to the concerned licensing agency at or before the time specified in the appropriate law or directives. • Development of incentives or disincentive structures required for compliance with regional environmental agency requirements. 295/2002). laws. as well as social and economic development programs or plans where they are subject to federal licensing. The Federal EPA is responsible for: • Establishment of a system for environmental assessment of public and private sector projects. affordable and sustainable urban SWM systems in order to protect public health and environmental quality. decision-making and follow-up implementation of environmental impact study reports for projects. • Review. • Resolution of complaints and grievances in good faith and at the appropriate time. The Standards provide minimum requirements to enable competent authorities to meet their legal responsibilities as set out in various legal instruments. 4. The mandate and duties of the former EPA were subsequently clarified in the Establishment of Environmental Protection Organs Proclamation (Proclamation No. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 44 . most specifically the SWM Proclamation (No 513/2007).1 Draft Urban Waste Management Standards The National Urban Solid Waste Management Standards (NUSWMS) create the framework for municipalities to provide effective. Solid Waste Management Standards 4. strategies.4.4.

Class 1 Sanitary landfill The following are minimum standard requirements for class I sanitary land fill.001 .  Catalyze the economic development of the sector in terms of growth opportunities for small and medium sized enterprises.000.000. regardless of whether it is destined for recycling.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The NUSWMS places responsibility on regional and local public authorities (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Competent Authorities’) to:  Ensure that all urban residents are provided with regular and reliable waste collection services that meet the basic minimum requirement to protect public health.towns with population of 20. Competent authorities shall ensure that basic minimum standards of SWM are implemented to acceptable levels.000. so long as the three basic minimum goals are achieved. treatment or disposal. The Standards have been designed to ensure that they address the above priorities and at the same time are realistically achievable and applicable to different contexts.001 to 100. Category 4 . Hence the new Sendafa sanitary landfill project falls under Category 1. Category 2 .towns with population of 2. For the purpose of implementing the SWM standards urban settlements are categorised as follows: Category 1 . Category 5 . ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 45 .  Establishment and operation of leachate treatment through the installation of oxidation ponds etc. and implement alternative conforming waste management system types.000.  Ensure that collected waste is managed properly. in order to protect the quality of the environment.500. Category 3 .towns/cities with population above 500.001 to 50.  Installation of active landfill gas collection systems with flaring (or utilization) of gas.towns/cities with population of 100.000.  Installation of full liner system with groundwater monitoring and control measures and seepage control.towns with population of 50. Competent authorities may exceed the standards.001 to 20. a. The following are some of the requirements outlined in the standards for class I sanitary landfill and waste transfer stations.

In addition the solid waste management standards require the following as a minimum for category 1 landfill management. utilized as a source of renewable energy.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  Located with sufficient void space for a minimum of 10 years operational life.  Category 1 and 2 landfills will have vehicle weigh scales installed to obtain exact records of waste quantities being delivered.  Competent authorities shall ensure the installation and functioning of landfill gas management systems at all landfill sites.  Auxiliary and amenity facilities  Minimum area requirement shall be area required for fill volume plus ~ 40% for additional facilities and site activities.  As a minimum ‘passive’ landfill gas venting shall be ensured at all sites. Weigh scales should be installed at all other landfill sites where possible. The location and type of transfer station will depend upon the location of the final disposal/treatment facilities in relation to the location of waste production and the type of collection system implemented. industrial wastes. This allows small collection vehicles to return quickly to collection routes and maximises efficiency of transporting large volumes of waste to distant treatment or disposal facilities through use of larger capacity haulage vehicles.  Where possible landfill gas shall be collected and flared.  Operation in accordance with management plan. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 46 . and where economically justifiable. demolition and construction wastes (except where utilized as cover and site engineering purposes) shall be prohibited from being disposed at such sites. Waste transfer Waste transfer involves transferring waste materials from a small collection vehicle / cart to a larger vehicle / trailer.  The need for and design of waste transfer systems shall be considered in regional/city SWM plans. medical and other hazardous wastes. b.  Approximate waste acceptance capacity = 251 – 500 Tones/day  Whole tyres.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  However.  Size of small transfer points shall be determined by the same methodology as calculating container sizes as detailed in Box-1 plus minimum additional area of 2 times area of containers to accommodate transfer vehicles.  Category 3.  Transferring waste from the ground. shall only be undertaken as a temporary or emergency measure. 4 & 5 municipalities shall evaluate the use of containers at agreed collection points – utilizing a hook-lift system or a crane-tipper system – as a transfer option. ramps. they may be located either within or outside of the urban area. there may be no need to employ waste transfer points / stations. enhanced health and safety procedures and equipment shall be utilized to minimise the risk of accidents and injuries.  Category 1 and 2 municipalities shall evaluate the need for installing and operating transfer stations at fixed sites within the urban area – where waste from primary collection services is to be transferred into larger containers/vehicles. or similar.  Where traffic density dictates the movement of waste at night time.  Incoming waste shall be transferred from the transfer-station within 1 day.  Depending on the design and management regime for the transfer station. using a front-end loader.  Competent authorities shall ensure that waste transfer and waste transport is undertaken during daylight hours other than where traffic congestion is a serious concern.  Service radius of transfer stations shall be determined by maximum radius of primary collection vehicles serving the transfer point or station. where the final disposal/treatment centre is located close to the city/town centre – say within 2-3 km.  The competent authority shall ensure an EIA is completed in conjunction with consultation with the local residents before final selection of a transfer-station location.  The design of the transfer operation shall enable the site operations to be efficient and hygienic. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 47 . etc. unless temporary operational reasons do not permit this.

Consideration shall be given to all aspects of the work. sanitary facilities. location. including: the design of the equipment.  All waste transfer points. and a total area clean extending to 20m in all directions around entire site every quarter (3 months).Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  The type.  Competent authorities shall establish an accident and incident reporting system whereby every event is recorded and investigated. regular medical check-ups and immunization. planning.  Competent authorities shall ensure that collection workers should never be expected to lift wastes above their shoulder height because the risk of serious injury. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 48 . c. site area and service radius of transfer stations shall be determined through Feasibility Study. and provision of toilets and washing facilities. supported by appropriate levels of supervision. monitoring neighborhood waste collection services.  Health and safety training. educating and interfacing within the communities.  Transfer station sites shall have a hard standing and security fencing with gate. provision and use of personal protective equipment (PPE).  Collection workers shall not stand on wastes in collection vehicles during loading and/or transport.  Equality of employment opportunity shall be ensured between women and men within the SWM sector at all levels: from policy to administration and financing. water and electricity. shall be ensured so that waste management workers understand the origins of the risks that they face and know how to minimize these risks. facilities and containers shall be kept clean and orderly at all times with containers and site area inspected and cleaned monthly. design. and handling complaints from the public. Health and Safety  Competent authorities have an employer’s responsibility and humanitarian duty to prevent illness and injury of the workforce.

Waste management should be addressed through a Waste management system that addresses issues linked to waste minimization. Effective planning and implementation of waste management strategies should include: • Review of new waste sources during planning. Waste management planning Facilities that generate waste should characterize their waste according to composition. are taken into account. such as host country context. and disposal infrastructure • Collection of data and information about the process and waste streams in existing facilities. Health. and design activities. source.4. quantities. including during equipment modifications and process alterations. and other project factors. Overview The Environmental. and potential use/disposition • Establishment of priorities based on a risk analysis that takes into account the potential EHS risks during the waste cycle and the availability of infrastructure to manage the waste in an environmentally sound manner ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 49 . Application of the EHS Guidelines to existing facilities may involve the establishment of site-specific targets. Additional guidance specifically applicable to hazardous wastes is also presented in IFC guideline document. sitting. types of wastes produced. b.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4. The EHS Guidelines contain the performance levels and measures that are generally considered to be achievable in new facilities by existing technology at reasonable costs. with an appropriate timetable for achieving them. generation rates. pollution prevention opportunities. and monitoring. The applicability of the EHS Guidelines should be tailored to the hazards and risks established for each project on the basis of the results of an environmental assessment in which site-specific variables. including characterization of waste streams by type. transport. or according to local regulatory requirements. assimilative capacity of the environment. c. generation.2 IFC Environmental. Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines a. storage. General waste management The following guidance applies to the management of nonhazardous and hazardous waste. and necessary treatment. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines are technical reference documents with general and industry-specific examples of Good International Industry Practice (GIIP). to identify expected waste generation. disposal.

which are briefly discussed below. Treatment and Disposal If waste materials are still generated after the implementation of feasible waste prevention. Examples include: composting operations or organic non-hazardous wastes. Selected management approaches should be consistent with the characteristics of the waste and local regulations. final disposal of waste materials such as bioremediation. waste materials should be treated and disposed of and all measures should be taken to avoid potential impacts to human health and the environment. or physical treatment of the waste material to render it nonhazardous prior to final disposal • Treatment or disposal at permitted facilities specially designed to receive the waste. or other methods known to be effective in the safe.. permitted and operated landfills or incinerators designed for the respective type of waste. and exposures to employees and the public. reuse. reduction. be properly loaded on the transport vehicles before leaving the site.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • Definition of opportunities for source reduction. All waste containers designated for offsite shipment should be secured and labelled with the contents and associated hazards. manifest) that describes the load and its associated hazards.e. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 50 . • Definition of procedures and operational controls for onsite storage • Definition of options/procedures /operational controls for treatment and final disposal d. and be accompanied by a shipping paper (i. chemical. e. Transportation On-site and Off-site transportation of waste should be conducted so as to prevent or minimize spills. 5. as well as reuse and recycling. and may include one or more of the following: • On-site or off-site biological. properly designed. Methodology The methodology adopted for conducting the environmental and social impact assessment study includes the conventional methods. recovery and recycling measures. releases.

Literature review Information on existing environmental conditions was obtained from review of various published and unpublished sources. c. In addition review of detail design reports and drawings of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations. These include the Bereh woreda sector offices and Addis Ababa City Administration ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 51 .e. Addis Ababa and Oromia Region EPA’s legislative and institutional framework. Artelia in association with Metaferia Consult) that were in charge of designing the Sanitary landfill and transfer stations project. During the field survey information on physical. biological and socio-economic environment was collected for each site.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project a. Housing and Construction were also extensively consulted. are also reviewed and consulted. Field Surveys The method of field surveying is second to none in understanding the likely impacts of a given development project on the particular environment around the project site. Interviews with designing firm specialists The ESIA team has the opportunity to closely work with the consultancy firms (i. In addition base line data collection was done through field investigations. IFC-EHS guidelines on waste management. guidelines etc. legislations and standards as well as the World Bank Safeguard Policies. In due course extensive discussions were also made with the project management to develop common understanding of the main components of the project. standards. as it was necessary to ensure a thorough assessment of the project impacts. The team of environment consultants were mobilized for field survey to the project sites several times during the extended project period. policies. Koshe and Akaki transfer station sites and gathered essential field data. The team has already made observations in and around the Sendafa landfill site. relevant ESMF and resettlement policy framework (RPF) documents were also reviewed. d. procedures. Sociological and environmental data were gathered by discussing and filling questionnaires with the experts in concerned government agencies. Competent authority guidelines The Federal. Bole Arabsa. The recent draft solid waste management standard hand books issued by the Ministry of Urban Development. national and regional policies. The team discussed project detail designs and processes with the engineers at different stages of the designing process. b. This has enabled the ESIA team to provide its inputs and positively influence the design process to make it more environment friendly.

At Federal level the Ministry of Urban Development Housing and Construction and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (former EPA) as well as other relevant offices were consulted. identifying additional potential social impacts (positive and negative). culture and tourism. education. e. Water Supply and Sewerage. and to seek the participation and contribution of the public during the implementation of the project. as well as the Addis Ababa Recycling and Disposal Project Office were consulted. g. and ensure that they receive appropriate compensation for loss of property and land due to the project. especially the poor and vulnerable groups. Sampling and Monitoring Two surface water samples were collected from Hambisa River and from a point below the confluence of Legedadi River with Legetafo River. Consultation with relevant regional and local authorities Interviews and discussions with several local authorities and stakeholders were carried out in the project area. The samples were collected using grab sampling techniques and were sent to Addis Ababa Environment Protection Authority Laboratory for analysis. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 52 . Cleansing Management Agency. maximize additional benefits. Community consultation The primary purpose of public consultation is to protect the interest of affected persons/communities. The Hambisa River is situated east of the Sendafa landfill project site and both the Legetafo and Legedadi rivers drain on the west side. f. Extensive consultation was also conducted with the relevant Authorities of the Bereh Woreda Administration as well as Addis Ababa City Administration. The water samples were collected from upstream positions relative to the proposed landfill site.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project health. It also gives opportunity for the affected people to influence the project to reduce adverse impacts. and on the implementation of the proposed mitigation measures for the negative impacts and on measures of reinforcement for the positive impacts. The samples were collected on the same day at an interval of approximately one hour interval. Public consultations were carried out with the objective of informing the public on the potential impacts. urban agriculture. The resulting data from the analysis is applied to establish bench mark conditions as part of the baseline assessment.

civil societies are informed about the project and its impact and the information will clarify doubts about who will be affected or benefit from the project. • To solicit the views of local population what beneficial impact they expect from the project 6. to be consulted with respect to policies and projects affecting their community”. with slight rainfall during autumn and spring.. local government officials. such as involuntary resettlement.1 Climate Based on Rainfall. community severance and compensation for affected properties and assets. in policies and projects that affect their livelihood. • To enable meaningful and accessible participation of the public and the affected population in particular. Kebelle administrations and Woreda experts and professionals from different offices in the woreda.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project FDRE Constitution also reaffirms the participation of the public.1. • To obtain acceptance of the project both by the public and stakeholders. • To ensure that the public and stakeholders. • To identify local issues and concerns to be addressed. in particular. • To inform on the nature of potential social impacts of the project and its impacts on the social. • To identify major social impact issues. interested groups. Stakeholders’ consultation was also conducted to ensure the participation of all interested parties. • To consult on the loss of productive resources mainly loss of farm and grazing land. Description of the project environment 6. the climate of the area can be categorized in to two broad seasons: the dry season (winter) which covers the period from October to May and the Wet season extends from June to September. This seasonal variation of rainfall distribution within the study area is due to the annual migration of the inter-tropical convergence ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 53 .1 Physical environment 6. Article 43 No.2 states that “Nationals have the right to participate in national development and. cultural and economic ties and networks during and after construction works. The objective of public and stakeholders’ consultation were. including people residing in the project area.

50C.2 20.7 23. while mean minimum annual temperature value is 10.2 80.7 10. mean maximum annual temperature over the record periods is 23.0 25. Temp.37 0.6 9. Based on the data collected and analyzed. one can classify the climate in this area as warm temperate climate.9 12. Akaki. Small variation in annual rainfall is observed towards Akaki and Legedadi areas.0 11.0 35. The annual rainfall of Addis Ababa collected from Bole meteorological station is 1040mm.8 12.7 8.0 11.62 0.67 0. It extends ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 54 .4 23.4 0.7 12. The site on its middle western and eastern part slopes toward the southwest and southeast respectively.77 0.5 0C.8 21.7 25. Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 23.65 0. In general.1 22.3 0. Legedadi and Koshe sites.68 0.2 Topography of the project area The new Sendafa sanitary landfill site is relatively flat topped and elevated from the surrounding but the margin of the site is gentle sloped towards eastern and south western gorges.67 0.27 0.4 23.1 19. a low-pressure zone marking the convergence of dry tropical easterlies and moist equatorial westerlies across the catchment.8 25.7 21.1 12.1 25. 253 251 140. The average annual wind speed calculated is 0.4 84. Meteorological data of the past six years (2007-2012) has been collected from Bole meteorological station which is relatively representative to the project sites in Bole Arabsa.6 8. Temp.1 Mean monthly max.55km/hr.1.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project zone.1 16.8 Average annual rainfall (mm) 9.55 0. ( 0C) 8.2 109.5 17. ( 0C) Mean monthly min.7 9.63 Table 4: Average Monthly wind speed (km/hr) of 6 years (2007-2012) 6.0 0 Table 3: Monthly Mean temperature ( c) and average rainfall (mm) data for 6 years (2007-2012) from Bole Meteorological Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 0.8 24. The daily variation in temperature in the area is more pronounced than the annual variation and the calculated mean annual temperature is around 170C.

The site also presents on its Middle Eastern part a slope toward the south-east ranging from 2 to 6%. Kazmin (1975). On the other hand.2% (average value) toward the south. along Akaki River course (south) in the vicinity of Lega Dadi dam to the north of Lake Gefersa and southern part of the city. Their composition can be porphyritic olivine basalt. Its shape represents a strip oriented North-South with a natural slope of 1. Bole Arabsa transfer station site has gentle topography. tuffs and agglomerates. Tsehayu and H/Mariam. Addis Ababa Basalts They overlie Intoto silicic and outcrops mainly occur in the Intoto Mountain. Hailesellasie Girmay and Getaneh Asefa (1989). trachyte. different workers and scholars have contributed to the geology of this area.1. 6. but there are some faults and lineaments oriented Southeast-Northwest and Northeast-Southwest. It comprises of basalts associated with rhyolites. and 1967). Alaji series (Lower Miocene) This unit covers the Entoto Mountain and extends to the north beyond Akaki catchment. Its elevation difference is about 25m and it is from 2249m to 2225m. 1979. Earlier works further subdivided this series into Alaji Rhyolites and Intoto silicic. In addition. 1990.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project between the levels +2436m and +2470m ASL. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 55 . 1990). b. 1966. the rocks were subjected to rift tectonics that is manifested by a number of fault systems having a general trend of the rift system (Northeast – Southwest). AAWSA & Seureca. The litho-stratigraphic units of the catchment can be outlined from the oldest (bottom) to the youngest (top) as follows: a. Individual flows are usually easily observed & paleosols & scoraceous horizons are found at the bottom of flows in many places (Kebede Tsehayu and Taddese Hailemariam. some are: Mohr (1964. The elevation difference is about 2m and it is from 2066m to 2068m.3 Geology of Addis Ababa and its Surrounding The Akaki River catchment comprises of wide range of volcanic rocks of different ages (Morton et al. Due to the location of the study area with respect to the Main Ethiopian Rift. 1991). the topography of Akaki transfer station site has flat topography. ignimbrites. porphyritic feldspar basalt & aphanitic basalts. central Addis Ababa. 1985. Vernier and Chernert.

They have well preserved shape of cones.. Trachy basalt out crops are found around Repi area and General Winget School and associated with undifferentiated volcanic. 1978). The exposed thickness of the lava sequence is about 500m (Anteneh Girma. alluvial & Residual soils: These are quaternary to recent deposits. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 56 . Between Abba Samuel Lake and small Akaki River. Mekanisa. trachyte and rhyolites make up this group of younger Volcanics. The density of faults increases to the southeast of the rift valley. The thickness of this deposit varies between 5m to 50m.40m over the Akaki well field but thinner to absent in other places. scoria. Lacustrine Deposits. d. Nazareth Group Aphanitic basalt. 1989). Rhyolite flows belonging to this group outcrop at the top and southern flanks of Mt. Aphanitic basalt flows cover the southern portion of Addis Ababa. Therefore. The major lineament oriented along east west that extends from Kessem River in the east through Addis Ababa to Ambo in the west. Lacustrine soils occur around Bole. vertically and horizontally jointed (Hailesellasie Girmay and Getaneh Assefa. vesicular & scoriaceous basalt. The general trend of most of these faults follows the rift system (NE – SW) orientation but there are some faults with orientation of east-west and northwest-southeast. Another major lineament oriented in Northwest direction & situated to the northeast of the Akaki well field extends between Akaki and Dukem (following the main Debrezeit highway) is one of the lineaments that do not follow the rift trend. 1994). This formation is gray colored.basalt lava flows. Yerer.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project c. Bofa Basalts This unit comprises of olivine porphyritic basalt. some of the basaltic lava and cinder cones situated to the Southeast & Northeast of the Akaki well field probably have erupted through these fractures as they are concentrated along the major NE – SW trending fault systems of Akaki and Dukem areas. They appear to have upper thick basalt of 20 . An ignimbrite sheet (upper Welded tuff) out crop occurs in the northeast of Addis Ababa at the base of Intoto Mountain and Lega Dadi areas. welded tuffs. Lideta. They extend in to the south from Akaki River and the unit is as thick as 10 meters (Anteneh Girma. cuts across the Western rift escarpment and uplifted its northern block (Zennettin et al. which is manifested by a number of major and minor fault systems. The Akaki catchment where all the Addis Ababa SWM project sites are located has been subjected to the rift tectonics. e. ignimbrites. 1994). and trachy .

It is underlain by aphanitic basalt and overlain by young olivine basalts (Hailesellasie Girmay.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 3: Geology of Addis Ababa and Surrounding Area 6.3. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 57 . vertically and horizontally jointed (Hailesellasie Girmay and Getaneh Assefa.1 Geology and Soil type of Sendafa Land fill site Sendafa Land fill site lies within Tarmaber basalt and ignimbrite sheet (upper Welded tuff) out cropped in the northeast of Addis Ababa at the base of Intoto Mountain and Legadadi areas. the land fill site in Legedadi is at a vicinity of a fault trending N-S direction. The ignimbrite formation is gray colored.1. 1985). 1989). From Geological map of Addis Ababa.

According to Solomon Tale (2000). The trachyte flow is underlain by tuff and overlain by alternating flows of plagioclase basalt and rhyolite at Repi (Anteneh Girma. from Mt. from soil map of Addis Ababa. Furi and Mt. The northern segment site is covered by Miocene ignimbrite (welded tuff) and trachyte underlain by aphantic basalts. It is grey colored. 6. locally strongly layered. It was difficult to identify the soil type of the site from field observation as the site is filled with solid waste and selected soil materials transported from other areas for recapping.5m. 1989). such as volcanic ash. degree of weathering ranges from strong to moderate. vesicular. According to the Test Pitting dug at the site. Trachy basalts.3 Geology and soil type of Koshe Transfer station site Koshe site is found in the younger volcanic of Chilalo formation comprising Trachyte.. the black cotton soil cover above the weathered rock ranges between 0.2 Geology and soil type of Bole Arbasa Transfer station site The southern segment of the site area is covered by basalt flows representing the oldest rock unit exposed in the site area.3. However. 1994). Its porous. There is a fault close to Bole Arabsa transfer station trends NNE-SSW direction like most faults of Ethiopian rift valley. Wechecha. It is well exposed all along the Akaki river gorge and its tributaries and extensively excavated for various construction purposes.1m to 1m.3. the area around the site is covered dominantly with clay and to some proportion of silt developed from young volcanic rocks of Mt. predominantly aphantic. strongly fractured and jointed. Bole Arabsa site is dominantly covered with black cotton soil. Tulu Iyoo to Repi and Wechecha Range.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project With regard to soil type. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 58 . dark-colored soils developed from volcanic origin. locally amygdaloidal. Ignimbrites and Rhyolites. 6.1. Therefore the average of the soil cover is about 0. Furi. Soils encountered in the site are black cotton soils with characteristics of high plasticity and high degree of swelling. Olivine porphyritic basalt (Addis Ababa Basalt) outcrop in the north eastern part of the site and the central part of the city. The land is gently sloping landscape. vertically and horizontally jointed (Getaneh Aseffa et al.5m. tuff and pumice. Trachytic flow and Trachy-basalts dominantly cover extensive areas in the site as well as west and southwest part of the site. From field observation. The rock is dark gray in colour.1. the entire project area is dominantly covered with black cotton soil. The black cotton soil horizon or layer from the three test pits observed during field assessment has an average thickness of 1.

