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INSTITUTO TECNOLGICO DE QUERTARO

24-10-2016

Acosta Garca Mayra Fernanda


Florido Gutirrez Aldo Benito
Gonzlez Garca Humberto
Govea Godnez Luis Diego
Muoz Bustos Aldo Andre
Romero Martnez Adriana

INGENIERA EN GESTIN EMPRESARIAL

ESPERANZA ORTIZ CORTES

FUNDAMENTOS DE INVESTIGACIN

AGO-DIC 2016

CONTENIDO
La siguiente monografa, es el resultado de un trabajo completo acerca
del tema de la comunicacin oral y escrita. En ella, se encontraremos primero, una
breve introduccin de lo que trata este trabajo, enseguida, ubicamos la
justificacin, es decir, la importancia de nuestra investigacin, seguida por el
objetivo, los alcances y limitaciones; despus, encontraremos el contenido de
cuatro principales apartados que definen entre otras cosas, las diferencias entre la
comunicacin oral y escrita, ejemplifican las formas de redaccin, incluyen
normas y reglas bsicas de ortografa y puntuacin, adems de pequeos ejemplos
acerca de textos o trabajos acadmicos; por ltimo, podremos localizar la
conclusin y nuestra lista de referencias y bibliografa.

INTRODUCCIN
La finalidad de esta investigacin radica en hacer reflexin sobre la
comunicacin oral y escrita en un mbito acadmico, en el cual podamos hacer
buen uso de la escritura y expresin ortogrfica. Se abordaran temas como las
reglas ortogrficas, el modo de uso de ciertas letras y signos, la investigaciones de
las estructuras formales de los textos acadmicos ya sea de reseas, tesis,
protocolo de investigacin, etc., as como la investigacin en diferentes idiomas en
torno a todo nuestro marco de referencia.

JUSTIFICACIN
El trabajo de una monografa es realmente importante ya que trata de
englobar lo mximo posible de informacin de otros trabajos de investigacin
acerca del mismo tema. Esto es fundamental para poder buscar y utilizar la
investigacin de algn otro autor y tener a la mano toda la informacin necesaria
para cuando se requiere.
La monografa est considerada como otro texto cientfico con la
misma valides en cuanto a su contenido ya que est basada en el trabajo de otros
cientficos quienes sustentaron su investigacin de acuerdo a mtodos con valides
cientfica. Por esta razn, no se debe menospreciar este tipo de texto cientfico por
su formato.

OBJETIVO

Analizar e identificar la estructura de los textos acadmicos en base a los


elementos de la comunicacin escrita, as como las herramientas que nos son de extrema
utilidad y apoyo, que nos llevan a crear una buena redaccin del trabajo de
investigacin., estas cuentan con normas de ortografa que deben seguirse para que se
logre entender cada frase y palabra de forma correcta.

ALCANCE Y LIMITACIONES
Alcances
La presente monografa explorara el tema de La comunicacin oral y
escrita, para que sirva a cualquier persona que est interesada en este proceso tan
interesante como lo es la comunicacin y los elementos que la integran.
Esta investigacin abarca nicamente a algunos elementos de cada tipo
de comunicacin con un nfasis mayor en la comunicacin escrita empleados en
los diferentes tipos de textos acadmicos, como: las normas y reglas ortogrficas,
las tcnicas de redaccin (estilo, coherencia, concordancia, prrafo, entre otras) y
los tipos de textos acadmicos (revisando su estructura y el cmo los elementos
son empleados).

Limitaciones
Falta de recursos acadmicos (de manera fsica) en otro idioma para
poder hacer una evaluacin de su estructura. Este punto se incluye a que varias
veces al buscar en internet las fuentes pueden ser no muy confiables.
Al buscar en otros idiomas surge el problema de que no tenemos un
conocimiento acerca de ellos, lo que implica que debamos utilizar algunas
herramientas que tenemos ms cercanas para traducir, pero, quizs la traduccin
no refleje lo que se quera expresar de manera inicial.

ndice
1.

DIFERENCIAS ENTRE LA COMUNICACIN ORAL Y ESCRITA ......... 5

2.

TEXTO CIENTFICO ................................................................................. 7

3.

NORMAS Y REGLAS ORTOGRFICAS Y DE PUNTUACIN ............. 11

4.

TRABAJOS ACADMICOS..................................................................... 31
EJEMPLO 1 ..................................................................................................... 31
EJEMPLO 2 ..................................................................................................... 46
EJEMPLO 3 ..................................................................................................... 55
EJEMPLO 4 ..................................................................................................... 59

CONCLUSIN ................................................................................................... 68
REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRFICAS .................................................................. 70

1. DIFERENCIAS ENTRE LA COMUNICACIN


ORAL Y ESCRITA
La comunicacin es un proceso de vital importancia en la vida diaria de
toda persona, se da entre un emisor y un receptor en la que se enva un mensaje
para obtener alguna respuesta. Este proceso tiene dos maneras de expresin: la
comunicacin oral y la comunicacin escrita; cada una cuenta con aspectos y
elementos que las hace diferentes la una de la otra.
En la comunicacin oral el mensaje que el emisor va a expresar es
captado por el odo del receptor, esta expresin permite que haya una
retroalimentacin e interaccin por parte de las dos personas (accin que no ocurre
en la comunicacin escrita). El contenido del mensaje no es tan especifico como lo
sera en un escrito, debido a que mediante la interaccin de las personas pueden
surgir otros temas no necesariamente relacionados con lo primero planteado. Este
mensaje puede cumplir diferentes funciones lingsticas como:
Emotiva o expresiva: Refleja la actitud del hablante.
Conativa o persuasiva: Pretende influir en el receptor.
Referencial o informativa: Consiste en decir algo sobre las cosas o
afirmar una realidad.
Fctica: Se centra en el contacto. Es propiedad de saludos, dilogos.
Metalingstica: Se produce cuando se pide informacin.
Potica: Cuando el emisor utiliza un lenguaje esttico (literario).

Adems, la comunicacin oral utiliza o involucra otros elementos de


gran importancia, como son los fsicos: la mirada, la voz (volumen, articulacin y
entonacin), la postura corporal y las manos, que nos ayudan a ser ms claros y
expresar de manera ms adecuada nuestro mensaje; tambin el uso de apoyo
visual (pizarrn, cuadros, graficas, etc.) y elementos tecnolgicos. El uso de este
tipo de comunicacin proporciona una experiencia ms personal y el mensaje es
ms directo.
Ahora, en la de comunicacin escrita el mensaje se percibe a travs de
la vista, pues las palabras se leen. Esto causa que el lector tenga una concentracin
muy enfocada en entender la idea que se plantea y el sentido que debe darle. A
diferencia de la comunicacin oral, el contenido del mensaje es ms especfico y
no hay una retroalimentacin instantnea.
Utiliza diferentes herramientas para su expresin, como: tcnicas de
redaccin y las normas y reglas ortogrficas. En las tcnicas de redaccin se
encuentra la coherencia, cohesin, concordancia, prrafo, conectores, claridad,
sencillez y precisin; que su funcin primordial es el hacer del mensaje un escrito
lgico y entendible. Las normas y reglas ortogrficas nos ayudan a saber la
manera correcta de escribir y a que nuestros mensajes sean compresibles, algunas
normas son la correcta acentuacin de las palabras, el uso de las reglas para letras
especficas (b, v, c, z, qu, g, h, j, x, etc.), maysculas, coma, punto y coma,
interrogacin/admiracin, entre otros. Todos estos elementos son los que le darn
el sentido al mensaje y har que el lector entienda lo que se trat de expresar.

