Está en la página 1de 23

Load curve : Load curve is plot of load in kilowatts versus time usually for a day or

a year.

Load duration curve : Load duration curve is the plot of load in kilowatts versus
time duration for which it occurs.

Maximum demand :

Maximum demand is the greatest of all demands which

have occurred during a given period of time.

Average load : Average load is the average load on the power station in a given
period (day/month or year).

Base load : Base load is the minimum load over a given period of time.

Connected load : Connected load of a system is the sum of the continuous ratings
of the load consuming apparatus connected to the system.

Peak load : Peak load is the maximum load consumed or produced by a unit or group
of units in a stated period of time. It may be the maximum instantaneous load or the
maximum average load over a designated interval of time.

Demand factor : Demand factor is the ratio of maximum demand to the connected
load of a consumer.

Diversity factor : Diversity factor is the RATIO of sum of individual maximum

demands to the combined maximum demand on power stations

Load factor : Load factor is the ratio of average load during a specified period to the
maximum load occurring during the period.

Load factor = Average Load / Maximum demand

Station load factor: Station load factor is the ratio of net power generated to the
net maximum demand on a power station.

Plant factor : Plant factor is the ratio of the average load on the plant for the period
of time considered, to the aggregate rating of the generating equipment installed in the

Capacity factor : Capacity factor is the ratio of the average load on the machine
for a period of time considered, to the rating of the machine.

Demand factor: Demand factor is the ratio of maximum demand of system or part
of system, to the total connected load of the system, or part of system, under

Chronological Load curve: A load duration curve (LDC)

is used in electric

power generation to illustrate the relationship between generating capacity requirements

and capacity utilization. A LDC is similar to a load curve but the demand data is ordered
in descending order of magnitude, rather than chronologically.

Corona Effect:

One of the phenomena associated with all energized electrical

devices, including high-voltage transmission lines, is corona. The localized electric field
near a conductor can be sufficiently concentrated to ionize air close to the conductors.
This can result in a partial discharge of electrical energy called a corona discharge, or

Ferranti effect:

In electrical engineering, the Ferranti effect is an increase in

voltage occurring at the receiving end of a long transmission line, above the voltage at the
sending end. This occurs when the line is energized, but there is a very light load or the
load is disconnected. The capacitive line charging current produces a voltage drop across
the line inductance that is in-phase with the sending end voltages considering the line
resistance as negligible. Therefore both line inductance and capacitance are responsible
for this phenomenon. Illustration of the Ferranti Effect; addition of voltages across the
line inductance. The Ferranti Effect will be more pronounced the longer the line and the
higher the voltage applied. The relative voltage rise is proportional to the square of the
line length. The Ferranti effect is much more pronounced in underground cables, even in
short lengths, because of their high capacitance.

Electric power system:

An electric power system is a network of electrical

components used to supply, transfer and use electric power. An example of an electric
power system is the network that supplies a region's homes and industry with powerfor
sizeable regions, this power system is known as the grid and can be broadly divided into
the generators that supply the power, the transmission system that carries the power from

the generating centers to the load centers and the distribution system that feeds the power

to nearby homes and industries.

Skin effect:

Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to

become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the
surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor. The electric
current flows mainly at the "skin" of the conductor, between the outer surface and a level
called the skin depth. The skin effect causes the effective resistance of the conductor to
increase at higher frequencies where the skin depth is smaller, thus reducing the effective
cross-section of the conductor.

Difference between Switch and Circuit Breakers:

1. Switches are

not automatic as they need to be manually turned on or off while circuit breakers just
trips off on abnormal conditions. 2. Switches allow users to cut off power supply to a
certain area or equipment while circuit breakers are more preventive in nature. 3. Circuit
breakers are essentially automatic off switches designed for a very specific purpose,
which is to prevent unnecessary electrical circuit damage.

Relay: A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to

mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solidstate relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate lowpower signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays
were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal
coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used
extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

Faults in Power system:

A fault or fault current is any abnormal electric

current. Symmetric fault. 1. A symmetric or balanced fault affects each of the three
phases equally. In transmission line faults, roughly 5% are symmetric. This is in contrast
to an asymmetrical fault, where the three phases are not affected equally. These are very
severe faults and occur infrequently in the power systems. These are also called as
balanced faults and are of two types namely line to line to line to ground (L-L-L-G) and
line to line to line (L-L-L).

2. Asymmetric fault: An asymmetric or unbalanced fault

does not affect each of the three phases equally. These are very common and less severe
than symmetrical faults. There are mainly three types namely line to ground (L-G), line to
line (L-L) and double line to ground (LL-G) faults.

