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Chapter No 1

Introduction To The Report


The consumer decision-making, regarding purchase and utilization of different products

and services regarding fashion world, is influenced by many internal as well as external
factors. Among the external factors, the most important and significant are the attributes
of the product itself, the brand and the package in which it is incased. Attributes are those
descriptive features that characterize a product or service- what a consumer thinks the
product or service is or has and what is involved with its purchase or consumption.
Product-related attributes are the functions of the product or service. Non-product-related
attributes are the external aspects of the product or service that relate to its purchase or
consumption, like the price information, packaging or product appearance, user imagery
(i.e. what type of person uses the product or service) and usage imagery (i.e. where and in
what types of situations the product or service is used) (Keller, 1993).
In fashion world consumer buying behavior is affected by many socio-cultural factors
like social class, demographics, personality, and beliefs etc. However, besides these, the
product itself also makes their decision for them because of the message it transmits, the
visual impact it makes, the significant colors and logo of the brand, the brand image and
awareness, and the price. Price is a particularly important attribute association because
consumers often has strong beliefs about the price and value of the brand and may
organize their product category knowledge in terms of the price tiers of different brands,
(Blattberg and Wisniewski, 1989).
In this research project researcher emphasized on the non-product related attributes of a
product, that affect the consumer buying behavior and the decisions they make while
selecting a product. How the brand and packaging affect consumer decision making
while buying a product relevant to the fashion world.
Brand name is the centerpiece of introductory marketing programs. The choice of a brand
name has been suggested as one important means to build the superiority of a product,
(Aaker, 1991). Moreover, memorable and meaningful brand names build awareness and
link brand associations which play an important role in consumer decision-making
because it increases the likelihood that the brand will be seriously considered for

purchase, (Baker, 1986). Packaging is also a very important influential factor. Marketers
can no longer afford to address packaging design issues as separate from other brand
development efforts. A package is an important method of communication with the
consumer. It identifies the brand, provides ingredients and directions, presents an image,
and displays the product. A package differentiates a product from competitors. A package
also serves as a reminder after purchase is made, (Evan and Berman, 1985).
Branding and packaging are two important variables for finding consumer decision
making. As pervious studies show that brand awareness and familiarity with the product
helps consumer to identify a product among different is an important variable in
consumer decision making as it is method of communication between a product and
consumer. The research basically aims at influence of brand and packaging on consumer
decision making while purchasing a product.

Problem Statement

“Finding the effect of branding and packaging on consumer decision making while
purchasing a product relent to fashion accessories,”

Theoretical Framework
This research study revolves around the following variables:

i. The brand of a product

ii. The package in which the product comes (fashion accessories)
Consumer decision-making is dependent upon branding and packaging, which are the
two independent variables. Consumers use some product if they perceive it as good.
Branding and packaging play a significant role in making the impression on the
consumer. If the branding and packaging appeal to the consumer, he or he will buy the


MAKING (Fashion
Dependent Variable


Figure: 1 Diagram Showing Relationship Between Variables

Branding is made up of the message that the firm wants to convey to the people and
visual impact or quality image that it want to give, (Bell, 1999). Although managerial
focus toward packaging has increased of late, a review of the marketing literature reveals
relatively little theoretical work in the area of packaging, and specifically, few efforts
examining its impact on consumer attention. Early packaging research focused on the
general characteristics and role of package design (Cheskin, 1971; Faison, 1961, 1962;
Schucker, 1959; Schwartz, 1971).

Together, branding and packaging play different role in consumer decision making in
different types of buying situations. For example, if the product is being bought for the
first time, the person will be affected by the message and the overall image. However, in
a re-buy situation, the branding and packaging will play a role, on consumer decision
making, only so far as the identification of the product.


“The consumer decision-making, while purchasing a fashion accessory is greatly affected

by branding and packaging of the product.”

Scope & Limitations of the Study

This research was conducted at IQRA University, Peshawar which is an educational

institute. The sample consists of around 80 to 100 students. However there are certain
limitations in the research.
1. The research is to be conducted in a very short & limited time period.
2. The budget for conducting this research is very limited.
3. The respondents as they are students might not answer the questions seriously,
thus some data error might occur.
4. The respondents might give the right answer due to the relationship with the
interviewer but they may not respond as they actually fell.