Map 4: Geological Map and water points in Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 59 . Bofa basalts comprises of scoria . vesicular & scoraceous basalts and it is also close to Alluvial deposits along the bank of Big Akaki River The site is also at the vicinity of normal fault striking NW-SE and dipping towards the site.4 Geology and soil type of Akaki Transfer station site Akaki transfer station is within lacustrine silts and clays underlain by Bofa basalts.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 6.1. The type of soil along the bank of Big Akaki River which is not far from the site is dominantly loose materials consisting of clay. sand and gravel in different proportions. silt. The site is dominantly covered with black cotton soil developed over lacustrine clay and silt deposits.3.

welded tuffs and rhyolites are fractured aquifer types.4. and volcanic rocks such as weathered/fractured basalts. ignimbrites. Old wells owned by AAWSA drilled up to 250m in these aquifers of fractured old basalt and ignimbrites often yielded between 5 l/s and 10 l/s except an artesian well relatively close to the site owned by AAWSA with a depth of 200m yielding 50 l/s during conducting pumping test. the site lies on aquifers which are fractured and inter granular aquifers of old volcanic rocks covering Legedadi plains. The transmisivities of these aquifers vary between mean minimum value of 616m2/day and mean maximum of about 37000 m2/day. 6.grained alluvial deposits intercalated with ash materials and well compacted lacustrine deposits. The mountain ranges of Intoto. Poor aquifers are fine .1.granular and fracture . Wells drilled in these aquifers often yielded between 2 l/sec and 5 l/sec.4 Hydrology of the project area Hydro-geologically. Wechecha and Furi are non-aquifers because are generally not considered as ground water containing materials in exploitable quantities. major aquifers are fractured and intergranular aquifers of young volcanic sequences excluding the mountain ranges. Alluvial sediments and pyroclastic rocks are inter. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 60 . Different aquifers have different hydro geological characteristics.1.granular porosity aquifers. trachyte. Previous works show that the Akaki river catchment is made up of both inter . Boreholes of variable discharges have been drilled in these aquifers and in most cases the yield is over 10 l/sec.1 Hydrology of the Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Area From hydro-geological map of Addis Ababa. among the major aquifers are the most important unit from hydrological point of view. In the Akaki area highly productive wells were drilled in these deposits. the study area is a complex catchment. Minor aquifers are those fractured and inter granular aquifers of old volcanic rocks covering the city of Addis Ababa & the bases of Intoto Mountain and Legedadi plains. but this generalization is exceptional to alluvial deposits of sand and gravel types that cover smaller area in the catchment as wells drilled in them have good yields. Accordingly. The interconnection of the voids has resulted in high permeability for these deposits.type aquifers.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 6. The transmissivity of these aquifers varies between mean minimum value of 3m2/day and mean maximum of about 1700 m2/day. Scoria deposits.

No 1 2 3 4 Bore hole location Owner Abune Yosef school Voice of Gospel Ginbot 20 school Rahima Diary Abune Yosef school Voice of Gospel Ginbot 20 school Rahima Diary Well depth(m) 94 33 100 Static water level(m) 29 - borehole was observed within a radius of 1km from the site. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 61 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project From the deep test wells drilled up to depth 432 and 500m around the site to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the Legedadi-Legatafo-Ayat groundwater prospective area. rhyolite and trachyte are with relatively less permeable upper aquifer system. The Hydraulic conductivity of these upper aquifers varies between mean minimum value of 1m/day and mean maximum of about 6m/day. 6.1. Wells drilled towards south and west of the site on moderately fractured trachyte.2 Hydrology of the Bole Arbasa Transfer Station Area The Hydro geological characteristic of the area is variable. 6. tuffs and basalts form moderate productive aquifers with yield of 262m3/day to 432m3/day. the major aquifer in the area is fractured basalt. However.8m. Less fractured ignimbrite.4. The porphyritic to Aphantic basalt unit which covers north eastern part of the site is productive aquifers yielding 5l/Sec to 10 l/Sec. scoria and Scoraceous basalt. boreholes drilled more than 400m deep into the lower aquifer in South Ayat North Fanta well field are productive wells with a yield of 35 -50 l/s. the site is at the periphery of South Ayat-North Fanta well field buffer zone which is one of the five Groundwater prospective sites identified in Addis Ababa city. rhyolites and tuffs. However.3 Hydrology of the Koshe Transfer Station Area The site is categorized as extensive and moderate productive fissured aquifer stored with in moderately weathered and fractured trachyte. rhyolites and tuffs often yielded between 2 l/sec and 5 l/sec and transmissivity between 50m2/day and 100m2/day. During drilling significant amount of water was struck at 60m and 180m depths. Moderately fractured and weathered ignimbrites.1.4. The deep test wells have water yield of 15 and 20 l/s and static water level of 6m .

3 Hydrology of the Akaki Transfer Station Area Four principal hydrogeological units are recognized in Akaki area groundwater prospective site where the transfer station is located. The thickness of the upper aquifer is estimated to be a maximum of 360 meters. March 2008) showed that Akaki prospective site has high groundwater potential and the annual exploitable groundwater resources from the Akaki prospective site is preliminarily estimated to be about 168 MCM/Year or 537.vesicular basalt and scoria The first hydro lithological units is alluvial sediment composed of clay and silty clay material and its thickness is about 40m and it acts as confining layer of the upper aquifer. and WF03.1. The general groundwater movement is from north to south. The massive basalt layers within this aquifer may act as a separating layer between the upper and lower aquifer.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Table 5: Boreholes within a radius of 1 km from Koshe site 6.000m3/day. Currently. Akaki area groundwater prospective site is one of the five prospective groundwater sites identified around Addis Ababa city. the thickness of the lower aquifer is penetrated by 500 meters deep wells. WF02.4.vesicular basalt and scoria • Confining layers – trachytes and massive basalts • Lower Basalt aquifer. Addis Ababa Water Supply Authority has actively undertaking groundwater development through drilling deep wells in selected three well fields named as WF01. (WWDSE. in addition to operational old Akaki well fields. • Alluvial confining layer • Upper basalt aquifer. Deep wells drilled up to 400m to 550m around the site yielding water from 22 l/s to 90 l/s with static water level depth of 8m . The upper aquifer is composed of vesicular basalt intercalated with scoria and massive basalt layers of multi layered aquifer.35m. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 62 .

5 Land Use and visual The major land use type dominating the areas around Sendafa sanitary landfill are farming. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 63 . Thus the dominance of agricultural and rural residential land use types is thinning out fast around the project sites.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 5: Water points and Geological structures around Akaki Transfer station 6. Similarly. the dominance of these land use types in the areas appears to be changing fast. industrial and residential land use types are fast approaching towards Bole Arbasa area with the expansion of industrial and residential projects. Legedadi dam. in the Akaki transfer station area.1. For example. grazing and residential uses. one of the major water supply sources for Addis Ababa city. teff. the agricultural fields are changing into vast residential places with the development of housing projects by the City Government. It is the primary land use. On the other hand the Bole Arbasa and Akaki transfer station sites are found at the outer peripheries of Addis Ababa city and hence the major land use types were agricultural and residential. barely. wheat and lentils are the major crops in the area. The project area itself was widely used for agriculture with less dense residential places. is also found in the locality and forms one of the important land uses in Sendafa area. However.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Fig 7: Showing current land use types at Sendafa landfill, Akaki and Bole Arbasa transfer station sites

6.1.6 Water Resources

6.1.6.1 Surface waters
The Akaki River catchment comprises of numerous small rivers. The dominant ones are the Big
Akaki with catchment area of 900km2, which drains the eastern part of the catchment area, and the
little Akaki catchment with area of about 540km2, that drains the western part of the catchment; and
their respective tributaries. The two rivers form one of the biggest tributaries of the Awash River
called Akaki River. Almost all the streams in the catchment originate from the northern part of the
catchment (see map 6).
Entoto Mountain range in the northern forms the surface water divide between the Blue Nile and
Awash River basins. The drainage of an area is affected by numerous factors among which,
rainfall, slope, vegetation, rock type and tectonic activity, infiltration capacity, soil types and
thicknesses, are some. In the northern part of the catchment the drainage forms steep narrow gorges
(facilitates runoff) which can be attributed to high rainfall, dense vegetation cover and high
topographic elevation (>2800m). Where there are volcanic ridges /domes, drainage radiates in all
directions forming radial or parallel drainage system. It is clear that areas with higher permeability
have lower drainage density that in turn may decrease the surface runoff. These can be observed
from the topographic map of the area in that areas with high elevation and that are not covered with
vegetation have higher drainage density compared to flat lying areas and areas that are covered with
vegetation (increases permeability). Generally the drainage in the catchment is oriented nearly from
north to south following the regional slope.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 64

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Map 6: Drainage Map of Akaki Catchment

a. Surface water around Sendafa Sanitary Landfill site
There are no permanent streams flowing within the Sendafa sanitary landfill site boundary;
however during heavy rainfall events there are some streams created within and around the current
site. During rainy season storm water from the western part of the project site is drained into small
creek locally named as” Bickine” which is small tributary of Legedadi river while the eastern part
of the site drains the water through dry gorges into Hambisa river which also joins Big Akaki River
further downstream. There is no surface water flowing from the outside to the inside of the project
site since its general elevation is higher than the adjacent areas.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 65

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

Fig 8: Showing the confluence of Legetafo with Legedadi River where sample was collected

The Sendafa sanitary landfill site is located downstream of Legedadi dam which has reservoir
capacity of 40x106 m3 and supply rate of 127,000m3/day. From field observation, Hambisa River is
brackish and polluted with cattle dung as it is extensively used for grazing by the near community.
Parameters

Water quality
Hambissa river

Water quality of
Legetafo River after
joining with
Legedadi river

Remarks

1

PH

5.53

6.3

Sampling point location at
Hambisa river was 494614E
& 995290N

2

Electrical Conductivity (µs/cm)

259

190

Sampling point location at
confluence of Legedadi and
Legatafo Rivers was
491533E & 1001205N

3

TDS (mg/l)

129

95

4

Suspended solids (mg/l)

237

2435

5

Reactive Phosphate (PO43-),
(mg/l)

18.3

179.5

6

Total Ammonia (mg/l)

0.02

2.5

7

Nitrate (mg/l)

10.5

Nil

8

Flouride (mg/l)

0.2

0.29

9

TOC (mg/l)

Nil

Nil

10

Phenol (mg/l)

0.009

Nil

11

Sulfate (SO42-), (mg/l)

Nil

2.0

ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 66

2 Ground waters Studies conducted by different geologists on Akaki river catchment have concluded that the main groundwater of Akaki is old water that have travelled from far area and it is believed that the major productive deep aquifers like Akaki well fields are mainly recharged by regional groundwater flow systems. base flow to rivers and springs discharge.00001 < 0. Outflows from the ground water system include well withdrawal. However.00001 20 BOD5. with some local variations. % Nil Nil 13 Total Hardness (mg/l) 235 750 14 Total Alaklinity (mg/l) 450 862. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 67 . subsurface outflow.00001 < 0. shallow unconfined aquifers on alluvial deposits and minor aquifers with in fractures of volcanic rocks are recharged from the catchment and base flow from the adjacent rivers.6. (mg/l) < 0. (mg/l) < 0.00001 18 Cadmium (Cd).875 < 0. (mg/l) 210 675 16 COD (mg/l) 40 100 17 Lead (Pb). Ground water recharge amount is higher for the northern part relative to southern or central zones of the catchment.5 15 Chloride. (mg/l) 38 40 Table 5: Laboratory analysis result of river water samples from Hambisa and legetafo-Legedadi rivers 6. The general trend of groundwater flow direction was determined to be from north to south.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 12 Salinity. (mg/l) 1.1.00001 19 Silver (Ag).

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 7: Aquifer Map of Addis Ababa and its surrounding Area 6. This may be especially true for the annual ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 68 . if not higher. this pilot study suggests that concentrations. especially with respect to PM10. especially in urban and residential areas within the city.5. and lead ambient air quality conditions in Addis Ababa are far better than in Cairo.5..7 Ambient Air Quality The ambient air quality of Addis Ababa city is not regularly monitored. This study has summarized the result as follows: With respect to PM10. and carbon monoxide concentrations. The intent of the study was to obtain a snapshot of the air quality conditions in Addis Ababa. 2002). are close to. a pilot-scale ambient air quality study was conducted in Addis Ababa between 26 January and 28 February 2004. However. airborne lead.1. Egypt (Abu-Allaban et al. PM2. than the EPA’s ambient standards for PM10 and PM2. Thus data on ambient air quality are scares. Nevertheless.

sanctuaries or game reserves has found at reasonably near distance of the project sites.525 are male and 1. There is quite a big gap between Addis Ababa and the rest of the cities in the country in relation to population and socio economic development. Natural vegetations are to a great extent diminished in Sendafa/ Legedadi due to encroachment and clearance over the last century. i. 6. the occurrence of unique and indigenous tree plant species is negligible. the city of Addis Ababa has a population of 2.2 Biological Environment 6. fox. 2006).086. 6. 1.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project standards. hyenas.2. large canopy of terrestrial vegetation that are grown as fencing shrubs. and monkey. The main vegetation in the catchment consists of production forests and scattered bushes.3.1 Demography According to the 2007 census carried out by the Central Statistical Agency (CSA) and projected for July 2011.979. This does not mean these animals exist abundantly in the Sendafa area and the project site. 6. the transfer and landfill sites. however. trees on open spaces. street side trees.5 million of the urban population or 23% of the total ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 69 . hare. Addis Ababa hosts 2.e. in all of the proposed project sites. and of which. No protected areas such as parks.2. poexuines.559. The built up area in Addis Ababa city comprises. recreational parks and indigenous trees in religious places such as churches. It is the largest and populous city in the country.1 Terrestrial Vegetation Addis Ababa city and it’s environ have possessed very limited natural vegetation.2 Wildlife The most common fauna (animal) species in Sendafa area and the surrounding are duiker. servile. In general tree plantation is thick and well developed on the mountains but scattered and depleting in the villages. Apparently the Legedadi catchment in Sendafa area is noticeably covered with patches of eucalyptus trees here and there.3 Socio-economic environment 6. Very few indigenous trees like Juniperous procera and Hypericum quanrtinum are seen in the Legedadi area (Seureca.561 are female. While providing insight into air quality in Addis Ababa—including spatial and temporal distributions—when no information existed before. Even though the species diversity of the terrestrial vegetation appears to consist of several different varieties. However.419. it is apparently dominated by the Eucalyptus tree and in some places by acacia. this study had several major shortcomings that ought to be addressed in future work.

389 11 9 Addis Ketema 320. The population size of the five towns in Oromia special zone which will utilize the Sendafa Sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities are also shown in table 10.3 Economic Activity The city of Addis Ababa is both the economic and political hub of the country.418 13 Table 5: Population by sub city and number of kebeles 6. transport services.002 8 6 Nefas Silk Lafto 321. These industries and businesses ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 70 .3.330 11 3 Gulele 318. This shows the importance and supremacy of Addis Ababa in every aspect of development.073 9 8 Bole 320. it is divided into 10 sub cities and 116 kebeles (which are termed woredas at present).3. No. It also hosts the largest open market in Africa.508 10 4 Kolfe Keranyo 261. The city Government is run by an elected Mayor.235 10 5 Akaki Kality 194. The Sectoral activities of the city Government are run and managed by the different Bureaus and Agencies that are responsible for the implementation of development activities. Administratively. Almost all major industries.389 9 10 Yeka 368. and businesses are concentrated in Addis Ababa and in the surrounding towns.942 10 2 Kirkos 335.2 Administration Addis Ababa has almost equal status to that of a regional state and is governed by a city administration that directly reports to the Federal Government. Dire Dawa. Sub City Population No.000 10 7 Lideta 296.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project urban population of the country and it is also 11 times of the second largest city. Addis Ababa has its own city council elected every 5 years. of kebeles 1 Arada 297. 6.

economically and has also stretched in size in every direction. 6. The ratio of physician to population shows 1:4998 and that of a nurse is 1:2074.6% are nurses of all type.386. The ratio of hospitals to population is 1:76. and at household level (domestic workers). The labour force is mainly concentrated in the area of commercial activities. NGO and private health institutions.6% Pharmacists 16 0. Professionals by qualification No. 42.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project generate a lot of commercial and industrial waste that have impacts on the environment and health of the residents of the city. which are run under Government. Table 6 presents the number of health professionals in Addis Ababa. Among the existing health institutions.3.8% Paramedicals 592 17.7% Health Officers 23 0. The economic strength of Addis Ababa is also manifested in the financial sector as well. The city is growing at an increasing rate demographically. 39 are hospitals (12 are run by government and 27 private) and 26 health centres (50 more are under construction by government) and 406 are clinics (private). Among the health professionals. 17.7% are physicians of all type.4 Health The health institutions present in Addis Ababa include hospitals. health stations and clinics. Percentage Physicians (All types ) 596 17. manufacturing and industry. Like any other metropolitan city.5 Health Professionals There are about 3366 health professionals working both in private and Government health institutions located in Addis Ababa.6% Health Assistants 703 20. 6. Addis Ababa houses more than half of the national labour force.47% Nurses (All type) 1436 42.5% Total 3366 Table 6: Health professional by qualification ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 71 . It takes 48% of the share of financial institutions and 55% of insurance companies. its growth and economic development has initiated the development of satellite cities in future.3.

Y (2010/11) is 654.3.6 Education The city of Addis Ababa has 728 primary schools (1-8) and 168 secondary schools (9-12).3% 71. 502. In the city there are also more than 192 different universities.571 are in secondary schools (9-12).237 502.282 are in primary school (1-8) and 152. colleges and institutes outside the administration of the city. The number of students in both primary and secondary schools in 2003E.571 2. Table 8 presents the school enrolment by gender and grade level in 2010/11.626 152.282 -0. The leading top ten diseases of the city are presented in the table 7 below. No.045 280.945 80.7% Table 8: Showing school enrolment by gender ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 72 . Top ten diseases 1 Acute respiratory infections 2 Bronco-pneumonia 3 Other helminthes 4 Gastritis and duodenitis 5 Infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue 6 Inflammatory diseases of the eye 7 Hypertrophy of tonsils adenoids 8 Other toxemna 9 Muscular rheumatism and rheumatism unspecified 10 Acute bronchitis Table 7: Top ten diseases 6.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The top ten leading diseases are not very much different from other parts of the country.853 and of which. Primary 1-8 Secondary 9-12 Boys Girls Total AAGR Boys Girls Total AAGR 222.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 73 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The ratio of girls to boys in primary schools is 103.7. and Woredas at the bottom.7 Table 9: Ratio of school boys to girls 6. operating in eight Woredas of Addis Ababa before 2003. b. the management of any waste recycling attempts and the disposal of waste at Koshe dumpsite is the responsibility of the Addis Ababa Recycling and Disposal Project Office (AARDPO). 1 and in secondary schools is 79.8 103. and then temporarily stored into (958) skips. On the other hand.7 The current Municipal Solid Waste Management System in Addis Ababa 6. Segregations and Storage at Household Level Though the Addis Ababa Cleansing Management Agency is undertaking awareness raising programs through different mass media.1 The Formal Sector Currently the solid waste management system of Addis Ababa is managed by two offices.Y (2010/11) is presented in table 9. Primary 1-8 Secondary 9-12 Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 102. The breakdown by sex and school level for 2003E. the segregation and storage of waste into different containers by households is not a common practice.7.2 79. The report of the Evaluation of the 2003-2010 Development Plan of Addis Ababa City Environmental Planning (February 2011) stated that 95% of the city’s solid waste is collected by these enterprises. The collection and transportation service provision is handled by Addis Ababa Cleansing Management Agency (AACMA) which is structurally stretched into three layers with AACMA on the top at the city level. rakes and wheel carts.1 88 73.3. Collection Solid waste collection in Addis Ababa is currently carried out in three different types of collection systems: primary. 10 Sub-city Administrations in the middle. Nov 2012). except for selling valuable waste to “Kuralew”. a. secondary and street sweeping.3. pick-axes. forks. The Primary Collection System is the one that is carried out by Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) from door-to-door in households using simple hand tools such as shovels.4 103. According to the report there were 11 private micro and small enterprises engaged in solid waste collection services. point from where the waste is finally transported in vehicles to the disposal dumpsite (Cambridge Industries.

in 2010 the number increased to 521 Micro and Small Enterprise Unions with a total number of more than 10. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 74 . Sanitation service fees of 30 birr per m3 for MSE. This is because commercial centers in the city like Merkato. Piaza. etc do not use water supply services. The service at the time was being determined by a kind of bargaining with the household heads. Hence.30 Birr for the service they were rendering. yet they are huge generators of solid wastes in the city. the service charges for solid waste collection are not currently based on willingness and ability to pay as before. & 70 birr per m3 private companies (Birr 240 for MSE & 560 for private companies) are paid as the current rate per an 8m3 container solid waste collected. It is now compulsory across all income groups. Thus. However. The method of collection service charges is also changed to the rate of water consumption. The evaluation finally indicated that more than 70% of the total solid waste generated was collected in the city collection system in the year 2004 and 2005 (the lowest proposed cut of point at the planning year in 2003 was 65%).Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project They had created 119 job opportunities and had the capacity of collecting about 204 m3 each week with a monthly charging of 10 .2009) the annual solid waste collection coverage was below this number as shown in the following figures adopted from the report. The solid waste collection service fee for households and institutions is 20% and 40% of their monthly water consumption rate respectively. almost all of the households get the service of solid waste collection service with direct service charge with the water bill. But it has been investigated that the existing means of payment has not been made applicable for all waste generators in the city. but in the years followed (2006 .000 operators working on solid waste collection (but the AACMA reported in 2013 that there are about 563 SMEs managing 5573 solid waste collectors).

February 2011). but streets being cleaned each day were 503km( 87%) and 800km (41%) in the year 2003 and 2010 respectively (see fig.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Solid waste generated & collected (m3) Fig.9: Solid waste collection coverage in Addis Ababa Years Fig 10: Annual Solid waste generation and collection Secondary Collection System is the block (container) collection that is carried out by private companies (5% of the solid waste generated by the city) in hotels. The third one is Street Sweeping System that is held by the AACMA.11). schools and other service delivery and manufacturing organizations (Evaluation of the 2003 – 2010 Development Plan of Addis Ababa City Environmental Planning. hospitals. Streets requiring cleaning have increased about 300% from the year 2003 to 2010. Although the ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 75 .

for the operation of the secondary collection and had at its disposal of 70 collection vehicles and 1. On the other hand the Cambridge Industries (Nov 2012) reported that the city’s Solid Waste Management Authority employed only 116 garbage trucks.850 containers in operation. February 2011).Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project figures show an increased coverage of street cleaning in the city. 2010 2007 2003 Streets being cleaned daily in % Streets being cleaned daily in km Streets requiring cleaning in km 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Fig 11: Street cleaning performance vvis-a-vis demand c. About 12 private sector vehicles are involved in the transportation of not more 6% of the city’s solid waste. Transport to Repi (Koshe) Dumpsite According to Maschal’s 2011 presentation about Integrated Solid Waste Management Opportunities and Challenges of Addis Ababa. among are drivers and assistants. He presented that there are 106 government solid waste collection and transportation vehicles in the city. it is clear to recognize that the service delivery in this regard has not expanded hand in hand with the construction of new roads that require regular cleaning to address the street sanitation problems in the city (Evaluation of the 2003 – 2010 Development Plan of Addis Ababa City Environmental Planning. Still. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 76 . Compactors. of which only 65 are maintained at working condition throughout the year. many of which are extremely old. IGNIS (2010) shown in its paper that the waste management authority in 2008 employed a total of 637 people. transportation of solid waste to Koshe dumpsite is conducted by the government and private companies using: Side loaders. the AACMA reported in 2013 that there are 103 trucks of which 68 are on duty. 26 are under repair and 11 are non-functional. and Container lift.