Substations: Transmission substation, Distribution substation, Collector substation,

Converter substations, Switching station.

Earthing system or Grounding system:

In electricity supply systems, an

earthing system or grounding system is circuitry which connects parts of the electric
circuit with the ground, thus defining the electric potential of the conductors relative to

the Earth's conductive surface. The choice of earthing system can affect the safety and
electromagnetic compatibility of the power supply. In particular, it affects the magnitude
and distribution of short circuit currents through the system, and the effects it creates on
equipment and people in the proximity of the circuit. If a fault within an electrical device
connects a live supply conductor to an exposed conductive surface, anyone touching it
while electrically connected to the earth will complete a circuit back to the earthed supply
conductor and receive an electric shock.

Load management : Load management, also known as demand side management

(DSM), is the process of balancing the supply of electricity on the network with the
electrical load by adjusting or controlling the load rather than the power station output.
This can be achieved by direct intervention of the utility in real time, by the use of
frequency sensitive relays triggering the circuit breakers (ripple control), by time clocks,
or by using special tariffs to influence consumer behavior. Load management allows
utilities to reduce demand for electricity during peak usage times ("peak shaving"), which
can, in turn, reduce costs by eliminating the need for peaking power plants. In addition,
some peaking power plants can take more than an hour to bring on-line which makes load
management even more critical should a plant go off-line unexpectedly for example.
Load management can also help reduce harmful emissions, since peaking plants or
backup generators are often dirtier and less efficient than base load power plants. New
load-management technologies are constantly under development both by private
industry[1] and public entities.

Advantages of interconnected Grid System : Some of the advantages

of interconnected Grid System are given below; Exchange of peak loads, Use of older

plants, Ensures economical operation, Increases diversity factor, Reduces plant reserve
capacity, Increases reliability of supply


Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is a system for remote

monitoring and control that operates with coded signals over communication channels
(using typically one communication channel per remote station). SCADA systems deploy
multiple software and hardware elements that allow industrial organizations to:

Monitor, gather, and process data

Interact with and control machines and devices such as valves, pumps, motors, and more,
which are connected through HMI (human-machine interface) software

Record events into a log file

In basic SCADA architectures, information from sensors or manual inputs are sent to
PLCs (programmable logic controllers) or RTUs (remote terminal units), which then send
that information to computers with SCADA software. SCADA software analyzes and
displays the data in order to help operators and other workers to reduce waste and
improve efficiency in the manufacturing process. Effective SCADA systems can result in
significant savings of time and money. Numerous case studies have been published
highlighting the benefits and savings of using a modern SCADA software solution such
as Ignition.

Sustainable Energy: Sustainable energy is a form of energy that meet our today's
demand of energy without putting them in danger of getting expired or depleted
and can be used over and over again. Sustainable energy should be widely
encouraged as it do not cause any harm to the environment and is available widely
free of cost.

Renewable Energy: Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that is

collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale,
such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

Single/One Line Diagram: In power engineering, a one-line diagram or single-line

diagram (SLD) is a simplified notation for representing a three-phase power
system. The one-line diagram has its largest application in power flow studies.

Reactance / Impedance Diagram:

Load Flow Study: In power engineering, the power-flow study, or load-flow

study, is a numerical analysis of the flow of electric power in an interconnected
system. Load flow studies determine if system voltages remain within specified
limits under normal or emergency operating conditions and whether equipment
(such as transformers and conductors) is overloaded. Load flow analysis also
provides intputs for protections. For example a CT is typically selected based on
max load current and SC current. Things you must know about load flow: 1.Load
flow study is the steady state analysis of power system network. 2. Load flow
study determines the operating state of the system for a given loading. 3. Load
flow solves a set of simultaneous non linear algebraic power equations for the two
unknown variables (|V| and ) at each node in a system. 4. To solve non linear
algebraic equations it is important to have fast, efficient and accurate numerical
algorithms.5. The output of the load flow analysis is the voltage and phase angle,
real and reactive power (both sides in each line), line losses and slack bus power.
Load Flow Steps: The study of load flow involves the following three steps:

Modeling of power system components and network, Development of load flow

equations, Solving the load flow equations using numerical techniques.

Symmetrical Component Analysis:

When actual faults occur in electrical power system, such as phase to earth fault,
phase to phase fault and double phase to earth fault, the system becomes
unbalanced means, the conditions of voltages and currents in all phases are no
longer symmetrical. Such faults are solved by symmetrical component analysis.
Generally three phase vector diagram may be replaced by three sets of balanced
vectors. One has opposite or negative phase rotation, second has positive phase
rotation and last one is co-phasal. That means these vectors sets are described as
negative, positive and zero sequence, respectively.