Chapter No 2
Literature Review

Branding is centuries old and originally focused on its trademark and differentiating
capabilities (Blackett, 1998). Brick makers in ancient Egypt put symbols on their bricks
to identify their products (Farquhar, 1990). However, it was not until the twentieth
century that brand associations rather than indicated ownership became central to
competition. A distinguishing characteristic of modern marketing has been its focus upon
the creation of differentiated brands…the idea has been to move beyond commodities to
branded products – to reduce the primacy of price upon the purchase decision, and
accentuate the bases of differentiation, (Aaker, 1991).
A brand name can represent a symbol or template in long-term memory where meaning
and information concerning the brand name or the product associated with the brand
name is processed and stored, (Morris, 1982). The more the product information supports
the benefits consumer seeks, the greater the long-term performance of the brand through
established consumer loyalty. Branding is a process by which companies distinguish their
product offerings from the competition. Developing a distinctive name, packaging and
design creates a Brand, (Kapferer, 1997). By developing an individual identity, branding
permits customers to develop associations with the brand (e.g. Prestige, Economy) and
therefore eases the purchase decision.
A brand may also be defined as a marketing identity created for a generic product in
order to distinguish it from its competitors. The generic product group of national daily
tabloid newspapers includes the following brands: the Sun, the Daily Mirror, the Daily
Mail, etc (Smith, 1992).
All of them have distinctive mastheads and layouts to symbolize the brand. So well
known are these characteristics that consumers can quickly identify their favorite paper.
However, (Goodyear, 1996) and others (de Chernatony, 2001) showed that there is no
such thing as a “brand” per se, rather a spectrum of interpretations, often colored by the
business and societal environment in which they exist.
Competitive pressures stimulate producers to differentiate their goods from the output of
other manufacturers. Differentiation is achieved primarily through changes in physical
product attributes. Consumers’ memory networks expand beyond recognition of the basic
product category to include other product information in order to evaluate goods on the

bases of consistency and quality. They begin to use brand names based on their image of
the brand as a heuristic device in decision-making. Even so, consumers primarily value
brands for their utilitarian value, (Csikszentmihalyi & Halton, 1981).
Differentiation among brands on rational/functional attributes becomes exceedingly
difficult as many producers make the same claim. Therefore, marketers begin to give
their brands personalities. Incorporation of personal characteristics into the brand makes
it more appealing to consumers, who are more likely to affiliate with brands possessing
desirable personalities, (Belk, 1988). Thus, the personalities of the consumer and the
brand begin to merge and the value of the brand has become self-expression, (Schiffman
and Kanuk, 1996).
The brand is "owned by consumers". They have extensive knowledge about the brand
and use it to create their self-identity. As the brand becomes well known, worldwide, it
may become a symbol or icon. To be well entrenched in the consumer’s mind, the icon
must have many associations—both primary (about the product) and secondary. The
more associations a brand has, the greater its network in the consumer’s memory and the
more likely it is to be recalled, (McEnally and de Chernatony, 1999).
The goal of branding is to convince the public that a brand is trustworthy and thus worth
paying a premium for (Newman, 1991). The buyer is assured that the branded product
will perform as expected. But that is not the only reason why people are willing to pay a
premium for some brands. Successful brand marketers can convince you that their brands
are worth paying a little more for because "you are worth it," and because there are
brands that someone with your standing in society should prefer over others. This effect
of branding can be felt in every category of product or service, from automobiles to floor
cleaners. It is more likely to be apparent where the product is worn or used for all to see,
but it exists everywhere, (Chevron, 2001).

Brands are born from consistently reflecting the same set of values, until, after some
time; the consumer begins to associate those values with the brand and its owner. The
knowledge of those values and the belief that the brand owner is willing to stick by them
and defend the brand creates a feeling of comfort and trust in the brand. But, as with any
relationship, the bond is strengthened when it goes both ways. The consumers who are
willing to trust your brand will trust it even more if the brand, in turn, shows them that it
trusts and respects them. Tell them how great you think they are and never say or do
anything that belittles them (Chevron, 2001).

(Fournier, 1998) provides strong evidence that consumers develop strong relationships
with brands, and bases this on a study of the literature on interpersonal relationships.
(Macrae, 1999) builds on the idea of branding as a relationship building tool and
advances the concept of brand reality. This is a more sustainable view of branding, which
is in tune with trust as the essential foundation of relationships and reputation. (De
Chernatony, 1999) links the concepts of relationships and reputations to show that the
less the in congruency between brand identity and brand reputation, the greater the power
of the brand.

Branding can provide benefits to both buyers and sellers. Brands aid buyers by
identifying specific products that they like and do not like, which in turn facilitates the
purchase of items that satisfy individual needs. Without brands, product selection would
be rather random since buyers could not be assured that what they purchased was the
preferred item. A brand also assists buyers in evaluating the quality of the products,
especially when a person lacks the ability to judge a product’s characteristics. That is, a
brand may symbolize a certain quality level to a purchaser, and the person in turn allows
that perception of quality to represent the quality of the item (Evans and Berman, 1982).