By the same report. that about 2.200 to 2. this doesn’t mean that the total number of informal sector waste pickers from households is these much. and other containers walking on foot. However. According to the 1992 NOR CONSULT estimation. Disposal at Repi (Koshe) Dumpsite Waste from the primary and secondary collections in combination with street sweepings is dumped into the Koshe dumpsite under the authority of the Addis Ababa Recycling and Disposal Project Office. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 77 . Serving for more than 47 years.7. used plastics. Studies indicated that about 70% of the solid waste generated in the city is compostable. not given any recognition. composting is not common practices both at households and dumpsite (only accounting 5%). many individuals collect and bring any metal scrap. IGNIS project (2010) reported. 5% from industries.2 The Informal Sector For the sake of subsistence. rag. glass. 3% from hotels 1% from hospitals. shorten for “Korkoro Yalew” meaning “who do have metal scrap?”. screaming Kuralew in every residential corner of the city on a daily basis to Minalesh Tera of Merkato. researcher Bjerkli in 2005 estimated the total number of Kuralew about 5000.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project d. Recycling is not also performed. 6. however. 6% from street sweeping. the composition of the waste dumped to Koshe accounts 76% from residential. 9% from commercial areas. Koshe now is beyond its carrying capacity. Known by local name “Kuralew”. About 17km2 of its area is recapped. however. There is no formal waste recycling or waste-to-energy facility known to the area up to now. but there is no any leachate and gas emission control mechanism established so far. the informal sector has been making a great deal of contribution to the management of solid waste both at the households and Koshe dumpsite in Addis Ababa.3. except informal picking of valuable waste at the dumpsite and households (this also accounts only 5% of the total solid wasted produced in the city). based on a result of six days study of the Institute of Technology of Addis Ababa. near to be closed. the Cambridge Industries Energy with the Ethiopian Electric Power Authority has finalized its environmental and social impacts study report to establish a facility to generate power out of waste at Repi.700 “kuralew” entered into Minalesh Tera every day.

other plastic products. The number of waste pickers has shown considerable increase through time and currently it is confirmed that there are about 685 waste pickers who work regularly in the dump site. some 280 middlemen are dedicated to buy and sell keys and other door parts. rubber. As it is the case in many parts of the world. people who are engaged in waste picking work at landfill sites are usually driven by poverty and lack of other survival means. The work environment is unhealthy and demeaning. Much of these salvaged materials are taken by dealers to plastic and metal recycling factories in the city. There are also a sizable number of female waste pickers in Koshe dump site. The business of salvaged waste involves a number of business people in the market chain. the social impact assessment study carried in Repi have confirmed that for the majority of the waste pickers in Koshe dump site.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project According to the report. In line with it. A large portion of the waste pickers settle normally integrated with the wider community as its ordinary members. and glass bottles are recovered for reuse and recycling (IGNIS 2010). it was found out that around 300 middle-men commercialize mainly metal scrap. Especially metal and plastic materials are diverted in large quantity from the waste stream. The waste pickers collect all types of salvageable materials from the waste stream and sell it to their clients. Waste picking work at Koshe dump site is full of challenges and risks. Also. the main reason and hence the main driver that push them to work is lack of other income generation opportunities which they need to support their livelihood. plastics. Finally. electrical devices. The Koshe waste pickers are characterized by rudimentary and basic educational levels. The presence of such broad range in age group is expected simply because it is more or less a reflection of the wider society which is a source for them. as well as motor parts. Social baseline of Koshe waste pickers community Waste picking (scavenging) is a regular activity that takes place in Koshe dump site. An estimated 60 middle-men work in buying and selling corrugated iron sheets and items like rubber. Other reusable materials are fed into the market for reuse. and car spare parts like batteries. metal and plastic barrels. a. 170 intermediaries work. electric cables of various size and other items. The waste pickers sell their salvaged materials to the middle men and the middle men sell either to the big dealers or take it to the recyclers. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 78 . Waste pickers of Koshe comprise a broad range of age groups that extend from children to older people. It is a practice that has been going on for over three decades.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The amount of daily income generated by waste pickers depends on a number of factors. The Capital of Bereh Woreda is Sendafa town. Gelan. Sululta. Finifine Zurya Special Administrative zone in Bereh woreda. There are waste pickers who play the role of middle men in the market chain. archaeological and ethnographic).8 Cultural Activities. It is very common to observe both Churches and Mosques in every part of the city. are going to use the sanitary landfill to dispose its solid wastes. This makes Addis Ababa a highly colourful city which hosts many ethnic. Burayu. Oromo. Sendafa and Legetafo towns. the Amhara. 6. In general. Bereh woreda is not only the place where the site for the Sendafa Sanitary landfill project is situated but also is a beneficiary of the services of the sanitary landfill itself. Amharic is the official language of the city government and is also widely spoken. Religion wise all major religions are quite visible in Addis Ababa and live in peace and harmony. culture and language diversity. art galleries. Firstly. and old churches. It is probably the only city in the country with such type of ethnic.3. In its cultural activities. Language. traditional restaurants. the preference of waste pickers to salvage high or low value material has a direct influence on the daily income. Religion and Ethnic groups The geographic location of Addis Ababa. There is not any ethnic or cultural group of the country that does not reside and represented in Addis Ababa. cultural and language groups.9 Socio economic background of Bereh woreda and the five towns of Oromia Special zone The Sendafa Sanitary landfill project site is located in Oromia National Regional State. it has a number of museums (historical. The major ethnic groups that reside in Addis Ababa include. Sendafa and Legetafo towns. the three transfer stations and Sendafa Sanitary landfill project will provide its service to all the five towns found in Oromia Special Zone which include Sebeta. 6. Two of its main towns. its economic and political muscle makes it the attraction for all the country’s ethnic and cultural groups. Those who buy salvaged materials directly from the waste pickers at the dumpsite and sell it out to the next in the market chain will have a better income than the others.3. monasteries. The income is also influenced by the role of the waste picker in the market chain of the salvaged materials. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 79 . Tigray and Guragie.

1Sanitarian. In Bereh woreda there is very little business and industrial development outside of agriculture. 3 Lab technician.537 students.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project No. restaurants and grinding mills. the woreda population is predominately Oromo ethnic group and their language is also Affan Oromo. 2007). in the town sections there are only small scale businesses. and of which. 4 clinics. 46 Nurses. 2007) Table 10: Population of the towns in Oromia Special zone The Bereh woreda has a total population of 79. Ethnically. Sub City Population Remarks 1 Burayu 89 057 Projected for 2013 2 Sebeta 79 722 >> 3 Lege Tafo 9 237 >> 4 Gelan 6 698 >> 5 Sululta 10 563 >> 6 Sendafa 10. 20 health posts. recently. The top ten diseases in the year 2012 (2004 EC) in the woreda include. three flower farms have been established in the woreda.411 are male and 39.558 are female. and 76 Health agents. 40. 4 Pharmacists. The population of Sendafa town alone is estimated to be 10. Agricultural practices have not yet developed much and mainly practiced by using traditional farming methods by using oxen plough share and it is also small scale household farm. The health professionals working in the above health facilities including 4 Health officers. bars.972 people. such as. The distribution of social services in the woreda shows that drinking water supply coverage has reached 56% only.750 (CSA. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 80 . The Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia. Outside the household farms. The Bereh woreda is predominantly rural and the mainstay of the population is crop farming. the woreda has 53 primary schools having 16. The health coverage shows that there are 3 health centres.750 (CSA. The number of teachers in the above schools is 338 (120 female) and among the above teachers none have degree level qualification. In terms of education.

4 9 Conjunctivitis 803 5.8 7 Acute Upper 2219 15.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Type of Disease Number % 1 Injury 901 6.27 2 Pneumonia 1321 9.1 3 Acute Febrile 4256 29 Illness 4 Diarrhoea 2279 15.3 Respiratory Tract Infection 8 Intestinal Parasite 1360 9.3 Table 11: Top ten diseases in Bereh Woreda ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 81 .7 5 Dermatitis 390 2.7 6 Gastritis 554 3.5 10 Urinary Tract Infection 333 2.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

7. Analysis of Alternatives
The alternatives considered for the solid waste management project include change of site, change
of design and the “no project option”. The selection of suitable site for the sanitary landfill project
had been conducted by different technical groups assigned by the Addis Ababa City
Administration. Initially, the Fillidoro, Bole Arabsa and Fincha sites were studied by different
technical groups. However, feasibility studies have revealed that these sites were found unsuitable
for use as sanitary landfills due to various reasons shown in table 12.

Site location

Fillidoro site

Bole Arbasa site

Fincha site

Northwest of the city close
to little Akaki River

South-east of the City

37kms south of the city
very close to Akaki well
field

shallow wells, which are
used as water supply

- Pollution of surface
water downstream of the
landfill site

-located at the recharge
area for the Akaki well
field

- Size of the proposed
site is insufficient

- displace large number
of people

- permeability of the
geological formations
were high

- Clearing of the existing
forest trees could
enhance erosion and loss
of wild life habitat

- Pollution of
groundwater due to the
high permeability of the
geological formations.

Reasons for not - Occurrence of nearby
being selected

- can pollute the
groundwater

- Pollution of the Akaki
river as surface and
groundwater drains
towards the stream
Table 12: Summary table of alternative sites considered

After the above sites failed to prove suitable, another task team was formed in September 2009 to
look for probable sites within 40km radius considering the hydro-geological, geological, ecological
and engineering geological aspects. The six potential sites considered includes Chebe Weregenu
(Legetafo), Gubaya (Tefike), Abeyi dibdbe (Dukem), Simbrite Kore (Menagesha), Daleti Ejersa
(Butajira road), and Geja Jewie (Sebeta). From these candidate sites the Chebe-Weregenu site (now
commonly called as Sendafa Sanitary landfill site) was selected as one of the first priority site.
A detailed feasibility study of the Chebe-weregenu site on geological, engineering geological,
hydro-geological, and geophysical investigations were carried out by the GSE during 2009 – 2010
ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 82

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

GC. The feasibility study conducted at 1:5000 scales allowed to generate data to understand the
subsurface conditions of the proposed site and make tangible conclusions on its suitability for
sanitary landfill. From engineering geological point of the host rock underlying the top soil has
medium mass strength. The permeability value of the residual soil covering the landfill site
indicates that the soil is semi-pervious. In terms of hydrogeology the immediate area surrounding
the site is found not much promising for water well development. According to geophysical
investigations the residual soil has sufficient thickness to protect leakage of leachate. The study
also concluded that due to topography and absence of prominent tectonic structures, flooding, slop
instability problems are not expected to pose any significant risk. Besides, construction raw
materials to be used as a blanket for the landfill is found at a distance of about 1500 meters NE of
the site. Moreover, the site is found entirely on an area of water shed free from surface drainage. It
is a flat land (table land) situated between 2400 to 2600 masl. Consequently, due to all the above
reasons, the current Sendafa sanitary landfill site was selected as suitable site for the purpose.
The design process of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations has passed through a number of
steps including preliminary and detailed design development stages. During these stages various
design alternatives were considered before arriving at the final detail design for the sanitary landfill
and transfer stations. The draft detailed designs were presented in a workshop held in December
2014 involving several stakeholders including representatives from regional and federal EPAs and
were discussed and commented thoroughly. As a result, the final detail designs have incorporated
the various comments forwarded by the workshop participants, which have been instrumental in
considering alternatives and improvements to the transfer stations and sanitary landfill designs.
The ‘no project’ option will allow the continued use of Koshe Repi open dumpsite which is already
getting full and also causing environmental problems in the area. On the other hand, considering the
rapid development taking place both in Addis Ababa city and its surrounding, the no project option
will probably allow the utilization of the selected sanitary landfill and transfer station sites for other
competing priority purposes and deprive the city from its opportunity of getting suitable landfill site
in its peripheries.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 83

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project

8. Environmental impact identification, prediction and analysis
The implementation of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations project will have certain impacts
on the natural and socio-economic environment in which it is set. The impacts can be categorized
into direct, indirect and cumulative impacts. These categories can be further broken down
according to their nature, into positive or negative impacts, random or predictable impacts, local or
widespread impacts, temporary or permanent impacts, and short or long-term impacts. Each
positive and negative impact will vary in extent and it can be either enhanced or mitigated. The
main focus of this chapter is to identify the significant impacts of both negative and positive nature
and to analyse it under the scenario where no mitigation and enhancement measures are put in
place. For the purpose of this assessment, impacts and/or benefits that will occur during
construction and operation phases will be considered. The environmental analysis will therefore
attempt to screen out the insignificant impacts and bring the major significant impacts into the
attention of decision makers.

8.1 The positive impacts
8.1.1 Impact on public health of the wider city
The development of new sanitary landfill in Sendafa is anticipated to have both direct and indirect
positive impacts on public health. One of the indirect positive impacts of the proposed new sanitary
landfill is through its facilitation for the closure of Koshe/Repi open dump site.
It is well known that the improper management of solid waste in Koshe dump site was a source of
ambient air, surface and ground water pollution. The public is affected directly and indirectly
through the affected environment such as the polluted waters and air. The release of leachate from
the koshe dump site has an impact on the nearby surface and ground water. The persistent release
of foul odour and smoke by the koshe dumpsite is a source of health problem for members of the
public. People in the city are consuming fruits and vegetables grown downstream by polluted
surface water sources. In addition to the assimilation of heavy metals through the consumption of
vegetables, the direct contamination of plants by bacteria and virus may contribute to the health
effects of the public. Thus, the proper closure of Koshe/Repi open dump site will undoubtedly
improve the environmental quality of the locality by relieving it from the continued release of
smoke and foul odor as well as uncontrolled release of leachate among others. This in turn is likely
to have an immediate positive impact on the public health as well as on the property value of the

ZTS-EDCE & MTS

Page 84

Fig 12: Showing recently abandoned and newly opened dump sites in Sebeta town The establishment of the Sendafa sanitary landfill and three transfer stations and the opportunity to use these facilities by the five Oromia special zone towns is anticipated to have a significant positive impact on improving the solid waste management practices of the towns resulting in improvement of their environmental sanitation and public health status. almost all of these towns do not have well organized solid waste management system that consists of proper solid waste disposal facilities.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project locality. In most of these towns industrial and residential development activities are taking place and are expanding fast. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 85 .1. Burayu. despite the rapid urbanization and growth observed. On the other hand. Legetafo. Hence the opportunity to utilize the new transfer station and sanitary landfill project facilities will present a medium and long term solution to the environmental and public health concerns of the five towns of Oromia Special Zone.2 Impact on public health of the residents of the five towns in Oromia special zone Sebeta. 8. Gelan and Sululta are towns which are becoming increasingly populated and more urbanized in recent times. Sendafa. Thus the construction of the new sanitary landfill will contribute indirectly towards the improvement of public health of the city residents. These towns are found adjacent to Addis Ababa city and their social and economic growths are observed to show a considerable leap in recent years. the public health of the community was increasingly getting threatened due to lack of proper solid waste collection and disposal facilities. As a result. Sanitary landfill is a huge urban infrastructure which may prove difficult to put in place by each of the stated towns for themselves.

4 Improvements on enhancing and formalizing ISWM The proposed sanitary landfill and transfer station project is designed not only to facilitate the sound collection and disposal of solid waste. Especially the avoidance of the most noticeable sources of irritation to the public in the area which are the foul odour and smoke coupled with the unsightly scenery of the dump site are anticipated to gradually improve the negative attitudes of the public to the locality. 8.3 Impact on improvement of the overall solid waste management system of the city Installing and operating a properly designed sanitary landfill facilities and transfer stations will contribute for the overall improvement of the solid waste management of the city and its efficiency. Each of the transfer stations consists of a separate block where waste sorting and segregation will be conducted.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8. reuse and recycling through sound and formal means.1. Therefore. The expanded waste collection coverage and increased collection frequency is anticipated to contribute towards the betterment of the overall waste management system of the city and its sanitation condition. The improvements in efficiency to be gained in the secondary collection are anticipated to precipitate down to improvements and enhanced efficiency in solid waste collection coverage and frequency from the primary collectors.5 Improvement on overall environmental quality and property value around Koshe The facilitation of the closure of Koshe dump site and ceasing the waste disposal operation from taking place in the area is also anticipated to have a positive potential impact on the property values in the area. Thus the proposed project is anticipated to have a potential positive impact on the overall SWM of the city and its sanitation condition. The waste segregation is expected to result in recovering reusable and recyclable materials from the solid waste stream by employing a sizable number of formal waste pickers. The development and operation of the transfer stations are anticipated to enhance the efficiency of the secondary solid waste collection systems in the city. With the improvement of the public attitude ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 86 . The reusables and recyclables recovered from the solid waste stream are expected to be channelled to the recycling establishments through formalized means. but also provides a space to undertake continued waste sorting and segregation activities at the transfer stations. The ceasing of waste disposal operation at the site followed by proper closure and reclamation is likely to improve the environmental quality in the area.1.1. the proposed solid waste management project will have a positive impact of enhancing environmental sustainability by facilitating for waste recovery. 8.

It can be assumed that creation of employment opportunities will have a significant contribution to the reduction of poverty at the household level. the lower property value observed in the immediate neighbourhood of Koshe is anticipated to rise in the future. recovery and reuse activities to be conducted in the three transfer stations. and will increase the revenue capacity of the project area. Therefore. The new sanitary landfill will also create new jobs for equipment and machinery operators and other skilled and semi-skilled staff who will be engaged in running and managing the daily operations of the sanitary landfill. During operational phase the project is anticipated to create more waste management related jobs both in the transfer stations and the new sanitary landfill. If such employment mechanisms are adopted the project would contribute to the creation of jobs and income. These jobs will include waste sorting.1. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 87 . In the process of employment. The youth and women residing in the project areas will benefit from the employment opportunities created due to the construction of the landfill and transfer stations. The employment opportunities will be mainly for the youth and women residing in the area that will benefit from the project. 8. The employment of semi-skilled and unskilled labour should be from the locality during construction and priority should also be given to women and in particular to female headed households. The design of the new transfer stations has included a large block of 1130 m2 area and it will be exclusively used for such purposes. and an estimated 200 people (most being unskilled workers) could have employment opportunity during peak construction work. the proposed project will have a significant positive impact in the area of job employment creation and will also introduce new skills and knowledge to the locality. It is anticipated that large number of workers will be employed or contracted to conduct the waste sorting and recovery activities in the transfer stations.6 Employment creation The project is envisage and expected to create both short term and long term employment opportunities for the local communities. the new sanitary landfill facilitating the closure of the existing dump site will have an indirect impact on property value of the koshe neighbourhood. and improvement of the local economy. Thus.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project triggered by improved environmental quality. the contractor is also expected to respect and abide with the labour code of the country.

mechanics and cleaners for offices. and it is also common that the above workforce will demand for different services from the business persons operating in the direct influence area of the project. During construction phase jobs to be created include mainly casual jobs. However. a clause should be added to ensure the employment of casual and semi skilled workers and that the employment has to be made from among the people living in the project area. Experiences from other infrastructure projects show that there is always a demand for some services and goods by construction workers. The jobs to be created during operation phase are expected to be handled by AACMA and that will include employment of guards.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  Measures of Reinforcement for employment generation • The contractor should employ large proportion of casual and semi skilled workers from the local population residing in the project area. Some of these services and goods in demand are ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 88 . Women in the project area have very limited exposure of working in such type of projects.1. such as. carpentry. minimum wage. In the works contract document of the contractor to be employed. the construction of the project in the area is expected to create new opportunity and skill for women. etc. machine operators. work safety regulations. daily labourers. The above jobs apply mainly for uneducated or for women who have very low level of education. It is estimated that 100-200 construction workers could be engaged during the construction works. • Ensure women’s employment and improve their employment opportunities and working conditions. and related issues. During the construction phase of the project women could work as daily labourers and in particular jobs that will not have negative impact on their biological and social characteristics and during the operation phase women can work as cleaners for offices and other related jobs. During construction of the landfill. masonry. • The contractor needs to observe the Labour code for employment.7 Income generating and small businesses In the direct influence area of the project there are not many opportunities for income generating (i. drivers. The project will give priority in employment to women and in particular to female headed households. different types of small scale income generating (or commercial) activities could start through local communities and in particular by women in order to meet the demand of the construction workforce. off-farm) and market based economic activities.e. The jobs that would be created would be during construction and operation phases. 8.

glass ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 89 .000 tonnes of waste over the next 20 years. Some of the factors affecting composition include age of landfill. Other contributors to leachate generation include groundwater inflow.1 %). As the age of the landfill increased. eating places and selling of food.2. The waste that will be disposed at the Sendafa Landfill is composed of Organic (57. Textile (3. it is anticipated that some 20-30 business persons will be directly providing the services and some 50 or more persons who could indirectly serve as suppliers (mainly local farmers) for the business men could be able to generate income during construction and operation phases. it is anticipated that between 50 to 100 people could be able to generate income through various income generating activities. degree of decomposition. and can also vary within a particular site. It is forecasted that Sendafa Sanitary landfill would receive approximately 8. cardboard (3. Leachate is the aqueous effluent generated as a consequence of rainwater percolation through the wastes deposited on the sanitary landfill and the inherent water content of the disposed wastes themselves. It is expected that rain precipitation percolates through the waste deposit at the landfill and will leach out the dissolved and suspended components from the biodegrading waste where several physical and chemical reactions will take place.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project kiosk for selling of basic items and consumables.2 The Negative impacts 8. and to diversify their income sources and to exploit their potential. Plastic (8. etc. organic concentration (COD) in the leachate will decrease and ammonia nitrogen concentration will increase. In general.8%). and physical modification of the waste leachate.1 Impact of leachate on the surface and ground water resources It is predictable that during the operational phases of the proposed sanitary landfill a leachate effluent will be generated which has the potential to affect the ground and surface waters. surface water runoff. The composition of leachate from landfill site varies greatly from site to site.200. types of waste. In general.1 %).7%). beverage. 8.0%).3 %). Whenever there is large number of workmen who have come either from outside or employed from the locality it will become a driving force that initiates local communities to start income generating and small business which has never been there. hygienic textile (2. and biological decomposition. Liquid fractions in the waste will also add to the leachate depending on the age of the landfill. The income generating activities and businesses that are expected to be established due to the construction work would allow households to learn new skills and also earn additional income. paper (4.