Con lo anterior nos queda claro que la comunicacin oral y escrita


posee muchas diferencias, desde su manera de expresin, hasta los elementos que
utilizan. Sin embargo, tienen un objetivo en comn, el querer transmitir un
mensaje.

2. TEXTO CIENTFICO
La gestin del conocimiento: un nuevo enfoque en la
gestin empresarial
(Extracto)
Desde finales de la dcada del 70, ha crecido la importancia del desarrollo
cientfico tcnico en la economa mundial, hasta llegar a ser hoy clave para el
desarrollo de los pases. Al mismo tiempo los mercados financieros y de los productos
han sufrido transformaciones radicales, con un incremento significativo a partir de las
polticas neoliberales dictadas desde el mundo desarrollado.

Los cambios que ocurren a escala mundial provocan inesperadas formas de


competencia y un mercado cada vez ms impredecible. La rapidez de los cambios, la baja
adaptabilidad de las organizaciones y su vida efmera en el mercado, inciden en la forma
de negociar y en el establecimiento de ventajas competitivas estables. Aunque esta
situacin no se manifiesta de la misma forma para todos los pases del mundo, ante la
marcada diferencia existente entre pases ricos y pobres, desarrollados y
subdesarrollados, es necesario establecer determinadas estrategias para alcanzar un
desarrollo mnimo que permita si no adaptarse y ser competitiva, al menos, sobrevivir a
los cambios acelerados que dominan el mercado. Se conoce la situacin de los productos
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tradicionales en el mercado y las ventajas que presentan los productos del conocimiento,
como los farmacuticos, las nuevas tecnologas, etctera. Se plantea que los recursos
econmicos dinero y mano de obra no constituyen actualmente un recurso bsico para el
desarrollo de las economas, si no el saber, la productividad y la innovacin aplicada al
trabajo.

Primero la informacin y luego el conocimiento se identificaron como


elementos claves de la sociedad para lograr la ventaja competitiva en un perodo de
tiempo determinado. Diversos modelos prcticos, como la gestin de la informacin y del
conocimiento, se han desarrollado para manejar estos elementos en diferentes tipos de
organizaciones, fundamentalmente en los pases desarrollados. El conocimiento,
histricamente considerado un bien privado, con el cursar del tiempo ha comenzado a
convertirse en un bien pblico, al igual que el invento de la imprenta masific la cultura y
posibilit la difusin del libro y la informacin en general. Las nuevas tecnologas de
informacin y de comunicacin y las concepciones sobre los recursos humanos deben
impulsar la expansin del conocimiento en todas las direcciones de la sociedad y entre
los pases desarrollados y subdesarrollados.

Muchos investigadores y especialistas han sealado las transformaciones y


acontecimientos, que suceden de forma acelerada y contribuyen a la creacin de una
nueva sociedad, una sociedad que requiere de nuevos saberes, enfoques, tecnologas y
nuevos planteamientos para gestionar cualquier tipo de actividad que se desarrolle dentro
y fuera de la organizacin, para crear productos y servicios con un valor agregado que le
permita a la organizacin mantener una ventaja competitiva en el mercado.

Ante esta realidad, ha surgido un nuevo enfoque dentro de la gestin


empresarial que sita al individuo como centro rector de la organizacin, como principal
activo en cuya informacin, conocimiento y experiencia se sustenta para aumentar su
capacidad competitiva y el perfeccionamiento de sus resultados, la gestin del
conocimiento.

Las investigaciones y aplicaciones de la gestin del conocimiento se


encuentran en estudio en los pases capitalistas ms desarrollados del mundo; como
consecuencia la bibliografa empleada as como los ejemplos comentados se refieren a
ellos. Sin embargo existen diferencias sustanciales entre la aplicacin de estos modelos
en las organizaciones de los pases capitalistas altamente desarrollados y en los pases
subdesarrollados. El presente trabajo pretende mostrar el estado de la gestin del
conocimiento y la forma de insertarse en estos nuevos enfoques, que solo marcan un
nivel superior de desarrollo para las organizaciones con fines de rentabilidad.

Coherencia: la parte verde indica la coherencia del texto, esta es la que


indica el desarrollo y la disposicin lgica del tema. En este caso las partes subrayadas en
verde indican que todo el texto est hablando de un solo tema, y adems este tema lleva
un orden de desarrollo.

Concordancia: Es la relacin correcta entre las palabras. Un ejemplo de


esto es el de la concordancia entre el sustantivo y adjetivo que consiste en la igualdad del
gnero y el nmero de estas dos categoras gramaticales. El otro tipo de concordancia que

existe es: Concordancia entre el verbo de una oracin y el sustantivo, ncleo del sintagma
nominal. En este caso la igualdad debe ser nmero y personas.
En las frases subrayadas por morado podemos ver ejemplos de estos tipos de
concordancia como: pases capitalistas este es un ejemplo de concordancia de
sustantivo y adjetivo.

Estilo: El estilo de este texto es un Ensayo, pues la estructura lo


hace notar y la forma corta de informacin, que a su vez informa sobre el
tema de una manera sencilla y directa.

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3. NORMAS Y REGLAS ORTOGRFICAS Y DE PUNTUACIN

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4. TRABAJOS ACADMICOS
EJEMPLO 1

UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID


FACULTAD DE PSICOLOGA

TESIS DOCTORAL
Social models, flexicurity policies and social vulnerability in Italy and
Spain: a critical assessment in the light of the capabilities approach
MEMORIA PARA OPTAR AL GRADO DE DOCTOR

PRESENTADA POR

Francesca Bonechi

Directora

Mara Amparo Serrano Pascual


Madrid, 2015

Francesca Bonechi, 2015

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COMPLUTENSE UNIVERSITY OF MADRID


FACULTY OF PSYCHOLOGY

DOCTORAL DISSERTATION

Social models, flexicurity policies and social vulnerability in Italy and


Spain. A critical assessment in the light of the capabilities approach

Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with the Doctor Europeo Mention
Doctoral program in Social Psychology

Francesca Bonechi

Supervisor
Mara Amparo Serrano Pascual

Madrid, 2015
32

Abstract

This doctoral dissertation aims to assess Spanish and Italian employment policies in the light of the
capabilities approach. The approach provides the conceptual and normative framework for the policy
evaluation. The thesis combines a psychosocial view, a comparative perspective and a qualitative
method in order to comprehend how conversion factors have worked in Italy and Spain over the
period 1995-2008. The basic idea is that conversion factors do not only include institutional settings
and political structures, but also socio-cognitive systems, which play a key role in producing and
reinforcing social vulnerability. The main research question is whether national flexicurity policies
are capability-oriented and intended to expand individuals capabilities and choices, promote equal
distribution of opportunities and empower vulnerable groups, like the young. On the one hand, the
focus is on the processes that social models promote through institutions and public policies for
protecting vulnerable individuals and for giving them the possibility of achieving what they value; on
the other hand, a strong attention is paid to meanings and representations used by key actors that are
involved in the design and implementation of policies in the two countries under analysis.