"The post-recessional consumer is more educated, more sophisticated and more cynical
than ever before, People today use stores as prompts. Advertising may create a propensity
to buy, but once in-store the consumer's buying decisions will depend largely on the
messages they see there. The pack has to be processed subconsciously in a nanosecond.
Consumers look for clues as to what the brand is and what it can do for them, (Phillips,
Packaging is indeed a step further than branding. A product is packed by the brand it is
carrying. The activities throughout the marketing process that are concerned with the
design and construction of the container or wrapping of a product are called packaging,
(Diamond & Pintel, 1972). In the past, packaging decisions were based solely on the
physical characteristics of the product. More recently, the package in which the goods are
held has become as much of a sales tool, as it is a container. At present, a proper package
design is one of the most important factors in the competitive battle for sales. The
producer with the best package has a decided edge over his competitors and all
progressive businessmen are constantly researching means to improve their packaging
function (Boyd & Frank, 1966).

The package must convey to the potential consumer not just what the product is, but what
it does in the terms of the benefits it offers - the promotional message. This may be
conveyed by the words, but for the most impact the graphics and overall design are
usually chosen to deliver the main, initial messages. The potential buyer is expected to
read these messages in a few brief seconds, and probably at a distance of three feet or
more. Alternatively, the pack may be designed to make the most of the shelf space
available; so they may even mean making the pack as compact as possible, so that more
may be placed on the shelf (Mercer, 1996).

A package is an important method of communication with the consumer. It identifies the

brand, provides ingredients and directions, presents an image, and displays the product. A
package differentiates a product from competitors. by its design, color, shape and
materials. It serves as a promotional tool and is the final form of promotion the consumer
sees prior to making a purchase decision. Packaging is particularly valuable for firms
with self-service operations and those concentrating on impulse goods, such as candy. A
package also serves as a reminder after a purchase is made (Evans and Berman, 1985).
Packaging design is typically researched in consumer focus groups, where the impact of
different treatments against competing brands is assessed before they are finalized. But
some marketers think this approach is inappropriate to the way consumers shop in the late
90s, and to the type of person doing the shopping (Bell, 1999).

Beyond raising the shopper's expectation of a great experience, the package is also a
pledge, a warranty, and a way of ensuring the shopper that this is a good product. In their
desire to present their products in the most attractive manner possible, marketers tend to
go overboard and present products so beautifully that what's promised on the package has
little resemblance to what's actually inside. This is an unfortunate trend, because
consumers are not easily fooled. Or, once enticed by the package to buy a product that
turns out to be disappointing, consumers are not likely to purchase the product again.
Worse still, their disappointment may have a fallout effect if the consumer suspects
similar disappointments with other products of the brand. It takes a great deal of skill to
develop a marketing strategy that supports a product in a way that gains the respect of the
consumer without stretching the truth about the product's appearance or describing it in
unrealistic terms, (Meyers, 1998).
Branding and packaging have an effect on consumer sales, Private consumers often shop
to fulfill wants. Purchases are often reactive, responding to advertisements, which create

a perceived need (which is actually a want, not a need). Brands also play an important
informational role for the consumers. In their detailed history of the development of
brands, (Low and Fullerton, 1994), explain that manufacturer brands allow consumers to
assign identities to the different brands. They could consistently accept or reject brands
based on their experience with those brands. Thus branding allowed consumers to make
attributions of quality to the manufacturers rather than to the retailers that sold the
products, (Strasser, 1989).

Branding and packaging certainly influence consumer product sales. This is because the
best brands convey a sense of quality, creating a long-term relationship with the
customer. A brand may also serve to identify the seller or maker of a product. In addition
to these qualities of a brand, brand names may also convey other levels of meaning,
including attributes, benefits, values, and personality (Fram, 1995).

Chapter No 3
Research Methodology

If we consider deduction and induction research as two ends of a continuum rather than
two completely distinct methods, this study would fall closer to the deduction end of the
spectrum. The study is therefore hypothesis testing so hypo deductive method is used in
this research. Numerical survey data (questionnaire) gave general information about the
consumer and overview about there decision making about the products.

A total of 150 Questionnaire were distributed among which 93 usable questionnaire were
obtained yielding a response rate of 61%. Among these respondents 58.1% of them were
male and 41.9% of students were female respondent.