Positive Sequence Impedance

The impedance offered by the system to the flow of positive sequence current is
called positive sequence impedance.
Negative Sequence Impedance

The impedance offered by the system to the flow of negative sequence current is
called negative sequence impedance.
Zero Sequence Impedance

The impedance offered by the system to the flow of zero sequence current is
known as zero sequence impedance.

Sequence Networks: In symmetrical component analysis (e.g. for unbalanced

faults), a balanced three-phase electrical network can be broken down into three
sequence networks, which are independent, de-coupled sub-networks comprising
only quantities in the same sequence, i.e. the positive sequence network contains
only positive sequence quantities, the negative sequence network contains only
negative sequence quantities and the zero sequence network contains only zero
sequence quantities. For any location in the system, the sequence networks can be
reduced to Thevenin equivalent circuits (see the figure to the right). Notice that
only the positive sequence network has a voltage source. This is because in a
balanced system, there are no negative sequence or zero sequence voltages.

Draw Reactance Diagram / Zero sequence diagram from one line diagram

Circuit Breaker MATH

Demand and Diversity Factor MATH


Current transformer

Potential Transfer

Explain how 3 phase symmetrical fault can be determined using bus impedence

Draw a typical layout of 33/11KV substation layout.

Capacity factor and Utilization factor math : see 34th BCS exam

How are Substation protected?

Almost all of the equipment inside of a substation is used for the purpose of protection.
The circuit breakers and power transformers in the substation are equipped with current

transformers (CTs) that step down the current passing through the equipment to a level
that can be read by protective relays. These protective relays can cause the breakers to
trip upon many different events including under/overvoltage, current spikes, frequency
issues, transformer/bus differential, etc. The breakers in a substation are placed
strategically so that different pieces of equipment or sections of a circuit can be isolated
without loss of service to the customer.

How do you convert a 3-phase power supply to a single phase supply?

For three-phase, three-wire, systems, single phase is obtained by connecting the
load between any two of the three line conductors (not 'phase conductors'!). For
three-phase, four-wire, systems, single phase is obtained by connecting the load
between any two of the three line conductors, or between any one of the line
conductors and the neutral conductor -depending on which connection gives you
the appropriate voltage.

what is electrical grounding and earthing?


Earthing means connecting the dead part (it means the part which does not
carries current under normal condition) to the earth for example electrical
equipments frames, enclosures, supports etc.

The purpose of earthing is to minimize risk of receiving an electric shock if

touching metal parts when a fault is present. Generally green wire is used for this
as a nomenclature.

Under fault conditions the non-current carrying metal parts of an electrical

installation such as frames, enclosures, supports, fencing etc. may attain high

potential with respect to ground so that any person or stray animal touching these
or approaching these will be subjected to potential difference which may result in
the flow of a current through the body of the person or the animal of such a value
as may prove fatal.
To avoid this non-current carrying metal parts of the electrical system are
connected to the
general mass of earth by means of an earthing system comprising of earth
conductors to
conduct the fault currents safely to the ground.
Earthing has been accomplished through bonding of a metallic system to earth.
It is normally
achieved by inserting ground rods or other electrodes deep inside earth.
Earthing is to ensure safety or Protection of electrical equipment and Human by
discharging the electrical energy to the earth.
Grounding means connecting the live part (it means the part which carries
current under
normal condition) to the earth for example neutral of power transformer.
Grounding is done for the protections of power system equipment and to
provide an
effective return path from the machine to the power source. For example
grounding of
neutral point of a star connected transformer.

Grounding refers the current carrying part of the system such as neutral (of the
or generator).
Because of lightening, line surges or unintentional contact with other high
voltage lines,
dangerously high voltages can develop in the electrical distribution system wires.
provides a safe, alternate path around the electrical system of your house thus
damage from such occurrences.
Generally Black wire is used for this as a nomenclature.
All electrical/electronic circuits (AC & DC) need a reference potential (zero
volts) which is
called ground in order to make possible the current flow from generator to load.
Ground is
May or May not be earthed. In Electrical Power distribution it is either earthed at
distribution Point or at Consumer end but it is not earthed in Automobile( for
instance all
vehicles electrical circuits have ground connected to the chassis and metallic
body that are
insulated from earth through tires). There may exist a neutral to ground voltage
due to
voltage drop in the wiring, thus neutral does not necessarily have to be at ground

In a properly balanced system, the phase currents balance each other, so that
the total
neutral current is also zero. For individual systems, this is not completely
possible, but we
strive to come close in aggregate. This balancing allows maximum efficiency of
distribution transformers secondary winding.

What is restricted earth fault protection and how is it provided?

A Restricted Earth Fault (REF) means an earth fault from a

restricted/localized zone of a circuit. The term "REF protection method "
means not to sense any earth faults outside this restricted zone. REF is a
type of "unit protection" applied to transformers or generators and is more
sensitive than the method known as differential protection. An REF relay
works by measuring the actual current flowing to earth from the frame of
the unit. If that current exceeds a certain preset maximum value of
milliAmps (mA) then the relay will trip to cut off the power supply to the
unit. Differential protection can also be used to protect the windings of a
transformer by comparing the current in the power supply's neutral wire
with the current in the phase wire: if the currents are equal then the
differential protection relay will not operate; if there is a current imbalance
then the differential protection relay operates. However, REF protection is

also applied to transformers in order to detect ground faults on a given

winding much more sensitively than differential protection can do.

Explain Standing wave Generation in Power Transmission.

Explain a SF6 Circuit breaker with neat diagram.

Zero sequence current calculation Math

Transmission and Distribution Losses:

There are two types of Transmission and Distribution Losses:

Technical Losses
Non Technical Losses (Commercial Losses)

1. Technical Losses

The technical losses are due to energy dissipated in the conductors,

equipment used for transmission line, transformer, subtransmission line
and distribution line and magnetic losses in transformers.

Technical losses are normally 22.5%, and directly depend on the network
characteristics and the mode of operation.

The major amount of losses in a power system is in primary and secondary

distribution lines. While transmission and sub-transmission lines account
for only about 30% of the total losses. Therefore the primary and
secondary distribution systems must be properly planned to ensure within

The unexpected load increase was reflected in the increase of technical

losses above the normal level
Losses are inherent to the distribution of electricity and cannot be
There are two Type of Technical Losses.

1. Permanent / Fixed Technical losses

Fixed losses do not vary according to current. These losses take the form
of heat and noise and occur as long as a transformer is energized
Between 1/4 and 1/3 of technical losses on distribution networks are fixed
losses. Fixed losses on a network can be influenced in the ways set out
Corona Losses
Leakage Current Losses
Dielectric Losses

Open-circuit Losses
Losses caused by continuous load of measuring elements
Losses caused by continuous load of control elements
2. Variable Technical losses

Variable losses vary with the amount of electricity distributed and are,
more precisely, proportional to the square of the current. Consequently, a
1% increase in current leads to an increase in losses of more than 1%.

Between 2/3 and 3/4 of technical (or physical) losses on distribution

networks are variable Losses.
By increasing the cross sectional area of lines and cables for a given load,
losses will fall. This leads to a direct trade-off between cost of losses and
cost of capital expenditure. It has been suggested that optimal average
utilization rate on a distribution network that considers the cost of losses in
its design could be as low as 30 per cent.
Joule losses in lines in each voltage level
Impedance losses
Losses caused by contact resistance.
Main Reasons for Technical Losses

1. Lengthy Distribution lines

2. Inadequate Size of Conductors of Distribution lines

3. Installation of Distribution transformers away from load centers

4. Low Power Factor of Primary and secondary distribution system

5. Bad Workmanship

6. Feeder Phase Current and Load Balancing>

7. Load Factor Effect on Losses

8. Transformer Sizing and Selection

9. Balancing 3 phase loads

10. Switching off transformers

What is PQ bus?
When its reactive power injection reached its up- per or lower limit, the type of this bus
becomes PQ, which means that the real and reactive power injections are fixed while the
voltage phase angle and magnitude are free.
Load buses[edit]

Load buses are of 3 types and are classified as:

PQ bus the real power |P| and reactive power |Q| are specified. It is also known as Load Bus.
PV bus the real power |P| and the voltage magnitude |V| are specified. It is also known as
Generator Bus.
Slack bus to balance the active and reactive power in the system. It is also known as the
Reference Bus or the Swing Bus.
The slack bus provides or absorbs active and reactive power to and from the transmission line to
provide for losses, since these variables are unknown until the final solution is established. The
slack bus is the only bus for which the system reference phase angle is defined. From this, the
various angular differences can be calculated in the power flow equations. If a slack bus is not
specified, then a generator bus with maximum real power |P| acts as the slack bus. A given
scheme can involve more than one slack bus.

Swing equation: The operating condition of the machine now becomes unstable and the
rotor is now said to be swinging w.r.t the stator field and the equation we so obtain giving

the relative motion of the load angle w.r.t the stator magnetic field is known as the
swing equation for transient stability of power system.

Spinning reserve:
The spinning reserve is the extra generating capacity that is available by increasing the
power output of generators that are already connected to the power system. For most
generators, this increase in power output is achieved by increasing the torque applied to
the turbine's rotor.