Pathogenic microorganisms and toxic substances that might be present in the waste are often cited as dangerous.1. Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn). especially iron. Manganese (Mn). If the landfill has no leachate collection system the leachate to be generated during the operational phases can enter into ground and surface water resources found around the sanitary landfill site. health care waste (1. The contamination of river by leachate is expected to raise the concentrations level of heavy metals like Chromium (Cr). The volume of leachate that will be generated from this disposal cells is anticipated to range from 645m3/day when cell one (1a) is operating and the rest of the cells are closed to 1336 m3 /day when cell 4a is operated and other cells are closed during the lifetime of the sanitary landfill.1 Impact of Leachate on surface water resources One of the important surface water bodies found around the proposed sanitary landfill site is the Legedadi Dam that supply water to Addis Ababa City. Cobalt (Co). unclassified combustible and incombustible (5. landfill leachate is acidic. However.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project (2. Potassium (K). ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 90 . and rich in organic acid groups. the Hambisa and Legetafo rivers are tributaries of the great Akaki River and thus the impact of the leachate is anticipated to expand further downstream along the Akaki river catchment. 8.7 %) (Artelia & MCE. It is anticipated that there is low probability that the Legedadi dam could be contaminated by leachate generated from the Sendafa sanitary landfill site. but since pathogenic organism counts will reduce rapidly with time in the landfill it will only be an issue to the fresh leachate at the initial stage. flowing from North to South. Moreover. Magnesium (Mg). Hambisa River runs alongside the eastern boundary of the site.6%). It is proposed to construct five waste disposal cells and the fifth cell will be dedicated for the disposal of hazardous waste.2. 2013). Cadmium (Cd). The risks from waste leachate are due to its high organic contaminant concentrations and high level of ammonia and nitrogen.1 %) and others (9. Lead (Pb).3 %). sulphate ions with high concentrations of common metal ions. as the proposed landfill site is located downstream of the dam. Typically. Nickel (Ni). uncontrolled leachate release from the landfill site into Hambisa River will have an adverse impact on the quality of the river on which the local community is dependent for live stock watering and irrigation purposes. The predicted impacts of leachate on the important surface and ground water bodies found around the proposed landfill site are further discussed below in the next sub-sections.

There are also more than four springs on downstream of the landfill site aligned along N-S normal faults close to periphery of the site.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8.1.2 Impact of Leachate on ground water resources a. Impact of Akaki transfer station on Akaki well fields The potential impact of Akaki transfer station on the ground water resources is anticipated to arise from littering of solid waste inside and outside of the transfer station area as well as through hauling delays resulting in storing of the solid waste for days inside the transfer sheds because of operational failures. The manifestation of the springs downstream of the site can be an indication of tectonic structure controlled groundwater flow system in the area. the intensive pumping of groundwater from the Legedadi well field in the future may result in rapid decline of groundwater levels leading to disturbance in the flow direction system of the groundwater. Though the piezometric surface constructed from groundwater point inventory made during previous studies showed that the general groundwater flow in the area is towards southeast direction and away from Legedadi well field where currently deep bore holes are being drilled to expand the city water supply. The shallow depth of water level in the adjacent boreholes and absence of thick top clay soils may facilitate direct percolation of contaminants from the landfill to the groundwater reservoir. eventually resulting in groundwater flow towards the depression zone. leachate may have an adverse impact on the nearby deep test wells and shallow wells drilled by AAWSA found within a radius of 3. The solid waste littered and accumulated in the transfer station sheds will continue to biodegrade and decay and get washed with storm waters causing contamination to surface and to ground waters through seepage respectively.2. Impact on Legadadi well fields The Legedadi dam has also an area in its surrounding reserved for well field development. This process potentially facilitates the rapid flow of contaminated water from the aquifer underlying the proposed sanitary landfill site to the Legedadi well field.5km from the site. b. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 91 . It is predicted that the shallow depth of water level in the adjacent Legedadi well field boreholes and absence of thick top clay soils may facilitate direct percolation of contaminants to the groundwater reservoir. Therefore it is anticipated that in the absence of proper management of the proposed sanitary landfill. with static water level of less than 10m as well as springs emerging at downstream.

weak zone along the fault striking from NW-SE on western part of the site can be a conducive path for contaminants leaked from the transfer station towards south part of the well field where most of the deep and shallow wells are concentrated. Particularly. However. therefore. The transfer station is also not far from Well field-2 and Well field-3 (Map 8).000m3/day has been produced from 15 deep boreholes since 2012. the area has been subjected to the rift tectonics. mostly black cotton soil. prevents downward percolation of contaminated water into aquifer. nearby shallow unconfined aquifers may be exposed to pollution as a result of base flow from Akaki River drained by the transfer stations. because of its low permeability.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Akaki Transfer station is located within Well Field-1 from which a total of 60. The impermeable layer. the 40-50m thick unsaturated zone of lacustrine sediment with high proportion of clay soil can act as a geochemical and biological filter. The general trend of most of these faults follows the rift system (NW–SE and NE-SW) orientation. which is manifested by a number of major and minor fault systems. massive basalt overlain with the thick clay soil. From geological log data taken from deep boreholes around the site. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 92 . It is. Moreover. unlikely that the contaminants from the transfer station may easily leak into the aquifer at a depth as a result of direct percolation.

The solid waste littered and accumulated in the transfer station sheds will continue to biodegrade and decay and get washed with storm waters causing contamination to surface and to ground waters through seepage respectively. north-eastern as well as southZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 93 . It is observed that since the Great Akaki River drains most of the central. Impact of Bole Arabsa Transfer Station on surface and ground water bodies In a similar manner.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Map 8: Akaki Well Fields (WF) C. the potential impact of Bole Arabsa transfer station on the nearby surface and ground water resources is anticipated to arise from littering of solid waste inside and outside of the transfer station area as well as through hauling delays resulting in storing of the solid waste for days inside the transfer sheds because of operational failures. Storm water discharge from Bole Arabsa transfer station is drained into Great Akaki River.

Water quality sampled from a borehole located 0. the Bole Arabsa transfer station site is located in the range of medium vulnerability (Dereje 2003). Copper and Cobalt) and BOD in the samples can be used as tracer in relation to leachate percolation. Thus the transfer station may not become an immediate pollution threat to existing well field that supply water to the city. On the other hand. The nearest ground water prospective areas under investigation by AAWSA are the South Ayat-North Fanta well field which is found about 3. bacteriological and heavy metal concentration. it is imperative to take necessary measures that prevent the seepage of leachate into the ground water during the operational phases of the transfer station to avoid long term impacts on the ground water. Based on previous studies. Zinc. BOD. The presence of heavy metals (such as Chromium. As there is no other possible anthropogenic source for the trace metals. Based on the intrinsic vulnerability map of Akaki Catchment. Thus it is important to avoid or minimize sources of additional pollution load that can be washed away by storm water from the transfer station. industrial and commercial discharges as well as other diffused pollution sources while draining through the city. Koshe dump site is the major source of groundwater pollution for the nearby wells.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project eastern parts of Addis Ababa city. D. however.8km south of ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 94 . However.5 km south of the proposed transfer station. The nonengineered Koshe landfill site has been in operation for the last four decades and the solid waste disposed there have been a source of foul odour nuisance. it is exposed to a load of pollutants from urban solid waste and sewage releases. air and water pollution. Impact of Koshe Transfer Station on Surface and Ground Water Resources The impact of the proposed new Koshe/Repi transfer station on surface and ground water resources in the area is anticipated to have a cumulative and synergistic effect of enhancing the existing and perhaps the highly significant impact caused by the Koshe open dump site itself. Lead. This implies that leachate created from decaying waste in the transfer station can have possibility of percolation down to the water table if there is no proper prevention and control system in place. Accordingly certain heavy metal substances. COD and bacteria were found in the collected groundwater samples. groundwater samples around Koshe dump site were analyzed for physicochemical. the area around Bole Arabsa transfer station is not currently serving as well field area for Addis Ababa city. Thus the Great Akaki River already contains an agglomeration of pollutants from the upstream and further contamination from the transfer station will have a cumulative and synergistic effect in enhancing the pollution level of the river.

such as within buildings or in collapsed void spaces within the deposited waste. If it is allowed to accumulate in a confined space it could be a source of ignition and an explosion may result. Methane and carbon dioxide are the major gases produced by the bacterial decay of the wastes. it is assumed that this will be further investigated and discussed in detail in the ESIA report of the decommissioning and closure of the Koshe landfill to be prepared in the future. in the absence of oxygen). Even though the contribution it may make would be comparatively small. Therefore. foul odour nuisance. etal. With its high content of methane. Finally. the generation of landfill gas poses significant risks to human. 2012). e. Landfill gas is generated by the degradation of the disposed solid waste materials under anaerobic conditions (i. landfill gas can give rise to ‘flash fires’.2. Groundwater flow direction which is from north to south have made conducive environment for contaminated water flow to downstream shallow unconfined aquifers. the new koshe transfer station may cause additional impact to the ground and surface water if not properly managed and operated. During operational phases. In an open area. and dust releases during construction and operational phases. The impacts on ambient air quality are anticipated to occur due to landfill gas.8km south of Koshe open dump site were found to be out of acceptable drinking water quality standards (Tigstu H.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Koshe dump site and Mekanisa well which is also located 1. since the larger source of impact on ground and surface waters in the koshe transfer station area is the open landfill site itself. the presence of heavy metals and coliforms in the nearby groundwater samples is expected to be a result of direct percolation and surface-ground water interaction in the Koshe landfill area. 8.e.2 Impact of landfill Gases on ambient air quality One of the potential impacts of the proposed sanitary landfill and transfer stations project is its impact on ambient air quality. The critical concentrations limits within which a flammable gas will burn (or explode) are known as the ‘Lower Explosive Limit’ (LEL) and ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 95 . The most significant risk associated with landfill gas arises from its potential to form flammable mixtures with air. the proposed Sendafa Sanitary landfill will generate a Land Fill Gas (LFG) which is likely to have significant potential impact on the ambient air quality and climate change. The risk is greatest where gas is allowed to build-up in confined spaces. which is toxic and inflammable gas. animal and plant health and life.

the proposed sanitary landfill project can immensely contribute to deterioration of ambient air quality in the area through smoke release caused by spontaneous burning of methane gas. the release of smoke caused by open flare of LFG from the new sanitary landfill can exaggerate the situation due to synergistic effect. These odorous gases give the landfill gas mixture its characteristic "rotting" smell. hydrogen sulphide. carbon dioxide. The average annual wind speed calculated for the area is 0. wind speed and direction determine whether local residents will notice landfill odours so that the degree of the problem will vary greatly from day to day.55km/hr with the maximum 18m/sec at 120° in the northeast direction. As stated in the baseline chapter. landfill gases are carried on surface level winds. than the EPA’s ambient standards for PM10 and PM2. although their levels are typically very small compared to the levels of methane. it can also move them into the community.5%.5. Carbon dioxide. from the pilot air quality monitoring study conducted. For methane these are approximately 5% and 15% respectively. Also. The gases generated tend to rise through the landfill and reach the air above. and sulfides. the air quality of Addis Ababa city is not regularly monitored due to shortage of equipments and resources. Naturally. if not higher. Therefore. the other major constituent of landfill gas has an adverse effect on respiration and is a hazard to health if it is present in concentrations in excess of 1. Other gases produced by landfill bacteria are termed reduced sulphur gases or sulphides (e.. Other chemicals can also be present in landfill gases. While this dilutes the gases with fresh air. Thus odour will be anticipated to occur in the vicinity of the landfill work places especially at the cell filling areas and is likely to affect few rural ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 96 . if it accumulates in a confined space. In the absence of proper landfill gas collection and management system. are close to. the amounts and types of VOCs in landfill depend upon whether chemical reactions are occurring which either remove or create them. mercaptans).g.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ‘Upper Explosive limit’ (UEL). it was observed that concentrations. dimethyl sulfide. Mostly wind occurs at 120° and 130° in the northeast direction at the Bole metrological station. although the rate at which this occurs is affected by landfill content and by the weather. Once emitted into the air. by displacing air (oxygen). In the same way landfill gases that are expected to be released from the proposed Sendafa Sanitary landfill have the potential to cause odour nuisance in neighbourhoods surrounding the landfill. However. especially in urban and residential areas within the city. Landfill gas may also act as an asphyxiant (suffocating agent).

Sulfides can cause unpleasant odours even at very low concentrations. headache. with the odours not being a good indicator of whether other chemicals are present. This is when winds tend to be most gentle. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 97 . In either case the foul odour released from the transfer stations can affect the neighbourhood inhabitants and the workers inside. Other VOCs that might be present in landfill gas are less odorous than sulfides. the worst time of the day may be early morning. The nearest densely populated area to the site is about 5 – 10 kms far away and thus the probability of the odour affecting large size of population is very low. However. In most cases landfills do not emit enough of these VOCs to increase their concentration above the background levels commonly found in the community. simply smelling an unpleasant odour can be sufficient to create an adverse physiological response (nausea. At locations near the landfill. Measures to capture landfill gases and prevent their migration to the community are warranted for the proposed sanitary landfill project where odours are anticipated to create a persistent nuisance. providing the least dilution of the gas. Especially the foul odour release from Koshe and Akaki transfer stations is anticipated to have the greatest effect due to presence of inhabitants around it. a controlled study of asthmatics found that exposure to a high level of hydrogen sulphide (2ppm) did not trigger an asthmatic attack or upper respiratory function. and the levels that might reach surrounding homes are generally far below that which is known to cause ill effects.). While there is some concern that odours might precipitate an asthmatic attack in highly sensitive people. Although this situation is highly undesirable. This means that landfill odours represent more of a public nuisance than a community health hazard. the effects usually reverse when the odour dissipates and do not require medical attention. for some people. These concentrations are well below the level needed to produce toxicity.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project households (villages) present northeast direction of the proposed new sanitary landfill. etc. It is also likely that similar foul odour can be released from the transfer stations if the solid wastes are not promptly hauled without storing and keeping it for days and if the sanitary situation of the transfer stations deteriorates.

2.3 Impact on public health The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations on public health is anticipated to possibly occur under future potential scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities to be developed by the project are not operated properly. storing it for days inside the transfer sheds because of operational failures could cause a serious odour problem to the surrounding. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 98 . Gas from the decomposition of domestic wastes is a minor contributor to the overall problem of methane emissions into the atmosphere. Unless it is properly operated. it will continue to biodegrade and decay and get washed with storm waters causing contamination to surface and ground waters through seepage respectively.2. Such facilities include the availability of engineered cells for disposal of solid waste on daily basis. with emissions from animals and natural decomposition of vegetable matter likely to be the main sources of emissions. It is observed that the engineering design of the proposed sanitary landfill and transfer stations provide facilities that are necessary to prevent the environment from pollution and to protect public health. is widely understood to be a major greenhouse gas. leachate control and treatment.1 Impacts related to emission of greenhouse gases Methane gas.tc. Moreover. one of the major gaseous products from the decomposition of solid waste in anaerobic conditions. Unless the solid wastes to be hauled through the transfer stations are taken to the landfill continuously without delay. Emission of green house gases under the proposed project is anticipated to be considerably less in comparison with the current solid waste disposal and dumping practices. the presence of these facilities alone may not ensure protection of the environment and public health.2. 8.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8. e. Nevertheless. daily cover soils. due to the proposed landfill gas collection system and the flaring of the gas to be installed in the new sanitary landfill. landfill gases collection and treatment. the proper disposal of waste in regulated landfill together with the capture and flaring of the gas is a step in the overall movement towards control of greenhouse gas emissions and so the effect is assessed as minimum.

8. Open landfills attract undesirable vermin such as rodents. Construction of the various components of the solid waste project will all require conducting excavation to lay the foundations at certain depths. Fig 13 above shows an example in Adama town where one of the first sanitary landfills built in the Country was turned to simple open dump site due to operational failures caused by lack of equipments.4 Impacts on soil The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations project on soil is anticipated to occure during construction and operation phases. compacted and covered with daily or intermediate soil cover in the appropriate cells. Under such inappropriate operational conditions the sanitary landfill will degenerate into an open landfill and become source of environmental pollution and public health hazard. the importance of properly operating the sanitary landfill and transfer stations is as important as building it with all its engineering design features. the whole concept of utilizing the sanitary landfill will be jeopardized and it will ultimately fail to serve its purpose. The potential impacts of operational failure can also go beyond public health concerns. Fig 13: Showing an engineered sanitary landfill turned to open dump site in Adama From experience it has been observed that sanitary landfills built with all engineering design features to protect the environment and public health are seen to fail because of failures in operation.2. The attraction of a large population of birds in ill operated sanitary landfill in particular may probably have unintended potential impact on air transport route. Therefore.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project If the wastes reaching the new sanitary landfill is not spread. Unless disposed appropriately in a selected place. pests including dogs and birds. The main activities of the project which are identified to have likely potential impact on soil are the excavation works during construction. the excavation material from the transfer stations that will be carted away can create a ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 99 .

2. during operation phase. the Koshe and Akaki transfer stations are situated nearby residential areas of Addis Ababa city.e. during operation phase. On the other hand.e. Therefore. it is essential that appropriate measures are taken to dispose the excavation material with out affecting the activities in the disposal area. Whereas the project sites for Sendafa sanitary landfill and Bole Arabsa transfer stations are situated in rural settings where there are no populated villages and structures nearby. The sources of noise and vibration nuisance during the construction phase are essentially going to emerge from the construction activity and its machineries. The significance of the potential impact of noise and vibration during construction phase is likely to be dependent on the presence or absence of receptors who will be affected by the noise and vibration released. The potential impact of waste litter on the soil can become significant if it remains uncontrolled and unattended.5 Impact of Noise. The later. 8. The soil material from the project site is identified as a suitable cover soil and thus there is a plan in the design to use it as a cover soil in the new sanitary landfill. With regard to the Sanitary landfill. Under such conditions the waste litter can creat unsightly places around and may likely contaminate the soil through decay in the long term.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project stockpile of construction waste that can cause undesired effects at the disposal site. i. it is going to require daily and intermediate cover material (i. The vehicles and construction machines that will be used for excavations. Thus its impact as construction waste will be minimum provided it is managed according to the design plans. the impact of noise and vibration will be significant in Koshe and Akaki transfer station sites and less significant in Sendafa landfill and Bole Arbasa transfer station sites. it is likely that littering of solid waste may occure in and around the transfer stations and the sanitary landfill that are blown by wind or by mismanagement of waste hauling and disposal activities. and delivery of other construction materials will release roaring noises and create vibrations in the project area. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 100 . Therefore. The presence of receptors of the noise and vibration in the immediate neighbourhood to the project site makes its impact to be of significance. Akaki transfer station site. Dust and vibration Noise and vibration nuisance are predicted to occur at different levels during construction and operation phases of the proposed project. soil material) to cover the wastes disposed in the cells. for carting away the excavated materials. is increasingly becoming a residential area as the construction of massive apartment buildings is taking place close by.

00p. The potential impact of noise released by haulage trucks is likely to mainly affect those receptors found along the waste haulage routes.00 am to 9.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project The noise and vibration impacts to be created due to movement of heavy equipments operating the landfill will be anticipated to be low for similar reasons stated in the preceding paragraph. for carting away the excavated materials.m Note. The dust release is expected to be significant during the dry season. former EPA). The time of the day during which the noise and vibration is released will also be a factor in affecting the receptors. However. The ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 101 .00am The potential impact of dust release is essentially going to emerge from the construction activity and its machineries as well as due to movement of waste hauling trucks during operation phases.m. and delivery of other construction materials will create dust resuspension in all the project sites. Table 13 below shows the permissible limit values for noise. In a simmilar manner.00p. the permissible noise limits differ based on the dominant functions of the areas under consideration and the time of the day.e. the impact of the re-suspended dust will vary from site to site based on the presence of receptors or people to be affected. More specifically. On the other hand the source of noise and vibration impacts during operational phase will be mainly the movement of waste hauling skip trucks. to 6. This is because noise released during night time when the majority of the neighbourhood go to sleep will have more sever nuisance impact than that during normal working hours of the day. The vehicles and construction machines that will be used for excavations. According to the draft emission limit standards of the MoEF (i. the significance of this impact is anticipated to be pronounced in those sections of the haulage routes along the approach to the transfer stations situated close to residential areas.2: Night time reckoned in between 9. As a result the likely receipents of the dust pollution in the sanitary landfill and Bole Arabsa transfer station sites will be largely the construction workers themselves and few passer by villagers. Table 13: Draft Noise emission standards of FEPA Limits in dB (A) Leq Day timeNote 1 Night timeNote 2 Industrial area 75 70 B Commercial area 65 55 C Residential area 55 45 Area Code Category of area A Note-1: Day time reckoned in between 6. waste hauling trucks will also create dust along the dusty road routes during operational phases on a daily basis. The re-suspension of dust in the Akaki and Koshe transfer stations will likely affect larger community in the neighbourhood.

since the project site is situated in a typical rural setting with open farming fields around it. Nevertheless. The project area itself was majorly used for agriculture with less dense residential places around it. the Sendafa sanitary landfill may remain unsuitable for any other forms of beneficial land uses because of the waste deposited. However. it is anticipated that it will not create major land use conflict with the upcoming residential and industrial purposes in the future. the Not In MY Back Yard (NIMBY) syndrome associated with the location of the landfill site is not observable in the area. the current agricultural land use around Bole Arbasa and Akaki transfer stations will change to temporary solid waste handling purposes.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project presence of receptors of the dust pollution in the immediate neighbourhood to the project site makes its impact to be of significance. It was stated in the baseline chapter that the major land use type dominating the areas around Sendafa sanitary landfill is farming. with the realization of the proposed projects.2. the overall land use pattern in these areas is fast changing and the dominance of agriculture is thinning out. However. As a result it may likely pose a certain level of contradiction with the land use types in the area and may also cause a visual impact on the surrounding if left unattended. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 102 . 8. In a similar manner.6 Impact on land use and aesthetics The potential impact of the Sendafa sanitary landfill on land use is anticipated to be of low significance. its visual (aesthetic) impact on the surrounding will be minimum as it may not create a major contradiction with the landscape. grazing and residential uses. since the transfer station activities are designed to be undertaken inside building blocks. As a result there appears to be no significant conflict caused by the land use change. Moreover. after site closure and decommissioning. Thus proper mitigations should be put in place to avoid the post closure land use and aesthetics impacts. Thus. in the long term. Likewise the design of the transfer station blocks is observed to be aesthetically in harmony with the developments taking place in the area and the general landscape. Since the proposed sanitary landfill area is sparsely populated. This change in land use and its impact on income generation and livelihood of the farmers that were tilling the land is compensated by paying out cash compensations (This will be discussed further under the social impacts section). it is anticipated that with proper management and operation of the landfill including capping the cells with daily and intermediate cover. the agricultural land use type is being changed to waste disposal site.

south eastern and south western suburbs of the city respectively. But with the coming of the transfer station into operation. On the other hand.7 Impact on traffic volume during construction and operation The impact of the proposed project on traffic volume during operation phase can be analysed by categorising it in two stages. Whereas the Akaki transfer station is situated along one of the busiest road of the city (Addis Ababa – Akaki road). This impact on traffic volume will not only affect the general traffic flow along the Addis Ababa . Especially the Bole Arbasa transfer station is found in a remote place away from the main road that terminates near the new Bole Lemi Industrial Zone Development Project. the Bole Arbasa transfer station is situated in parts of the city where the traffic volume is comparatively low.2. Bole Arbasa.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8. the koshe transfer station is situated along the moderately busy ring road system of the city. While the first stage of hauling is likely to involve the movement of several waste skip trucks to and from the transfer stations. In chapter three it was described that the Akaki. Thus in terms of impacts on traffic volume the Akaki transfer station is likely to have a significant impact than the other proposed transfer stations. In terms of impact on traffic volume. This is because. Thus there is ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 103 . The second stage is the impact on traffic volume during transfer of waste from the transfer stations to the sanitary landfill. On the other hand.Akaki road but also will negatively influence the speed of waste hauling to the Akaki transfer station. The net impact of koshe transfer station on the traffic volume of the area will become lower than its current impact as disposal site. The first stage is the impact on traffic volume during waste hauling to the transfer stations. The road that leads to Akaki transfer station is currently a gravel road which may cause traffic problem during wet seasons. the available waste skip trucks will be distributed to haul the waste to the three transfer stations. the second stage of waste hauling will involve the movement of comparatively few big long haul trucks and trailers that will carry large loads of the waste. the first stage of waste hauling to the transfer stations is likely to be more significant than the second stage. Koshe as disposal site is receiving all the waste hauled by all operational waste skip trucks available in the city. The impact of the first stage waste hauling on traffic volume is again likely to vary with the general location of the specific transfer stations. and Koshe transfer stations are situated at the south. currently the Bole Arabsa and Akaki transfer stations have no well paved detour roads that can be used to connect to the main roads and to approach the transfer stations.