Instrument & Measure

Questionnaires were distributed in order to measure the consumer decision-making,
regarding purchase of different products and services relevant to fashion accessories. The
instrument, which was used to measure these variables, was 5-point likert scale. This
Scale has been used in previous Researches as well. It includes questions related to
consumer decision making with respect to brand and packaging.
The theoretical support of the instrument that I have used for my research is given
The instrument that I had used in order to judge the consumer decision making regarding
packaging has been previously used by The INCPEN Consumer Attitudes to Packaging
Survey. 16th July 2003.One of INCPEN’s aims is to explain the social role of packaging
and its environmental benefits.

Chapter No 4
Results & Discussions

The consumer decision-making, regarding purchase of different products and services

depends upon the brand and packaging which affect the consumer decision-making. For
this reason different tests were applied to get results which can show affect of brand and
packaging on consumer decision-making while buying any product.

When the data was checked for reliability analysis-scale the Cronbach Alpha was .8442
which is somewhat high, suggesting multidimensionality within the survey items.

Table 4.1 gender

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
male 54 58.1 58.1 58.1
female 39 41.9 41.9 100.0
Total 93 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.1


fem ale

m ale

The pie chart shows that the percentage of male respondent is 58.1 % and that of female
is 41.9%. The total number of male respondents were 54 and 39 of total were female.


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
20 44 47.3 47.3 47.3
21 11 11.8 11.8 59.1
22 18 19.4 19.4 78.5
23 9 9.7 9.7 88.2
24 11 11.8 11.8 100.0
Total 93 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.2






The age group stats form 20 to 24 and the percentage of respondents are 47.3%, 11.8%,
19.4%, 9.7%, 11.8% respectively.

Table 4.3 program

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
bba 66 71.0 71.0 71.0
mba 11 11.8 11.8 82.8
bcs 9 9.7 9.7 92.5
mcs 7 7.5 7.5 100.0
Total 93 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.3

m cs


m ba


The programs of respondents were of four categories MCS, BCS, MBA and BBA and
their percentages were 7.5%, 9.7%, 11.8% and 71% respectively.

Table 4.4 Is the brand"top preference for the consumer while
buying a product product"?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
highly agree 15 16.1 16.1 16.1
agree 41 44.1 44.1 60.2
moderate 22 23.7 23.7 83.9
disagree 14 15.1 15.1 98.9
highly disagree 1 1.1 1.1 100.0
Total 93 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.4

highly disagree
disagree highly agree



This chart shows that most of the people agree that brand is the top preference while
buying a product.

Table 4.5 Is the brand strong enough tokeep consumer coming back for more.

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
highly agree 20 21.5 21.5 21.5
agree 54 58.1 58.1 79.6
moderate 13 14.0 14.0 93.5
disagree 4 4.3 4.3 97.8
highly disagree 2 2.2 2.2 100.0
Total 93 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.5

highly disagree

highly agree


This analysis suggests that Brand is strong enough to retain a customer band to make him
keep coming back. About 79.6 % of the Respondents agreed to this Question.

Table 4.6 Is the brand something that a consumer recognizez when presented with
the name?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
highly agree 29 31.2 31.2 31.2
agree 49 52.7 52.7 83.9
moderate 8 8.6 8.6 92.5
disagree 2 2.2 2.2 94.6
highly disagree 5 5.4 5.4 100.0
Total 93 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.6

highly disagree

m oderate
highly agree


This analysis shows that about 83.9% people think that brand when presented with name
is recognizable.

Table 4.7 Is the brand well respected and appreciated if known and even used?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
highly agree 23 24.7 24.7 24.7
agree 51 54.8 54.8 79.6
moderate 13 14.0 14.0 93.5
disagree 5 5.4 5.4 98.9
highly disagree 1 1.1 1.1 100.0
Total 93 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.7

highly disagree

moderate highly agree


This analysis show that 79% respondent think that they respect there brand and
appreciate if it is known to them and used.

Table 4.8 Will consumer buy"any other brand"if its quality is better than the
consumer's brand?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
highly agree 16 17.2 17.2 17.2
agree 43 46.2 46.2 63.4
moderate 20 21.5 21.5 84.9
disagree 10 10.8 10.8 95.7
highly disagree 4 4.3 4.3 100.0
Total 93 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.8

Highly disagree
Disagree Highly agree



About 63.4 % respondents think that consumers will buy other brand if its better in
quality than the consumers existing brand

Table 4.9 Buying "the preffered brand" leads to higher satisfaction?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
highly agree 24 25.8 25.8 25.8
agree 46 49.5 49.5 75.3
moderate 17 18.3 18.3 93.5
highly disagree 6 6.5 6.5 100.0
Total 93 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.9

highly disagree
highly agree
m oderate


75.3 % of the respondents were of the view that buying a preferred brand leads to higher
satisfaction. Only 6.5 % people disagree with this statement.