33

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Fanija, Volayra and Rabel, who are getting flourishing, seasoned and mature, and yet incite
me to carry on.
I would like to thank the Department of Social Psychology of the Faculty of Political Sciences and
Sociology of the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) that first allowed me to see the difference
between the sociological and the psychological approach to social psychology as well as the conflicts
from which it arises.
I would also like to thank the DISPO (Department of Political Science and Sociology) of the Faculty
of Political Science of the University of Florence, where Laura Leonardi and Luigi Burroni showed
me the gentle and hardworking face of the Italian higher education system.
I would like to thank the Department of Social Policy of the London School of Economics (LSE),
which taught me the value of the creation and the existence of a department like that. Many thanks to
Professor Hartley Dean for the stimulating and experienced intellectual suggestions and the kind
welcome to British academic life.
I would also like to thank the Real Colegio de la Complutense at Harvard University, which made me
to explore the exciting American university world and to enter the circle of Spanish scholars living in
Boston while constructing changes in the motherland.
After the institutional acknowledgements, I would like to thank my supervisor Amparo Serrano
Pascual, who guided me where I wanted to go even before I clearly knew what I was pursuing. Special
thanks for being a solid and persistent pillar during these years and for taking me further than I would
have imagined.
Thanks to the colleagues of the PhD program, Mirko Antino, Maria Paz Martn Martn, Alba Artiaga
Leiras, Francisco Jos Tovar, Stefano de Marco, Cristina Cuenca Garca and the group Tercer Ciclo
Somosaguas (UCM) among others, who supported me each in their own way and to remind me that
I was not alone on this path.
I am grateful to the amazing people, students and professors, that I met at the doctoral workshop at
the Paris-Sorbonne University (Paris IV) and at the Espanet Summer School at Oviedo University.
They helped me to know other parallel realities and to be more aware of mine. Among them, I would
like to thank Jean-Claude Barbier, Valeria Fargion, Ana Marta Guilln Rodrguez, Bruno Palier,
Emmanuele Pavolini, Fabrice Colomb, Sebastian Knzel, Helene Schnheinz, Florina Pop, Ines
Verspohl, Georgiana Ivan, Marina Bettoni and Silvia Mrkli.
I would like to extend my gratitude to the Spanish and Italian interviewees, and all the other people
that have supported me, for allowing to carry out this investigation and above all for being sincerely
interested in my work.
Particular thanks to my personal capability-enabler and opportunity provider, in the widest possible
sense, my family. My parents do not only have economically sustained me over these years, but have
flanked me in every single step during the creation and achievement of my life projects. And thanks
to my boyfriend, who has just become my husband, for having chosen to be part of my life. He is now
my home and relief from the craziness that this thesis has partly been.
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Summary

Title: Social models, flexicurity policies and social vulnerability in Italy and Spain. A critical
assessment in the light of the capabilities approach

During the past two decades, European labour markets and welfare states have undergone many
transformations that have questioned the traditional paradigm based on permanent contractual
arrangements, overall stability and encompassing social protection guarantees. Within the broad
overview of these transformations, the European institutions have played a key role in disseminating
over Europe new cognitive and normative frameworks, modes of governance and policy methods
(Serrano and Jepsen, 2006; Serrano, 2009). National social models have been made to converge
towards a new unified European social model (ESM). Still, despite the converging trends that have
characterized European members, the modality to cope with the new challenges widely varies in
accordance with the institutional-political-historical configuration, the socio- labour-economic
situation and the dominant interpretative framework of each country.
The concept of flexicurity has become predominant in the European debate on the challenges of
labour markets (Jrgensen & Madsen 2007). It can be considered the European answer to social
vulnerability and aims to face its outbreak, while boosting labour market flexibility and pursuing
economic competitiveness. The concept of social vulnerability can be enriched if treated in the light
of the capabilities approach (Sen, 1985, 1992, 1999), according to which it also means the
impossibility for people to exercise their freedom of choice and pursue what they value in their life.
The approach has been used for the policy assessment and applied to the field of employment,
following the assumption that social protection systems, institutions and labour legislation may be
capability- or vulnerability-enabler.

This dissertation has assessed flexicurity policies and the mechanisms of fight against social
vulnerability associated to a situation of precariousness or unemployment in the light of a capabilities
approach in Spain and Italy. This research work studies trends and transformations of employment
legislation, social protection systems and labour markets over the period between 1997 and 2008 in
order to define national vulnerability profiles. The core of the thesis is the analysis in the light of the
capabilities approach of the cognitive and normative framework of key actors involved in the design
and implementation of policies, who contribute to the construction of the
35

meanings that inform these. Furthermore, the representations of flexicurity policies of the actors
as key informants in the field of employment are examined.

The contribution of this thesis consists in the effort of combining 1. the capabilities approach,
which provides the cognitive and normative framework for carrying out the policy assessment; 2.the
psychosocial, which focuses on the relations between the macro level and the individual; 3. the
comparative perspective, which emphasizes the differences and similarities among institutional and
political arrangements of each social model; and 4. the qualitative method, which is useful for
investigating ideologies and values that permeate policies. Indeed, this dissertation aims to use the
capabilities approach for assessing cognitively and normatively the institutions, meanings and
discourses embedded in the Spanish and Italian social models in relation to social vulnerability.

For the assessment of employment policies, a diversified methodology has been adopted.
Statistical secondary data, official documents and legislative texts according to an historical and
comparative perspective have been used for the contextualization of the study at the national-level in
order to identify country-specific characteristics, the institutional configuration of the social models
and the profiles of social vulnerability of Italy and Spain. Moreover, in-depth interviews have been
carried out to Spanish and Italian representatives of trade unions, NGOs, organizations of temporary
employment agencies, civil servants at the national and regional level as well as experts on social
protection and employment policies. The indicators and micro-indicators used for the qualitative
analysis have been drawn partly from the literature on capabilities in the field of employment policies
(Bonvin, 2006) and partly from the interviews.
When tracing national social vulnerability profiles, in Spain the picture of a dynamic social
vulnerability emerges. It derives from a precarious situation with hight temporary work and
unemployment rates, but long-term unemployment rates are low during the period under analysis,
probably due to the widespread presence within the labour market of short-term jobs that allow some
people to keep working, although in an unstable position. Italy reveals different traits, since it shows
the configuration of a static social vulnerability. In fact, long-term unemployment rates are
extremely high as well as the percentages of discouraged people that have renounced looking for
employment and inactivity rates.