The health risk to waste pickers from direct contact with wastes is acute due to their lack of protective gear and prolonged exposure to waste. the additional traffic triggered by the construction activities is anticipated to be low. Apparently the workers that may be involved in waste sorting at transfer stations. This is mainly because.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project a need to connect the two transfer stations (Akaki & Bole Arabsa) with the main roads and make them easily accessible. The big waste hauling trucks can use several alternative roads to reach to the Gurd Sholla square through which they can proceed to Sendafa sanitary landfill. and dust releases from the trasfer stations and sanitary landfill operations will be a source of occupational health risk to the waste pickers and the broader waste management workers when exposed for prolonged period of time. The majority of the waste recyclers are young men and women as well as children.8 Impacts on occupational health and safety of workers Owing to the environment they work in. The foul odour. Firstly. the main highway that connects the Sendafa sanitary landfill with Addis Ababa city is the Addis Ababa-Dessie road and comparatively speaking the traffic volume along this road is moderately low. during operational phases. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Therefore. The impact of the second stage waste hauling on traffic volume is anticipated to be insignificant for a couple of reasons. because of the comparatively small scale of construction activities to be undertaken to build the transfer stations. waste disposal at the sanitary landfill cells and other staff directly involved in waste handling and hauling are exposed to many injuring materials that can affect their health. it is imperative to consider the Page 104 . This is especially true after one reaches the Gurd Sholla square and heads towards Sendafa town. the waste management workers in the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations will be exposed to occupational health risks. smoke. Similarly. Waste separation at the transfer station and landfill has a potential negative impact on occupational health and safety when compacted waste is de-compacted to enable separation. The impact of the proposed project on traffic volume during construction phase is generally anticipated to be low and insignificant. Secondly. vermin. who come from the poorest families. 8. the number of big trucks that will haul the waste to Sendafa transfer station are anticipated to be small in number. the construction of the sanitary landfill is going to take place outside the Addis Ababa .2.Dessie road where practically there is no sizable traffic flow in the area.

8. except Koshe/Repi. The project areas. Hence it is anticipated that the potential impacts emanating from the implementation of the solid waste project and its components will be none or minimal. the site for the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations are void of trees and implementation of the project will not necessitate the cutting of any terrestrial vegetation.2.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project occupational health aspects of waste management workers in the sanitary landfill and transfer stations. 8.2. Also neither wetlands nor other sensitive ecosystems are found within or near to the proposed project areas. the potential and likeliness of changing the spontaneous fire hazard caused by landfill gas (methane) to a fire risk is generally higher in the stated waste management facilities.9 Impacts on terrestrial flora and fauna As it has been described in the baseline chapter of this ESIA document.10 Impact of Fire Hazard Fire Hazard is another important impact which can have an adverse impact not only on the sanitary landfill. but also on the environment at large. This is because methane gas is highly flammable and it can aggravate combustion in case of accidents thereby damaging properties and creating a cloud of thick smoke that can affect the air quality of the surrounding. were largely grazing areas where there is no wildlife.2. Fire hazard can have the potential of causing serious air pollution. 8. in all of the transfer and the landfill sites proposed by the project. transfer stations and its surroundings. No protected areas such as parks.11 Impacts due to spillage of used oil and lubricants During operational phases an important source of contamination for the soil and surface water bodies will be the spillage of used oil and lubricants from the maintenace workshop of the transfer stations. the presence of unique and indigenous tree plant species is negligible. sanctuaries or game reserves has been found at reasonably nearer distance of the project sites. Each transfer station will have a block where the maintenance of waste hauling trucks and other equipments will be serviced and maintained. Despite the presence of landfill gas collection and flaring system in the design of the sanitary landfill. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 105 . More specifically.

To minimize such impacts introducing a mechanism for proper handling of oils. some were able to construct new houses. The affected farmers have also reported that they were able to properly utilize the compensation payment. Thus it is important to handle the wastewater generated to avoid potential impacts on the soil grounds and its tidiness.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Spillage of used oils and lubricants from the vehicles and machineries to be engaged during operational phase can pose pollution risk to the soil grounds of the transfer stations and to the main Akaki River and its tributaries found nearby the transfer stations. Some reported that they were able to expand their agricultural activities by renting more land.1 Loss of Farm Land The new Sendafa sanitary landfill project has caused permanent loss of 137. the land has formally been handed over to the project office. The project may still temporarily acquire farmland from farmers for the construction of access road. During the public consultation. the project office has not acquired any land for the construction of access road to the ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 106 .3 Impact on Socioeconomic Environment 8. The residential settlements of the farmers were also outside the demarcated landfill area and hence there was no need for involuntary resettlement of the farmers who have lost their farmland to the project. The project office has started to fence the site with concrete pole and barbed wire which will be completed soon. and lubricants spillages is essential. Currently. 8. Following the compensation payment made in 2011.767.194 to the above farmers who have lost their land.3. On the other hand the Sendafa Sanitary landfill will have a facility where the wheel of waste hauling trucks will be flushed with high-pressure washer to remove litter and mud at the tipping face of the vehicle. The wastewater generated from the cleaning activities of skip truck wheel can affect the tidiness of the premises there by affecting the soil grounds if not managed properly.07 hectare of farmland which used to be under the entitlement of 217 farmers. farmers reported that since each farmer had plots of land in different locations they are able to continue their livelihood without much difficulty after losing their farmland to the project for they didn’t face total loss. The project office has paid compensation amounting to Birr 24. and some others have started to save.

It is well known and common that infrastructure projects prefer to employ only men. Contacts and communications created between local communities and construction workers who have come to the project area from major towns will expose the local community to new culture and behaviour. namely ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 107 . and this will lead to unequal treatment of women during employment of the construction work force. Such discriminatory acts and lack of other employment opportunities may force women to carry out other marginal activities.4 Public and Stakeholders’ consultation Public and Stakeholders’ consultations are carried out in order to solicit the views of the public residing nearby the project area. The consultations were carried out in four locations.455/2005) and regulation No. 8. and female workers do not obtain particular attention due to their biological and physical condition. in recent years. The introduction of new cultures and behaviours mainly contribute to the spread of communicable diseases such as STD and HIV/AIDS.3 Impact on Women In infrastructure project. affecting mainly the age group of 15 to 49 years. 8. women always do not receive equal employment opportunities. Hence. Project Affected Persons (PAPs) and also that of local authorities (woreda and kebelle administration). favour to employ men rather than women. has emerged as a major health hazard. and the contractors. Valuation of property and assets as well as compensation for affected households was carried out and administered as per FDRE law (proclamation No. the discrimination against women will negatively affect those women who want to work in the construction work.3. Construction workers and truck drivers are considered as having high potential (or good vectors) for the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS virus due to their mobility. in most cases. 8. 135/2007.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project land fill. the HIV/AIDS pandemic.2 Exposure to HIV / AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) In Ethiopia.3. But the land to be acquired for the construction of access road is anticipated to be much less compared to the landfill area.

Some of the health hazards could be due to odour. The minutes of both public and stakeholders’ consultation is attached in Annex-I. 135/2007.  The design for the construction of the access road that takes to Sendafa land fill area has to be made clear for the public and woreda authorities.  The project office needs to take the maximum care that no waste (from factories. in all the locations where public consultations are held the public are highly supportive and positive about the construction of the project.  The woreda anticipates that the local population will have employment opportunities during the operation phase of the project and in future there is a potential for the establishment of some factories producing goods through the process of recycling waste materials that are collected from the land fill. employment priority should be given to the local population. Gora ketena (Akaki transfer station) and at Bole Arabsa area (transfer station) with residents and PAPs.  The affected population has participated in the valuation of property and were made aware of the procedures and guideline prior to the compensation payment.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Bereh woreda administration (with stakeholders). monitoring should be conducted to ensure that no health hazard will be observed on the local population. Outcomes of stakeholders’ consultation in Bereh Woreda Issues and concerns for local level  In general. households or offices) is dumped outside of the land fill area. woreda 4. during the operation phase of the project. Since the minutes are written in Amharic the following is the English translation of the minutes. and with the public at Sire Goyo kebelle (Sendafa land fill area). dust and the like.  In the future. noise.  During operation phase there could be some potential negative impacts that might affect the health and livelihood of the local population living in the surrounding. When will the construction of the ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 108 . Affected persons have also selected 5 persons to represent them in the valuation and compensation process. during the operational phase of the project.455/2005) and regulation No. Issues and concerns for regional level  In future.  The payment of compensation for affected households and procedures for valuation of property and assets is carried out as per FDRE law (proclamation No.

a number of issues were raised and discussed and the following is summary translation of the minutes of consultation meetings. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 109 . To solve the above problem the officials who have come from the project office have promised us that they will construct access road and that will allow us to have access through the landfill area. Outcomes of Public Consultation The following is outcome of public consultations held in Sire Geyo kebele-Akaki Kile village (located at Sendafa landfill area). so far we did not have any satisfactory employment opportunity. b. however. they were able to travel to their farmland by crossing the existing landfill area without any access problem. For instance. Bole Arbasa and Woreda 4-Gora ketene (Akaki transfer station). During the public consultations.  Lack of Access road to farmlands: Those who have farmland adjacent to the landfill area have faced access problem due to the fencing of the project site. Before the project.  We were promised by authorities from the project office that we will be given priority during employment procedures and that no employment will be made outside of the locality. A total of fifty two PAPs participated in the three kebeles. we were promised that the project will construct various social service facilities such as school. i) Sero Goyo kebele (Sendafa land fill)  Construction of social services: During public consultation meeting held with officials who came to visit the landfill site previously from Addis Ababa. This appears to be difficult since there are not many people who have finished grade 10 among us.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project access road to the land fill area start and which kebeles it will cross and how will it affect the farmlands along the route and what will be the size of farmland that will be affected if constructed/affect?. the criterion set to employ a guard is reported that he should be someone who has completed grade 10.  Employment opportunity: We would like to be given priority in employment opportunities that are created due to the implementation of the project. But now it looks that the employment procedures and criteria is different from what has been promised to us by the project office. electricity and drinking water supply for the local population but so far there has not been any progress regarding its implementation. But currently due to the fencing of the landfill area they have found it difficult to travel to their farmland and were forced to take a detour around the fence of the landfill to access their farmland.

 Delay in the implementation of project: The land was taken from us some three years ago by the project office. in the last three years there has not been any significant work carried out by the project office. Some also reported that they have built CIS roof houses. The delay in the implementation of the project has made the land to stay idle for such long time which we could have used the land to farm and grow crops and generated income.  Impact on community health: Those of us who are living in close proximity to the project site are worried and concerned that the project will affect our health in the future because of the hazardous chemicals dumped in the site. in carrying out property valuation and in the procedure for compensation payment. some have bought mini buses to use as public transport and some others have moved to town and built house with the compensation payment received and started small business. however. Conclusion: Generally. we have no objection in the implementation of the project in our nearby vicinity as far as appropriate mitigation measures are considered and implemented to minimize the negative impacts. Fig 14: Showing the community consultation conducted at Sendafa landfill site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 110 . the majority reported that they are aware of the procedures and the process has been transparent and that they have elected their representatives (elders) from among them to participate in the process of measuring affected land size.  Changes in Livelihood: Participants of the consultation have reported that they have received the appropriate compensation payment for loss of their production and some PAPs even reported that they were able to improve their livelihood through the compensation payment they received for their lost farmland.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  Participation in land measurement and property valuation: Some PAPs complained that they did not have sufficient information about the procedures of land measurement and property valuation. However. some have rented additional land to expand their farm business.

 Impact on Human Health: The project could have potential impact on human health. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 111 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ii) Bole Arabsa kebele:  Impact on Akaki River: The project site borders with Akaki River and it is our main source of drinking water. however. the estimated compensation cost is not sufficient enough when compared with the current living standard and economic situation. The case is still pending in court. The local population are currently suffering from odour problems from the Addis Ababa Sewage Treatment Plant project which is located in the area.  Grievances: Some PAPs who have lost their land to the project have refused to collect the estimated amount of compensation payment and have taken the case to court. We would like the project to take maximum care that the solid waste does not pollute the river which is our main drinking water supply. iii) Woreda 4 –Gora Ketena: Impact on public health: Residents of Gora ketena and PAPs have worries that the project will have negative health impact on local residents and in particular on the residents of Gelan Condominium housing which is located adjacent to the transfer site. The public would like the project office to make its maximum effort in the management of negative impacts.  Employment opportunity.  Compensation payment: The payment of compensation for PAPs is made through Bank system.  Delay in payment: Some PAPs complain that the compensation payment was delayed for longer period. we would like the project to recruit its workforce from among the local population during construction and operation phase. they would not like to have similar health problem from the solid waste transfer station also.  Participation in land measurement: PAPs reported that they have taken part in the measurement of affected land however. The reason for refusal to the estimated amount of compensation payment is because they found that the land they have lost to the project and the amount of compensation payment is not compatible. Hence. During the rainy season the odour from the solid waste could be harmful to our health and it could also be washed to the river and become hazardous to both human and animal life. Some PAPs have made good use of compensation payment in investing it by renting farm land from neighbouring kebeles. did not participate in property valuation.

Hence. Notes on table 14: “X” Represent adverse environmental impacts “XXX” “XX” “X” Highly significant impacts Medium significance impact Low significance impacts “” Represent positive and beneficial impacts “” “” “” ZTS-EDCE & MTS Highly beneficial impacts Medium beneficial impacts Low beneficial impacts Page 112 . Employment opportunity: The local population would like the employment of temporary and regular project staff to be from the locality. the community would like the project office to construct drinking water supply for them.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Lack of access to drinking water: The kebele does not have proper drinking water supply.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Project action Environmental Components/ Characteristics Construction Sendafa Sanitary Landfill Operation Transfer stations Sendafa Sanitary landfill Post-closure Transfer stations Sanitary landfill Soil and geology XX XX XXX XXX XX Flora X X X X  Fauna X X X X X Air quality (dust) XX XX XXX XX X Surface water quality X X XXX XXX XXX Land use and aesthetic effects X X X X XXX Noise & vibration effect X XX X XXX NA Archaeological and religious sites X X X X X Traffic X X XX XXX X      X X    X X XXX XXX XXX Occupational health and safety X X XXX XXX XX Parks & reserves X X X X X Effects on wildlife habitat X X X X X Employment Impact on Public Health (SWM facilities properly operated) Impact on Public Health (under operational failure) Table 14: Magnitude Matrix showing the significance of potential impacts of the project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 113 .

9. The ditches along the landfill should be lined to avoid erosion of the cover layers of the closed cells. Impact mitigation measures 9.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 9.1 Mitigation measure to minimize leachate volume The first mitigation option to prevent the impact of leachate is to reduce its generation in the sanitary landfill.1 Mitigation measures for impacts of leachate on surface and ground waters In order to minimize and control the anticipated potential impacts of leachate on surface and ground waters. The rainwater that flows from the surrounding areas and (after filling) from the surface seal of the landfill. the volume of rainwater or surface run-off that comes into contact with the waste at the Sendafa Sanitary Landfill should be minimized. The surface of the waste body will therefore need to be covered intermediately during operation of the landfill and finally after closure of the landfill.1. The mitigation measures outlined below are fully incorporated in the design of the proposed sanitary landfill and will be implemented as main components of the sanitary landfill development. the following mitigation measures as described in the following sub-sections will be taken. will need to be captured by ditches around the landfill body and directed to the lowest point of the landfill located in the south west. From this low point.2 Mitigation Measures to Minimize Leachate Infiltration from the Disposal cells The next proposed mitigation measure to avoid and minimize the impact of leachate on surface and ground waters is to prevent its infiltration and release from the landfill cells into the stated water bodies. To minimize the release of leachete from the waste disposal cells into the ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 114 . Storm drainage of a size that will handle the highest rainfall intensity is proposed to be constructed within and around the proposed sanitary landfill site. In order to achieve this.1. the design of the proposed project has incorporated a robust mechanism for the development of leachate containment and collection mechanism as fundamental component of the engineering measures. Accordingly. the run-off water will be led by gravity to the nearby streams in the south-west direction. 9.

In most part of the cells. groundwater and surface waters from getting polluted by leachate. Slotted pipes will be laid (embedded) within the gravel layer in such a manner that the leachate will be drained within the gravels layer to these slotted pipes. the active security barrier will be reinforced by an additional HDPE geo-membrane of 2. and geo-textiles to protect the geo-membrane and prevent clogging of the drainage layer.0mm thickness. This will serve as leakage detection layer. The active barrier ensures the hydraulic independence of the cell. c.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project surrounding environment it is proposed to install the following facilities as the disposal of waste progresses during the life time of the sanitary landfill. the clay soil depth below the liner system is proposed to be more than 2 meters. the liner is sloped toward the leachate collection pipes which ones are also sloped toward the leachate transmission pipes and these slopes should be between one and three per cent. the prevention of soils. Passive and Active security barriers The purpose of the passive security barrier is to ensure. The pipes will lead to a leakage control manhole that will be checked on a monthly basis as soon as the first raw of hazardous waste will be disposed of. b. Leachate collection system The leachate collection system comprises a high permeability drainage layer. In the case of Sendafa sanitary Landfill. Leachate Drainage layer A leachate drainage layer will be placed all over the bottom liner system. in the long run. For checking the integrity of the active barrier system. a 15cm sand layer with slotted HDPE pipes within it will be placed between the two HDPE geo-membranes. The collectors shall lead to HDPE pipes in ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 115 . For cells receiving hazardous wastes. a. At least 1 meter of natural clay soil with a permeability < 10-6 m/s will be placed below the cell liner system and will play the role of passive barrier. the drainage and the collection of leachate and avoids the use of the passive security barrier. The leachate drainage layer is made of a high-porosity medium providing a preferential flow-path to the leachate collection pipes. perforated or slotted collection pipes. An active security barrier made of HDPE geo-membrane with 2mm thickness will be used for both the bottom of the cell and the slopes and it should be UV protected. This will consist of bottom drainage layer and side slope drainage layer.

1. This ensures that leachate is contained within the drainage layer. To meet the required level of leachete effluent a three-stage treatment system is proposed. the design for the proposed leachate treatment plant have adopted French regulation as a base for treatment level. This includes:  An anaerobic pond. Anaerobic pond An anaerobic pond (3m deep) will receive leachate with high organic loads. total suspended solids of 100 mg/l.5meter of coarse aggregates or the equivalent performance with a geo-synthetic drainage material. In this anaerobic pond. This pond will not contain dissolved oxygen or algae. BOD5 of 100 mg/l and total nitrogen of 30mg/l. These pipes will lead the leachate by gravity to the downstream part of the site. A geo-textile filter would also be placed over the drainage layer to protect it from clogging as a result of solids transport. thus minimizing the potential for clogging of the drainage layer. To avoid clogging and capillary action holding water in the drainage layer. Accordingly. and  A constructed wetland a. The detail design of the proposed sanitary landfill consists of a leachate treatment plant as one of its component which will be built together with the project. Since there are no emission limit standards concerning leachate effluent concentration in Ethiopia. COD and BOD5 removal is achieved by ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 116 . Using coarse material also ensures leachate flow in the event of clogging of some parts within the leachate collection pipes.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project the peripheral trenches near the ground level and along the perimeter bunds. The hydraulic conductivity of the drainage layer is proposed to be greater than 1x10-4 m/s. The drainage layer shall be placed across the entire landfill cells area and comprise at least 0. the required level of leachate concentration of the effluent that will be discharged into the surrounding environment is proposed not to exceed COD of 300 mg/l. 9.3 Leachate treatment plant The final mitigation measure proposed to prevent the impact of leachate is to treat it in a three stage leachate treatment plant to bring down its pollutant load into internationally accepted levels and render it harmless to the environment. coarse material will be used so that there is space within the drainage layer for leachate to drain freely.  A facultative pond.

For this project it is proposed to design a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow (HSSF) system as the efficiency is higher than a Free Water Surface Flow (FWSF) for the same plan area. The nutrients and pollutants then move through the plant body to underground storage organs when the plants senesce. The pollutants removed by CW s include organic materials. carbon dioxide and water. it will need to be disposed in the sanitary landfill. Wetlands A constructed (or engineered) wetlands (CW) is a planned system designed and constructed to employ wetland vegetation to assist in treating wastewater in a more controlled environment than what occurs in natural wetlands. Since the sludge cake will be rich in heavy metal contents. pathogens. During operation of the treatment system. The process of anaerobic digestion is more intense at temperatures above 15°C and can reach up to 75% of BOD5 removal. it will be necessary to periodically clean and scrap the anaerobic and facultative ponds by scraping the sludge cake. heavy metals and other toxic or hazardous pollutants. A retention time of at least 20 days is used to ensure proper treatment. A high standard of leachate containment and management is ensured in the proposed site design through implementation of the following of: ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 117 . The process of oxidizing organic matter by algae and aerobic bacteria is dominant at this stage. b. Plants take up the dissolved nutrients and other pollutants from the water. Facultative pond The facultative aerobic pond (1.2m deep) is used to treat the remaining BOD5 and COD downstream of the anaerobic pond. It will then be deposited in the bottom sediments through litter and peat accumulation when the plants die. nutrients.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project conversion of both soluble and non-soluble COD and BOD5 into mainly methane. c. The same will apply to the senescing plants of the constructed wetland. This is because the conceptual site design takes into account the potential impact of contamination of water resources from leachate emissions. suspended solids. using them to produce additional plant biomass. In summary it can be concluded that the key potential negative impacts identified in this environmental analysis will be mitigated by the design of the sanitary landfill and through good operational practices.

both designed to meet the maximum permeability specification. To minimize this and other adverse impacts the following additional mitigation measures are proposed to integrate into the overall transfer station design. cellular filling and the adoption of re-circulation to dry absorptive waste.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • the installation of two HDPE lining systems in the zone of leachate accumulation. in order to reduce leachate quantities and leachate strength. To achieve this no waste shall be stored at the transfer station for longer than a day and the sanitation of its premises need to be kept in good condition. • the provision of a leachate treatment pond and re-circulation facilities and equipment to promote the evaporation of any collected leachate. • the provision of a high permeability leachate collection and transfer system to facilitate the collection of leachate percolating through waste materials and to drain the leachate from the landfill in order to prevent a build-up of leachate within the body of the deposited waste.  Cover with pavement the area within the transfer station by double layer of asphalt concrete or enforced concrete to minimize infiltration of wastewater that may be released from the temporary waste storage into the surrounding aquifer  Install appropriate storm water drainage and sewerage system in the transfer station to minimize/prevent pollution of the nearby rivers. the project design of the transfer station also recognizes possible adverse effects of wastewater that may be released from the waste heaps temporarily stored at the Akaki Transfer Station on the groundwater aquifer where well field 1 is located. including control of surface water run-on. 9.2 Proposed mitigation measures for Impact of Akaki transfer station on Akaki well fields The first mitigation measure proposed to avoid the impact of contaminated water (or leachate) on Akaki well field is to prevent the formation of leachate in the transfer station itself. • an operational and leachate management policy that is based on not discharging any leachate offsite. streams and boreholes  Collect leaching waste water that may percolate through waste materials at the transfer station and dispose the leached waste water to the sewerage system for appropriate treatment and disposal ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 118 . • the adoption of routine operational measures to minimize leachate generation. However.

namely Bole Arbasa and Koshe transfer stations. Vertical gas wells will be installed in the waste progressively as the landfill grows vertically towards final levels or after filling each cell of the landfill. The possible use of the extracted gas for electricity or heat generation has not been considered at this stage of the project. With a good degasifying system it will be possible to collect at least 50% of the produced gas.200° C. A compensation layer between the waste and the mineral surface sealing of the filled cells will be constructed through which gas can flow easily and which allows supply to the gas vents.1 Gas collection and treatment The anaerobic decomposition of organic substances inside the proposed Sendafa Sanitary Landfill is expected to generate landfill gas during the operation phase.000 -1. These allow gas to be collected through perforated HDPE pipes linked to a compressing station. The gas will be directed to a landfill gas flare beside the gas pumping station where the gas will be incinerated at temperatures of about 1. 9. An active gas system is proposed for the project site in view of the relatively large quantities of organic waste that will be deposited. There will be five year of operation at least before ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 119 .3 Mitigation measures for impacts of landfill gas on ambient air quality The following gas management systems are proposed to be introduced to minimize impact of landfill gases at the Sendafa Sanitary landfill. 9. Inside the pumping station blowers will provide the required negative pressure gradient in the landfill body which guarantees active degasifying at a high gas collection rate. The gas can. The gas pumping station will be located in facilities zone at the northern part of the landfill. Best practice is to collect the gas and burn it.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project  Re-open and clean the nearby streams to divert surface runoff around the transfer station site and construct retaining walls around the perimeter of the transfer station  Dividing the transfer station site surface area into smaller catchments that contain gravitational outlets to the proposed storm water drainage These mitigation measures are also applicable to the remaining two transfer stations. in some circumstance. The landfill will be actively degasified by means of a vertical gas collecting system. migrate away from the site and cause explosions.3.

