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RLC circuits presentation

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The second order circuits are characterized by a second order differential

equation. One of these circuits is the RLC circuit which can be arranged in series

or parallel. We can also have second order circuits with some arrangements as it

shown in the next figure.

7.1.

Consider the series RLC circuit shown in the next figure. It is assumed that

initially the circuit had connected any independent source which allowed it to store

some energy in the capacitor and inductor. At

the system had a perturbation

leaving the circuit without independent source. Thus, stored energy is represented

by the initial capacitor voltage and initial inductor current defined by.

(7.1)

(7.2)

we differentiate with respect to time in order to eliminate the integral. We get

(7.3)

to solve it, we assume that the solution has the form

(7.4)

where A and s are constants to be determined. The first and second derivatives of

Eq. (7.4) are

(7.5)

substituting Eqs. (7.4) and (7.5) into (7.3), se obtain

(7.6)

or also

(7.7)

Because the first factor is current that we are looking for, this equation has

solution only when the second factor is zero. This is

(7.8)

which is called the characteristic equation of the differential equation (7.3). The

roots are

(7.9)

(7.10)

where

(7.11)

are called the resonant frequency or undamped natural frequency and neper

frequency or damping factor respectively. Since there are two values for , exist

two possible solutions for and total solution of the differential equation (7.3) is a

linear combination of both solution. This is

(7.12)

where the constants

.

and

and

The Eq.(7.10) implies that there are three different cases defined by:

Overdamped case if (

).

Underdamped case if

7.1.1. Overdamped case (

).

implies that both roots,

negative. Thus, the response can be written as

and

(7.13)

which trend to be zero as the time increases. The typical graph for the overdamped

case is shown in the next figure.

).

and it can established, from any book of

differential equations, that the solution has the following form

(7.14)

A typical graph of the response is plotted in the next figure

).

(7.15)

where

and

the natural response is

(7.16)

or also

(7.17)

by applying Eulers identities we get

(7.18)

or also

(7.19)

since

or

are constants that are going to be determined using

the initial conditions, these can be replaced by

and

respectively as follow

(7.20)

A typical graph of the underdamping response is presented in the next figure

frequency is zero. This can happen when we have a null value of the resistance.

7.2.

Consider the parallel RLC circuit shown in the next figure. It is considered that

for

the circuit had connected any independent source which allowed it to

store some energy in the capacitor and inductor. At

the system had a

perturbation leaving the circuit without independent sources. Thus, the stored

energy is represented by the initial voltage of the capacitor and initial current in the

inductor defined by.

(7.21)

(7.22)

we differentiate with respect to time in order to eliminate the integral. We get

(7.23)

As it can be observed, the source-free parallel RLC circuit is the dual of the

source- free series RLC. The only difference is the formula of the damping

frequency which becomes

(7.24)

and

are the same. Thus the response will

have the same number cases with the same form of the responses with the only

difference of the variable, i. e., voltage in place of current.

7.2.1.

Overdamped case (

).

(7.25)

7.2.2.

).

(7.26)

7.2.3.

Underdamped case (

).

(7.27)

7.3.

We can say that any current or voltage in any element R, L, or C have the

same form because the mathematical operations to get the variables are

integration, derivation, multiplication by a constant of harmonic or exponential

functions. The only difference between any voltage o current at any element of the

circuit are the constants determined by applying the initial conditions.

The procedure to solve this kind of problems is:

i.

),

one inductance ( ) and one equivalent capacitance ( ) for

and

identify if the circuits is in series or parallel.

ii.

For

, considering L as s-c and C as o-c, determine

and apply

and

(7.28)

using

(7.29)

and the necessary LVK and LCK to a loop or node of the circuit to find

and

where

represents any current or voltage in any resistance,

inductance or capacitance of the circuit.

iii.

At

, find

(7.30)

iv.

Overdamped case (

).

(7.31)

).

(7.32)

Underdamped case (

of the response looks like

). First find

(7.33)

v.

7.4.

Consider the series RLC circuit shown in the next figure. It is assumed that initially

the circuit could had connected or not any independent source which allowed it to

store some energy in the capacitor and inductor. At

the system has a

perturbation changing the configuration of the circuit. Thus, stored energy is

represented by the initial capacitor voltage and initial inductor current defined by.

(7.34)

(7.35)

we know that

(7.36)

by substituting in Eq. (7.35) and rearranging gives

(7.37)

which has the same form of Eq. (7.3) except by the variable. Thus, the

characteristic equation is the same and the corresponding solution of the

homogeneous differential equation is also similar. The total solution of above

equation can be written as

(7.38)

where

is called transient response or natural response which is the solution of

associated homogeneous of Eq. (7.37) and it disappear with the time. It has the

same number of cases as it was presented in section 7.2 or 7.3. The second part

of the total solution

is called the steady state response or forced response

and it represents the final value of

. It can be defined as

(7.39)

Thus, to find the total solution

requires to find the value of two constants

that are contained in the natural response by applying the two initial conditions

and

.

7.5.

Consider the series RLC circuit shown in the next figure. It is assumed that

initially the circuit could have connected or not any independent source which

allowed it to store some energy in the capacitor and inductor represented by

and

respectively. At

the system has a perturbation changing the

configuration of the circuit.

(7.40)

Notice that the above equation is mathematically equal to Eq. (7.35) which means

that this circuit is the dual of the step voltage series RLC circuit; thus, the step

response parallel RLC problem is equivalent to the step response series RLC

problem. In consequence the response can be written as

(7.41)

where

is the transient response or natural response and

state response or forced response defined by

is the steady

(7.42)

7.6.

i. Obtain the form of natural response

(do not substitute the initial conditions)

(7.43)

iv. Substitute the initial conditions to get the value of the constants.

7.7.

When we have a second order circuit which is different from the RLC circuit, it

is better to get the differential equation using necessary KVL or KCL and make the

arranges to write the differential equation with any of the next forms

(7.44)

can be directly determined.

Therefore, the case and consequently form of the response can be established.

From here, the procedure will be the same as Sections 7.3 or 7.6 depending if the

problem is free-sources or step excitation.

7.8. Duality

Two circuits are said to be duals of one another if they are described by the

same characterizing equations with dual quantities interchanged.

The dual quantities are

Dual pairs

Resistance

Inductance

Voltage variables

Voltage source

Node

KVL

Thevenin

i.Locate a node at the center of each mesh

ii.Draw the reference node as an external line

iii.Substitute each element by its dual

iv.Redraw the final circuit

Conductance

Capacitance

Current variable

Current source

Mesh

KCL

Norton

7.9.

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