In both the Spanish and the Italian case, the legal framework fosters flexibilitization of the labour
market, but is not oriented to favour job security, lifelong learning and income maintenance, which
36

have a key role in the creation of valuable opportunities for individuals and in the application of a
flexicurity strategy. Moreover, Spain and Italy seem to be characterised by low-cost social model,
since scant expenditures are employed in passive and active policies. Despite the extremely
vulnerable situation of individuals in the two countries, employment and welfare systems as well as
the cognitive framework and conceptual references seem to be inadequate for allowing the
enhancement of capabilities and a fair and impartial distribution of opportunities for everyone.

As for the Italian case, a poorly defined and confused situation made of delays, resistances and
failed attempts in the implementation of active policies, lack of substance in social dialogue,
clientelism and a general disconnection from peoples actual needs emerge. Moreover, the Italian
cognitive framework seems to be mainly cultural-individual oriented, whereas the Spanish one seems
more political-social oriented. Furthermore, Spanish actors seem to be more oriented to question and
problematize specific issues than the Italian colleagues, and trade union representatives more than
the other actors. Spanish and Italian representatives belonging to public bodies show a major
acceptance of the activation framework in terms of individual responsibility for the integration in the
labour market.

The cognitive framework and the conceptual basis emerging from both Spanish and Italian
interviews do not result to be oriented towards the capabilities approach for many aspects, even if
some hints can be traced in matters of long-term policy perspective, availability of job opportunities,
tailor-made actions and importance of social dialogue. In general terms, when describing employment
policies the actors interpret opportunities in a mode that is not close to the idea of job as utility, which
is instead proposed by the capabilities approach. Furthermore, according to their representations,
policies fail to facilitate individuals to pursue what they value for their life.

Our conclusion cannot be different than stating that institutional resources and socio-cognitive
frameworks under which the Italian and Spanish social models have evolved do not allow individuals
to pursue and achieve what they value have nor to exert freedom of choice, especially for young
people.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................... III
SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................... IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................. VII
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES .............................................................................................. XI
ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................... XIV
PREFACE ........................................................................................................................................ 1
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 4
PART I. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
CHAPTER I. SETTING THE SCENE AND THE CONCEPTS IN THE CHANGE

OF

PARADIGM: EUROPEAN AND NATIONAL SOCIAL MODELS AND SOCIAL


VULNERABILITY ....................................................................................................................... 22
1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 22
1.2 The European Social Model over time ................................................................................ 25
1.2.1 Looking for a definition of European Social Model ..................................................... 25
1.2.2 The change of paradigm in the recent decades and its effects on social vulnerability . 27
1.3. The EU role in the change of paradigm: the European Employment Strategy (EES) and the
Open Method of Coordination (OMC) as new European tools ................................................. 31
1.3.1. EES, as the operative and ideological harbinger.......................................................... 33
1.3.2. The OMC: the EU flagship .......................................................................................... 35
1.3.3. Soft law versus hard law .............................................................................................. 36
1.4. National social models in Europe preventing social vulnerability...................................... 37
1.4.1 Typologies of national social models............................................................................ 38
1.4.2 National social models and social vulnerability ........................................................... 42
1.5 Concluding remarks ............................................................................................................. 44
CHAPTER II. FLEXICURITY POLICIES: THE EUROPEAN ANSWER TO THE NEW
CHALLENGES OF EMPLOYMENT........................................................................................... 46
2.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 46
2.2 The origin of the concept ..................................................................................................... 49
2.3 Flexicurity: a new word for new concepts and relations ..................................................... 53
2.3.1 The definition ................................................................................................................ 53
2.3.2 Imbalances within the concept of flexicurity ................................................................ 54
2.3.3 The re-definition of employment relations ................................................................... 57
2.4 Flexi-curity and national models.......................................................................................... 61
2.5 Concluding remarks ............................................................................................................. 65
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CHAPTER III. FOSTERING THE CAPABILITIES APPROACH WITHIN EMPLOYMENT


AND SOCIAL POLICIES ............................................................................................................. 67
3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 67
3.2 The five conceptual stones of the capabilities and measurement questions ........................ 70
3.3 Capabilities, social rights and the market ............................................................................ 74
3.4 The Capabilities approach in social policy analysis ............................................................ 76
3.5 Capabilities, welfare and work............................................................................................. 79
3.6 Critiques of the Capabilities Approach ................................................................................ 83
3.7 Concluding remarks ............................................................................................................. 86
CHAPTER IV. METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................... 87
4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 87
4.2 The comparative perspective................................................................................................ 88
4.3 The qualitative method......................................................................................................... 92
4.4 The capability approach ....................................................................................................... 98
4.4.1 The orientation: productive-market oriented vs. social oriented policies. ........................... 100
4.4.2 The content: a restrictive view of opportunity as productive work vs. valuable job .. 103
4.4.3 The vertical process: technocratic and centralized mode of governance vs. situated and
reflexive public action .......................................................................................................... 105
4.4.4 The horizontal process: technocratic and centralized mode of governance vs. situated and
reflexive public action .......................................................................................................... 107
4.5 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................................... 108
PART II. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FLEXICURITY POLICIES: WHICH CONVERSION
FACTORS AND COMMODITIES?
CHAPTER V. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SOCIAL VULNERABILITY: SOCIAL MODEL,
ECONOMIC-PRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND LABOUR MARKET ........................................ 113
5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 113
5.2 The Spanish and Italian economic systems........................................................................ 115
5.3 Labour market: activity, employment and unemployment ................................................ 122
5.3.1 Activity and employment rates ................................................................................... 122
5.3.2 Unemployment and long-term unemployment rates ................................................... 126
5.3.3 The poor and at-risk of poverty rates .......................................................................... 131
5.4 Contractual typologies within the Spanish and Italian labour markets .............................. 134
5.4.1 Temporary employment .............................................................................................. 135
5.4.2 Part-time employment ................................................................................................. 140
5.4.3 Individual perception of economic-labour vulnerability ............................................ 144
5.5 Qualification of the labour force ........................................................................................ 147
5.6 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................................... 155
39