Methane which is the adverse green house gas present in the LFG will be eliminated and reduced to less adverse GHGs such as CO2 by flaring. It is essential that a program of landfill gas monitoring is carried out at regular periodic intervals during and after the working life of the site in order to assess the effectiveness of the gas control measures in place.2 Measures to mitigate emission of GHG and exposure to landfill gas The proposed mitigation measure to minimize the impact of landfill gas on climate change is generally to reduce its impacts by flaring. The landfill gas is also combusted to reduce the risk of fire and explosion as well as to reduce odours.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project gas is collected from the first cell during which the feasibility of energy recovery can be considered. A variety of configurations of conduits and chambers can be used for the purpose. particularly if site management is not of the highest standard. valves and the body of the flare. as necessary. from the landfill gas. 9. The proposed configuration of a landfill gas flare is recommended to comprise the following basic elements. • some method of control over the flow rate of landfill gas to the burner. The technology of a landfill gas flare is conceptually very simple: landfill gas is brought into contact with a supply of air and ignited. such as airborne debris. • A blower or booster developing the head of pressure needed to feed landfill gas to the flare. Should landfill gas be detected during routine site surveys. there always remains a residual moderate potential for landfill gas impacts. the passive gas wells converted to an active gas abstraction system in which gas is sucked out of the landfill under a vacuum. in addition to piping. the method of gas control will be reviewed and. Thus it is important that good site operational practices are maintained in the proposed sanitary landfill during operational phases.3. and possibly over the supply of combustion air. • Gas cleaning/conditioning before the flare to remove moisture and possibly impurities. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 120 . • A burner designed such that it maintains turbulent mixing of air and fuel and that the velocity of the gas is high enough to reduce the risk of flash-back of the flame down the feed pipe without blowing off the flame. • One or more flame arrestors in the landfill gas feed line to prevent flash-back of the flame down the pipe. Whilst the impacts associated with landfill gas should be minimized by good site operational practices.

• AARDPO shall ensure that the site is operated in compliance with the standards for class I sanitary landfill (refer sec 4. Re-suspension of dust in the construction sites will be prevented by frequent sprinkling of water. This will be specially applied during the carting away operations of the excavation materials. cover material shall be applied to the entire surface of the tipping-cell to a minimum depth of 15 cm at the completion of each working day – but every third day as a minimum. As a matter of routine it is considered good practice to use modern. well-maintained and regularly serviced vehicles in order to minimize vehicle exhaust release impacts in increased traffic flows at the transfer stations and the neighbouring communities. has an operational plan.3 Mitigation measures for impacts of dust and vehicle exhaust smoke The dust nuisances predicted to occur during construction and operation will be mitigated by applying the following measures. the sanitary landfill will have to be operated in a way that complies to the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 121 .5.4 Mitigation measures for impact on public health and the environment It was anticipated that the potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations on public health is anticipated to likely occur under future potential scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities to be developed by the project are not operated properly. is adequately staffed.3.1a).3. In order to avert the potential impacts from occurring. Water for sprinkling of the dust grounds should be fetched from the nearby Rivers to avoid using municipal water. The following are the minimum standards for sanitary landfill management that the Sendafa landfill will need to observe during operation phases to mitigate the stated potential impacts. breeding of pests.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • An ignition system to light the gas mixture on start-up. 9. • A flame detector to check that ignition has been successful and combustion is taking place – this facility is normally provided with enclosed flares but it is more difficult for open flares since the location of the flame can be highly unstable. • To minimise leachate generation. wind-blown litter and odours. and that suitable mobile equipment is in functional use. 9.

to work in designated areas but not at the working face of the landfill. utilised as a source of renewable energy. in order to avert the potential impacts on public health and the environment arising from ill operated transfer stations. • Incoming waste shall be transferred from the transfer-station within 1 day. • Where possible landfill gas shall be collected and flared. • Category 1 and 2 landfills will have vehicle weigh scales installed to obtain exact records of waste quantities being delivered.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • AARDPO shall ensure that suitably qualified and experienced personnel are assigned to manage the day-to-day landfill operations. • During normal operational hours landfill operators shall allow regulated access of informal recyclers/waste-pickers to the landfill site. and where economically justifiable. • Landfill operators shall ensure that no fires are tolerated within landfill sites. unless temporary operational reasons do not permit this. • Mobile equipment sufficient to ensure that operational standards are met shall be provided and maintained in use at the landfill site. Similarly. and a total area clean extending to 20m in all directions around entire site every quarter (3 months). and that any persistent fires are reported to the competent authority. • All waste transfer points. • The design of the transfer operation shall enable the site operations to be efficient and hygienic. in order to implement the above stated minimum standard requirements for the Sendafa Sanitary landfill and transfer stations. The following are among the minimum standards for transfer station management that the Koshe. The site manager must have ready access to suitable equipment and resources to properly manage the site. Akaki and Bole Arbasa stations will need to observe during operation phases to mitigate the stated potential impacts. Therefore. basic ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 122 . • The AARDPO shall ensure the installation and functioning of landfill gas management systems at all landfill cells. It is also recommended that the landfill and transfer station operators should be trained on the landfill and transfer station management standards. it is recommended to develop detailed manuals and procedures that translate the requirements into daily operational procedures for the staff and management of the sanitary landfill. it will have to be operated in a way that complies to the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum. facilities and containers shall be kept clean and orderly at all times with containers and site area inspected and cleaned monthly.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 123 . Accordingly any excavated soil not utilized immediately will be stockpiled on site for future use. With regard to excavation soils from the Sendafa Sanitary landfill. 9. the proposed project have design plans to use surplus soil from excavation for daily. If there is absence of an officially designated site for disposal of construction waste in the area. The project management and contractor will facilitate for obtaining permission to access such tipping site which shall be designated by the AAEPA.5 Mitigation Measure for impacts on soil It has been shown in the impact analysis sections that inappropriate disposal of construction waste generated during the foundation excavation activities of the transfer stations will be one aspect that will potentially affect the environment. it is anticipated that the population of birds in the area that will be attracted by the landfill will be kept at minimum or nonexistent. The bird problem will be strongly minimized by good working practice. the project management and the contractor will ensure that a degraded land that can be rehabilitated by tipping soil and other earth material is selected and used. This will always remain the best bird control system. its risk to attract undesired vermin such as rodents. The operational manuals and procedures coupled with the necessary machinery. skilled and semi-skilled labour force are necessary for the proper management of the Sanitary landfill and transfer stations. equipment. The designated site should be an eroded or degraded land which can be rehabilitated and remedied by filling it back with soil and earth material. pests including birds will be significantly decreased. keeping the working area to a minimum and covering the waste at the end of each working day. The project management and the contractor will ensure that the construction waste to be generated during excavations and related activities will be disposed in officially designated place. If the sanitary landfill and transfer stations are operated properly by complying with the stated draft operational standards of solid waste management. Stockpiling will be the sole responsibility of the landfill operator. The design of the landfill has carefully accounted for this aspect by placing all infrastructures of the new landfill beyond a 13km radius from Bole airport limits. Thus the stockpiling of the soil and future use as cover material for the landfill cells during operation by itself serves as mitigation for its uncontrolled disposal. Hence the standard 13km distance of the Sendafa sanitary landfill as a buffer zone from the Bole Air Port will suffice to avoid any impact on the air transport route. Especially. intermediate and final cover on the landfill cell areas.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project operational procedures and associated manuals.

Keeping the working face to the practical minimum width will reduce litter generation. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 124 . portable litter control fences will be used around the working area. - orienting equipment with high directivity to emit noise away from NSRs.6 Proposed Mitigation measures for impact of noise and vibration a. As there are no controls that will completely prevent blowing litter during windy days. In order to mitigate it. In general the impact of construction noise will depend on: • the proximity of construction activities to noise sensitive receivers (NSRs). trucks and other vehicle will have their normal muffler intact in their smoke exhaust pipe and care will be taken to repair it when broken to avoid unnecessary release of noise during operation in the fields. on the landfill. a regular (daily or weekly) program of litter pick-up will be operated at the sanitary landfill and transfer station sites. Trucks hauling the solid waste to and from the transfer station will also be covered with tents or other suitable material to prevent littering of waste during transport. and • the length of time over which construction works are undertaken In order to mitigate these potential impacts the following measures will be taken. Construction activities will take place across the whole of the sites of the proposed SWM project.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project It was also anticipated that during operation phase. - Earth moving equipments. • the specific heavy plant and equipment deployed. - use of temporary noise baffles and noise fencing during the construction of the site access road adjacent if necessary to protect adjacent NSRs. 9. - Earth moving equipments. The fences will be placed immediately downwind of the working area to maximize the capture of windblown litter. trucks and other vehicle operators will be advised not to unnecessarily blow horns in areas where settlements are present - locating stationary equipment that is noisy as far as possible from the NSRs. Construction phase The main potential impact of the proposed development project on the neighborhood is anticipated to occur due to noise and vibration release by the construction machineries. - switching off unnecessary or idle equipment. it is likely that littering of solid waste may occure in and around the transfer stations and the sanitary landfill that are blown by wind or by mismanagement of waste hauling and disposal practices.

a progressive action will be taken to cover the completely filled cells with plant seedlings one after the other. In order to harmonize the sanitary landfill with the surrounding landscape and aesthetic views.Mobile plant equipment will be used singly. a description of a proposed end use of the site that do not affect public health. for long continuous periods of time. for example.Earth moving equipments. trucks and other vehicle will have their normal muffler intact in their smoke exhaust pipe and care will be taken to repair it when broken to avoid unnecessary release of noise during operation in the fields. 9. During site closure the last remaining cell of the landfill will be covered with final soil cover and it will be planted with seedlings. The closure plan shall also outline the procedures for post-closure care of the site.7 Mitigation measures for land use and aesthetics (Post –Closure of the landfill).Land filling activities will be mobile and not fixed in that they move across the landfill footprint. and preventative maintenance of equipment to minimize noise emissions b. The closure plan should outline a plan showing the final appearance (landscaped) of the site after closure. Thus it is recommended that a site closure plan shall be submitted to the competent authority for review and approval by the time 90% of the sanitary landfill is filled. The entrance gate and perimeter fencing will be retained to control access and keep the site safe. while multiple use of mobile plant equipment is restricted to short time periods. no area is subjected to the operation of the dozer and/or track loader. and all site screening measures will be in place in advance of the start of site operations. unlike construction activities. . Therefore.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project - Fitting of noise mufflers to mobile plant and equipment. Operational phase Effective noise management protocols to be implemented as part of the proposed project include: . and inspection and maintenance of the final cover and landscaping. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 125 . . It was also anticipated that the Sendafa sanitary landfill is likely to have post closure land use and aesthetics impacts.

 Collect and bury windblown litter and debris from the site. and direct surface drainage away from the waste disposal area. and providing directions to. including as built drawings pre and post closure. and the anticipated future condition relating to environmental concerns. prevent surface ponding and seepage. and geographic positioning system coordinates  Install and maintain permanent markers and/or fencing to indicate site boundaries  Install site signage to notify the public of the pending closure date. on the up-gradient sides of the site to divert precipitation/drainage waters away from the disposal area and to prevent impact from future overland flow  Delineate waste disposal site boundaries and features using available existing and historic information. if not already in place. hours of operation and contact numbers for the alternate waste disposal site  Install “No Trespassing” and “No Dumping” signage at the former site entrance stating the applicable fines for offense The closure plan will have to include contingency plans to deal with the following: • Illegal dumping around the former waste disposal site following closure • Fire safety. in the event of a deliberate or spontaneous occurrence Provide a summary report describing the work done to close/decommission the site. the existing condition.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project In order to minimize the post closure impacts the following mitigation measures are proposed to be implemented as part of the closure plan for the site.  Remove accessible scrap metal to recycling.  Remove all infrastructure no longer required from the site. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 126 .  Seed to initiate vegetation cover.  Remove obvious hazards where obvious and practical  Implement rodent and nuisance control measures where a problem is identified  Consolidate waste and compact where appropriate  Shape and grade to the extent possible to achieve the required finished grades prior to backfilling  Install final cover system to minimize the infiltration of liquids and soil erosion  Cover all refuse evenly with 60cm of back fill material which will include an erosion control layer of 15cm of soil capable of sustaining native plant growth  Grade the final cover to accommodate settling of the waste. reduce erosion potential and improve the appearance of the site  Install drainage ditches.

In order to avert the potential impacts (Physical/Mechanical hazard. Chemical hazard.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Long-term maintenance will be carried on the final cover and leachate management system. and leachate seeps will be corrected.9 Mitigation measures for impacts on health and safety It was anticipated that there will be significant potential negative impact or risk on occupational health and safety of workers involved in operational phase of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations. the prevailing situation appears different with Bole Arbasa and Akaki transfer stations. Thus it is recommended that a new all weather access roads that can handle the traffic flow to and from the stated transfer stations should be built to mitigate the pending traffic problems that can be created during operational phases. Erosion. if required. Though construction is underway to build a new 8km road that connect the Sendafa landfill with the main roads. While building the access road to Akaki transfer station consideration should be given to select alternative route that can avoid congested road stretches and road junctions. Typically. 9.8 proposed mitigation measures for Impacts on increased traffic The first priority in terms of mitigating impacts on traffic is to develop access roads to those proposed solid waste management sites that do not have all weather access at present. regular inspection and monitoring shall take place for a period of two years after site closure. Some of the proposed mitigation measures to minimize traffic impact along the main waste hauling routes include: • Conduct traffic flow study on the routes and based on the study result widening and rehabilitation of the roads leading to the transfer stations and to the waste disposal site • Provide separate entry and exit connections to the main road and a merging lane to access the waste disposal site and to the transfer stations • Control vehicles transporting waste to prevent taking shortcuts on unsuitable road • Facilitate for proper maintenance and servicing of solid waste hauling fleet vehicles to ensure continuous and uninterrupted traffic flow along the approach routes to the sanitary landfill and transfer stations thereby avoiding traffic jams. 9. These include the Bole Arbasa and Akaki transfer stations as well as the Sendafa sanitary landfill. and bad ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 127 . if the project has not considered the issue of OHS of workers. after which a long term monitoring and care program will be established. Biological hazard. ponding from settlement.

• Manual separation of recyclables will still be allowed in the early phases of the project. which the Sendafa landfill and the three transfer stations will need to observe during operation phases to mitigate the stated potential impacts. and provision of toilets and washing facilities. to minimize impacts on waste recyclers the following mitigation measures will be implemented. • AARDPO shall ensure that collection workers should never be expected to lift wastes above their shoulder height because the risk of serious injury. Consideration shall be given to all aspects of the work. provision and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). • Health and safety training. shall be ensured so that waste management workers understand the origins of the risks that they face and know how to minimize these risks. • Formalize waste separation and introduce entry passes to prevent children from entering these facilities for waste segregation • Formalize waste picking/separating through a pilot recycling plant at the landfill • Provide appropriate training/skills development for both waste recyclers and the women in their households in the pilot recycling scheme. The following are the minimum standards for sanitary landfill management on health & safety issue.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ergonomics) that may occur from the hazard/risk. supported by appropriate levels of supervision. • AARDPO have an employer’s responsibility and humanitarian duty to prevent illness and injury of the workforce. regular medical check-ups and immunization. but the personnel will have to be approved by site management and be appropriately equipped and trained. In addition. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 128 . • Provide sorting facilities for semi-manual separation with disposal container to minimize health risks. the health & safety system will have to be operated in a manner that complies with the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum. • AARDPO shall establish an accident and incident reporting system whereby every event is recorded and investigated. including: the design of the equipment.

c.t. The settling tank will be used to collect and separate the lubricant and used oil by decantation. it appears necessary to put in place a response mechanism that can control the fire hazard. For this purpose the sanitary landfill and transfer stations will ensure that fire extinguishers are made available in visible and easily accessible places. • Compensate farmers for loss of crops (perennial or annual).10 Emergency preparedness and response mechanism for fire hazard In order to prevent the fire risk associated with the release of methane gas from the sanitary landfill and transfer stations.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 9. in order to prevent the impact of diffused lubricant and used oil spills from the maintenance workshop. trees as per the Federal legislation (Proclamation 455/2005) based on market prices. The used oils and lubricants should be collected in dedicated barrels and taken away from the site to recyclers or to furnace oil dealers. the management of the three transfer stations will be advised to set out work procedures for its employees working at the maintenance workshop to safely collect used oils and lubricants while servicing and maintaining the waste hauling vehicles and machineries. • Consult and involve PAPs in the estimation of costs for lost assets. 9.12 Mitigation measures for Loss of Farm Land The following mitigation measures are proposed and were practically implemented to mitigate the impacts on farm lands lost to the project sites. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 129 .11 Mitigation measures for impacts of used oil and lubricants During operational phase of project. Moreover the sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities will also train its personnel on prevention of fire hazards and on the use of fire extinguishers in case of emergency. 9. The decanted used oil and lubricant can be sold to dealers for use as furnace fuel in brick factories e. The first stage in the emergency response will be to develop an in-house capacity to extinguish fire before it spread. In addition. The sanitary landfill and transfer stations will also make available water hoses connected to the water main in suitable places to fight fire. the project management will ensure that a settling tank that receives the wash waters from the maintenance workshop areas is included in the design of the transfer station. The environment or occupational health and safety officer will be responsible to organize such trainings.

schools and by road sides to minimize the spread of HIV/AIDS. special information campaigns for women should be enhanced.14 Mitigation Measures for Impact on Women • Ensure women's participation and improve their employment and avoid discrimination against women.07 hectare of farmland which used to be under the entitlement of 217 farmers. 9. using local language (Affan Oromo) at public gathering locations. • Support women from the locality to learn new skills and employ them during project operation phase also. • Monitor the above mitigation measures using indicators.767. construction workers and local population must be informed through awareness raising and education campaigns about HIV / AIDS. • Compensate ahead of construction works for the loss of perennial crops/ trees compensate based on market prices and as per the law. Following the compensation payment made in 2011.13 Mitigation Measures for Exposure to HIV / AIDS and other STD As a preventive measure. At the community level.194 to the above farmers who have lost their land. 9. The new Sendafa sanitary landfill project has caused permanent loss of 137.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project • Allow enough time for PAPs to remove their crops (perennial or annual) and trees. • Display educational posters and flyers about STD and HIV/AIDS. the land has formally been handed over to the project office. • Conduct education and awareness creation campaigns on the spread and transmission of STDs and HIV/AIDS for construction workers and local communities living close to the construction camp sites. Table 15: Summary of Major impacts and proposed Mitigating Measures ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 130 . The project office has already paid compensation amounting to Birr 24.

Installation of passive barrier with the natural clay soil placed below the cell liner system . Measure to minimize leachate volume: -Cover the surface of the waste body intermediately during operation of the landfill and finally after closure of the landfill. Measures to Minimize Leachate SE on western part of the Akaki transfer station site can be a conducive path for contaminants Infiltration from the Disposal cells leaked from the transfer station towards south part of the Akaki well field where most of the deep and .Develop a leachate containment. Uncontrolled leachate release from the landfill site into Hambisa River will have an adverse impact on -Capture the rainwater from the surface seal of the landfill by ditches the river. around the landfill body and direct to In the absence of proper management of the treatment facility.Installation of active barrier of HDPE geo-membrane with 2mm thickness for both the bottom of the Anticipated Residual impacts . . leachate may have an adverse impact on the Legedadi deep test wells and shallow wells -Cconstruct storm drainage within and around the proposed sanitary drilled by AAWSA.Project Major Impacts No 1 phase Operation The volume of leachate that will be generated from the Sendafa sanitary landfill site will range from 645m3/day to 1336 m3/day during the lifetime of the sanitary landfill. - - - Recommended Mitigation measures a. landfill site The weak zone along the fault striking from NWb. landfill. If the landfill has no leachate collection system the leachate can enter into ground and surface water resources around the site. collection and treatment system shallow wells are concentrated.

Collect leaching wastewater that from the transfer station and dispose to the sewerage system for appropriate treatment and disposal ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 132 .Cover with pavement the area within the transfer station by double layer of asphalt concrete or enforced concrete to minimize infiltration of wastewater . Measures to minimize the effects of Akaki Transfer Station on Akaki well fields .Installation of high permeability leachate collection and transfer system to facilitate the collection of leachate . .Installation of three-stage leachate treatment system and re-circulation facilities to reduce organic and heavy metal pollutants.Install appropriate storm water drainage and sewerage system in the transfer station to minimize/ prevent pollution of the nearby boreholes.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project cells and the slopes . c.

.Upgrade roads to asphalt during operation in the approaches to transfer stations . vents) progressively as the landfill grows vertically towards its final . .dust releases during construction and operational phases will be flared.Pump to collection points where it . .Emission of green house gases (i.Collect the landfill gases by .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 2 Operation In the absence of proper landfill gas collection and management system.000 -1. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 133 .incinerate the gas at temperatures of about 1. . and smoke release caused by spontaneous burning. methane & CO2) installing vertical gas wells (gas from the landfill will contribute to climate change.e.Waste hauling trucks will create local air pollution along level the hauling routes during operational phases. . foul odour nuisance. by vehicles and machineries affect ambient air quality .Carryout monitoring program at regular periodic intervals during and after the working life of the site to assess effectiveness of the landfill gas control measures.Sprinkle water on dusty roads frequently on day time during construction. Also: The following gas management systems are proposed to minimize impact of landfill gases at Sendafa Sanitary landfill. the proposed sanitary landfill is anticipated to affect the ambient air quality due to release of landfill gas.Keep waste collection and disposal vehicles fleet well-maintained and regularly serviced to minimize exhaust smoke release.200° C by the landfill gas flare.

