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This practice has been translated by Jose Manuel Molanes Prez and Alejandro

Saborido Coiras

PRACTICE 2: Three phase induction or asynchronous motor


The three phase induction or asynchronous motor is the most used due to its strength and
simplicity, low cost and low maintenance.
THE CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURE OF THIS MOTOR
It has 2 principal elements: Stator and rotor.
Stator: Fixed piece which is made up of numbers of slots to construct a 3 phase winding circuit
which is connected to 3 phase AC source. Its function is to create a rotating magnetic field.
Rotor: Mobile piece which is into the stator. There are 2 types: winding rotor or squirrel cage
rotor. The last one is the most used and it consists of conductors bars with parallel slots short
circuited by rings that are conductors too.
1.1.FUNCTIONAL PRINCIPLE
The three windings of the stator are connected each one with a phase of a three phase system.
in each winding will circulate a current that will create a equilibrated system of currents(see
the picture).
When the current pass through each winding, will create a magnetic field also sinusoidal, one
field for each coil.
The sum of three sinusoidal magnetic fields into the stator. Its final value will be equivalent
magnetic fiel with a vector that has a constant modulus and it rotates inside the stator with a
constant speed also called synchronism that is a function of the frequency feeding and the
setting up of the windings.
This rotating magnetic field(mobile) affects the conductive bars which forme the rotor and
according to the Law of Faraday-Lenz (e = -N d / dt) make a voltaje difference between the
ends of the bars. The bars are short circuited between them so it make posible the flow of
current between the bars.
The flow of current through a bar that is in a magnetic field make in the bar a force that will
cause a rotating movement of the bar. Therefore, the rotor will rotate with the same direction
of the magnetic field.
This phenomenon causes the rotor accelerates while a force is applied to the bars of the rotor,
up to a mximum speed equal to the speed of the rotating field.
In the induction machine, the glide, s, is defined as the difference
between the speed of the magnetic field (n1) and rotor speed(n2)
referred to n1.

n1 n2
n1

1.2.STARTING A MOTOR INDUCTION


A characteristic of asynchronous motors is their high startin current, that is, when the motor is
connected to the current, this current is higher than the current absorbed in the continious
operation. The initial current decreases with the increase of the motor speed. This high initial
current is used to accelerate the rotor from zero speed to the final speed.
When the motors are high power, the high starting current can make some problems
relationed with the material fatigue due to the continuous starts or even make the high
current protections of the motor work. Therefore the starting current should be reduced as
low as posible.
The basic ways to start an nduction motor are two: direct start and star-delta starting.
Direct start: It consists of starting the motor at nominal voltaje. In this way the passage of a
high starting current isnt avoided.
Star-delta starting: It consists of starting the motor that is initially connected to the windings
stator in star and when a time is passed change the connection to delta. In this way, initally a
equal voltage to the feeding voltage divided by voltaje phase is applied to each winding, so a
lower voltaje, this means the passage of a lower starting current. When the motor has taken
speed the star connection is changed to delta connection so the nominal voltage of correctly
function is applied to each winding.

1.3.CHANGE THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION


To change the direction of rotation of an induction motor is necessary to change the direction
of rotation of the rotating field because the rotor always follow the direction of the field. This
is achieved by changing the connection of two of the three phases in the motor.

1.4.TERMINAL BOARD
The terminal board is normally placed over the motor where the connections will be made
(power and star or delta connection). It has the following form:

1ASSEMBLY, DIRECT START AND STOP OF A MOTOR CAGE


It will be made the direct start of a squirrel cage motor with a nominal voltage of 230 V,
connected in star or delta (as the teacher determined), and feed with a three phase voltage of
230 volts.
Make the following power and control circuits:

2ASSEMBLY, CHANGE THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION WITH STEP IN ZERO


To make a change of the direction of rotation its necessary to change two phases. This two
phases exchange is done with two contactors.
To change the direction of rotation with step in zero its need to stop feeding the motor.
Make the following power and control circuits:

REPORT TO DO:
Explain how works each circuit made in the laboratory, both control circuits and power
circuits.

3ASSEMBLY, STAR-DELTA STARTING:


To make a star-delta starting its necessary to have a timer to allow switching from star to
delta after a certain predetermined time.
Make the following power and control circuits: