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1.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Embryos that are produced by in vitro fertilization can be screened for genetic disease.
Outline the process of in vitro fertilization, including one example of a situation when it
is used.
(9)

(b)

Explain, using an example, how females but not males can be carriers of some recessive
alleles.
(4)

(c)

Explain the causes and consequences of sickle-cell anemia.


(5)
(Total 20 marks)

2.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Describe the movement of energy and nutrients in an ecosystem.


(6)

(b)

Explain how sexual reproduction can eventually lead to evolution in offspring.


(8)

(c)

Using simple external recognition features, distinguish between the plant phyla bryophyta
and angiospermophyta.
(4)
(Total 20 marks)

3.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Draw a labelled diagram to show how two nucleotides are joined together in a single
strand of DNA.
(3)

IB Questionbank Biology

(b)

Outline a basic technique for gene transfer.


(6)

(c)

Explain the process of translation.


(9)
(Total 20 marks)

4.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Describe karyotyping and one application of its use.


(4)

(b)

Describe a technique used for gene transfer.


(5)

(c)

Using a named example, discuss the benefits and harmful effects of genetic modification.
(9)
(Total 20 marks)

5.

Up to two additional marks are available for the construction of your answers.
(2)

(a)

Draw and label a diagram of the molecular structure of DNA.


(4)

(b)

Explain the consequences of a base substitution mutation in relation to the processes of


transcription and translation.
(8)

(c)

Outline the evidence for evolution provided by homologous structures.


(6)
(Total 20 marks)

IB Questionbank Biology