CHAPTER VI. SOCIAL PROTECTION, ACTIVATION POLICIES AND SOCIO-POLITICAL


ASPECTS OF SOCIAL VULNERABILITY .............................................................................. 158
6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 158
6.2 The Southern model and labour market policies ............................................................... 159
6.3 Passive Labour Market Policies ......................................................................................... 169
6.4 Active Labour Market Policies .......................................................................................... 176
6.5 Employment Protection Legislation (EPL) ........................................................................ 183
6.6 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................................... 189
CHAPTER VII. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF FLEXICURITY POLICIES: WHICH
PROTECTION AGAINST SOCIAL VULNERABILITY? ........................................................ 193
7.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 193
7.2 Historical perspective ......................................................................................................... 194
7.3 Pillar 1: Flexible and reliable contractual arrangements .................................................... 198
7.4 Pillar 2: Activation policies................................................................................................ 210
7.5 Pillar 3: Lifelong learning programs .................................................................................. 214
7.6 Pillar 4: Social security system .......................................................................................... 219
7.7 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................................... 228
CHAPTER VIII. THE SOCIAL VULNERABILITY OF THE YOUTH IN SPAIN AND ITALY
...................................................................................................................................................... 231
8.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 231
8.2 Definition of the youth ....................................................................................................... 232
8.3 The scenery ........................................................................................................................ 234
8.3.1 Young people within the labour market ...................................................................... 236
8.3.2 Youth and education ................................................................................................... 247
8.3.3 The young and the labour market policies .................................................................. 250
8.4 Youth policies and programs in Spain and Italy ................................................................ 253
8.6 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................................... 257
PART III. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS MEANINGS AND PRACTICES OF
FLEXICURITY POLICIES
CHAPTER IX. MARKET VERSUS SOCIAL ORIENTED POLICIES .................................... 264
9.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 264
9.2 General directions of employment policies ....................................................................... 264
9.3 Specific orientations ........................................................................................................... 290
9.4 Underlying assumptions of the cognitive and normative framework ................................ 299
9.5 Temporal dimension and overview .................................................................................... 317
9.5 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................................... 322

40

CHAPTER X. RESTRICTIVE VIEW OF OPPORTUNITY AS PRODUCTIVE WORK


VERSUS VALUABLE JOB ........................................................................................................ 327
10.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 327
10.2 Availability of job opportunities in the labour market ..................................................... 328
10.3 Quality of job opportunities ............................................................................................. 339
10.4 Access to job opportunities .............................................................................................. 354
10.4.1 Modernization of public services and new governance tools ................................... 354
10.4.2 New meanings, actions and demands for individuals ............................................... 363
10.4.3. The perspective of the continuity: continuity of the attendance by professionals and
temporal continuity of programs .......................................................................................... 381
10.4.4. Coordination between different measures of the employment policies ................... 384
10.4.5. Recipients of the active policies and in/equity of employment services.................. 388
10.4.6. Young people and activation policies ...................................................................... 392
10.5 Concluding remarks ......................................................................................................... 397
CHAPTER XI. TECHNOCRATIC AND CENTRALIZED MODE OF GOVERNANCE
VERSUS SITUATED ACTION: THE DECENTRALIZATION ............................................... 401
11.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 401
11.2 Closeness to individuals: centralized vs. decentralized governance ................................ 402
11.2.1. Meanings of decentralisation ................................................................................... 403
11.2.2. Implementation of decentralization: analysis of the relationships among levels of
governance ........................................................................................................................... 414
11.2.3. Modes of implementation: inter-regional and intra-regional inequalities ................ 421
11.3 Individualised tailor-made policies for a capability-oriented approach? ......................... 424
11.4 Evaluation of policies: quantitative output versus global assessment of capability
enhancement............................................................................................................................. 439
11.5 Concluding remarks ......................................................................................................... 455
CHAPTER XII. TECHNOCRATIC AND CENTRALIZED MODE OF GOVERNANCE
VERSUS SITUATED ACTION: SOCIAL DIALOGUE AND INVOLVEMENT OF CIVIL
SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS ................................................................................................... 458
12.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 458
12.2 Meaning of social dialogue and actors involved in the construction of employment
policies ..................................................................................................................................... 459
12.3 Kinds of participation in social dialogue ......................................................................... 471
12.4 Effectiveness of social dialogue ....................................................................................... 480
12.5 Concluding remarks ......................................................................................................... 482
CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................................................... 485
REFERENCES............................................................................................................................. 505
APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................. 536

41

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES


List of figures
Figure 1. Esping-Andersens classification of three social protection systems ................................. 39
Figure 2. The Danish golden triangle .............................................................................................. 51
Figure 3. Employment regimes and the flexibility-security nexus .................................................... 62
Figure 4. The location of welfare regimes in the theoretical relationship between flexibility and
income/employment security ............................................................................................................. 64
Figure 5. The process from commodities to functionings.................................................................. 70
Figure 6. Representation of different applications of the Capabilities approach ............................... 77
Figure 7. HDI Spain ......................................................................................................................... 116
Figure 8. HDI Italy ........................................................................................................................... 116
Figure 9. Real GDP growth rate volume (percentage change on previous year) ......................... 117
Figure 10. Compensation per employee 2007 (%)........................................................................... 118
Figure 11. Growth real compensation per employee 2000-2007 (%) ............................................. 119
Figure 12. Distribution of employment by company size and country group ................................. 120
Figure 13. Activity rate (%) (total sex, 15-64, total Isced) .............................................................. 123
Figure 14. Employment rate % (total sex, age 15-64) ..................................................................... 125
Figure 15. Unemployment rate (%) ................................................................................................. 126
Figure 16. Long-term unemployment (%) ....................................................................................... 128
Figure 17. Regional unemployment disparities in 1993 and 2003a ................................................. 131
Figure 18. Population at-risk-of-poverty rate (percentage on total population) .............................. 133
Figure 19. Main reason for the temporary ....................................................................................... 135
Figure 20. Main reason for the temporary ....................................................................................... 135
Figure 21. Main reason for the temporary employment (%): couldn't find a permanent job ....... 136
Figure 22. Temporary employees as percentage of the total number of employees (%) ................. 137
Figure 23. Moving from flexible employment contract to permanent job, by time and country ..... 139
Figure 24. Main reason for part-time employment (%), SP (age cohort 15-64) .............................. 140
Figure 25. Main reason for part-time employment (%), IT (age cohort 15-64)............................... 140
Figure 26. Main reason for part-time employment (%): Could not find a full-time job .................. 141
Figure 27. Part-time employment as percentage of the total employment (%)................................ 142
Figure 28. Perception of labour dissatisfaction. Proportion of respondents answering that they expect
their personal job situation to get worse over the next 12 months (% of valid responses) .. 144 Figure
29. Perception of financial insecurity. Proportion of respondents answering that they expect their
households financial situation to get worse over the next 12 months (% of valid responses)145 Figure
30. Average life satisfaction, by income quartile and country ......................................................... 146
Figure 31. Indicators of qualification mismatch OECD and selected countries (2005); percentages
of employees and self-employed (over-qualification). .................................................................... 153
Figure 32. Indicators of qualification mismatch OECD and selected countries (2005); percentages
of employees and self-employed (under-qualification). .................................................................. 153
Figure 33. Indicators of qualification mismatch OECD and selected countries (2005); percentages
of employees and self-employed ...................................................................................................... 154
Figure 34. Total expenditures in social protection (% of GDP) ...................................................... 162
Figure 35. The rate of deflated social expenditure per capita (for the unemployed) ....................... 164
Figure 36. Total public expenditure on labour market policies (% of GDP) ................................... 166
Figure 37. Expenditures in labour market policies (%GDP) EU-15 (2004-2008) ........................ 167
Figure 38. Expenditures in labour market policies (%GDP) Italy (1998-2008) ........................... 168
Figure 39. Expenditures in labour market policies (%GDP) Spain (1998-2008) ......................... 168
Figure 40. Total expenditures in passive labour market policies (% of GDP)................................. 170
42