2 for detail measures). -Suitably qualified and experienced personnel and resources are assigned to manage the day-to-day landfill operations.will degenerate into an open landfill Operate the sanitary landfill in compliance with the standards for class I sanitary landfill of the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum (refer sec 9. . and that any persistent fires are reported to the competent authority. These include: . -Mobile equipment sufficient to ensure that operational standards are met shall be provided and maintained in use at the landfill site.will become source of environmental pollution and public -AARDPO shall ensure that the site health hazard is operated with an operational plan. . is adequately staffed. to a minimum depth of 15 cm at the completion of each working day – but every third day as a minimum.cause a serious odour problem to the surrounding -Cover material shall be applied to .attracts vermin and birds which may have unintended the entire surface of the tipping-cell potential impact on air transport route.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 3 Operation -The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations on public health is anticipated to possibly occur under future scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities are not operated properly. -Ensure that no fires are tolerated within landfill sites. -Allow regulated access of informal recyclers/waste-pickers to the landfill site during normal operational hours ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 134 .

basic operational procedures and associated manuals. unless temporary operational reasons do not permit this. -Develop detailed manuals and procedures that translate the requirements into daily operational procedures for the staff and management of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations. For transfer station management: . . -Ensure the installation and functioning of landfill gas management systems at all landfill sites.All waste transfer points.Incoming waste shall be transferred from the transfer-station within 1 day. facilities and containers shall be kept clean and orderly at all times with containers and site area inspected and cleaned monthly. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 135 . . -Train landfill and transfer station operators on SWM standards.The design of the transfer operation shall enable the site operations to be efficient and hygienic.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project to work in designated areas.

-Cover waste hauling trucks to and from the transfer station with tents to prevent littering of waste during transport.Noise and vibration releases of construction machines. .locating stationary equipment that is noisy as far as possible from the NSRs. None No phase 4 Construction and operation .Littering of solid waste in and around the transfer stations and sanitary landfill may contaminate the soil in the long term.orienting equipment with high directivity to emit . 5 Operation . -Stockpile and use the soil excavated during landfill construction as cover material for the landfill cells during operation -Apply portable litter control fences downwind of the working area to capture litter -Keep the working face of landfill to the practical minimum width to reduce litter generation -Conduct regular (daily or weekly) program of litter pick-up at the sanitary landfill and transfer station sites. .planting of buffer trees and shrubs where appropriate. vehicles and waste hauling trucks will affect residents in the neighbourhood and along the waste haulage routes.Project Major Impacts Recommended Mitigation measures Anticipated Residual impacts . The designated place should be a degraded site to be remedied by tipping soil material. .Improper disposal of construction waste will affect the environment -Dispose the construction waste in officially permitted place.

the sanitary landfill will have visual (aesthetic) impact on the surrounding as it may create contradiction with the landscape. . and preventative maintenance of equipment to minimize noise emissions . the Sendafa sanitary landfill may remain unsuitable for other forms of beneficial land uses because of the waste deposited. . -fitting of noise mufflers to mobile plant and equipment.7. -Harmonize with the surrounding landscape and aesthetic views by progressively covering filled cells with plant seedlings one after the other. without proper management.It may also cause a visual impact on the surrounding if left unattended after closure. .use of temporary noise baffles and noise fencing during if necessary to protect adjacent NSRs.restrict multiple use of mobile plant equipment to short time periods (operation phase) 6 Operation .After site closure and decommissioning.During operation phase.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project noise away from NSRs. -outline the procedures for post-closure care of the site in the closure plan -Include contingency plans for illegal dumping in the former landfill after site closure -Include plans for fire safety in the event of a deliberate or spontaneous occurrence ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 137 .switching off unnecessary or idle equipment. para 3 as part of the action plan. . -Include the mitigation measures outlined in bullets under section 9. -Submit a site closure plan to the competent authority by the time 90% of the sanitary landfill is filled for review and approval.

-Provide separate entry and exit connections to the main road and a merging lane to access the waste disposal site and to the transfer stations -Control vehicles transporting waste to prevent taking shortcuts on unsuitable road -Conduct traffic flow study on the routes and based on the study result widening and rehabilitation of the roads leading to the transfer stations and to the waste disposal site. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 138 . .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 7 Operation .Waste hauling to the transfer stations is likely to have significant impact on traffic flow and will negatively influence the speed of waste hauling to the Akaki transfer station -Construct alternative road to provide access to the transfer stations by avoiding congested road stretches such as for Akaki transfer station.Facilitate for proper maintenance and servicing of solid waste hauling fleet vehicles to ensure continuous and uninterrupted traffic flow and thereby avoiding traffic jams.

and etc). sorting room prices and as per the law. Dust & chemical masks -Allow enough time for PAPs to remove theirofcrops (perennial or .Periodical medical check-up for works forworking the lossdirectly of perennial crops/ workers on waste trees compensate based on market management (Landfill. used to be under the entitlement of 217 farmers.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Project Major Impacts No phase 8 Construction 9 Construction Workers involved in waste sorting at transfer stations.Provision training on annual) and trees. Recommended Mitigation measures . equipments (Safety shoes. Gloves.Operate the health & safety system of the sanitary landfill in accordance to the draft Ethiopian standards on -Compensate farmers for loss of Solid waste management to the crops (perennial or annual). waste disposal at the sanitary landfill cells and other staffs directly involved in waste handling and hauling The Sendafa sanitary landfill project will cause are exposed to negative impact on occupational health permanent loss of 137. 10 Construction ZTS-EDCE & MTS . -Conduct education and awareness creation campaigns on the spread and transmission of STDs and HIV/AIDS for construction workers and local communities living close to the construction camp sites. occupational safety and health -Compensate ahead of construction .Construction workers and truck drivers are considered as having high potential (or good vectors) for the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS virus due to their mobility. Page 139 Anticipated Residual impacts Chronic health impact .07 hectare of farmland which and safety. trees as minimum per the Federal legislation (Proclamation based on . cloths.Provision of 455/2005) personal protective market prices.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 140 .

procedures and guidelines to efficiently operate the SWM facilities as intended. .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Anticipated Project phase Major Positive Impacts Reinforcement measures No 1 Residual impacts Construction phase The construction of the project is expected to create employment opportunities and jobs for the local communities. 2 Construction The construction of the landfill project in and operation the area will have positive impacts on women (female headed households in phases particular) during and after the construction works of the Sanitary landfill through employment. .employ work force mainly from the locality where the construction work will be undergoing. and other administrative measures adopted for the local workforce should be in line with the country’s law. .give priority for female headed households during employment. None 3 Operation phase -Introduce operational plans. -Contractor and local authorities to ensure that women receive equal chance for employment. None .Provide training for the landfill and transfer station operators on None ZTS-EDCE & MTS Installing and operating the sanitary landfill facilities and transfer stations will improve the overall solid waste management of the city and its efficiency. Page 141 . . .ensure that employment.assign women workers in those jobs which are fit to their biological and physical conditions. wage system.eensure women’s employment and improve their employment opportunities and working conditions.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 4 Operation phase Closure & ceasing of waste disposal operations in Koshe improves environmental quality and will have a positive impact on the property value of koshe neighbourhood. Table 16: Summary of Major Positive Impacts and Enhancement Measures ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 142 None . -Speeding up the construction of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations. surface waters 5 Operation phase Development of Sendafa Sanitary landfill will contribute indirectly to improve public health of city residents by facilitating the closure of the Koshe/Repi open dump site. -Closure of the Koshe dump site will have to be Pollution of followed by proper reclamation and landscaping of ground and the site.

The Contractor will be fully responsible for ensuring that all the work will be carried out as per the environmental requirements indicated in the design and technical specifications and the present ESIA report. the consultant assigned to design the SWM project will be responsible for incorporating the recommended mitigation measures into the design and into the technical specifications of the main project report. Environmental and social management plan (ESMP) 10. 10.1 Institutions responsible for the implementation of ESMP The Environmental management plan gives the mitigating measures.1.1. with monitoring requirements and estimated budget requirements. construction supervisors. They will advise the contractors. It is believed that the project proponent in this particular case. Addis Ababa and Oromia regional authorities responsible for environment will take the major responsibility in supervising the implementation of the environmental mitigation and monitoring plans.1 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP related to design change For mitigation measures related to design change. Addis Ababa City Administration. 10. the construction supervisor and the Federal. the project management unit of the Addis Ababa City Administration and AFD and the local . Addis Ababa and Oromia special zone EPA offices to supervise proper implementation of the mitigating measures.10. Mitigating measures for the impacts that are likely to arise from implementing the project are outlined in the previous chapter and here it will be correlated with the responsible organs for implementation. The construction supervisor and an environmentalist from the Federal Ministry of Environment. City Administration and Oromia Special zone environment protection authority will monitor the proper implementation of mitigating measures at the right time. the contractor will be responsible for implementing environmental mitigation measures included in the present ESIA report. It is envisaged that environmentalist.2 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the construction phase During construction. monitoring requirements and it identifies the organizations assigned to implement them. with a broad range of experience and knowledge in environmental management systems of the proposed development project should be intermittently assigned by the Federal Ministry of Environment. The environmentalists from Regional EPAs and AARDPO will be jointly responsible for the overall coordination of the environmental management activities.

In particular. the regional office in charge of environment will coordinate all other organizations stated above.3 Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the operation phase During the operation period. Table. and the AARDPO.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project authorities regarding the implementation of the environmental mitigating measures and monitoring of impacts.1. the environmental issues will be monitored jointly by Addis Ababa and Oromia special zone environment offices.17: Summary of Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 144 . 10.

Measure to minimize leachate volume: -Uncontrolled leachate release from the landfill site into Hambisa River will have an adverse impact on the river.Landfill -Cover the surface of the waste operator body intermediately during operation of the landfill and finally after closure of the . contractor -Capture the rainwater from the surface seal of the landfill by ditches around the landfill body and direct to treatment facility. Measures to Minimize Leachate Infiltration from the Disposal cells Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring .AARDPO During Operation phase During Operation phase During Construction Phase During Construction Phase -Construction Supervisor Time Horizon . -Cconstruct storm drainage within and around the proposed sanitary landfill site Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures . a. If the landfill has no leachate collection system the leachate can adversely affect the ground and surface water resources around the site.Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 1 The volume of leachate that will be generated from the Sendafa sanitary landfill site will range from 645m3/day to 1336 m3/day during the lifetime of the sanitary landfill. b.Construction landfill.

Construction contractor >> >> . .In the absence of proper management of the landfill. Construction Supervisor During Construction phase During Construction phase >> >> Time Horizon . Construction Supervisor During Construction Phase During Construction Phase -AARDPO. as well as Bole Arbasa & Koshe Page 146 .Installation of three-stage leachate treatment system and recirculation facilities c. leachate may have an adverse impact on the Legedadi deep test wells and shallow wells drilled by AAWSA. Measures to minimize the effects of Akaki Transfer Station on Akaki well fields.Installation of passive barrier with the natural clay soil placed below the cell liner system . collection and treatment system .Develop a leachate containment.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts .Installation of high permeability leachate collection and transfer system to facilitate the collection of leachate .Construction contractor AARDPO.The weak zone along the fault striking from NW-SE on western part of the Akaki transfer station site can be a conductive path for contaminants leaked from the transfer station towards south part of the Akaki well field where most of the deep and shallow wells are concentrated. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring .Installation of active barrier of HDPE geo-membrane with 2mm thickness for both the bottom of the cells and the slopes .

-AARDPO During Construction phase During Construction phase Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures -Construction Supervisor Time Horizon .Construction the transfer station to minimize/ contractor prevent pollution of the nearby boreholes.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring .Cover with pavement the area . Construction Supervisor During Construction phase During Construction phase .Construction within the transfer station by contractor double layer of asphalt concrete or enforced concrete to minimize infiltration of wastewater -AARDPO.Install appropriate storm water drainage and sewerage system in .Collect leaching wastewater that from the transfer station and dispose to the sewerage system for appropriate treatment and disposal ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 147 .

Also: .Oromia special zone EPA.AACMA.Landfill . foul odour nuisance.Carryout monitoring program at contribute to climate regular periodic intervals during .Waste hauling trucks will landfill gas control measures. create local air pollution along the hauling routes during operational phases. the proposed sanitary landfill is anticipated to affect the ambient air quality due to release of landfill gas. operator gases (i. and smoke release caused by spontaneous burning.During Operation phase .000 . MoEF staff .During Operation phase . incinerate the gas at temperatures of about 1.During Operation phase . site to assess effectiveness of the AARDPO .MoEF -Construction contractor Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring .Emission of green house 1.Potential environmental & Proposed mitigation measures social impacts 2 In the absence of proper landfill gas collection and management system.During Operation phase .Oromia special zone EPA office . methane & CO2) from the landfill will .e.200° C by the landfill gas flare..During Operation phase .Collect the landfill gases by installing vertical gas wells (gas vents) progressively as the Sanitary landfill grows vertically towards its final level Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures -Design consultant -AARDPO .Pump to collection points where it will be flared.During Operation phase . and after the working life of the change. AARDPO .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts -Dust releases during construction and operational phases by vehicles and machineries affect ambient air quality . .Upgrade roads to asphalt during operation in the approaches to transfer stations. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures AA City Roads Authority AARDPO Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Construction Supervisor AA City Administration (City Manager Office) AAEPA/Oromia Special zone EPA Page 149 Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During Construction phase During Construction phase During Construction/ Operation phase During Construction/ Operation phase During Operation phase During Operation phase .Sprinkle water on dusty roads Construction frequently on day time during contractor construction.Keep waste collection and disposal vehicles fleet wellmaintained and regularly serviced to minimize exhaust smoke release. .

Operate the sanitary landfill in compliance with the standards for class I sanitary landfill of the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum (refer sec 9. unintended potential impact on air transport route.MOEF Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During Operation phase During Operation phase -Landfill operator team -AARDPO shall ensure that the site is operated with an operational plan.will degenerate into an staffed. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> Page 150 . problem to the surrounding -Suitably qualified and experienced personnel and . is adequately .2 for detail measures). These include: Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures -AA City Administration .will become source of to the entire surface of the environmental pollution tipping-cell to a minimum depth and public health hazard of 15 cm at the completion of each working day – but every .Oromia Special zone EPA -AARDPO .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 3 -The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations on public health is anticipated to possibly occur under future scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities are not operated properly.cause a serious odour third day as a minimum.attracts vermin and resources are assigned to manage birds which may have the day-to-day landfill operations. open landfill -Cover material shall be applied .

-Allow regulated access of informal recyclers/waste-pickers to the landfill site during normal operational hours to work in designated areas. and that any persistent fires are reported to the competent authority. -Ensure that no fires are tolerated within landfill sites. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During Operation phase During Operation phase -Landfill operator team >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> Page 151 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures .Oromia Special -Mobile equipment sufficient to -AA City ensure that operational standards Administration zone EPA are met shall be provided and . -Ensure the installation and functioning of landfill gas management systems at all landfill sites.MOEF maintained in use at the landfill -AARDPO site.

The design of the transfer operation shall enable the site operations to be efficient and hygienic.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures .AARDPO -AAEPA. facilities and containers shall be kept clean and orderly at all times with containers and site area inspected and cleaned monthly. -Design consultant AA City Administration .AARDPO .Incoming waste shall be transferred from the transfer-station within 1 day. . AA Health Bureau -AA City Administration City Manager Office . AA Health Bureau Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring For transfer station management: .AACMA -AAEPA.All waste transfer points. ZTS-EDCE & MTS AARDPO Environmental ist. -Develop detailed manuals and procedures that translate the requirements into daily operational procedures for the staff and management of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations.AARDPO -Development Partners Page 152 During PreConstruction phase During Operation phase During PreConstruction phase During Operation phase During Operation phase During Operation phase During Construction Phase During Construction phase . unless temporary operational reasons do not permit this. basic operational procedures and associated manuals. -Train landfill and transfer station operators on SWM standards. Transfer station operating team .

AARDPO Environmentalist .Landfill operating Team >> Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring .During Operation phase -Oromia Special zone EPA office >> Page 153 >> >> . Construction supervisor . AARDPO Environmental ist -Construction contractor .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 4 .Littering of solid waste in and around the transfer stations and sanitary landfill may contaminate the soil in the long term.During Construction phase -Construction supervisor. -Dispose the construction waste in officially permitted place.During Operation phase .Construction Contractor .During Operation Phase .During Operation Phase .AAEPA. -Stockpile and use the soil excavated during landfill construction as cover material for the landfill cells during operation -Apply portable litter control fences downwind of the working area to capture litter. The designated place should be a degraded site to be remedied by tipping soil material. Bereh Woreda Administration.Improper disposal of construction waste will affect the environment . Landfill operating Team .During Construction phase . -Keep the working face of landfill to the practical minimum width to reduce litter generation ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures .During Operation phase -During Operation phase . ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 154 Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring .AARDPO Environmentalist -Cover waste hauling trucks to and from the transfer station with tents to prevent littering of waste during transport. Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures .Landfill -Conduct regular (daily or weekly) program of litter pick-up operating at the sanitary landfill and transfer Team station sites.

locating stationary equipment that is noisy as far as possible from the NSRs. >> >> ZTS-EDCE & MTS Time Horizon Page 155 . vehicles and waste hauling trucks will affect residents in the neighborhood and along the waste haulage routes.use of temporary noise baffles and noise fencing if necessary to protect adjacent NSRs.Noise and vibration releases of construction machines.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 5 .orienting equipment with high directivity to emit noise away from NSRs. >> >> .switching off unnecessary or idle equipment.Construction Supervisor . Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures -Construction contractor . AAEPA & Oromia special zone EPA Environmentalists . AARDPO Environmental ist . . Mitigation Monitoring -During Construction phase -During Construction phase >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> .

restrict multiple use of mobile plant equipment to short time periods (operation phase) Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> .planting of buffer trees and shrubs where appropriate for long term prevention. and preventative maintenance of equipment to minimize noise emissions .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts -fitting of noise mufflers to mobile plant and equipment. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Time Horizon Page 156 .

. AARDPO Environmental ist . para 3 as part of the action plan. .7. the sanitary landfill will have visual (aesthetic) impact on the surrounding as it may create contradiction with the landscape.AA City Administration . -MoEF & Oromia EPA .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring -Harmonize with the surrounding landscape and aesthetic views by progressively covering filled cells with plant seedlings one after the other. without proper management. the Sendafa sanitary landfill may remain unsuitable for other forms of beneficial land uses because of the waste deposited. .Oromia Special zone EPA.After site closure and decommissioning. AARDPO -MoEF & Oromia EPA During closure of landfill During closure of landfill -Include the mitigation measures outlined in bullets under section 9. MoEF environmentalists During operation phase During operation phase -Submit a site closure plan to the competent authority by the time 90% of the sanitary landfill is filled for review and approval. -Landfill operation team. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 157 Time Horizon .AA City Administration .It may also cause a visual impact on the surrounding if left unattended after closure.During operation phase. AARDPO During closure of landfill During closure of landfill Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 6 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts -outline the procedures for postclosure care of the site in the closure plan ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures .AA City Administration . AARDPO -MoEF & Oromia EPA -Include contingency plans for illegal dumping in the former landfill after site closure >> -Include plans for fire safety in the event of a deliberate or spontaneous occurrence >> Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During closure of landfill During closure of landfill >> >> >> >> >> >> Page 158 .

Waste hauling to the transfer stations is likely to have significant impact on traffic flow and will negatively influence the speed of waste hauling to the Akaki transfer station -Construct alternative road to provide access to the transfer stations by avoiding congested road stretches such as for Akaki transfer station. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures AA City Administration .AACMA & AA traffic police department -AA City Administration & its relevant organs AA City Administration & its relevant organs Page 159 Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During construction or Operation phase During construction or Operation phase >> >> -During Operation phase -During Operation phase -During Operation phase -During Operation phase .AACMA . -Conduct traffic flow study on the routes and based on the study result widening and rehabilitation of the roads leading to the transfer stations and to the waste disposal site. -Provide separate entry and exit connections to the main road and a merging lane to access the waste disposal site and to the transfer stations -Control vehicles transporting waste to prevent taking shortcuts on unsuitable road.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 7 . AA Roads Authority AA City Administration >> >> .

ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures >> >> Page 160 . Dust & chemical masks) >> A.A Bureau of Labour and Social Affairs.A Bureau of Labour and Social Affairs >> >> .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 8 Workers involved in waste sorting at transfer stations.Provision of training on occupational safety and health >> >> >> >> >> >> . AAEPA Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring During operation phase During operation phase . waste disposal at the sanitary landfill cells and other staffs directly involved in waste handling and hauling are exposed to negative impact on occupational health and safety. sorting room and etc).Operate the health & safety system of the sanitary landfill in accordance to the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures . Gloves. Landfill operating team A.Provision of personal protective equipments (Safety shoes. . cloths.Periodical medical check-up for workers working directly on waste management (Landfill.AARDPO.

767.B: AARDPO Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures AARDPO & Bereh Woreda Administration Bereh Woreda Administration. -Compensate ahead of construction works for the loss of perennial crops/ trees compensate based on market prices and as per the law. Oromia Region EPA Time Horizon Mitigation Monitoring Before construction phase Before construction phase have already paid compensation amounting to Birr 24. . ZTS-EDCE & MTS Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> Page 161 .07 hectare of farmland which used to be under the entitlement of 217 farmers. trees as per the Federal legislation (Proclamation 455/2005) based on market prices.194) -Allow enough time for PAPs to remove their crops (perennial or annual) and trees.(N.Compensate farmers for loss of crops (perennial or annual).Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 9 The Sendafa sanitary landfill project will cause permanent loss of 137.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Potential environmental Proposed mitigation measures & social impacts 10 ZTS-EDCE & MTS .AA Health Bureau. AARDPO.Construction workers and truck drivers are considered as having high potential (or good vectors) for the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS virus due to their mobility. -Conduct education and awareness creation campaigns on the spread and transmission of STDs and HIV/AIDS for construction workers and local communities living close to the construction camp sites. AACMA . Responsible for implementing the mitigation measures Responsible for monitoring the implementation of mitigation measures Mitigation Monitoring -Construction Contractor. Bereh Woreda Health Bureau -During Construction & Operation Phases Before construction phase Page 162 Time Horizon .

Environmental and social monitoring Environmental monitoring is an essential tool in relation to environmental management as it provides the basis for rational management decisions regarding impact control. The monitoring program for the present project will be undertaken to meet the following objectives: • to monitor the environmental conditions of the respective river. through a feedback mechanism. can improve the planning and execution of future. • to provide a means whereby any impacts which were subject to uncertainty at the time of preparation of the ESIA.11. or which were unforeseen. and to verify the impact predictions. similar projects. The selection of the issues to be monitored must be based on the severity. The monitoring program will indicate where changes to procedures or operations are required. • to provide information on the actual nature and extent of key impacts and the effectiveness of mitigation and benefit enhancement measures which. can be identified. and to provide a basis for formulating appropriate additional impact control measures. in order to reduce impacts on the environment or local population. For this particular project the proposed environmental and social monitoring indicators. frequency of measurement and reporting requirement are indicated in table 18. commissioning. • to check on whether mitigation and benefit enhancement measures are proving effective in practice. Environmental monitoring is very essential part of the project implementation. extent and intensity of the impacts. Monitoring should be performed during all stages of the project (namely: construction. . and operation) to ensure that the impacts are no greater than predicted.