Table 4.10 Does packaging affect consumer's decision while buying a product

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
highly agree 23 24.7 24.7 24.7
agree 52 55.9 55.9 80.6
moderate 13 14.0 14.0 94.6
disagree 4 4.3 4.3 98.9
highly disagree 1 1.1 1.1 100.0
Total 93 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.10

highly disagree

moderate highly agree


This analysis shows that 80.6 % people think that packaging affects consumer decision
while buying a product. Where as 5.4% of respondent disagree with the statement.

Dependent Variable: Consumer Decision




Std. Dev = .99

2 Mean = 0.00
0 N = 93.00
-1 0
-1 5
-1 0
-1 5
-.7 0


Regression Standardized Residual

Regression Line
Dependent Variable: CONSUMER

Expected Cum Prob



0.00 .25 .50 .75 1.00

Observed Cum Prob

The above chart shows regression line with value of alpha chronbach=0.8442 which
infers that the data is normal as well as significant.
Chapter No 5
Conclusion & Recommendations

After conducting some tests, it can confidently be deduced that branding and packaging
certainly have a role to play in influencing consumer decision-making. Majority of the
tests reveal that there is some sort of statistical association between the responses of
different age or gender groups. Tests show that all the variables associated with branding
and packaging play an important role in influencing consumer decision-making
Tests reveal that all age groups have some sort of an agreement of perception, and believe
that brand does affect its packaging to quite an extent. If the product has a high brand
image, obviously it will be packaged in an exclusive way as the firm wants to convey that
high brand image to the consumers and one of the ways is through the packaging.
Similarly, both the genders are also in agreement as both believe that brand affects the
packaging of a product. Also, consumers whether diversified into groups by gender or
age, believe that the quality of the product.
However, this does not at all mean that producers stop competing on branding and
packaging. In the coming future and even now, firms are unwilling to compromise on
quality and once such a situation occurs where all products are of a high quality and none
can be differentiated on the basis of quality, there will once again be focus on the brand
and package.

Branding and packaging need their due consideration in the production and the marketing
process. Producers too, should recognize the importance of branding and packaging and
carefully choose the brand and the package of their product.
Similarly, the producing firm must also take into consideration the various characteristics
of any packaging. The firm should see that the package is the right color, the right size,
the right shape, consider the convenience and the durability aspect, and the firm should
ensure that the label on the package should have all the information that the firm wants
the consumers of this product to have, through the label and basically, the overall visual
impact that the firm wants the product, to have on the consumer. A package that is
perceived as attractive by the people will undoubtedly have a favorable impact on the

A final recommendation to producers is that they should not, at any point in time, use the
branding and packaging technique to cover up for their product’s deficiency in quality or
in the satisfaction is it able to provide. In this day and age, such a practice exists and can
harm company image and reputation. Branding and packaging should be used to appeal
to personalities, genders, and age groups, not to differentiate between a good quality
product and a product of not-so-good quality.


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Appendix A

(1) Gender male female

(2) Age

(3) Program


1 2 3 4 5
Highly agree Agree Moderate Disagree Highly disagree

Rank the following keeping in mind the brand of the product

(1) Is the brand "top preference" for the consumer decision while buying a product?

1 2 3 4 5

(2) Is the brand strong enough to keep consumers coming back for more?

1 2 3 4 5

(3) Is the brand something that the consumer recognizes when presented with the

1 2 3 4 5
(4) Is the brand well-respected and appreciated if known and even used?

1 2 3 4 5

(5) Brand had an importance for consumer, when asked to choose among a
competitive set?

1 2 3 4 5

(6) Is consumer willing to pay more price for the particular brand they select?
1 2 3 4 5

(7) Will consumer buy “any other brand” if its quality is better than the consumer’s brand?

1 2 3 4 5

(8) Buying “the preferred brand” leads to higher satisfaction?

1 2 3 4 5

Rank the following keeping in mind the packaging of the product

(1) Does packaging affect consumer’s decision while buying a product?

1 2 3 4 5

(2) Packaging makes product more convenient to select with respect to price

1 2 3 4 5

(3) Packaging makes products attractive to buy.

1 2 3 4 5

(4) Unique and unconventional packaging is more likely to catch people’s attention
while buying a product?

1 2 3 4 5

(5) Is consumer willing to pay more prices for attractive packaging?

1 2 3 4 5

(6) Stylish packaging suggests a relatively higher quality product

1 2 3 4 5