Figure 41. Participants in total passive labour policies (participants per 100 persons wanting to
work) ................................................................................................................................................ 171
Figure 42. Out-of-work income maintenance expenditures ............................................................. 172
Figure 43. Early retirement and support expenditures ..................................................................... 172
Figure 44. Correlation between benefit duration and replacement rate, 2004 ................................. 175
Figure 45. Public expenditure on active labour market policies (% of GDP): total LMP measures177
Figure 46. Participants in total active labour policies (participants per 100 persons wanting to work)
LMP (categories 2-7: active labour market policies) ....................................................................... 178
Figure 47. Overall training expenditures (% of GDP) ..................................................................... 180
Figure 48. Participation rate in education and training (last 4 weeks) (%) (Age from 25 to 64 years)
.......................................................................................................................................................... 181
Figure 49. The overall EPL index (version 1).................................................................................. 184
Figure 50. The individual dismissal EPL index (version 1)............................................................. 185
Figure 51. The temporary employment EPL index (version 1) ....................................................... 187
Figure 52. The collective dismissal EPL index (version 1) ............................................................. 188
Figure 53. Classification of countries according to school-to work transition ................................ 234
Figure 54. Age distribution of workers by country group (%) ........................................................ 238
List of tables
Table 1. GDP per capita (volume indices of real expenditures per capita in PPS, EU-15 =100) .... 118
Table 2. Activity rate (%) (15-64) by gender ................................................................................... 124
Table 3. Employment rate (%) (15-64) by gender ........................................................................... 125
Table 4. Unemployment rate (%) by gender .................................................................................... 127
Table 5. Long-term unemployment (%) by gender.......................................................................... 128
Table 6. Incidence of unemployment by duration (%) .................................................................... 129
Table 7. Incidence of discouraged workers (%) .............................................................................. 130
Table 8. Population shares by country, region and income class*-2001 ......................................... 132
Table 9. Temporary employees (%) by gender ................................................................................ 138
Table 10. Part-time employment (%) by gender .............................................................................. 143
Table 11. Activity rate (%) by education attainment level (ISCED) ............................................... 147
Table 12. Activity rate (%) by ISCED and gender .......................................................................... 148
Table 13. Employment rate (%) by ISCED ..................................................................................... 149
Table 14. Employment rate (%) by ISCED and gender ................................................................... 149
Table 15. Unemployment rate (%) by ISCED ................................................................................. 150
Table 16. Unemployment rate (%) by ISCED and gender............................................................... 151
Table 17. Temporary contracts by ISCED ....................................................................................... 151
Table 18. Part-time contracts by ISCED .......................................................................................... 152
Table 19. Total expenditures in unemployment (% of GDP) in comparison to other social questions
.......................................................................................................................................................... 163
Table 20. Expenditures in LMPs (% GDP 2006)............................................................................. 166
Table 21. Participants in passive labour market policies (participants per 100 persons wanting to
work), by gender ............................................................................................................................. 171
Table 22. Net replacement rate and duration of unemployment insurance (2004) unemployment and
the duration of the unemployment insurance benefit ....................................................................... 175
Table 23. Participant to active labour market policies (LMP participants per 100 persons wanting to
work): LMP (categories 2-7) by gender ........................................................................................... 178
Table 24. Expenditures in active labour policies by type of action (% of GDP) ............................. 179
Table 25. Institutional and workplace training expenditures ........................................................... 182
Table 26. Participation stock on training programmes (% of the labour force) ............................... 182
43

Table 27. Participation rate in education and training (%) by type of education and training......... 182

44

Table 28. Main contractual arrangements available in Italy in the period 2003-2008 .................... 203
Table 29. Main contractual arrangements available in Spain in 2008 ............................................. 208
Table 30. Synthesis of key aspects of the labour legislation in Italy and Spain .............................. 224
Table 31. Number of young people in Italy and Spain, by gender .................................................. 237
Table 32. Activity rate (%) by age ................................................................................................... 239
Table 33. Activity rate (%) by gender and age (15-24 years old) .................................................... 239
Table 34. Employment rate (%) by age ........................................................................................... 240
Table 35. Employment rate (%) by gender and age (15-24 years old) ............................................ 241
Table 36. Unemployment rate (%) by age ....................................................................................... 241
Table 37. Unemployment rate (%) by gender and age (15-24 years old) ........................................ 242
Table 38. Long-term unemployment rate (%) by age ...................................................................... 243
Table 39. Long-term unemployment (%) by gender and age (15-24 years old) .............................. 243
Table 40. Temporary rate (%) by age .............................................................................................. 244
Table 41. Main reason of temporary contracts (%) by age: couldn't find a permanent job ............. 245
Table 42. Part-time rate (%) by age ................................................................................................. 246
Table 43. Main reason for part-time rate (%) by age: Could not find a full-time job...................... 247
Table 44. Early leavers from education and training (18-24) by gender ......................................... 248
Table 45. Participation rate in education and training (%) by age ................................................... 249
Table 46. Participation rate in education and training (%) by age and type of education ............... 250
Table 47. Number of participants in total active labour policies (less than 25 years) ..................... 251
Table 48. Number of participants in total active labour policies by gender (less than 25 years) .... 251
Table 49. Number of participants in total passive labour policies (less than 25 years) ................... 252
Table 50. Number of participants in total passive labour policies by gender (less than 25 years) .. 252

45

EJEMPLO 2
University of Iowa

Iowa Research Online


fteses and Dissertations

Spring 2016

What we do to fit in: personality,


coping, and Person-Environment fit
Elizabeth Follmer
University of Iowa

Copyright 2016 Elizabeth Honor Follmer


ftis dissertation is available at Iowa Research Online: http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/3084
Recommended Citation
Follmer, Elizabeth. " What we do to fit in: personality, coping, and Person-Environment fit." PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) thesis,
University of Iowa, 2016.
http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/3084.