If the landfill has no leachate collection system the leachate can enter into ground and surface water resources around the site. leachate may have an adverse impact on the Legedadi deep test wells and shallow wells drilled by AAWSA. frequency of measurement and reporting No. -The weak zone along the fault striking from NW-SE on western part of the Akaki transfer station site can be a conducive path for contaminants leaked from the transfer station towards south part of the Akaki well field where most of the deep and shallow wells are concentrated.Table 18: Environmental and social monitoring indicators. -Uncontrolled leachate release from the landfill site into Hambisa River will have an adverse impact on the river. Performance indicators to be Frequency of Frequency of Budget Monitored measurement reporting Bi-annually during operation phase (wet and dry season) Bi-annually Analysis of water samples from nearby rivers and boreholes per year in Birr 10.000 . -In the absence of proper management of the landfill. Impact I Construction phase 1 The volume of leachate that will be generated from the Sendafa sanitary landfill site will range from 645m3/day to 1336 m3/day during the lifetime of the sanitary landfill.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 2 In the absence of proper landfill gas collection and management system. and smoke release caused by spontaneous burning. -Monitoring the overall waste management of the landfill and transfer stations -Surveillance of health status of the community around the sanitary landfill and transfer . ZTS-EDCE & MTS .Emission of green house gases (i. .000 Every year Every year 9. and public health hazard .Interview members of the community around the sanitary land fill and the transfer stations to express their grievances Page 165 . Also: Analysis of air samples to determine the level of methane and CO2 gases Monthly starting second year of operation monthly 30. methane & sulphur dioxide CO2) from the landfill will contribute to climate change.dust releases during construction and operational phases by vehicles and machineries affect ambient air quality 3 -The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations is anticipated to possibly occur under future scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities are not operated properly.will degenerate into an open landfill . the proposed sanitary landfill is anticipated to affect the ambient air quality due to release of landfill gas.attracts vermin and birds which may have unintended potential impact on air transport route.000 Analysis of air samples to determine level of dust and .Waste hauling trucks will create local air pollution along the hauling routes during operational phases.e.cause a serious odour problem to the surrounding. . .will become source of environmental pollution stations. foul odour nuisance.

000 6 The Sendafa sanitary landfill project will -Interview to check if adequate Prior to construction cause permanent loss of 137. ZTS-EDCE & MTS -carry out health surveillance Before and after specific to HIV Aids and to construction phase sexually transmitted diseases Ones the first year of the phase Page 166 during 10.07 hectare of compensation is provided to the phase farmland which used to be under the affected parties entitlement of 217 farmers.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project S Impact No.000 the construction phase 7 . biannually 5.Noise and vibration releases of construction machines.Construction workers and truck drivers are considered as having high potential (or good vectors) for the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS virus due to their mobility. biannually Once before 10. Monitoring the overall waste biannually management in and around the premises of sanitary land fill and transfer station by carrying visual inspections biannually 6. Average noise level measurements show values below maximum allowable noise limits and severity of nuisance caused on community members is low as assessed by interview.000 operation . vehicles and waste hauling trucks will affect residents in the neighborhood and along the waste haulage routes.000 5 . Performance indicators to be Frequency of Frequency of Budget per Monitored measurement reporting year in Birr 4 .Littering of solid waste in and around the transfer stations and sanitary landfill may contaminate the soil in the long term.

After site closure and decommissioning.Waste hauling to the transfer stations is likely to have significant impact on traffic flow and will negatively influence the speed of waste hauling to the Akaki transfer station ZTS-EDCE & MTS of operation phase Page 167 month for a 25.000 Interview nearby communities of the visual impact due to the construction of sanitary land fill and transfer stations Once during the Make traffic count before and after the construction and operation phase During the first year Daily first year of operation . the sanitary landfill will have visual (aesthetic) impact on the surrounding as it may create contradiction with the landscape. .000 .During operation phase. 10 . without proper management.000 9 . waste disposal at the workers involved in waste sorting two years of sanitary landfill cells and other staffs at the transfer stations operation directly involved in waste handling and hauling are exposed to negative impact on occupational health and safety.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project II Operation phase S Impact No. biannually 20. yearly 3.It may also cause a visual impact on the surrounding if left unattended after closure. the Sendafa sanitary landfill may remain unsuitable for other forms of beneficial land uses because of the waste deposited. Performance indicators to be Frequency of Frequency of Budget per Monitored measurement reporting year in Birr 8 Workers involved in waste sorting at Carry health surveillance on the Monthly for the first transfer stations.

ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 168 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Note: -Monitoring reports from the various parties should be sent to the Addis Ababa Cleansing Management Agency for compilation and reporting to the Federal and Regional offices in charge of the environment -The Federal and regional offices in charge of the Environment will assign environmental inspector during project construction and operation -Monitoring cost will be covered by the institutions assigned to undertake the monitoring.

collection and treatment system . Measure to minimize leachate volume: -Cover the surface of the waste body intermediately during operation of the landfill and finally after closure of the landfill. If the landfill has no leachate collection system the leachate can enter into ground and surface water resources around the site.Installation of passive barrier with the natural clay soil placed below the cell liner system . -Capture the rainwater from the surface seal of the landfill by ditches around the landfill body and direct to treatment facility.Installation of active barrier of HDPE geo-membrane with 2mm thickness for both the bottom of the cells and the slopes . Cost estimate for environmental mitigation and Monitoring measures Table 19: Cost estimates for implementing mitigation measures Impacts Mitigation Measures Unit Quantity Unit Cost Cost in Birr Remark Cost is part of the technical component i. the costs for these mitigation measures are reflected in the actual construction costs of the project (Birr) The volume of leachate that will be generated from the Sendafa sanitary landfill site will range from 645m3/day to 1336 m3/day during the lifetime of the sanitary landfill. -Uncontrolled leachate release from the landfill site into Hambisa River will have an adverse impact on the river. -The weak zone along the fault striking from NW-SE on western part of the Akaki transfer station site can be a conducive path for contaminants leaked from the transfer station towards south part of the Akaki well field where most of the deep and shallow wells are ZTS-EDCE & MTS a. leachate may have an adverse impact on the Legedadi deep test wells and shallow wells drilled by AAWSA. -Cconstruct storm drainage within and around the proposed sanitary landfill site b.Installation of three-stage leachate treatment system Page 169 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 12.Installation of high permeability leachate collection and transfer system to facilitate the collection of leachate .Develop a leachate containment. -In the absence of proper management of the landfill.e. Measures to Minimize Leachate Infiltration from the Disposal cells .

and re-circulation facilities c.e. . . . . Cost is part of the technical contract . the costs for these mitigation measures are reflected in the actual construction costs of the project .200° C by the landfill gas flare.Carryout monitoring program at regular periodic intervals during and after the working life of the site to assess effectiveness of the landfill gas control measures.Collect leaching wastewater that from the transfer station and dispose to the sewerage system for appropriate treatment and disposal In the absence of proper landfill gas collection and management system.dust releases during construction and operational phases by vehicles and machineries affect ambient air ZTS-EDCE & MTS The following gas management systems are proposed to minimize impact of landfill gases at Sendafa Sanitary landfill. .Waste hauling trucks will create local air pollution along the hauling routes during operational phases.Sprinkle water on dusty roads frequently on day time during construction. . .Collect the landfill gases by installing vertical gas wells (gas vents) progressively as the landfill grows vertically towards its final level . Measures to minimize the effects of Akaki Transfer Station on Akaki well fields .e.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project concentrated.000 1.Upgrade roads to asphalt during operation in the Page 170 i.Pump to collection points where it will be flared. the proposed sanitary landfill is anticipated to affect the ambient air quality due to release of landfill gas. methane & CO2) from the landfill will contribute to climate change. Also: .Emission of green house gases (i.Cover with pavement the area within the transfer station by double layer of asphalt concrete or enforced concrete to minimize infiltration of wastewater . and smoke release caused by spontaneous burning. foul odour nuisance.incinerate the gas at temperatures of about 1.Install appropriate storm water drainage and sewerage system in the transfer station to minimize/ prevent pollution of the nearby boreholes.

the costs for these mitigation measures will be reflected in the actual operational budget of the sanitary landfill .attracts vermin and birds which may have unintended potential impact on air transport route. .will become source of environmental pollution and public health hazard Operate the sanitary landfill in compliance with the standards for class I sanitary landfill of the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum (refer sec 9. -Cover material shall be applied to the entire surface of the tipping-cell to a minimum depth of 15 cm at the completion of each working day – but every third day as a minimum. -Ensure that no fires are tolerated within landfill sites. -The potential impact of the new sanitary landfill and transfer stations is anticipated to possibly occur under future scenarios where the new sanitary landfill and transfer station facilities are not operated properly. For transfer station management: ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 171 i. . -Ensure the installation and functioning of landfill gas management systems at all landfill sites.will degenerate into an open landfill .Keep waste collection and disposal vehicles fleet wellmaintained and regularly serviced to minimize exhaust smoke release. . These include: Cost is part of the technical contract -AARDPO shall ensure that the site is operated with an operational plan. -Allow regulated access of informal recyclers/wastepickers to the landfill site during normal operational hours to work in designated areas.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project quality approaches to transfer stations . and that any persistent fires are reported to the competent authority.cause a serious odour problem to the surrounding -Suitably qualified and experienced personnel and resources are assigned to manage the day-to-day landfill operations. -Mobile equipment sufficient to ensure that operational standards are met shall be provided and maintained in use at the landfill site.2 for detail measures).e. is adequately staffed.

. -Develop detailed manuals and procedures that translate the requirements into daily operational procedures for the staff and management of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations.All waste transfer points. basic operational procedures and associated manuals.000 Birr 150.The design of the transfer operation shall enable the site operations to be efficient and hygienic.Improper disposal of construction waste will affect the environment . Cost is part of the operational budget -Cover waste hauling trucks to and from the transfer station with tents to prevent littering of waste during ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 172 . unless temporary operational reasons do not permit this.000 Birr -Dispose the construction waste in officially permitted place. .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project .Incoming waste shall be transferred from the transferstation within 1 day.Littering of solid waste in and around the transfer stations and sanitary landfill may contaminate the soil in the long term. . facilities and containers shall be kept clean and orderly at all times with containers and site area inspected and cleaned monthly. -Train landfill and transfer station operators on SWM standards. 300. The designated place should be a degraded site to be remedied by tipping soil material. Cost is part of the technical contract -Stockpile and use the soil excavated during landfill construction as cover material for the landfill cells during operation -Apply portable litter control fences downwind of the working area to capture litter -Keep the working face of landfill to the practical minimum width to reduce litter generation -Conduct regular (daily or weekly) program of litter pick-up at the sanitary landfill and transfer station sites.

A lump sum of 50.locating stationary equipment that is noisy as far as possible from the NSRs. -Include the mitigation measures outlined in bullets under section 9. . -fitting of noise mufflers to mobile plant and equipment. the Sendafa sanitary landfill may remain unsuitable for other forms of beneficial land uses because of the waste deposited. vehicles and waste hauling trucks will affect residents in the neighborhood and along the waste haulage routes.switching off unnecessary or idle equipment.use of temporary noise baffles and noise fencing during if necessary to protect adjacent NSRs. .During operation phase. .After site closure and decommissioning. -outline the procedures for post-closure care of the site in the closure plan -Include contingency plans for illegal dumping in the former landfill after site closure Page 173 .Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project transport. . para 3 as part of the action plan.orienting equipment with high directivity to emit noise away from NSRs. .7. .000 Birr per year . Cost is part of the technical contract -Submit a site closure plan to the competent authority by the time 90% of the sanitary landfill is filled for review and approval.It may also cause a visual impact on the surrounding if left ZTS-EDCE & MTS -Harmonize with the surrounding landscape and aesthetic views by progressively covering filled cells with plant seedlings one after the other. the sanitary landfill will have visual (aesthetic) impact on the surrounding as it may create contradiction with the landscape. and preventative maintenance of equipment to minimize noise emissions . without proper management.Noise and vibration releases of construction machines.restrict multiple use of mobile plant equipment to short time periods (operation phase) .planting of buffer trees and shrubs where appropriate. .

waste disposal at the sanitary landfill cells and other staffs directly involved in waste handling and hauling are exposed to negative impact on occupational health and safety. Lump sum of 500.Operate the health & safety system of the sanitary landfill in accordance to the draft Ethiopian standards on Solid waste management to the minimum A lump sum of 100. sorting room and etc). Gloves. .000 Birr Page 174 . Workers involved in waste sorting at transfer stations.000 -Provide separate entry and exit connections to the main road and a merging lane to access the waste disposal site and to the transfer stations -Control vehicles transporting waste to prevent taking shortcuts on unsuitable road -Conduct traffic flow study on the routes and based on the study result widening and rehabilitation of the roads leading to the transfer stations and to the waste disposal site. . Dust & chemical masks . -Include plans for fire safety in the event of a deliberate or spontaneous occurrence .Provision of training on occupational safety and health . A lump sum of 200.000 Birr per year . cloths.Waste hauling to the transfer stations is likely to have significant impact on traffic flow and will negatively influence the speed of waste hauling to the transfer stations -Construct alternative road to provide access to the transfer stations by avoiding congested road stretches such as for Akaki transfer station.Construction workers and truck drivers are considered as having high potential for the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS virus due to ZTS-EDCE & MTS -Conduct education and awareness creation campaigns on the spread and transmission of STDs and HIV/AIDS for construction workers and local communities living close to the construction camp sites.Provision of personal protective equipments (Safety shoes.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project unattended after closure.Periodical medical check-up for workers working directly on waste management (Landfill.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project their mobility. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 175 .

Environmental audit and reporting - 200. Environmental monitoring costs - 128.000 6. Contingency (10%) - 172.07 hectare of farmland acquired from 217 farmers.000 5. Capacity building and training - 250.000 3.400 7. 987 200 300.194 is paid to compensate the 137. Operational Manuals & procedures preparation 4.000 Remark Birr 24.000 Birr + compensation of the farmers that lost farm land 2. .800 8. Item Unit Cost in Birr Total cost 1 Environmental Mitigation and Management Cost - 850.1 Summary of Environmental Mitigation and Monitoring costs Table 20: Summary of Environmental Mitigation and Monitoring costs No. Administration costs (5%) - 86.12.767. Grand total - 1.

Hence it is highly recommended that the Sanitary landfill and transfer stations are operated according to the draft standards for “Landfill Management” as stipulated in the draft urban solid waste management standards. Thus it is recommended that the Sendafa sanitary landfill and transfer station project could be implemented with full implementation of the mitigation measures. implementation of the solid waste management project will have significant benefits in enhancing the efficiency. Even though the draft National Urban Solid Waste Management Standards came late in the process. it is also recommended to develop detailed manuals and procedures that translate the requirements into daily operational procedures and to train the staff and management of the sanitary landfill and transfer stations. it is observed that the engineering design of the proposed sanitary landfill and transfer stations provide facilities that are necessary to prevent the environment from pollution and to protect public health. the success of the Sendafa Sanitary landfill and transfer station project depends not only on developing well engineered facilities. Thus. Such facilities include the availability of engineered cells for disposal of solid waste on daily basis. leachate control and treatment.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 13. daily cover soils.tc. For this purpose. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 177 . e. coverage and sustainability of solid waste management practices in Addis Ababa city. the essence of the Sendafa Sanitary Landfill project is an environmental project designed to prevent the environment and public health from adverse impacts. but also on the proper operation of these facilities. Accordingly. it is observed that the design features of the Sendafa Sanitary landfill and transfer stations also meets those standards to a larger extent. However. Conclusion and recommendation The entire purpose of building a sanitary landfill is to prevent short and long term adverse environmental impacts that may occur as a result of waste disposal. Thus. landfill gases collection and treatment.

ARTELIA Ville et Transport and MCE. Tamiru A. 10. References 1. Solid waste management project . Tigistu Haile. Detailed Design of Bole Arbasa Transfer Station. AAWSA. 14. Akaki Groundwater Project. AAWSA May 1999.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 14. Environmental impact and vulnerability of the surface and ground water system from municipal solid waste disposal site: Koshe. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines. Abiye. April 2007. June 2009. Evaluation of the 2003 – 2010 Development Plan of Addis Ababa City. 4. TAHAL Consulting Engineers Ltd in association with SHAWEL Consult International. Shimeles K. 7. March 2014. et..Strategic and technical studies and Works supervision. AAWSA April 1993. Mekonnen M. Executive Summary. April 2010.Strategic and technical studies and Works supervision. Akaki Water Supply Project Phase 1. May 1992. Well field Summary Report. Akaki Water Supply Project. Health. Earth sciences Graduate programs. Feasibility Study. Volume II. IFC and World Bank Group. Ministry of Urban Development. Yassin W. Addis Ababa. Detailed Design of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill. Geological Survey of Ethiopia. Hydro geological Study Report. TAHAL Consulting Engineers Ltd. ARTELIA Ville et Transport and MCE. December 2013. Annexes. 12. 2. 13. Feasibility Study of the Chebe Weregenu Sanitary landfill site for the City of Addis Ababa. 9. 2003. Solid waste management project . ARTELIA Ville et Transport and MCE. February 2011. Addis Ababa’s National and International Settings and Roles. Solid waste management project . 8. AAWSA. Associated Engineering. Housing and Construction. 5. Federal Environment Protection Authority. 11. Detailed Design of Akaki Transfer Station. Environmental.. March 2014. 3. Review of Feasibility Study and Preliminary Design Report. Water Supply Project Stage III. the case of Addis Ababa city (MSc thesis). Addis Ababa University. December 2013. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 178 . Draft Standards for Ambient Environmental Quality. 2012. Analysis of potential sanitary landfill waste disposal sites.al. Urban Solid Waste Management Standard (Part –I). 6.Strategic and technical studies and Works supervision. March 1992.

Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 18. Vol 1. Evaluation of Ada’a and Becho Plains Groundwater Basins for Irrigation Development Project. February 2011 ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 179 . WHO.al. Geneva World Health Organization. WWDCE. et. 2004 16. 2008. Final Summary: Main Social and Municipal Services.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 15. Zeleke Z. 17. Evaluation of the 2003 – 2010 Development Plan of Addis Ababa City. WWDCE. February. 2010. Evaluation of Groundwater Resources of Akaki Area Groundwater Prospective Site (SWAWF). MOWR.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Annexes ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 180 .

The minutes of both public and stakeholders’ consultation is attached in the Annex section. On the nature of potential social impacts of the project and its impacts on the social. Since the minutes are written in Amharic the following is the English translation of the minutes.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Annex I: Minutes of Consultation Public and Stakeholders’ Consultation The primary purpose of public consultation is to protect the interest of affected persons/communities. especially the poor and vulnerable groups. in particular. cultural and economic ties and networks during and after construction works. including people residing in the project area. if any. interested groups. such as involuntary resettlement. Soliciting the views of local population what beneficial impact they expect from the project Social composition. to be consulted with respect to policies and projects affecting their community”. FDRE Constitution also reaffirms the participation of the public. in policies and projects that affect their livelihood. It also gives opportunity for the affected people to influence the project to reduce adverse impacts. Kebele administrations and Woreda experts and professionals from different offices in the woreda.2 states that: “Nationals have the right to participate in national development and. civil societies are informed about the project and its impact and the information will clarify doubts about who will be affected or benefit from the project. Enable meaningful and accessible participation of the public and the affected population in particular. On the loss of productive resources mainly loss of farm and grazing land. and on the implementation of the proposed mitigation measures for the negative impacts and on measures of reinforcement for the positive impacts. The objective of public and stakeholders’ consultation is. main sources of livelihood and past history of displacement of the population. Article 43 No. Public consultations were carried out with the objective of identifying the potential social impacts (positive and negative). community severance and compensation for affected properties and assets. local government officials. settlement patterns. Obtain acceptance of the project both by the public and stakeholders. to inform the public on the potential impacts and seek the participation and contribution of the public during the construction of the project. Identify local issues and concerns to be addressed.. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 181 . and ensure that they receive appropriate compensation for loss of property and land due to the project. Stakeholders’ consultation was also conducted to increase the participation of all the stakeholders. • • • • • • • • • To ensure that the public and stakeholders. Identification of major social impact issues. maximize additional benefits.

households or offices) is dumped outside of the land fill area. Some have built CIS roof house. During the above three years we could have used the land and made productive by growing crops. Translation of minutes of public consultation 1. during the operation phase of the project. The project office needs to take the maximum care that no waste (from factories. 135/2007. We expect to be given priority of employment and so far we are not given satisfactory employment. Some farmers were able to improve their livelihood through the compensation payment made to them for their lost farmland. 3. Those who have farmland outside of the landfill area will be forced in future to go round the project area and this creates inconvenience and takes more time. employment priority should be given to the local population. 6. 5. 4. Affected persons have also selected 5 persons to represent them in the valuation and compensation process. Some of the health hazards could be due to odour. 7.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Translation of minutes of stakeholders’ consultation 1. 2. ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 182 . in all the locations where public consultations are held the public are highly supportive and positive about the construction of the project. 8. 9. 6. The affected population has participated in the valuation of property and made aware of the procedures and guideline prior to the compensation payment. During operation phase there could be some potential negative impacts that might affect the health and livelihood of the local population living in the surrounding. In future. dust and the like. some have rented land to farm. in property valuation and in the compensation payment 5. noise. 2. some bought transport cars and some built house in the town. during the operational phase of the project monitor that no health hazard will be observed on the local population. To overcome the problem we were told by the officials who have come from the project office that access road will be constructed that passes through the landfill.455/2005) and regulation No. We have elected elders from among us to participate in the process of measuring affected land. 3. The land was taken from us three years ago but so far there has not been any work carried out by the project office. The payment of compensation for affected households and procedures for valuation of property and assets is carried out as per FDRE law (proclamation No. 7. In general. 4. The construction of the access road has to be made clear when it will start and which kebeles it will cross and the size of farmland it will affect. Some of did not have clear information on the procedures of land measurement and property valuation but we trust the authorities & committee and have received the payment. In the future. The woreda anticipates that the local population will have employment opportunities during the operation phase of the project and in future there is a potential for the establishment of some factories producing goods through the process of recycling waste materials that are collected from the land fill. We have been promised that the project will construct school and water supply but so far nothing has been done towards it.

Those of us who are living in close proximity to the project site are worried and concerned that the project will affect our health in the future. We were promised that employment priority will be given to us. 10. Figure 1 Public consultation at Sendafa ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 183 . Generally.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project 8. we have no objection in the implementation of the project as far as appropriate mitigation measures are considered and implemented to minimize the negative impacts. Now the criteria to employ a guard someone who has completed grade 10. 9. This seems a deliberate action not to employ from among us since there are not people who have finished grade 10. But now the employment criteria and procedure is different from what has been promised earlier.

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 184 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 185 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 186 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 187 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 188 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 189 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 190 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 191 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 192 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 193 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 194 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 195 .

Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Fig 1: Public consultation participants at Bole Arbasa Transfer station site Fig 2: Public consultation participants AT Akaki transfer station site ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 196 .

Sc) ZTS-EDCE & MTS Page 197 .Sc) 3.Sc) 5. Ato Getachew Abraha Hydro geologist (M.Sc) 2.Zero Draft ESIA Report of Sendafa Sanitary Landfill and Transfer Stations Project Annex II : List of EIA preparers and CVs The ESIA report was prepared by a team of experts composed of the following: 1. Ato Asefa Adisu Sociologist (B. Ato Zereu Girmay Team Leader & Environmentalist (M.sc) 4. Ato Mistir Lingerew Environmental Health Specialist (M. Ato Tequam T/Mariam Environmental Engineer (M.