Follow this and additional works at: http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd


Part of the Business Administration, Management, and Operations Commons

46

WHAT WE DO TO FIT IN:


PERSONALITY, COPING, AND PERSON-ENVIRONMENT FIT

by
Elizabeth Follmer

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment


of the requirements
for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree in Business Administration in the
Graduate College of
The University of Iowa

May 2016

Thesis Supervisor: Professor Amy Kristof-Brown

47

Copyright by
ELIZABETH FOLLMER
2016
All Rights Reserved

48

Graduate College
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

PH.D. THESIS

This is to certify that the Ph.D. thesis of

Elizabeth Follmer
has been approved by the Examining Committee for
the thesis requirement for the Doctor of Philosophy degree
in Business Administration at the May 2016 graduation.

Thesis Committee:
Amy Kristof-Brown, Thesis Supervisor

Sara Rynes

Amy Colbert

Brady Firth

Ning Li

49

ABSTRACT

Person-Environment (PE) Fit has been a subject of research interest for over 100
years, and although much is known about the consequences of PE fit and the types of PE
fit, the actions that people take in pursuit of this desirable condition are less well
understood. This dissertation develops and tests a model that explains how personality
traits influence individuals choice of coping mechanisms used in pursuit of PE Fit and
their ability to use them effectively. Achievement and anxiety motivations influence the
choice of coping mechanisms used in pursuit of fit. The effectiveness of these coping
mechanisms to change the level of PE fit is determined by individuals ability to respond
to feedback from the environment, indicated by narcissism. I also explore the influence of
aspects of change in the environment that drive individuals to cope with uncertainty
during times of change. Finally, the level of fit achieved and the changes in fit made over
time influence individuals well-being and organizational commitment. I test this model
using a sample of student teams assessed over the course of 5 time periods and a field
study sample of working adults assesses over the course of 4 time periods. I analyzed
these data using Regression, Structural Equation Modeling, and Latent Growth Modeling.

50

PUBLIC ABSTRACT
Nearly everyone has experienced the feeling of not fitting in at one time or
another and we all know that it can be an unpleasant and distracting experience. Fitting in
at work has been an area of study in the fields of Organizational Behavior and Human
Resources for nearly 100 years because employees who do not fit in are more likely to be
unhappy at work, to leave their jobs, and to be unproductive. Most of this research has
focused on the positive (and occasionally the negative) consequences of fitting in at work
and on the way that people and organizations pursue good fitting employees through the
application, recruiting, and hiring processes. The purpose of this study is to explore how
people work to achieve good fit when their fit is threatened by changes in the
organization. This study also considers the role that personality differences play in
determining how people cope with the stress associated with not fitting in and whether or
not they are able to improve their fit. Finally, I describe how experiencing change in fit
also affects individuals well-being, their satisfaction at work, and their desire to quit
their job or stay in an environment where they do not fit in.

51

TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Person-Environment Fit
Person-Environment Fit and Change over Time
Coping Mechanisms
Organizational Change, Stress, and Coping
Personality and Coping
Achievement and Anxiety Motivation
Approach and Avoid Temperaments
Proactive Personality
Neuroticism
Narcissism
CHAPTER THREE: HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT
Overview of the Proposed Model
Achievement and Anxiety Motivations Determine the Choice of
Coping Mechanisms
Uncertainty of Change Moderates the Effect of Personality on Coping
Coping Mechanisms and Change in Fit
Narcissism Moderates Coping Effectiveness
Outcomes of Changes in PE Fit

viii
ix
1
6
6
9
15
19
21
22
23
25
28
31

34
35
44
46
51
54

CHAPTER FOUR: STUDY 1 METHODS


Overview of the Studies
Study 1 Sample
Study 1 Data Collection
Study 1 Measures

58
58
58
59
60

CHAPTER FIVE: STUDY 1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Study 1 Tests of the Measurement Model
Study 1 Hypothesis Tests and Post Hoc Analyses
Study 1 Discussion

64
64
66
75

CHAPTER SIX: STUDY 2 METHODS


Overview
Study 2 Sample
Study 2 Data Collection
Study 2 Measures

78
78
78
80
80

52

CHAPTER SEVEN: STUDY 2 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Study 2 Tests of the Measurement Model
Study 2 Hypothesis Tests and Post Hoc Analyses
Study 2 Discussion

85
85
87
94

CHAPTER EIGHT: GENERAL DISCUSSION


Theoretical Implications
Managerial Implications
Limitations and Future Research
Conclusion

97
98
106
108
110

APPENDICES
A: Study 1 Survey
B: Study 2 Survey

112
112
116

REFERENCES
TABLES
FIGURES

119
128
150

53

LIST OF TABLES
1

Sample Demographics for Study 1

128

Study 1 Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations for All Variables

129

3
4
5
6
7

Study 1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis Model Comparisons


Fit Statistics for the Study 1 Tests of Measurement Invariance
Non-Independence Statistics for PJ Fit and PG Fit
Study 1 Regression of Coping Styles on Personality Predictors
Study 1 Tests of the Effect of Approach and Avoid Temperament on
Coping
Study 1 Tests of the Effects of Coping on the Level and Change of PJ and
PG Fit
Study 1 Model Fit Comparisons for Hypothesized and Post Hoc Models of
Change in Fit and Coping
Study 1 Post Hoc Tests of PJ and PG Fit as Predictors of Coping

130
130
131
131
132

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Study 1 Post Hoc Tests of Coping Level and Change on the Level and
Change of PJ and PG Fit
Study 1 Tests of Narcissism as a Moderator of Copings Relationship with
the Level and Change of PJ and PG Fit
Timing of the Study 2 Data Collection
Sample Demographics for Study 2
Study 2 Correlations, Means, Standard Deviations, and Scale Reliabilities
for All Variables
Study 2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis Model Comparisons
Study 2 Fit Statistics for Tests of Measurement Invariance
Study 2 Tests of the Effect of Approach and Avoid Temperament on
Coping
Study 2 Tests of Uncertainty as a Moderator of Approach and Avoid
Temperaments Relationships with Coping
Study 2 Tests of the Effects of Coping on the Level and Change of PJ and
PG Fit
Study 2 Model Fit Comparisons for Hypothesized and Post Hoc Models of
Change in Fit and Coping
Study 2 Post Hoc Tests of PJ and PG Fit as Predictors of Coping
Study 2 Post Hoc Tests of Coping Level and Change on the Level and
Change of PJ and PG Fit
Study 2 Tests of Narcissism as a Moderator of Copings Relationship with
the Level and Change of PJ and PG Fit

132
133
134
133
136
137
138
139
140
140
141
141
142
143
144
145
146

54

EJEMPLO 3

Introduction
A remarkable thing happened in 2009: The planet did not come to a
grinding, howling collapse.
By Thomas Hayden

Photograph by Jim Richardson

True, the signs of impending disaster were everywhere, from an


unspooling global economy, to war and ongoing political turmoil, to droughtstricken land, and dying oceans. And above it all, we have the growing evidence
that global warming is progressing even faster than anticipated, while the
political will to address it remains sluggish.
No, the planet did not come to an end. And yethere we are, too far
into the new century to pretend any longer that a new age of awareness and
responsibility will suddenly emerge, unless we can gather the resolve to drag it
kicking and screaming from our imaginations and into reality.
To preserve and redeem our planet, we must first understand itand
the nearly seven billion people who share its beauty, its opportunities, and its
challenges. That is the purpose of EarthPulse, and it has never been an easy
55

task. But this year the stakes seem higher somehow, even as the impediments
appear steeper. These are complex times, after all, and they are changing fast.
After decades of expansion and years of rapid acceleration, the
global economy has grown to an unprecedented size and near universal reach.
We are connected now as never before, directly through travel, the Internet and
telecommunications, and no less tangibly through the global networks of
finance, trade, and commerce, which have spread both wealth and worry to the
farthest corners of the Earth. We find ourselves now in an unprecedented double
bind, with our global bill for decades of overconsumptionof living beyond our
ecological and economic meansapparently coming due just as our financial
system faces its most serious threats in several generations
How different the world is today from the one we inherited from our
parents and grandparents. In 1929, when the Great Depression struck, many
people still lived in relative isolation, steeped in ancient cultural traditions and
drawing on local resources for much of the food, water, and shelter they
required. Today the world is knit together with cargo ships and jetliners,
advertising campaigns and television reruns. Distances have collapsed, barriers
have disappeared, and we are filling our homes and our minds with goods and
ideas from around the globe. The human population has nearly quadrupled since
the 1930s. Millions now enjoy greater wealth and security and nutrition than
ever before, while others have been pushed to the margins.
And what of the planet itself? Our footprint can be seen everywhere, in the
deserts we've caused to bloom and the many cities and roadways and verdant suburbs
we've built, but also in the greenhouse gases we've pumped into the air, the seas we've
56

emptied of fish, and the forests we've cut, burned, and bulldozed into oblivion. Yes, this
interconnected world we've constructed has brought unprecedented comfort to millions,
but it has also threatened the very functioning of nature's sustaining systems. We've
transformed our home planet to such a dramatic extent that many scientists suggest we've
created an entirely new geologic era: the Anthropocene, or the age of humans.
There have been exploiters and abusers throughout our history, and the
greedy, the unthinking, and the downright immoral are with us still. But for the most part
we've caused these planet-altering changes through the entirely understandable
laudable evendesire to better our own lot, that of our children, and even that of our
fellow human beings. If our intentions have been largely benign, however, the impacts
have been anything but.
Humans are nothing if not innovative, and we will likely find ways to feed
our numbers as population swells beyond nine billion, and perhaps even to preserve some
remnants of the planet's natural splendor. But can we do it while leaving enough rain
forest so that the orangutans of Borneo can also survive? Is there room on the planet for
pervasive global brands and for a thousand different cultures, each expressed through its
own unique combination of sound and color, story, language, and belief? Can we
continue to overcrowd and overconsume without losing the very things that have given us
joy, kept us safe, and provided inspiration for as long as we've been a species? The allure
of wealth, comfort, and health is powerful indeed. But asking whether we can afford
them means much more than whether we simply have the money.
Money itself is now, for many, in distressingly short supply. If there is any
good news in the recent economic slowdown at all, perhaps it is to be found in some still
leafy corner of the Amazon Basin, where the primeval forest has not yet been converted to
57

fire-scarred cattle range or soybean fields; or on a patch of Florida swampland that has not
yet been drained, filled over, and covered with condominiums; or in the waters of a
Chinese river not, for the moment, used to cool the overheated engines of industrial
expansion.
After decades of accelerating deforestation, development, and exploitation,
our moment of economic crisis has given the planet itself a brief moment of respite.
There can be no joy in the global financial collapsetoo many lives have been broken,
and too many dreams put on hold. But perhaps this is a moment of opportunity also, as
we seek to rebuild our systems of production and trade, and perhaps it would be just as
wrong to let that opportunity pass us by.
The future is uncertain, but only the most pessimistic among us would say
that the world economy will not recover and start to grow again, whether in six months,
a year, or ten. We have paused in our centuries-long push to produce and consume ever
more now, and the most optimistic might say that this is our chance to breathe deeply
and consider the sort of future we want for ourselves and for our planet. Will
consumption
Continue to rule the day, or will we find ways to do more good for
humanity, with less harm to the Earth? Will we make our recovery merely fast, or can
we make it smart as well? The choice has always been ours; the time to make it,
definitively, is now.

58

EJEMPLO 4

59

CONCLUSIN
Como pudimos observar, la representacin grfica de un texto, es de vital
importancia en cuanto al uso correcto de las reglas ortogrficas, gramaticales y de
expresin a la hora de presentar un trabajo de forma oral.
Concluimos que el contenido de esta monografa es viable, para las
consideraciones que haya que tener en cuenta al momento de redactar un documento
acadmico de importancia, ya que nos da a conocer, la utilizacin correcta del lenguaje, y
nos lleva de la mano a la realizacin de los diferentes documentos ms utilizados en el
sector cientfico.
La comprensin y la comunicacin, pueden lograrse con la realizacin correcta
de las reglas gramaticales, al igual que con las caractersticas de la comunicacin oral, ya
que con una forma correcta de expresarse, el mensaje que uno quiere transmitir llega de
forma precisa al receptor y consecuentemente, se puede dar inicio a distintas discusiones,
concepcin de ideas, realizacin de convenios, Etc.
La identificacin de la formalidad en los diferentes tipos de texto puede ser til
a la hora de tener que analizarlos y tratar de comprenderlos, como cuando se tiene la
necesidad de revisar un texto y usarlo como referencia para trabajos posteriores, un buen
manejo del conocimiento en cuanto a la estructura de un documento es de ayuda para
encontrar de manera rpida los puntos clave que requieren la atencin.
La utilizacin de las reglas ortogrficas son beneficiosas a tal grado, que no
solo generan atractivo visual, si no que la comprensin se mejora sustancialmente, adems

68

de que el uso correcto de los grafos, tienden a ser una forma de expresin en el lenguaje
escrito, as como la estructura de un texto, ya que se puede escribir mucho y decir poco, el
arte de la realizacin de un texto de manera simple y que se pueda sacar de ah las ideas
principales de un autor, es la mejor manera de transmitir mensajes de forma escrita.
El dominio de un lenguaje ajeno a la lengua materna proporciona un campo de
visin ms amplio a la hora del estudio de los diferentes textos, uno podra analizar e
indagar en esos textos sin la limitacin regional que existe.
El objetivo de la monografa se cumple a la hora de que este texto es analizado
y se profundiza ms en el tema de enfoque, ya que ayuda de manera sustancial a los
alumnos de las diferentes instituciones, para un mejor y correcto desarrollo en sus trabajos
acadmicos.

69

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